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Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

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Energy Conversion and Management


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

Analysis of an integrated cryogenic air separation unit, oxy-combustion


carbon dioxide power cycle and liquefied natural gas regasification
process by exergoeconomic method
Mehdi Mehrpooya , Masood Jalali Zonouz
Renewable Energies and Environment Department, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Exergoeconomic and sensitivity analyses are performed on the integrated cryogenic air separation unit,
Received 9 October 2016 oxy-combustion Carbon dioxide power cycle and liquefied natural gas regasification process. Exergy
Received in revised form 12 February 2017 destruction, exergy efficiency, cost rate of exergy destruction, cost rate of capital investment and operat-
Accepted 17 February 2017
ing and maintenance, exergoeconomic factor and relative cost difference have been calculated for the
major components of the process. The exergy efficiency of the process is around 67.1% and after mixers,
tees, tank and expansion valves the multi-stream heat exchanger H-3 have the best exergy efficiency
Keywords:
among all process components. Total exergy destruction rate of the process is 1.93  107 kW. Results
Air separation unit (ASU)
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)
of exergoeconomic analysis demonstrates that maximum exergy destruction and capital investment
Exergy operating and maintenance cost rate are related to the multi-stream heat exchanger H-1 and pump P-
Exergoeconomic 1 with the values of 335,144 ($/h) and 12,838 ($/h), respectively. In the sensitivity analysis section the
Carbon dioxide cycle effects of the varying economic parameters, such as interest rate and plant life time are investigated
on the trend of the capital investment operating and maintenance cost rate of the major components
of the process and in another cases the effect of the gas turbine isentropic efficiency on the exergy and
exergoeconomic parameters are studied.
2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction recovery is introduced and analyzed. The results show that LNG
flow rate is an important parameter which can affect the process
LNG (liquefied natural gas) is a substance with very low tem- efficiency. LNG cold energy is used in a combined chemical looping
perature (163.15 C) that should be vaporized and brought to a hydrogen production and power plant with carbon dioxide capture
desired temperature and pressure before entering the pipeline net- process [3]. In this study LNG cold energy is used as heat sink to
work. In the conventional LNG vaporization terminals cold energy improve the electrical efficiency of the power cycle. LNG cold
of LNG is released and wasted into the water or air without any energy is used in an oxy-fuel power cycle which a part of the
recovering (about 0.2 kW h kg1). Cold energy is an expression required of it is supplied by a solar cycle [4]. The results show that
for describing cryogenic exergy of LNG material stream. The uti- LNG flow rate can affect the exergy efficiency and net electrical
lization of the cold energy of LNG during vaporization processes power of the process significantly. One of these applications is
can improve the economic and environmental aspects of these using cold energy of LNG as refrigeration source of cryogenic air
kinds of processes. Because of its very low temperature, LNG can separation processes [5]. Operating temperature of the air separa-
be used in different applications such as desalination of sea- tion units (ASU) (173 C, 193 C) is lower than the LNG, hence
water, deep freezing agro food industry facilities, space condition- LNG cold energy can be used with high cold recovery efficiency
ing in the commercial and residential sector, low temperature compared to other methods [6]. The air separation units have high
power generation, manufacturing of dry ice, and rubber cryogenic degree of power consumption and it is true fact that utilizing of
grinding [1]. A novel integrated power plant using cold of LNG and LNG cold energy is leading to lower power consumption, but how-
solar energy is introduced and analyzed [2]. Also an integrated ever integrating of air separation units with different types of
oxy-fuel power cycle, high temperature solar system and LNG cold power generation cycles can be very efficient. A novel air separa-
tion process based on cold energy of LNG integrated with coal gasi-
Corresponding author.
fication, transcritical CO2 power cycle is investigated [7]. In these
E-mail address: mehrpoya@ut.ac.ir (M. Mehrpooya).
cycles usually the pure oxygen product of ASU is utilizing instead

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.02.048
0196-8904/ 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
246 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

Nomenclature

c cost per exergy unit ($/GJ) D destruction


C_ cost rate ($/h) F fuel
e specific exergy (kJ/kg) In input
E_ exergy rate (kW) K kth component
G Gibbs free energy (kJ) Out output
h specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) P product
H annual working hour (h) Ph physical
i interest rate (%) Tot total
m _ mass flow rate (kg/s)
N plant life time (year) Superscripts
Q_ heat duty (kW) standard condition
r relative cost difference (%) CL capital
s specific entropy (kJ/kg C) OM operating & maintenance
T temperature (K)
W_ power (kW)
Abbreviations
x mole fraction LNG liquefied natural gas
Z purchased equipment cost ASU air separation unit
Z_ capital investment and operating and maintenance cost
IGCC integrated gasification combined cycle
rate ($/h) ORC organic Rankine cycle
SPECO specific exergy costing
Greek letters SOFC solid oxide fuel cell
g efficiency (%) CCHP combined cooling, heating and power
e exergetic efficiency (%) NG natural gas
u maintenance factor LHV lower heating value
CRF capital recovery factor
Subscripts
dead state
ch chemical

of air in combustion chamber component of power generation cell-supercritical carbon dioxide is introduced and analyzed [14].
cycle and it is leading to very high efficient combustion process. In this study a Brayton cycle is used to recover heat from the cat-
These power generation cycles are known as oxy-combustion alytic burner exhaust gas.
or oxy-fuel power plants. In recent years different configurations A novel hybrid three reactor chemical looping, and fuel cell
of air separation units integrated with oxy-combustion power power plant cycle is introduced and analyzed [15]. Carbon dioxide
plants are introduced. Fu et al. [8] proposed an advanced cryogenic is produced in one of these reactors. In one of these studies a tran-
air separation process integrated with oxy-combustion power scritical CO2 power cycle which utilizes geothermal wells as its
cycle based on self-heat recuperation technology and in contrast heat source and LNG cold energy as its heat sink, was studied
with conventional two distillation columns air separation unit, [16]. In this very particular configuration chilled water and power
they used one column type. The results of this process showed that generation in natural gas turbine, were the alternative products
power consumption would be reduced by 20.2% compared to other and for further examination also exergoeconomic and multi-
similar processes. In another work a comparative thermodynamic, objective optimization had been considered. Vlez et al. [17] exclu-
economic and risk analysis of integrated cryogenic and hybrid air sively investigated the low temperature heat sources and specially
separation unit with oxy-combustion power plant was investi- CO2 transcritical working fluid for power generation and their
gated [9] and similarly, another configurations of hybrid air sepa- results showed that this type of power cycles, integrated or non-
ration units are introduced by Burdyny and Struchtrup [10] and integrated with other cycles would be one of the next generation
compared with each other. The thermo-economic analysis of the of power production cycles. CO2 power cycles also are integrated
oxy-type supercritical power plant integrated with the cryogenic with solar energy sources [18]. In Al-Sulaiman and Atif [19]
air separation unit was proposed by Janusz-Szymanska and Dry- research study, a thermodynamic comparison of five supercritical
janska [11] and possibilities of improving were investigated. One carbon dioxide Brayton cycles integrated with a solar power tower
of the most common integrated ASU-oxy-combustion units is the was studied. In this work the heliostat solar field was optimized for
IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) plants. In this type better optical performance and then configured with the supercrit-
of cycles the output pure oxygen of ASU section enters the compo- ical CO2 Brayton cycles. In Xia et al. [20] research study a solar-
nent which name is gasifier and burning with coal, the output powered transcritical CO2 power cycle has been employed for
flue gases are leading to the gas turbine for power generation reverse osmosis desalination of sea water and in this very particu-
intention. Coal is one of the convenient fossil fuels in the matter lar work, LNG cold energy was used as heat sink of the power cycle
of price but its environmental impacts always have been high. For- process and in the following, LNG is vaporized and employed in
tunately integrating of these cycles with CO2 capturing units have natural gas turbine in order to producing power. Mahmoudi and
solved this problem [12]. According to the concept of integrating Ghavimi [21] was proposed an integrated molten carbonate fuel
ASU cycles with oxy-combustion power plants, the application of cell (MCFC) supercritical CO2 organic Rankine cycle (ORC)
transcritical CO2 power cycles can be considered [13]. Carbon diox- and LNG cold energy as heat sink of the whole process and consid-
ide power cycles already have been used in different configurations ered it in the aspects of thermoeconomic and multi-objective
of recent researches. An integrated molten carbonate fuel optimization.
M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259 247

Self-heat recuperation of cryogenic air separation processes has liquefaction process. In this work the total revenue requirement
high degree of importance for reducing capital and operating and method is used for exergoeconomic analysis and a coded genetic
maintenance costs of additional hot and cold utilities [22]. For algorithm from Matlab software which is linked to HYSYS simula-
reaching to this purpose, this process has been integrated with tion package is utilized for optimization of the process. Cavalcanti
respect to the pinch technology concept [23]. Exergy analysis is and Motta [39] utilized exergoeconomic analysis for the solar/fuel
a tool which have been used widely for evaluation of the energy assisted Rankine cycle. They used SPECO (specific exergy costing)
intensive processes [24]. An integrated molten carbonate fuel cell for their results and the parabolic trough collector was the heat
power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process is investigated source of their process. Ozbilen et al. [40] performed the exergoe-
by exergy analysis method [25]. The results show that exergy conomic and exergoenvironmental analyses on the four-step
destruction of the combustion chamber is too high. Integrated liq- CuACl cycle for hydrogen production purposes and one of the most
uefied natural gas and hydrocarbon recovery process were investi- important results of the analysis i.e. the total cost rate of the pro-
gated by exergy analysis method [26]. The results show that cess was 165 ($/s). Exergoeconomic evaluation was investigated on
compressors and multi stream heat exchangers have the greatest a cogeneration plant consisting of a hydrogen-fed SOFC (solid
exergy distraction. Exergy analysis method is applied on a novel oxide fuel cell), gas turbine and generator-absorber-heat exchange
hydrocarbon recovery process configuration [27]. Based on the absorption refrigeration cycle [41]. The EES (engineering equation
results distillation column and expansion valves have the highest solver) software was used for the solving cost balances. The exer-
exergy destruction. Helium extraction from natural process is goeconomic factor, capital cost rate and the exergy destruction cost
investigated by advanced exergy analysis method [28]. Integrated rate of the overall system were the 27.3%, 10.63 ($/h) and 28.3 ($/
electrochemical power plants and natural gas liquefaction process h), respectively. A LNG process using a single effect absorption
configurations were introduced and investigated [29]. Results of refrigeration cycle was investigated by advanced exergoeconomic
the exergy analysis show that absorption refrigeration subsystem method [42]. Based on the results process performance can be
has the highest exergy efficiency. A currently in operation hydro- improved by considering compressors and air coolers investment
carbon recovery was investigated by exergy and advanced exergy costs. A hydrogen liquefaction process was investigated by
analysis methods [30]. Exergy efficiency of the used propane refrig- advanced exergoeconomic analysis [43]. A power plant fueled by
eration cycle in the process was about 34%. Also based on the natural gas was evaluated by advanced exergoeconomic analysis
advanced exergy analysis results there is a good potential for method [44]. Based on the results, combustion chamber and
improvement pf the components performance. A CCHP integrated high-pressure steam turbine have great potential for economic
fuel cell and ORC power plant was introduced and analyzed by improvement.
exergy method [31]. In this paper the novel integrated process is employed which is
Exergoeconomic analysis is a method that is considered for consisted of air separation unit (ASU), oxy-combustion Carbon
evaluation of the integrated ASU CO2 power cycleLNG vaporiza- dioxide power cycle and LNG vaporization section [13]. The results
tion process. Exergoeconomic method is a combination of thermo- of exergy analysis are the basis of this evaluation which will be
dynamic and economic concepts. The conventional and advanced combined with economic concepts. The process is simulated with
approaches of this method were utilized in different processes. HYSYS simulator software package, exergy analysis is conducted
This method is employed for evaluating of single mixed refrigerant with Matlab codes which is linked to Aspen HYSYS simulator and
natural gas liquefaction processes and in particular popular SMR- exergoeconomic evaluation is performed with EES (engineering
Linde and SMR-APCI [32]. equation solver) software and the method which is utilized for this
The three main exergoeconomic parameters i.e. exergoeco- purpose is the SPECO (specific exergy costing) method. With the
nomic factor, relative cost difference and cost of exergy destruction results of exergoeconomic analysis there is this ability to see the
were calculated for each component of these cycles and the results thermo-economic situation of the process and compare the com-
are providing the possibility of comparison between process com- ponents with each other. This analysis reveals the weak-spots of
ponents in the sight of exergoeconomic evaluation. Advanced exer- the process and gives to engineers this opportunity to resolve
goeconomic analysis is applied for evaluation of the single mixed and optimize it.
refrigerant LNG processes [33]. Based on the results costs of invest-
ment in most of the process components is endogenous.
2. Process description
Meanwhile the advanced exergoeconomic analysis of the noted
processes and multi stage mixed refrigerant ones, such as C3MR-
Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of the integrated one column
Linde, DMR-APCI and MFC-Linde have also been investigated [34].
cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) oxy-combustion Carbon diox-
Also integrated LNG and NGL process was evaluated by exer-
ide power cycle and LNG regasification process. In this layout the
goeconomic analysis [35]. A trigeneration system which uses a
cold energy of LNG is utilized as refrigeration source in heat
diesel-gas engine was investigated by exergoeconomic analysis
exchanger (H-1) for optimizing air separation section and in heat
method [36].
exchangers H-8, H-9 and H-10 for integrating power generation
The investigation of economic aspects of the air separation units
cycle. The whole process of air separation section is integrated
has been conducted rarely. In authors knowledge no exergoeco-
with self-heat recuperation concept and this issue has been elimi-
nomic evaluation for such a highly integrated layout i.e. ASU-CO2
nated the requirement for additional heat sources. Pure liquid
power cycle-LNG vaporization is available. The exergoeconomic
nitrogen, oxygen and Carbon dioxide, low and high purity of nitro-
evaluation mostly is being performed on the normal processes
gen gas, natural gas for transporting to pipe line network and
with ordinary layouts but some of the components of this process
finally power, are the all products of this complex integrated
have been rarely investigated in exergoeconomic evaluation
process.
method. In one of these researches the energetic, exergetic and
economic assessment of oxygen production from two columns
cryogenic air separation unit were considered and some of the 2.1. Air separation unit section (ASU)
required equations of purchased equipment costs of the process
were exploited from this research study [37]. In another study The heart of this process is ASU section. This section is con-
Ghorbani et al. [38] performed exergoeconomic analysis and sisted of two parts, heat circulation and air separation modules.
multi-objective Pareto optimization on the C3MR natural gas Feed air in ambient conditions is passing through compressor
248 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the integrated ASU-CO2 power cycle-LNG regasification process [13].

(CR-1) and after pressurizing is cooled via (H-1 & H-2) heat 2.2. Oxy-combustion carbon dioxide power cycle
exchangers in heat circulation module section. This feed air with
(181 C) temperature and a mixture of gas and liquid phases is CO2 is the main working fluid of the power generation cycle. This
entering to the distillation column for separating to its compo- cycle is the combination of classic Rankine and Brayton power
nents. In distillation column the high purity nitrogen gas (5) is cycles. The stream (41) after condensation in heat exchanger (H-8)
divided to two streams (8 & 9). Stream (8) is cooled via two heat as the condenser of Rankine part is passing through pump (P-2)
exchangers (H-4 & H-3) and with (187 C) temperature and liq- and pressurizing to 3 MPa. The stream (42) with (66.6 C) temper-
uid phase is refluxing to the distillation column as stream (13). ature and high cryogenic exergy is entering to the heat exchanger
The other stream i.e. (9) is utilizing for self-heat recuperation (H-1) which is playing the role of the boiler in Rankine layout. This
purposes and after cooling stream (22) in heat exchanger (H-5) stream (42) is utilized as refrigeration source in this heat exchanger
is returning to the heat circulation module. After passing and and improving the heat circulation module of the ASU section. The
further cooling via heat exchanger (H-2) the stream (24) is stream (43) is mixing with the prepared pure oxygen gas from the
entering to the cascade compression-intercooling procedure distillation column. From this point the role of steam turbine of
which is consisted of multi stream heat exchanger (H-1) and the classic Rankine cycle is eliminated and Brayton cycle is showing
four compressors (CR-4, CR-5, CR-6 & CR-7). The output stream itself, which means the mixed stream (44) after passing through
of (CR-7) i.e. (33) is entering to the main multi stream heat recuperation heat exchanger (H-7) and absorbing high degree of
exchanger (H-1) and is being cooled until (180 C). This tem- heat from gas turbine exhaust, is burning with vaporized natural
perature is reaching to (194 C) via two components (H-6 & gas of LNG regasification section, as the fuel of combustion process.
V-3). The high purity liquid nitrogen with (194 C) temperature The outlet flue gases of combustion chamber component with the
is ready to be stored in storage tanks. temperature of (900 C) are entering to the gas turbine for power
From the middle of distillation column, the low purity nitrogen generation purposes. The stream (47) after releasing high degree
gas (6) is utilized for self-heat recuperation purposes in (H-3) and of heat in recuperation heat exchanger (H-7), is more cooled in heat
then passes through heat exchangers (H-2 & H-1) as refrigeration exchanger (H-9) via LNG cold energy and the existing water of it, is
source. This stream is reached to ambient temperature and sequestrated in separator (S-1). The pure Carbon dioxide stream
becomes one of the desired products i.e. low purity nitrogen gas. (50) is then compressed to the condenser pressure with (CR-9)
The pure liquid oxygen from the bottom of column (7) is exploited. and with this point the combined oxy-fuel CO2 power cycle, is com-
This stream is divided into two streams (18 & 19). The stream (19) pleted. In order to supplying liquid Carbon dioxide for the power
is one of the main products, but stream (18) similarly to nitrogen cycle the gaseous CO2 with (34 C) temperature and ambient pres-
streams is employed in self-heat recuperation section via (H-4 & sure is passing through compressor (CR-10) and then is cooled by
H-5) and is refluxing to the middle of distillation column. Only the extracted LNG from (T-3) in heat exchanger (H-10). The liquid
one of the air separation products has been remained which name CO2 with proper temperature and pressure is the output of this sec-
is high purity nitrogen gas. It is simple, the vaporized nitrogen con- tion and after a little pressurizing can be injected in stream (41).
tents in tank is extracted as stream (38), this stream with
(194 C) temperature is excellent source of refrigeration. After 2.3. LNG regasification section
releasing its cold energy via heat exchangers (H-6 & H-1) it
becomes gaseous and as stream (40) is stored in high purity nitro- Liquefied natural gas (LNG) after transportation to the usage
gen gas capsules. terminals should be vaporized and leaded to the pipe line network.
M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259 249

This substance has high cryogenic exergy that it would be a disas- Table 2
ter if be wasted. Different processes with different configurations Simulation results of the power components.

have been proposed for LNG regasification and this process is Component Pressure ratio Polytropic efficiency (%) Power (kW)
one of them. In this process LNG is passing through pump (P-1) P-1 66.79 76.24 6.40  105
and in first step approaching to the pipe line network pressure. P-2 4.29 79.16 9.51  103
Remember if the process, pressurize natural gas after vaporization, CR-1 2.97 78.38 5.87  106
the required power of this procedure would be 20 times higher [6]. CR-2 1.67 76.88 3.30  105
CR-3 2.00 77.47 3.24  105
The stream (57) is entering to (H-1) as one of the refrigeration CR-4 15.57 82.75 1.44  106
sources of this 9 sides plate-fin multi stream heat exchanger and CR-5 1.92 77.35 2.39  105
releasing about half of its cryogenic exergy. It then as stream CR-6 1.49 76.07 9.90  104
(58) is divided into three different streams (59, 60 & 61). The CR-7 1.33 75.43 5.43  104
CR-8 12.61 81.42 1.87  103
stream (60) is going to (H-8) as one of the refrigeration sources
CR-9 6.89 79.19 6.16  105
of Rankine part power generation cycle condenser. Stream (61) is CR-10 4.80 78.50 1.39  104
going to heat exchanger (H-10) for liquefaction of Carbon dioxide. GT 26.70 69.40 1.62  106
The streams (59, 62 & 63) are joining together in (M-1) and reach- E-1 2.26 74.13 1.47  105
ing to (32 C). Stream (64) is helping to cooling CO2-water stream E-2 2.27 74.12 3.53  105

in heat exchanger (H-9) and after reaching to (8 C) temperature a


fraction of it, is going to pipe line network and the rest is being uti- Carbon dioxide power cycle is the combination of Rankine and
lized in combustion chamber as the fuel of the combustion process. Brayton layouts with one important difference. This configuration
uses the pure oxygen product of ASU section instead of air in com-
3. Process analysis bustion chamber and this issue increases the efficiency of the cycle.
In Rankine and Brayton parts of the power cycle, H-1 and H-7 heat
In simulation of the process heat loss is ignored and Aspen exchangers have the role of boiler and regenerator, respectively.
HYSYS software package is utilized for simulation of the process
Q_ in Q_ 68 Q_ NG 4
[45]. Comprehensive thermodynamic data bank is one of the
advantages of Aspen HYSYS software. Peng-Robinson equation of
_ net;CO2 W
W _ GT  W
_ CR8  W
_ CR9  W
_ P2 5
state [46] is selected for calculation of thermodynamic properties
of air, LNG and Carbon dioxide streams. Tables 13 present the
simulation results and specification of the process equipment. _ net
W
gCO2 cycle
Q in
3.1. Energy analysis _ CO2 h46  h47  m
m _ O2 h55  h54  m_ CO2 h52  h50  m
_ CO2 h42  h41

_ NG  LHV
m
The total power consumption of the process is related to the ten 6
compressors and two pumps as follows:
The overall energy efficiency of the whole process is the ratio of
_ tot;used W
W _ CR1 W
_ CR2 W
_ CR3 W
_ CR4 W
_ CR5 W
_ CR6 the net generated power and the net output work rate of the LNG
_ _ _ _ _ _ P2 expander to the rate of the required fuel for combustion process
W CR7 W CR8 W CR9 W CR10 W P1 W and recovering of LNG cold energy.
1
_
W _
W
The total produced power of the cycle is associated to the gas gI;ov erall _ net LNG
_ LNG qLNG
7
mNG LHV m
turbine of the power generation cycle and two expanders of the
air separation section: where W _ net is the net generated power of the process, m
_ is the mass
_ tot;produced W
_ GT W
_ E1 W
_ E2 flow rate of the natural gas fuel of the combustion chamber and
W 2
input LNG stream, LHV is the lower heating value parameter of nat-
The amount of LNG cold energy which is absorbed in H-1, H-8, ural gas and qLNG is the specific heat of LNG. The thermodynamic
H-9 and H-10 heat exchangers is obtained from Eq. (3): data of the process streams are available in Table 4.

Q_ LNG m
_ LNG  DhLNG 3
3.2. Exergy analysis
The overall LNG streams duty of these heat exchangers should
have supplied from external sources if there was not this possibil- Exergy analysis is an engineering tool which is used for thermo-
ity to utilizing LNG as refrigeration source. dynamic analysis of a process and to determine maximum useful

Table 1
Specifications of the feed and product streams.

Stream name Air (1) LNG (56) NG (67) O2 (l) (19) N2 (g) (40) N2 (l) (37) LP N2 (g) (26) CO2 (l) (71)
6 6 6 5 5 6 6
Flow (kmol/h) 5.01  10 6.50  10 6.50  10 4.34  10 1.97  10 1.20  10 3.17  10 8.18  103
Temperature (C) 25 162 8 172 25 194 25 57
Pressure (kPa) 101.3 104.8 6590 276.3 130 130 111.3 466.5
Components (mol%)
CH4 0 93.50 93.50 0 0 0 0 0
C2H6 0 4.22 4.22 0 0 0 0 0
C3H8 0 0.98 0.98 0 0 0 0 0
i-C4H10 0 0.84 0.84 0 0 0 0 0
N2 79.06 0.46 0.46 0 99.87 99.55 81.07 0
O2 20.94 0 0 100 0.13 0.45 18.93 0
H2O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.11
CO2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 93.89
250 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

Table 3
Specifications of the process heat exchangers.

HEX name H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4 H-5 H-6 H-7 H-8 H-9 H-10
7 3 4 5 5 4 6 6 5
Duty (kW) 1.73  10 15.00  10 3.19  10 1.65  10 2.32  10 2.13  10 1.63  10 4.37  10 1.02  10 9.95  106
LMTD (C) 0.714 10.502 4.643 1.238 15.020 3.111 60.051 35.920 19.081 427.1
Min approach (C) 0.276 0.348 4.239 1.080 15.015 0.234 45.001 8.002 8.003 8.001
Number of sides 9 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2

Table 4
Thermodynamic data of the process streams.

Stream no. T (C) P (kPa) Flow rate (kmol/h) Stream no. T (C) P (kPa) Flow rate (kmol/h)
1 25 101 5.01  106 37 194 130 1.20  106
2 168 301 5.01  106 38 194 130 1.97  105
3 165 301 5.01  106 39 180 130 1.97  105
4 181 301 5.01  106 40 25 130 1.97  105
5 187 251 3.84  106 41 68 700 3.08  105
6 183 253 3.17  106 42 67 3000 3.08  105
7 172 276 1.85  106 43 8 2940 3.08  105
8 187 251 2.45  106 44 8 2940 3.09  105
9 187 251 1.40  106 45 429 2884 3.09  105
10 168 420 2.45  106 46 900 2884 3.09  105
11 181 429 2.45  106 47 548 108 3.09  105
12 186 271 2.45  106 48 70 106 3.09  105
13 187 251 2.45  106 49 40 103 3.09  105
14 195 111 1.40  106 50 0 103 3.09  105
15 187 111 1.40  106 51 0 103 3.40  102
16 191 111 3.17  106 52 181 710 3.09  105
17 191 111 3.17  106 53 172 276 5.55  102
18 172 276 1.42  106 54 25 238 5.55  102
19 172 276 4.34  105 55 417 3000 5.55  102
20 182 111 1.42  106 56 162 105 6.50  106
21 174 111 1.42  106 57 158 7000 6.50  106
22 143 222 1.42  106 58 76 6800 6.50  106
23 172 276 1.41  106 59 76 6800 1.30  106
24 191 111 1.40  106 60 76 6800 2.60  106
25 191 111 3.17  106 61 76 6800 2.60  106
26 25 111 3.17  106 62 176 6680 2.60  106
27 54 1733 1.40  106 63 17 6660 2.60  106
28 160 1733 1.40  106 64 32 6660 6.50  106
29 130 3336 1.40  106 65 33 6590 6.50  106
30 147 3336 1.40  106 66 8 6590 6.50  106
31 134 4978 1.40  106 67 8 6590 6.50  106
32 142 4978 1.40  106 68 8 6590 1.64  102
33 137 6600 1.40  106 69 34 101 8.18  103
34 180 6600 1.40  106 70 177 487 8.18  103
35 181 6600 1.40  106 71 57 467 8.18  103
36 194 130 1.40  106

work achievable by a certain amount of input energy. By combin- of each process streams have been presented in Table 5. Exergy
ing the first and second laws of thermodynamics, exergy analysis destruction and exergy efficiency of the process components are
has become one of the most powerful tools for conducting qualita- the most important parameters of the exergy analysis which are
tive and quantitative investigations of energy consumption in pro- obtained from exergy balance of each component. The exergy
cesses. Two important parameters are introduced in exergy destruction term is used in exergoeconomic analysis for obtaining
analysis, exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency [47]. Exergy cost rate of exergy destruction. These terms are shown in detail in
rate of the process streams consists of four different terms: physi- Table 6.
cal, chemical, kinetic and potential exergy. The kinetic and poten-
tial terms are usually being ignored in exergy calculations. The E_ D E_ F  E_ P 11
relations have been given in the following [48]:
E_ E_
e eph ech 8 gII _ P 1  _ D 12
EF EF
eph h  h0  T 0 s  s0 9 Likewise energy analysis section, the overall exergy efficiency of
X X the plant can be calculated as follows [47]:
ech xi e0i G  xi Gi 10 P _
E_ E
gII;ov erall 1  D;tot 1P k D;k
13
where h and s are the specific enthalpy and entropy respec- E_ F _ used m
W _ LNG  eLNG
tively, subscript 0 is related to the thermodynamic dead state
i.e. 25 C and 101.325 kPa. The term xi is the mole fraction of stream In this equation the E_ D;tot is the summation of exergy destruc-
P _
components, e0i is the standard chemical exergy of the stream com- tion of all process components, Wused is the overall power con-
ponents which is attainable from different references [49] and G is sumption of pumps and compressors, m _ is the mass flow rate of
the Gibbs free energy. The physical, chemical and total exergy rate input LNG stream and e is the specific exergy of LNG stream.
M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259 251

Table 5
Exergy results of the process streams.

Stream no. E_ ph kW E_ ch kW E_ tot kW Stream no. E_ ph kW E_ ch kW E_ tot kW


5 5 6 5
1 0 1.46  10 1.46  10 37 6.92  10 2.11  10 7.13  106
2 4.83  106 1.46  105 4.98  106 38 3.10  105 3.66  104 3.47  105
3 8.30  106 1.46  105 8.45  106 39 2.58  105 3.66  104 2.94  105
4 9.71  106 1.46  105 9.86  106 40 3.37  104 3.66  104 7.03  104
5 7.36  106 6.87  105 8.05  106 41 9.12  105 1.69  106 2.60  106
6 5.82  106 9.49  104 5.91  106 42 9.18  105 1.69  106 2.61  106
7 9.57  106 2.04  106 1.16  107 43 6.82  105 1.69  106 2.38  106
8 4.68  106 4.37  105 5.12  106 44 6.83  105 1.69  106 2.38  106
9 2.68  106 2.50  105 2.93  106 45 1.28  106 1.69  106 2.97  106
10 4.77  106 4.37  105 5.21  106 46 2.73  106 1.69  106 4.42  106
11 1.29  107 4.33  105 1.33  107 47 8.96  105 1.69  106 2.59  106
12 1.29  107 4.33  105 1.33  107 48 2.01  104 1.69  106 1.71  106
13 1.29  107 4.33  105 1.33  107 49 4.68  103 1.69  106 1.70  106
14 2.34  106 2.50  105 2.59  106 50 7.07  103 1.69  106 1.70  106
15 1.85  106 2.48  105 2.10  106 51 8.12 2.96  102 3.04  102
16 5.03  106 9.49  104 5.13  106 52 5.17  105 1.69  106 2.21  106
17 5.03  106 9.51  104 5.13  106 53 9.36  102 6.12  102 1.55  103
18 7.33  106 1.56  106 8.89  106 54 3.26  102 6.12  102 9.37  102
19 2.24  106 4.78  105 2.72  106 55 1.98  103 6.12  102 2.59  103
20 7.29  106 1.56  106 8.85  106 56 3.13  107 1.61  109 1.64  109
21 1.51  106 1.56  106 3.08  106 57 3.13  107 1.61  109 1.64  109
22 1.65  106 1.56  106 3.21  106 58 2.22  107 1.61  109 1.63  109
23 2.37  106 1.55  106 3.92  106 59 4.45  106 3.21  108 3.26  108
24 1.97  106 2.48  105 2.22  106 60 8.89  106 6.43  108 6.51  108
25 4.44  106 9.51  104 4.53  106 61 8.89  106 6.43  108 6.51  108
26 2.05  105 9.51  104 3.00  105 62 8.18  106 6.43  108 6.51  108
27 2.88  106 2.48  105 3.13  106 63 7.33  106 6.43  108 6.50  108
28 4.16  106 2.48  105 4.41  106 64 1.80  107 1.61  109 1.62  109
29 4.27  106 2.48  105 4.52  106 65 1.80  107 1.61  109 1.62  109
30 4.97  106 2.48  105 5.22  106 66 1.80  107 1.61  109 1.62  109
31 5.02  106 2.48  105 5.27  106 67 1.80  107 1.61  109 1.62  109
32 5.62  106 2.48  105 5.86  106 68 4.55  102 4.05  104 4.10  104
33 5.64  106 2.48  105 5.89  106 69 6.17  101 4.32  104 4.33  104
34 7.54  106 2.48  105 7.79  106 70 1.15  104 4.32  104 5.48  104
35 7.59  106 2.48  105 7.84  106 71 2.19  104 4.32  104 6.51  104
36 7.23  106 2.48  105 7.48  106

Table 6
Definitions of the exergetic efficiency of process components [47].

Component Exergy destruction Exergetic efficiency


P_ P_ P_
Pumps E_ D Ein W _  P E_ out Eout  Ein
e _
P P _ WP _
Compressors E_ D _  P E_ out
E_ in W Eout  Ein
e W _
P P
Gas turbine E_ D E_ in  E_ out  W_ e P E_ W_P E_ out
in
P P
Expanders E_ D E_ in  E_ out  W_ e P E_ W_P E_ out
in
 Pn   Pm  
Heat exchangers _ED P E_ in  P E_ out E_ E_
e1 Pn1 _  Pm1 _
Q Q
1 h 1 c
P_ P
Combustion chamber E_ D Ein  E_ out e
E_ flue E_ O2 CO2
E_ NG
P_ P
Distillation column E_ D Ein  E_ out _ _ _
e E5E_4 E6E_13E7 E_ 23E53
_

P_ P P_
Separators/mixers E_ D Ein  E_ out E
e P _out Ein
P_ P
E_ D Ein  E_ out
DP
ein DP
Valves e eeDoutT e DT
in out
Pn
Cycle E_ Dtot _
k1 ED;k , n = number of devices e 1  Pm W_ ED;tot
_
_
1 consumed ELNG

X X
3.3. Exergoeconomic analysis C_ in C_ Q Z_ C_ out C_ W 14
in out

Exergoeconomic is the branch of engineering that combines


exergy analysis and economic principles. In this method a cost bal- C_ cE_ 15
ance is written around each component of the process. With this
evaluation the cost rate of the process streams are determined and C_ Q cE_ Q 16
these results are being utilized for optimization of the whole pro-
cess. This type of analysis is very crucial for design and performance C_ W cW
_ 17
of expensive systems [50]. The equation of cost balance is as follows:
252 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

Table 7 situations the relations are solved with auxiliary equations. The
Parameters involved in the simulation of the integrated process. auxiliary equations are obtained with respect to the fuel and pro-
Parameter Value duct concept of exergy streams. For a control volume fuel is the
Ambient temperature (C) 25 source of exergy which is consumed to generate the product and
Ambient pressure (kPa) 101.3 is different with actual fuel, such as natural gas, gasoline, diesel,
Interest rate (%) 10 etc. Also the product is the desired result generated by using the
Plant life time (year) 20 fuel. Table 9 shows the cost balances and auxiliary equations of
Maintenance factor () 1.06
Plant annual working hour (h) 7446
the process components.
Cost per exergy unit of LNG ($/GJ) [32] 13.69 For the component k as a control volume always there are the
Cost per exergy unit of electricity ($/GJ) [51] 25 fuel and product streams and the average cost per exergy unit of
LNG inlet temperature (C) 162 these streams is one of the most important parameters which are
LNG pressure (kPa) 104.8
resulted in exergoeconomic evaluation.
LNG mass flow rate (kg s1) 31,269

C_ F;k
Isentropic efficiency of pumps (%) 75
Isentropic efficiency of compressors (%) 75 cF;k 21
Isentropic efficiency of gas turbine (%) 75 E_ F;k

C_ P;k
where C_ denotes a cost rate associated with an exergy stream: cP;k 22
E_ P;k
stream of matter, power or heat transfer while the variable Z_ repre-
Relative cost difference of component k rk is defined based on
sents all remaining costs. Also c is the cost per unit of exergy, E_ is
the average cost per exergy unit of fuel and product streams and is
the exergy of material streams, E_ Q is the exergy of heat transfer a useful variable for evaluating and optimizing of a system
and W_ is the generated or consumed power of process components
component.
which is the pure exergy. The term Z_ is considering the capital
investment and operating and maintenance costs of the process cP;k  cF;k
rk 23
components. Eq. (19) shows the terms which are utilizing for calcu- cF;k
lating Z_ variable. The term Z is the purchased equipment cost of This parameter represents the difference between the average cost
each component, CRF is the capital recovery factor which is related of products and fuels which is due to the destruction and the invest-
to the capital investment costs, u is the maintenance factor which is ment cost.
related to the operating and maintenance costs and finally H is the As mentioned before exergy destruction is one of the most
annual working hour of the plant. In order to calculating CRF term, i important indicators of the exergy analysis and definitely the cost
is the interest rate and N is the life time of the integrated plant. The rate of this term has the greatest impact in the analysis, because
required economic parameters and other assumptions which are this term determines the waste dollars of the components and
utilizing in the analysis are presented in Table 7. whole process and gives us this scope to improving the weakest
Z_ Z_ CL Z_ OM 18 components and finally improving the overall plant.

C_ D;k cF;k E_ D;k 24


Z  CRF  u
Z_ 19 The exergoeconomic factor is the final indicator which is deter-
H
mines the ratio of the contribution of the capital investment and
N operating and maintenance costs and cost rate of exergy destruc-
i1 i
CRF N
20 tion of the process components. The high value of this parameter
1 i  1
shows that the share of capital investment and operating and
The cost balance of each component is a linear equation that maintenance costs is higher and the low value shows that the
should be solved for obtaining desired parameters, but in some exergy destruction has the higher impact in cost rates of process
of these equations there is more than one unknown term. In these components.

Table 8
Purchased equipment cost functions of the process components.

Component Purchased equipment cost functions


Pumps _ 0:1538logW
log Z 3:3892 0:0536 logW _ 2 [16]
Compressors 71:1m_ in [52]
Z 0:92gis r p lnrp
 
Gas turbine & expanders _g
479:34m Pin [52]
Z 0:92gis ln Pout 1 exp0:036T in  54:41
Multi-stream heat exchangers Z FC A  UC  C1 [53]
FC = Fixed cost of MHEX, A = Total heat transfer area, UC = Unit cost of the MHEX material, C1 = 0.055
Combustion chamber _ air
46:08m [52]
Z 0:995Pout =P in 1 exp0:018T out  26:4
Distillation column Z Z v essel Z tray [37]
0:87 1:23 2
Z v essel 1780l d 2:86 1:694F M 10:01  7:408 ln P 1:395ln P 
2
Z tray N act 193:04 22:72d 60:38d 
l = Length of the column, d = Diameter of the column, FM = Material factor, P = Column mean pressure, Nact = Actual number of trays
Separator Z FM Cb Ca [54]
2
C b 1:218 exp9:1  0:2889 ln W 0:04576ln W 
C a 300D0:7396 L0:7066
Tank Z 1:218F M exp11:662  0:6104 ln V 0:04536ln V 
2 [54]
V = Volume of tank
M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259 253

Table 9
Cost balances and related auxiliary equations of the process components.

Component Cost balance Auxiliary equation (fuel rule)


P-1 C_ 56 C_ W Z_ P1 C_ 57 None
P-2 C_ 41 C_ W Z_ P2 C_ 42 None
CR-1 C_ 1 C_ W Z_ CR1 C_ 2 c1 0
CR-2 C_ 8 C_ W Z_ CR2 C_ 10 None
CR-3 C_ 21 C_ W Z_ CR3 C_ 22 None
CR-4 C_ 24 C_ W Z_ CR4 C_ 27 None
CR-5 C_ 28 C_ W Z_ CR5 C_ 29 None
CR-6 C_ 30 C_ W Z_ CR6 C_ 31 None
CR-7 C_ 32 C_ W Z_ CR7 C_ 33 None
CR-8 C_ 54 C_ W Z_ CR8 C_ 55 None
CR-9 C_ 50 C_ W Z_ CR9 C_ 52 None
CR-10 C_ 69 C_ W Z_ CR10 C_ 70 None
GT C_ 46 Z_ GT C_ 47 C_ W c46 c47
E-1 C_ 9 Z_ E1 C_ 14 C_ W c9 c14
E-2 C_ 6 Z_ E2 C_ 16 C_ W c6 c16
C_ 27 C_ 29 C_ 31 C_ 33 C_ 2 C_ 25 C_ 39 C_ 42 C_ 57 Z_ H1
H-1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
c57 c58 , c42 c43 , c39 c40 , c25 c26 CE_ 3 C2
E_
CE_ 34  C 33
E_
CE_ 32 C 31
E_
CE_ 30 C 29
E_
CE_ 28  C 27
E_
C_ 28 C_ 30 C_ 32 C_ 34 C_ 3 C_ 26 C_ 40 C_ 43 C_ 58
3 2 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27

C_ 3 C_ 15 C_ 17 Z_ H2 C_ 4 C_ 24 C_ 25
H-2 _ C_ 15 C_ 4 C_ 3
c17 c25 , CE_ 24  _ E_ 4 E_ 3
24 E15

H-3 C_ 12 C_ 16 Z_ H3 C_ 13 C_ 17 c16 c17


H-4 C_ 10 C_ 20 Z_ H4 C_ 11 C_ 21 c20 c21
H-5 C_ 14 C_ 22 Z_ H5 C_ 15 C_ 23 c14 c15
H-6 C_ 34 C_ 38 Z_ H6 C_ 35 C_ 39 c38 c39
H-7 C_ 44 C_ 47 Z_ H7 C_ 45 C_ 48 c47 c48
C_ 52 C_ 53 C_ 60 C_ 65 Z_ H8 C_ 41 C_ 54 C_ 63 C_ 66
H-8 _ _ _ _
c53 c54 , c60 c63 CE_ 66 C 65
E_
CE_ 41  C 52
E_
66 65 41 52

H-9 C_ 48 C_ 64 Z_ H9 C_ 49 C_ 65 c48 c49


H-10 C_ 61 C_ 70 Z_ H10 C_ 62 C_ 71 c61 c62
CC C_ 45 C_ 68 Z_ CC C_ 46 None
DC C_ 4 C_ 13 C_ 23 Z_ DC C_ 5 C_ 6 C_ 7 C_ 53 c4 c13 , c13 c23 , c23 c53
M-1 C_ 59 C_ 62 C_ 63 C_ 64 None
M-2 C_ 43 C_ 55 C_ 44 None
T-1 C_ 5 C_ 8 C_ 9 c8 c9
T-2 C_ 7 C_ 18 C_ 19 c18 c19
T-3 C_ 58 C_ 59 C_ 60 C_ 61 c59 c60 , c60 c61
T-4 C_ 66 C_ 67 C_ 68 c67 c68
S-1 C_ 49 Z_ S1 C_ 50 C_ 51 c51 0
Tank C_ 36 Z_ Tank C_ 37 C_ 38 c37 c38
V-1 C_ 11 C_ 12 None
V-2 C_ 18 C_ 20 None
V-3 C_ 35 C_ 36 None

Z_ k stream heat exchanger (H-3) and distillation column (DC) compo-


fk 25
Z_ k C_ D;k nents with 95.1% and 94.4% values have the best performance
respectively. On the other hand the lowest values of exergy effi-
For evaluation the cost rate of the whole process Eq. (26) is ciency of the process components are related to multi-stream heat
being employed, in this equation C_ L;tot is the cost rate of exergy exchanger (H-10) and pump (P-1). Fig. 3 shows the percentage
losses which are related to the heat transfer or material stream contribution of exergy destruction of the components type, propor-
from the plant to the environment. tional to overall exergy destruction of the process. Heat exchangers
and compressors with 59.82% and 11.97% respectively have the
C_ P;tot C_ F;tot  C_ L;tot Z_ tot 26 highest share of the overall exergy destruction of the process.
The significant point is related to combustion chamber component
4. Results and discussion which is supposed to have the high exergy destruction rate but
oxy-fuel concept has improved the performance of the equipment.
In this section the exergy, exergoeconomic and sensitivity anal- The exergy destruction rate of CC is 158,344 kW which is very low
yses results of the process are being discussed and after that the in relation with other components of the process. Exergy efficiency
general evaluation of the process components is achievable. for expansion valves is lower than it should be, however they also
have lower exergy destruction rate compared to other units. This
demonstrates that in order to examine performance and efficiency
4.1. Exergy analysis
of an element of a system, both exergy efficiency and exergy
destruction rate must be taken into consideration. Finally the over-
Exergy efficiency and exergy destruction are the most impor-
all exergy efficiency of the integrated ASU-CO2 power cycle-LNG
tant parameters of the exergy analysis. The results of exergy effi-
regasification process is 67.1% which is the excellent value com-
ciency are presented in Fig. 2 and as you can see after mixers,
pared to similar processes.
tees, tank and expansion valves with highest values the multi-
254 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

Fig. 2. Exergy efficiency of the integrated ASU-CO2 power cycle-LNG regasification components.

exergy destruction cost and for reducing the system cost, cost of
elements must be reduced. Small exergoeconomic factor determi-
nes this fact that for decreasing system cost, performance and effi-
ciency of the system components must be improved. Results for
integrated ASU-CO2 power cycle-LNG regasification process
demonstrate that combustion chamber has the highest exergoeco-
nomic factor (36.14%) and after that pump P-1 with the value of
20.18% therefore for reducing total system cost, costs of combus-
tion chamber (CC) and P-1 should be minimized. Also the smallest
exergoeconomic factors are related to the distillation column
(0.027%) and H-5 multi-stream heat exchanger (0.224%) and for
reducing the process cost, the performance and efficiency of these
components should be maximized. The relative cost difference is a
description of relative increase in exergy cost of product with
respect to exergy cost of fuel in an element which plays significant
role in evaluating and optimizing of the system. After evaluation
the highest relative cost difference is related to H-10 heat exchan-
ger (6769) and the lowest value is related to the H-3 heat exchan-
ger (0.066). Magnitudes of exergy cost of fuel and product
determine cost of exergy rate in an element. Maximum cost per
exergy unit of fuel streams is related to expander E-1 and tee T-1
(38.28 $/GJ) while the maximum product cost per exergy unit is
related to H-10 multi-stream heat exchanger (941.1 $/GJ) and
Fig. 3. Percentage distribution of exergy destruction.
pump P-1 (229.7 $/GJ). Exergy destruction cost rate determines
the current performance of the process elements. In this process
heat exchanger H-1 with 335,144 ($/h) has the highest value and
4.2. Exergoeconomic analysis compressor CR-8 with 19.53 ($/h) has the lowest exergy destruc-
tion cost rate among all the process components.
Exergoeconomic analysis combines thermodynamic and eco-
nomic concepts simultaneously. In this method a cost balance is
written for each component of the process and solved simultane- 4.3. Sensitivity analysis
ously with the help of auxiliary equations (Table 9). The cost rate
of capital investment and operating and maintenance is one of One of the most important methods for process optimization is
the input cost rates of the cost equations (see Fig. 4). After solving adjusting constant parameters and operating conditions of differ-
cost equations, cost per exergy unit and cost rate of each stream ent units of a process. Sensitivity analysis of the important
are calculated as shown in Table 10. Finally exergoeconomic factor parameters in an energy system can determine the effectiveness
and relative cost difference are the most important parameters of the decision variables on the objective function. Fig. 5 shows
which are evaluating process in the sight of exergoeconomic anal- the variation of capital investment and operating and mainte-
ysis (Table 11). Exergoeconomic factor determines the contribution nance cost rates of the major components of the process with
of capital investment and operating and maintenance cost rate respect to the variation of interest rate as one of the most impor-
against exergy destruction cost rate for each component of the pro- tant economic parameters across the world countries. In this case
cess. Large exergoeconomic factor indicates that the share of capi- the plant life time of the process has been considered constant. As
tal investment and operating and maintenance cost is higher than you can see pump P-1 and multi-stream heat exchanger H-1 have
M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259 255

Fig. 4. Cost rate distributions among investment-O&M and exergy destruction for major components of the process.

Table 10
Cost rate and unit exergy cost of the process streams.
$   $  
Stream no. C_ h
 103 c $
GJ
Stream no. C_ h
 103 c $
GJ

1 0 0 37 875.8 34.10
2 529.0 29.51 38 42.6 34.10
3 877.8 28.87 39 36.1 34.10
4 917.1 25.84 40 8.6 34.10
5 1109 38.28 41 273.4 29.15
6 405.4 19.05 42 274.2 29.18
7 1006 24.05 43 249.5 29.18
8 705.5 38.28 44 249.8 29.21
9 403.2 38.28 45 325.3 30.44
10 735.3 39.20 46 380.4 23.90
11 1238 25.76 47 222.8 23.90
12 1238 25.83 48 147.4 23.90
13 1238 25.84 49 146.1 23.90
14 357.3 38.28 50 146.5 23.93
15 289.7 38.28 51 0 0
16 351.8 19.05 52 202.3 25.42
17 351.8 19.05 53 0.1 25.84
18 769.9 24.05 54 0.1 25.84
19 235.7 24.05 55 0.3 27.52
20 770.0 24.16 56 80,714 13.69
21 267.6 24.16 57 80,777 13.70
22 296.9 25.69 58 80,328 13.70
23 364.5 25.84 59 16,066 13.70
24 292.9 36.70 60 32,131 13.70
25 310.9 19.05 61 32,131 13.70
26 20.6 19.05 62 32,096 13.70
27 425.4 37.79 63 32,054 13.70
28 554.4 34.93 64 80,238 13.72
29 575.9 35.38 65 80,236 13.72
30 646.4 34.38 66 80,238 13.72
31 655.5 34.56 67 80,236 13.72
32 715.2 33.88 68 2.0 13.72
33 720.2 33.97 69 0 0
34 911.7 32.50 70 1.3 6.35
35 918.4 32.54 71 36.4 155.30
36 918.3 34.10
256 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

Table 11
Exergy and exergoeconomic results of the integrated process.
     $
Component E_ F (kW) E_ P (kW) E_ D (kW) cF $
cP $ C_ D h$ Z_ h
e % r% f %
GJ GJ

P-1 6.40  105 7.58  104 5.64  105 25 229.7 5.08  104 12838 11.9 818.6 20.21
P-2 9.51  103 5.55  103 3.96  103 25 43.3 3.56  102 18.2 58.4 73.0 4.86
CR-1 5.87  106 4.83  106 1.03  106 25 30.4 9.31  104 909.4 82.4 21.6 0.97
CR-2 3.30  105 9.09  104 2.39  105 25 91.0 2.15  104 114.2 27.6 264 0.53
CR-3 3.24  105 1.33  105 1.91  105 25 61.1 1.72  104 121.5 41.1 144.3 0.70
CR-4 1.44  106 9.10  105 5.27  105 25 40.5 4.74  104 3254 63.4 61.8 6.43
CR-5 2.39  105 1.13  105 1.26  105 25 53.0 1.13  104 95.8 47.2 111.9 0.84
CR-6 9.90  104 4.59  104 5.31  104 25 55.0 4.78  103 45.4 46.4 120.2 0.94
CR-7 5.43  104 2.45  104 2.97  104 25 55.5 2.68  103 28.5 45.2 121.9 1.05
CR-8 1.87  103 1.66  103 2.17  102 25 28.5 1.95  101 1.1 88.4 13.9 5.33
CR-9 6.16  105 5.10  105 1.06  105 25 30.4 9.54  103 349.2 82.8 21.6 3.53
CR-10 1.39  104 1.15  104 2.40  103 25 30.3 2.16  102 5.1 82.7 21.4 2.30
GT 1.83  106 1.62  106 2.13  105 23.9 27.1 1.83  104 581.4 88.4 13.6 3.08
E-1 3.33  105 1.47  105 1.87  105 38.3 87.7 2.57  104 418.0 44.0 129.1 1.60
E-2 7.82  105 3.53  105 4.29  105 19.1 43.0 2.94  104 979.9 45.1 125.6 3.22
H-1 1.38  107 7.95  106 5.84  106 15.9 27.9 3.35  105 8370 57.6 75.3 2.44
H-2 1.53  106 5.96  105 9.31  105 7.7 19.1 2.59  104 1788 39.0 146.8 6.46
H-3 8.19  106 7.78  106 8.33  103 30.1 30.1 9.02  102 7.3 95.1 0.1 0.80
H-4 8.14  106 5.78  106 2.36  106 17.2 24.2 1.46  105 425.9 71.0 40.9 0.29
H-5 7.08  105 4.91  105 2.17  105 26.5 38.3 2.08  104 46.7 69.3 44.3 0.22
H-6 5.24  104 4.72  104 5.25  103 34.1 39.1 6.44  102 62.9 90.0 14.8 8.89
H-7 8.76  105 5.94  105 2.83  105 23.9 35.4 2.43  104 78.0 67.8 47.9 0.32
H-8 1.56  106 4.29  105 1.13  106 13.7 47.1 5.59  104 227.7 27.5 243.8 0.41
H-9 3.84  104 1.54  104 2.30  104 13.7 23.9 1.14  103 25.7 40.1 74.2 2.21
H-10 7.11  105 1.04  104 7.00  105 13.7 941.1 3.45  104 107.7 1.5 6769 0.31
CC 1.61  106 1.45  106 1.58  105 9.0 10.5 5.14  103 2907 90.2 16.9 36.12
DC 2.71  107 2.56  107 1.51  106 25.8 27.4 1.40  105 37.6 94.4 5.9 0.03
S-1 1.71  106 1.70  106 9.64  103 23.8 23.9 8.26  102 3.0 99.4 0.6 0.36

Fig. 5. Effect of the different interest rates on the capital investment and operating and maintenance cost rate of some important components.

the steeper slope and the increasing of interest rate has the more turbine component has been chosen. This equipment produces
impact on the associated cost rate. On the other hand compressor power for the process and has a key role in the plant. Fig. 7 shows
CR-4 and combustion chamber have the gentle slope and conse- the variation of exergoeconomic factor and exergy efficiency by
quently with increasing interest rate, the capital investment and changing the isentropic efficiency of the gas turbine. The exergoe-
operating and maintenance cost rates are changing smoothly. In conomic factor first has a gentle trend but suddenly the slope of
another economic case the plant life time of the process is varying the curve becomes steeper which means the exergy destruction
from 15 years to 30 years and as it has been expected the increas- cost rate has been decreased significantly. The exergy efficiency
ing of this term is leading to the reduction of capital investment of the component has the normal trend and differing almost lin-
and operating and maintenance cost rate. Likewise previous case, early by changing the isentropic efficiency. In the final case of
pump P-1 and heat exchanger H-1 are more sensitive in relation sensitivity analysis, with respect to Fig. 8 the variation of exergy
with plant life time variation, against this trend the curves of destruction and capital investment and operating and mainte-
compressor CR-4 and combustion chamber are similar to horizon- nance cost rate, have been investigated. It is obvious that by
tal straight lines and have the less sensitivity. The curves of sec- increasing isentropic efficiency the exergy destruction cost rate
ond economic case are presented in Fig. 6. In order to will be reduced, but the interesting point is the linear trend of
considering sensitivity analysis in the process elements, the gas this variation. Table 8 shows the purchased equipment cost of
M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259 257

Fig. 6. Effect of the different plant life time economic term on the capital investment and operating and maintenance cost rate of some important components.

Fig. 7. Effect of the gas turbine isentropic efficiency on its exergoeconomic factor and exergy efficiency.

Fig. 8. Effect of the gas turbine isentropic efficiency on its exergy destruction and capital investment and operating and maintenance cost rate.

the gas turbine and as you can see the isentropic efficiency is in the value of overall equation is becoming larger. The curve at
the denominator of the equation which means with increasing the beginning has the smooth trend but gradually the slope
the isentropic efficiency the denominator becoming smaller and of the curve becomes steeper.
258 M. Mehrpooya, M.J. Zonouz / Energy Conversion and Management 139 (2017) 245259

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