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EDUQAS

AS Level Resources
Set Work: Haydns London Symphony

Jan Richards

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WCT Set work Haydn: London Symphony No. 104 Choose a Task

Choose a task based on Movement 1.

Activity A Activity B
Background Information
Structure
Activity C Activity D
Tonality Texture
Activity E Activity F
Thematic development
Structure / Themes
Activity G Activity H
Harmony Instrumentation

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Activity A Background Information
This symphony is the twelfth and last of the symphonies specifically composed for a series of concerts in
London. It was written in 1795 and first performed in the same year at the Kings Theatre, Haymarket.

Complete the following paragraph by inserting the correct information from the given list.

Haydn (1732-1809) was one of the most important composers of the era
Answers
in music, having written at least symphonies illustrating the development
strings
of this genre. After many years in the employment of the family, an
Esterhzy
invitation came in 1790 to compose twelve symphonies for London, for the British audiences
that hailed him as the greatest composer in the world. He had been contacted by the adventurous
German-born violinist Johann Peter who was working as a concert drums
manager in London at that time. Haydn was to be impressed by the rich musical life, the orchestration
cosmopolitan atmosphere and the very fine, large orchestras there. score
bassoons
As such, he was determined to live up to expectations, and the resulting D
are appreciated as the crowning glory of his prolific work as a symphonic composer. While Classical
they show no radical departure from his previous works, there were a number of Salomon
outstanding features that contribute to their special character. They are works on a keyboard
grand scale, giving a broader presentation of musical ideas, more brilliant Folksong melodies
utilising often simplistic but effectively appealing thematic material with the occasional use trumpets
of , more use of harmony and more purposeful 104
content. clarinets
rhythmic
In terms of the scoring, Haydns earliest symphonies were usually written for two oboes, London symphonies
two horns and , though there were exceptions to the rule with occasional timpani
use of a flute, and an additional horn.

It was only in these last twelve symphonies that and


were used regularly, with making an appearance in five of the last set of six
symphonies.

Symphony No 104 is scored for: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in A, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in


, two trumpets in D, and strings. The premire was
extremely successful; and as was usual at the time, Haydn directed the performance himself
from a instrument, though his part was not written down in the
.

For further consideration:

Explain the difference between the early 18th century Baroque orchestra and the orchestra used by Haydn at
Esterhzy.

Find out why the following symphonies were given their well-known titles: the Surprise Symphony, the Clock
Symphony, the Drum Roll Symphony. Write a paragraph on each, and listen to the works, following the scores if
possible. (Scores are available on IMSLP). Working in pairs, note down any features of particular interest.

Haydn once said of his time at Esterhzy I was cut off from the world I could make experiments try new
things so I was forced to become original. Undertake some research to see whether you can find out what he
meant by this.
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Activity B Structure
The first movement is in Sonata Form.
Task 1: Rearrange the section headings in the correct order, then match the sections with the
correct bar numbers.
Task 2: In pairs, explain to each other the function of each section within the overall form. Some of
these sections are main sections, others subsidiary sections.
[Bar numbers correlate to the Eulenberg Audio + Score edition]

Section Bar
numbers
Development 65-98
First Subject Section 193-276
Introduction 50-64
Exposition 99-123
Codetta 1-16
Coda 124-192
Recapitulation 17-123
Second Subject Section 17-49
Transition Passage 277-294

The correct order would be:

Section Bar Function of the Section


numbers

For further consideration:


How does Haydn achieve variety in this movement?

How does the music reflect the Classical style?

How important is the material of the Introduction section? How effectively, in musical
terms, does Haydn introduce his symphony? How does he create the anticipation of the
Exposition section? 4
Activity C Tonality
Complete the following paragraph about the key changes in the first part of this movement
by inserting the correct information from the given list.

As with many of Haydns symphonies, this first movement begins with an introductory section
in this case in the key of . The first two bars set the scene with a solemn, Answers
dominant
commanding fanfare-like motif using the and notes of the perfect cadence
key. This is followed by four bars of a contrasting, quieter phrase which starts in interrupted
cadence
I6/4 V5/3
, and modulates to in bar 7 via a in that modulates
D minor
key. In bar 14, the opening dotted motif is heard once more in , before major
moving to the chord in bar 153 though the last beat of bar 15 brings a dominant pedal
A major
A major
chord, followed by the cadential progression . F major
E major
The Exposition proper then begins with a change of mode to . The Transition changing key
transposed
section has the function of between the first subject and , D minor
D minor
and in this case, as expected, the music to the key of Neapolitan 6th
chromatic
. Here, Haydn uses the same theme, but into the dominant A major
dominant
key. The following section is more elaborate in harmonic terms, and the outcome is enriched
S2
through some content. In bar 80, the phrase rather surprisingly ends with an F# minor
tonic
subdominant
, though from bar 92 the on E in the bass leads to a

perfect cadence in in bar 99. The final section includes two further key

changes: one in in bar 109, and another in in bar 111. The

Exposition finally concludes in bar 123, firmly in the key of .

For further consideration:


Working in pairs, discuss and note all the key changes seen in the Development section of this
movement.

How do the key changes / modulations relate to the home key? Are there any features of particular
interest?

In terms of the overall key structure, what are the main differences between the Exposition
section and the Recapitulation section?
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Activity D Texture

What does the word texture actually mean?


Working in pairs, discuss the meaning of the musical terms listed below.

Monophonic Imitation Counterpoint

Unison Antiphony Heterophonic

Stretto Homophonic Fugal

Now, identify and describe the types of texture found in the sections as indicated by the bar
numbers below.

Bar Nos Identification/description of the texture


1-2
3-6
7-8
17-31
145-9
247-257

277-294

For further consideration:


Listen to another first movement from a different Haydn symphony (e.g. the Military,
Clock or Drum Roll) and note the different types of texture used in the different sections.

Write a short essay on Haydns use of texture in the first movement of the London
symphony. Give special attention to the relationship between the instruments.

Sometimes, the following terms are used when describing the texture of a section of
music. Find out what they mean: spacing of parts, countrapuntal, countermelody,
chordal.
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Activity E Structure / Themes

Sonata Form a theme is the


melodic
material upon
which part (or
all) of a
composition is
has three main sections in which based
TWO themes or subjects are
explored according to set key a theme is
usually a
relationships. complete
phrase

However, there seem to be four sections in the first movement of Haydns ' London' Symphony.

Insert the names of these sections, in the order they are heard in the table below. The first letter of
each has been given for you.

I E D R

Within this structure, it is possible to track the main themes as they are presented, developed and
then returned. Identify the following melodic ideas and motifs (S1 or S2 etc), state where they are
first introduced (section / bar nos.), and in what keys they are heard.

THEME SECTION BARS KEY

Task:

Explain what is meant by monothematicism, supporting your


observations with reference to the first movement of the London
Symphony.
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.
Activity F Thematic development
Describe the musical features of the first subject, and then discuss and note down how the theme
has been treated and developed in subsequent passages as indicated.

S1
Musical features: Treatment/development from bar 124 144:

Treatment/development from bar 172 192

Identify and explain two ways in which contrast has been achieved in the
second subject section of the Exposition.
(i)

(ii)

How does Haydn achieve further variety when S2 appears in the


Recapitulation section?

Identify the devices heard in the following bars:

Bars Devices Bars Devices


3-6 46-48 (violin 1)
32-39 73-79
80-82 (lower strings) 277-280
150-155 109

Working in pairs, list the different ways that Haydn develops the thematic material in this movement.

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Activity G Harmony

What is a cadence?
(i) Consider the following definitions and decide which is the correct one:
- the final chord of a piece of music
- the opening progression of chords in a phrase
- a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a
phrase, or piece of music

(ii) There are four main types of cadence. What are they made up of?
Type of Cadence .....consisting of:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Task 1. Referring to your score of the first movement of the London Symphony by Haydn, give bar
numbers where the following cadences may be located.

Cadences Bar numbers / location


Interrupted cadence
Cadence in B minor
Perfect cadence in A
Perfect cadence in E minor
Imperfect cadence in D major

Task 2. Identify the keys, chords, and cadences in the following bars:

Bars Key Chords Cadence


49-50
15-16
155-158
160-163
219-220
264-266

Working in pairs, map out the entire structure of the Exposition section, and list as many cadences as
you can. For further understanding, the process could be repeated with the remainder of the
movement.

Write a variety of cadences (for four parts e.g. S.A.T.B) in the same key as this movement,
contrasting both the arrangement and the positioning of the chords.

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Activity H Harmony: Chords
When studying the music of the Western Classical Tradition, you must learn and understand about
the different types of chords and the way that they are used in a piece of music.
Task 1. Many Western harmonic styles are based on the triads built on each degree of the scale.
Using roman numerals, identify the primary triads, the secondary triads, and state their technical
name. (The first one has been done for you).

Type of triad Identification Technical name


of triad
(roman
numerals)
PRIMARY TRIADS: I Tonic

SECONDARY TRIADS

Task 2. Complete the following table, identifying the position of the chord (e.g. 2nd inversion) and
giving the accepted figuring (e.g 6/4)

Position Figuring
A chord with the root in the bass is called a ..... ( ) ..chord.
A chord with the 3rd in the bass is known as a ..... ( ) ..chord.
A chord with the 5th in the bass is called a ....... ( ) ..chord.
A chord with the 7th in the bass is called a ..... ( ) ..chord.

Task 3. Complete the following sentences by identifying the chords in the first movement of the
London symphony.

(i) The first chord in bar 3 is........


Task: Describe the
(ii) The last chord in bar 4 is ........
harmonic content of
(iii) The first chord in bar 17 is........ to bar 130
bars 124-130.
(iv) The last chord in bar 32 is ........
(v) The first chord in bar 44 is........
(vi) The last chord in bar 75 is .........
(vii) The chord in bar 76 is ........
(viii) The chord in bar 172 is ........

Using the D major triad as a starting point, follow the instructions to create a different chord each time.
Add a 4th note to create the dominant 7th of G major.
Add an accidental to change this to the tonic minor in D minor
Add an accidental to create an augmented chord
Add a 4th note and an additional accidental to create a diminished chord
Take away a note to leave a perfect 5th
Rearrange the notes to write a tonic first inversion chord
Take away a note to leave a minor 3rd 10
Activity I Instrumentation
In his 'London' symphonies, Haydn was anxious to create works on a grand scale.
1 This work has been scored for a_______________________________.

2 For the time, the amount of performers was ______________________.

3 Note that ____________________ were included this was a relatively


new practice for Haydn!

4 In this orchestra, the clarinets, horns and trumpets are the Answers:
________________ instruments. This means that their music appears to
be in a different _______. bars 172-3
leader
unusually large
5 In the first performance, the direction of the orchestra was divided
an octave lower
between the ______________ of the orchestra, and the ___________,
the strings
who would probably have been playing the ______________. This would flute
have been omitted in later (and more modern) performances. key
keyboard
6 The opening of the Introduction section was noteworthy for the dramatic fanfare tutti
contrast between the ______________ and the __________________. timpani
bassoon
7 S1 is initially introduced by _____________, with______________playing tonic
the theme. clarinets
cellos
8 Only one pair of drums would have been used by Haydn. They are called standard symphony
____________ and they would have been tuned to the ___________ orchestra
and _____________ notes of the home key. In the Development, the sonority
timps do not join in until bars ______________ when their notes fit in oboe
with the music. dominant
9 composer
Though the theme is the same for S2 as for S1, there is a contrast of
quiet strings
_______________ in bar 64 as the ____________joins in with the theme,
transposing
to be followed by the first _________ and then the first
violin 1
______________.

10 The ______________ and double basses play from the same part in the
score, but the double basses sound ________________.

In pairs, discuss the meanings of the following symbols and directions as


seen on the score:

ff Cb. [Tutti] fz Soli.

Cor. Pizz. Fg. [a2]

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