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New, Revised Edition

Dumbarton Oaks
Center for Byzantine Studies
Trustees for Harvard University
Washington, District of Columbia






All rights reserved by the
Trustees for Harvard University
The Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
Washington, D.C.

Second Impression, 1985

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, Emperor of the East,
Constantine Porphyrogenitus De administrando imperio.
(Corpus fontium historiae Byzantinae; v. I)
(Dumbarton Oaks texts; 1)
Translation of: De administrando imperio.
English and Greek.
Includes index.
1. Byzantine Empire-History-Constantine VI I
Porphyrogenitus, 913-959. 2. Byzantine Empire-History-
To 527. 3. Byzantine Empire-History-527-1081.
4. Education of princes. I. Moravcsik, Gyula, 1892-1972.
II. Title. III. Series. IV. Series.
DF593.C6613 1985 949.5 85-6950
ISBN 0-88402-021-5


Foreword to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Foreword to the Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
General Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Critical Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
I. Manuscripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3. Translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4. Mutual Relationship of Manuscripts and Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5. Method followed in the present Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
List of Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Text and Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
rENNHTON BA~IAEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
GOD AND BORN IN THE PURPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Ilpoo(rnv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Proem ............................................................... 45
1. Ilept TWV IIocT~WOCXLTWV, xocl Ttpoc; Tt6croc cru~ocAAOV'rlXL e-roc rou ~IXcrtAt<Uc;
'Prooc(rov dpl)ve;uov-rec; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
I. Of the Pechenegs, and how many advantages accrue from their being at peace
with the emperor of the Romans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2. Ilept -rwv IIoc-r~LvaxL-rwv xocl -rwv 'Pwc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2. Of the Pechenegs and the Russians....................................... 49
3. Ilepl -rwv IIoc-r~LvocxL-rwv xocl Toupxrov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3. Of the Pechenegs and Turks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4. Ilept -rwv Iloc-r~LvocxL-rwv xocl 'Pwc; xocl Toupxrov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4. Of the Pechenegs and Russians and Turks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5. Ilepl -rwv Iloc-r~LvocxL-rwv xocl -rwv Bou)..yocpwv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5. Of the Pechenegs and the Bulgarians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

6. Ile;pt -.:wv IlixT~tvocxt-.:wv xix! Xe;pcrwvt-.:wv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

6. Of the Pechenegs and Chersonites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

7. Jle;p! -.:wv &no Xe;pcrwvoc; cbtocrTe:l.Aoevwv (3ixm).txwv i:v IlixT~tvixx~ . . . . . . . . . . 54

7. Of the dispatch of imperial agents from Cherson to Patzinacia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

8. IIe;p! TWV OC7t"O 'rijc; -ln:oq>UAOCXTOU 7t"6Ae;roc; ocnocr-.;e;/.Aoevwv (3acrLALXWV e:-.:oc XE:AIXV-
8lwv 8toc Te; -.:ou ~ixvou(3ou xixl ~ocvanpt xal ~&.vixcrTpt noTaou i:v IlaT~tvax~. . . 54
8. Of the dispatch of imperial agents with ships of war from the city protected
of God to Patzinacia along the Danube and Dnieper and Dniester river. . . . . . 55

9. Ile;p! -.:wv oc7t"o 'Procrixc; i:pxoevrov 'P<~c; e:-.:oc -.:wv ovo~u).rov i:v Krovcr-raVTtvou-
7t"6Ae;t............................................................. 56
9. Of the coming of the Russians in 'monoxyla' from Russia to Constantinople . 57

10. Ile;p! 'rijc; Xix~ixplixc;, 7twc; 8e:'L no).e:e:i:cr&at xix! 7tapoc -rvrov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
10. Of Chazaria, how and by whom war must be made upon it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

11. Ile;pl ":OU XOCO"Tpou Xepcrwvoc; xixl ":OU xoccr-rpou Bo<m6pou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

ll. Of the city of Oberson and the city of Bosporus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

12. Ile;pl 'rijc; ixup1Jc; Bou).yixpCac; xixl -rijc; Xa~ixpCac; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

12. Of black Bulgaria and Chazaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

13. Ile:pl -.:wv 7t"A1Jcrtix~6VTrov i:&vwv -ro'Lc; To6pxotc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

13. Of the nations that are neighbours to the Turke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

14. Ile;pl 'rijc; yeveix).oyac; -roli Mouxoue-r ................................. 76

14. Of the genealogy of Mahomet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

15. Ile;pl Toti yevouc; -rwv <I>a-.:e;t-.:wv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

15. Of the tribe of the Fatemites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

16. 'Ex -.:ou xixv6voc;, oi'.l l&echtcre:v :E-.:e<pixvoc; oa&1}a-.:txoc; ne:pl -njc; -rwv l::ap1X><1Jvrov
i:.~68ou, i:v noci> xp6vci> 'rijc; TOU x6crou crucr-.:cfoe:roc; i:ysve:-ro, xal -rc; 0 TOC 11>'7jn-rpa
Tijc; (3ocat).eac; 'Proixwv 8tenrov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
16. From the canon which Stephen the astrologer cast from the stare concerning
the Exodus of the Saracens, in what year of the foundation of the world it
took place, and who then held the sceptre of the empire of the Romans . . . . . . 81

17. 'Ex Tou Xpovtxou -.:ou ixxapou 0e:oqi&.vouc;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

17. From the Chronicle ofTheophanes, of blessed memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

18. ~e;6-.;e;poc; ocp:x_1)yoc; -.:wv 'Apa(3rov, 'A(3ou(3&:x_ixp, f":"1} -.:pix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

18. The second chief of the Arabs, Aboubachar, three years.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

19. TplToc; ocp:x_1)yoc; 'Ap&(3rov, 0i)ixp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

19. The third chief of the Arabs, Oumar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

20. TihocpToc; 'Ap&:(3rov ocpJ(l)y6c;, O~&:v 84

20. The fourth chief of the Arabs, Outhman 85

21. 'Ex TOU XpovLxou 0e;oqi&:vouc; iToc; oc7t'o XT(ae:wc; x6aou ,c;poa' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
21. From the Chronicle of Theophanes: the year from the creation of the world 6171 85

22. 'Ex TOU Xpovoypocqiou 't"OU ocxocpfou @e;oqi&:vouc; 7te:pt TWV IXUTWV xoct 7te;pt Mocu(ou
xoct T'ijc; ye:ve;iic; IXUTOU, 57t'roc; 8te;7t'epocae;v ev 'lCJ7t'IXV(q;. 'Prooc(rov (3ocat:Ae:uc; 'louO"TWLIX-
voc; O 'Ptv6Tl)TO<; ................................................. 92
22. From the Chronicle of Theophanes, of blessed memory, concerning the same
events and concerning Mauias and his clan, how it crossed over into Spain.
Emperor of the Romans, Justinian Rhinotmetus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

23. Ile;pt 'l(3l)p(occ; xixt 'lCJ7t'av(ac; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

23. Of Iberia and Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

24. Ile;pl 'lCJ7t'ocv(occ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

24. Of Spain.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

25. 'Ex Tijc; laTop(ac; TOU oa(ou 0e:ocp&.vouc; Tijc; ~typtocvljc;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
25. From the history of the holy Theophanes of Sigriane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

26. 'H ye:ve;a:Aoy(a Tou m:pt(3:Ae7t'Tou pl)yoc; Ouyrovoc; 108

26. The genealogy of the illustrious king Hugh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

27. Ile;pl TOU .&eIXTO<; Aixyou(3ocp8occ; xat TWV ev ocutjj 7tptyxm1hrov XIXL OCpJ(OVTLWV . . 112
27. Of the province of Lombardy and of the principalities and governorships therein 113

28. Llt~yriaLc;, 7twc; XIXT<Jlx(a.&l) ~ vuv xoc:Aouevll Be;ve:T(oc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

28. Story of the settlement of what is now called Venice....................... 119

29. Ile;pl Tijc; Lle::AaT(ac; xoct TWV ev ocutjj 7t'1Xpmmevrov .&vwv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
29. Of Dalmatia and of the adjacent nations in it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

30. Llt~yriatc; 7te:pt Tou .&eaToc; Lle::AocT(occ;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

30. Story of the province of Dalmatia . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . 139

31. Ile:pt Twv Xpro(3&.Trov xat 1jc; vi:iv otxouat xwpocc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
31. Of the Croats and of the country they now dwell in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

32. IIe:pt Twv ~ep(3:Arov xoct 1jc; vuv otxouat J(wpocc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
32. Of the Serbs and of the country they now dwell in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

33. Ile:pt Twv Zocx:Aou(.o)v xat 1jc; vuv otxouat. J(Wpocc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
33. Of the Zachlumi and of the country they now dwell in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

34. Ile; pt TWV Te;p(3ouvt<UTWV XIXL TWV KocVIXALTWV xixt 1jc; vuv OLXOUCJL J( wpac;. . . . . . . . . 162
34. Of the Terbouniotes and Kanalites and of the country they now dwell in... 163

35. IlEpl TWV ~toXA1JTtocvwv xocl ~c; vuv otxoum ;icwpocc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
35. Of the Diocletians and of the country they now dwell in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

36. IIe:pL TWV Ilocyocvwv, TWV )(IXL 'Ape:VTIXVWV XIXAOUevwv, xal ijc; vuv otxoum xwpocc; 164
36. Of the Pagani, also called Arentani, and of the country they now dwell in. . . . . 165

37. Ile:pt Toti f:&vouc; TWV IlocT~WIXXLTWV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

37. Of the nation of the Pechenegs.......................................... 167

38. Ile:pt T'ijc; "(EVEIXAoyocc; TOU e&vouc; TWV Toupxffiv, XIXL 8&e:v XIXTiiyovTIXL . . . . . . . . 170
38. Of the genealogy of the nation of the Turks, and whence they are descended . . 171

39. Ile:pt -rou l&vouc; TWV Koc~iXpwv 174

39. Of the nation of the Kabaroi 175

40. IIe:pl -rwv ye:ve:wv -rwv Ka~iipffiv xal Twv Toopxwv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4

40. Of the clans of the Kabaroi and the Turks ... .. .. ... ..... ..... ..... .. . 175

41. IIe:pl T'ijc; ;icwpac; T'ijc; Mopa~llXc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

41. Of the country of Moravia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

42. I'e:c.>ypacpla &.7to 0e:crcrixAovl><l)c; expi Toti ~avoo~e:(l)c; 7t'OTocou x1Xt Toti xacr'tpou
Be:i.e:ypiX8occ;, Toupx(1Xc; t t xoct TI1X-r~w1Xxlocc; e;icpt TOu Xa~apixou x<icrTpou :l:<Xpxe:A
xoct T'ijc; 'Pfficr(occ; xoct expt -rwv Ne:xpo1t'OAffiV, Twv llvrc.>v de; Tljv Toti Il6VTou
&iiAIXCJO"IXV 7t'A'l)Ofov TOU ~IXVOC7t'pt(l)c; 7t'OTIXou, XIXL Xe:pcrwvoc; oou xixt Bocr7t'6pou,
l:v otc; TOC xacr-rplX TWV )(ALOCT(l)\I e:tcrlv, e:hlX expt Alvl)c; MaLWTL8oc;, T'ijc; xix!
&ocMcr<Trjc; 8toc TO eye:&oc; rnovoa~oevl)c;, XIXL e;icpt TOU xcfo-rpou TixaTixpxoc
A&yovou, 7tpoc; ToU-ro~c; 8 xat ZtX(1Xc; ><IXL Ila7t1Xylocc; xal K1Xcr1XX(1Xc; xix! 'A.Aixvl1Xc;
XIXL , A~occry(occ; )(IXL expt TOU xiXO"TpOU :l:(l)Tl)pLOU7t'6Ae:(l)c; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
42. Geographical description from Thessalonica to the Danube river and the city
of Belgrade; of Turkey and Patzinacia to the Chazar city of Sarkel and Russia
and to the Nekropyla, that are in the sea of Pontus, near the Dnieper river;
and to Cherson together with Bosporus, between which are the cities of the
Regions; then to the lake of Maeotis, which for its size is also called a sea, and
to the city called Tamatarcha; and of Zichia, moreover, and of Papagia and of
Kasachia and of Alania and of Abasgia and to the city of Sotirioupolis . . . . . . 183

43. Ikpl T'ijc; xwpocc; TOU Tocpwv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

43. Of the country of Taron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

44. Ile:pL T'ijc; xwpocc; TOU 'A7t1XXOUvljc; XIXL "TOU xacr-rpou TOU Mocv~LXLEp"T XIXL TOU Ile:pxpl
xoct Toti XAiih ><ocL -rou XocAtih xocL -rou 'Ap~ec; xocl Toti Tt~l xal -rou XepT xocl Toti
LIXAIXiic; xoct Toti T~e:pocT~ou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
44. Of the country of Apachounis and of the city of Manzikiert and Perkri and
Chliat and Chaliat and Arzes and Tibi and Chert and Salamas and Tzermatzou 199

45. IIe:pl Twv r~~pwv . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

45. Of the Iberians ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

46. Ile:pt Tljc; ye:ve:oc:>..oy(occ; Twv 'I~~pffiv xixl TOU x6.a't"pou 'Ap8ocvouT~(ou . . . . . . . . . . 214
46. Of the genealogy of the Iberians and of the city of Ardanoutzi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

47. Ile:pl Tljc; -.;{Jw Ku7tptffiv e:Tocv11a-r<lae:wc; ~Xe:L ~ laTop(oc Tii8e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
4 7. Of the migration of the Cypriotes the story is as follows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

48. Ke:ip&A.ocLov :>..&' -rljc; &.yt11c; &.Tl)c; ouv68o), -rljc; ~v Tij> TpouAA.cp Tou e:y&:>..ou 7t'ocAIXT[ou
ye:yovu(occ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
48. Chapter 39 of the holy sixth synod, held in the Domed Hall of the Great Palace 225

49. 'O ~l)Twv, 87t'ffic; -r'(i -rwv Iloc-rpwv ~xx)..lJa(~ ot ~xM~oL Bou:>..e:ue:Lv xoct u7toxe:fo.itixL
hax&lJaixv, EX Tljc; 7t1Xpoual)c; 11v&ocvtT(l) ypocipljc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
49. He who enquires how the Slavs were put in servitude and subjection to the
church of Patras, let him learn from the present passage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

50. Ile:pt -rwv EV -rc'ji &eoc-rL Ile::>..o7t'ovv1)aou ~x:>..oc~wv, -rwv -re Ml):>..Lyywv xoct 'E~e:ptTwv
xixt 7t'e:pt TWV n;)..outV(l)V 7t'ocp' IXUTWV 7t'iiXT(l)V, oo((l)c; xixt 7t'e:pt TWV olXl)T6pwv TOU
xocCJTpou Moct\ll)c; xoct -rou 7tocp' ocu-rwv n:>..ouivou 7t'cXXTOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
50. Of the Slavs in the province of Peloponnesus, the Milingoi and Ezeritai, and of
the tribute paid by them, and in like manner of the inhabitants of the city of
Maina and of the tribute paid by them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

~ocaL:>..txov Bpowvwv, xoct 7te:pt -rwv 7tpffiToxocp6.-

51. Ile:pt Tou, -rlvL -rp67tCJ> yeyove:v -ro
-rou IXUTOU Bpoffivfou, xocl 8aoc 7te:pl -rou 7t'pffiTOCJ7t'IX&ocpfou Tljc; lj)LOCAl)c;. . . . . . 246
51. Why the imperial galley came to be made, and of the steersmen of this same
galley, and all about the protospatharius of the basin....................... 247

52. 'H ye:votvl) &7tockl)aLc; Twv [mtixp(wv EV Tc'ji &eocTL Ile::>..o7tovv1Jaou E7t'L 'Pwocvou
8e:CJ7t'6Tou, XIX&6:ic; 7tpodpl)TIXL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
52. Demand made for horses in the province of Peloponnesus in the time of the
sovereign Rome.nus, as stated above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

53. 'la-rop(oc m:pt -rou xocaTpou Xe:pawvoc; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

53. Story of the city of Cherson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Index of Proper Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Grammatical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Index of Sources and Parallel Passages ........................ 337
Cod. Parisinus gr. 2009. fol. 12v (facsimile) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . facing page 16
In publishing this critical edition and translation of the text of the
treatise De Administrando Imperio, compiled exactly one thousand years ago
by the emperor Constantine VII, we feel that we should explain how our
work began.
The editor of the Greek text started to work on it as long ago as 1926;
but the carrying out of other academic projects interfered during many years
with completing the collection of his material, and bringing it into final shape
for publication. Then, the latter years of the world war made completion and
publication alike impossible. Fortunately, however, the ms. survived the siege
of Budapest; and immediately after the war efforts were again made to finish
the work, and the question arose of bringing it out.
The first draft of the English translation was made independently. But
while its publication was under consideration, chance brought it into relation
with the publication of the Greek text. In the pursuit of our common purpose,
we established contact with one another, and agreed that text and translation
should be published together, believing that an edition of a Greek text is in-
complete without a translation, and having in mind that, apart from the old
Latin versions and those in the Russian and Croat languages, there is still no
complete translation of the treatise in existence.
From the beginning of 1947 we have worked together, through the
medium of correspondence, to bring text and translation into line with one
another, and have thus been able to subject the work of each to the revision
of the other. Doubtless both parts of the work have benefited from this revision.
Certain deficiences came to light in the Greek text, and the editor owes some
corrections to the translator, who has also contributed a few conjectural
emendations to the apparatus. At the same time, the translator wishes to own
a special debt to the editor, whose long study and deep knowledge of the text
have assisted in solving many difficulties of interpretation; and though the
4 Foreword

translator takes responsibility for everything printed in the English version,

he is happy to make this cordial acknowledgment to his senior colleague.
Edition and translation are complementary. For all that, their purposes
are not quite identical; and it has been necessary that a few corruptions and
errors which stand in the text of Constantine should be corrected in the version.
We have therefore printed in italic those few words or phrases of the trans-
lation which do not correspond exactly with the text. References to the present
edition are cited by chapter and line of the chapter; in such citations the letter
P stands for Proem (Ilpoolwv), i.e., the introductory passage which pre-
cedes chapter 1.
Fifty years ago two scholars, the Hungarian R. Vari and the English-
man J. B. Bury, were already concerning themselves with the preparation
of a new edition of Constantine. In bringing to fulfilment what they were
compelled to abandon, we dedicate this work to the memory of both.
Budapest - London
15th of March, 1949.
This re~edition of the Text and Translation of D. A. I., which appeared
in Budapest eighteen years ago, is published by the Harvard University
Center for Byzantine Studies, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D. C., and is
the first of a series of texts to be brought out by this institute. We wish to
thank Dumbarton Oaks for its generosity; and also that large number of
scholars whose suggestions have enlarged our apparatus and improved our
Despite minor corrections, it has been possible to preserve the earlier
pagination and alignment of the Greek text: so that the Commentary!, which
was arranged for use with the first edition, may equally well be used with the
Washington, D. C.
November, 1966 Gy. M. -R. J.

1 Const. Porph. De Adm. Imp. Vol. II, Commentary (University of London, The

Athlone Press, 1962).

The emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus1 (905-959) was the
second and only surviving son2 of the emperor Leo VI, surnamed the Wise,
(866-912) by his mistress and later fourth wife, Zoe Carbunopsina. 3 Constan-
tine's early life was clouded by a series of misfortunes for which he himself
was in no way responsible. His constitution was sickly, and he was indeed
invalid throughout his life. 4 His father's birth was doubtful; and he was him-
self born out of regular wedlock, although his legitimacy was afterwards
grudgingly recognized. From his eighth to his sixteenth year he was the pawn
by turns of his malignant uncle Alexander, of his mother, of the patriarch
Nicholas and of the lord admiral Romanus Lecapenus. After the seizure of
power by the last of these in the year 920, he was for the next twenty four
years held in a degrading tutelage, cut off from all power and patronage, and,
though married to the usurper's daughter Helen, demoted successively to
second, third and perhaps fifth place in the hierarchy of co-emperors. It was
not until January of the year 945, at the age of nearly forty, that, with the
aid of a clique of guards officers devoted to his house, he was able to expel the
Lecapenid usurpers and seat himself in sole majesty on the throne that was
rightfully his.
For the next fourteen years he governed, or seemed to govern: for the
substance of power appears to have been in the hands of the Augusta Helen,
of the hetaeriarch Basil Peteinos, of the eparch Theophilus, of the sacellarius
Joseph Bringas, and of the protovestiary Basil, the emperor's illegitimate

1 Sources in A. Ramba.ud, L'Empire grec au dixieme siecle, (Paris, 1870), pp.

1-4. For date of birth, see Vita Euthymii, (ed. de Boor, Berlin, 1888), pp. 116-118;
R. J. H. Jenkins, Dumharton OakJJ Papers 19 (1965), pp. 108, 109.
2 His elder brother, Basil, son of his father's third wife Eudocia, died in infancy;

see De Ger., (ed. Bonn.), I, p. 643.

a For her family, see Theoph. Cont., (ed. Bonn.), p. 370; !) 4. I., 22 79 ; Vita Euthy-
mii, p. 58; and G. Kolias, Uon Choerosphactes, (Athens, 1939), p. 18.
'Theoph. Cont., pp. 212, 379, 459, 464, 465.
8 General Introduction

brother-in-law. 5 These made or marred -for the traditions are conflicting6 -

the internal administration. The church was scandalized by the impieties of
the worldly patriarch Theophylact; he, dying in 956, was succeeded by the
ascetic Polyeuctus, who soon showed that stiff-necked king Stork might be
worse trouble than disreputable king Log. But abroad the imperial forces,
under the leadership of Bardas Phocas and his two sons, and of the proto-
vestiary Basil, continued, with occasional set-backs, that glorious career
which had begun with the accession of Michael III and was to terminate only
with the death of Basil II. The sole major disaster recorded of the reign was
the failure of a costly but ill-led expedition against Crete in 949. 7
During these years the emperor devoted himself with tireless zeal to
the minutiae of every department of administration, and to the punctilious
observance of every kind of imperial ritual.8 His greatest personal contributions
to the prosperity of his empire were externally, in the sphere of diplomacy, 9
and internally, in the encouragement of higher education.10 His relaxations
were the pursuits which had always lain next his heart, and which, during the
long years of his enforced seclusion, he had been able to cultivate without
interruption: art, literature, history and antiquities. 11 He found domestic
happiness in the society of his three daughters, whom he tenderly loved ;12
nor is there evidence that his relations with his wife were other than uniformly
affectionate, despite a difference of temperament. 13 With his only son Romanus
he was not so fortunate. To fit the youth for his future lofty station, he lavished
on him a wealth of minute instruction14 which was probably excessive. The
boy is said to have grown up weak and even vicious; but the accounts are
confiicting, and he died at the age of 24.
By the age of fifty-four the emperor was old and worn out. His fourteen
years of power had been years of ceaseless toil, and his infirmities grew fast
upon him. A quarrel with the patriarch Polyeuctus, whom he seems to have
had in mind to depose,15 occasioned a journey to the monks and hermits of
the Bithynian Olympus; and from them he learnt the mournful tidings of his
own approaching dissolution. He dragged himself back to the City guarded of

5 Cedrenus, (ed. Bonn.), II, p. 326.

6 F. Hirsch, Byzantinische Studien, (Leipzig, 1876), pp. 286ff.
7 Leo Diac., (ed. Bonn.), p. 7; Cedrenus, II, p. 336.

8 Theoph. Cont., pp. 447, 449.

9 Theoph. Cont., pp. 448, 455;De0er., I, pp. 570ff.; Liutprand,Antapodosis, VI, 5.
10 Theoph. Cont., p. 446.
11 See A. Stransky, 'Costantino VII Porfirogenito, amante delle arti e collezio-

nista.', in Attidel V Oongresso lnterrULziorude di Studi Bizantini, (Rome, 1940), II, pp. 412ff.
12 Theoph. Cont., p. 459.
13 Theoph. Cont., p. 458.
14 Theoph. Cont., p. 458.

u Cedrenus, II, p. 337; Theoph. Cont., pp. 463ff.

General Introduction 9

God; and there, on the 15th of November, 959, he died. 16 In person, he was
tall, broad-shouldered and erect in bearing, with a long face, an aquiline nose,
blue17 eyes and a fair complexion. Of stainless morals, deep piety and unre-
mitting devotion to duty, he was an emperor after the hearts of his people,
who testified their affection by a spontaneous outburst of grief at his funeral.
The favourable and the unfavourable traditions concerning the character
of Constantine VII provide no mutually incompatible elements.18 They show
him to have been a weak and retiring personality, artistic, studious and
laborious. If he drank wine to excess, it was his antidote to shyness. If he had
fits of severity, even of cruelty, they were the obverse of his diffidence. His
love of learning was inherited from his father, and was confirmed by seclusion.
His lack of self-confidence was inveterated by his long durance in the hands of
the Lecapenids. Yet in those years he was amassing a wealth of historical and
antiquarian knowledge which bore fruit in those encyclopedic manuals and
historical studies to which we owe the chief part of our knowledge of the
machinery and organization of the mediaeval empire of East Rome.
His achievements in the cultural field were indeed immense. Of his
patronage of the manual arts this is no place to speak. But of his encourage-
ment of learning and research a word must be said. Himself deeply versed in
classical learning,19 his liberal intelligence comprehended both the theoretical
and the practical aspects of knowledge, the knowledge which was good in
itself, and the knowledge which was necessary to enable the practical man to
arrive at a correct decision in the affairs of life. 20 To the latter branch, which
was principally concerned with the study of history, 21 he devoted especial
attention; and from among the graduates of his university, of which he was,
after the Caesar Bardas, second founder, he chose his higher bureaucrats and
churchmen. 22 To this practical education he naturally subjected his son
Romanus also. If such knowledge was important for the governed in the con-
duct of their individual, everyday lives, how much more important was it for
him who should govern all !23 How essential was it that decisions which would
affect the whole world should be dictated by the utmost practical wisdom,
sharpened by the widest experience and knowledge of every similar decision
or parallel set of circumstances in the past!

16 The symptoms recorded (Theoph. Cont., p. 464) do not seem to support the later

allegation that he was poisoned.

17 Theoph. Cont., p. 468, if that is what xrxporrornuc; means here; but cf. Genesis
49, 12, where the reference is to wine-induced brightness, and may in Theoph. Cont.
covertly refer to the emperor's <pLAOLvlrx.
1s Rambaud, op. cit., pp. 41, 42.
1t Zonaras, (ed. Bonn.), Ill, p. 483.
20 Theoph. Cont., p. 446; D. A. I., P 6 ff.
21 Theoph. Cont., p. 211.
22 Theoph. Cont., pp. 446, 447; Cedrenus, II, p. 326.
23 D. A. I., 1
IO General Introduction

This belief in the practical value of learning and education, which is set
out at full in the preface to the De Administrando lmperio and repeated in
many subsequent parts of the book, was, of course, derived through Plutarch24
from Aristotle; and the method of education through the early inculcation of
precept, which is illustrated in a long series of mediaeval manuals of gnomic
wisdom, goes back ultimately to the Ad Demonicum25 of the Pseudo-Isocrates,
which, with the Latin Disticha of Cato, formed the basis of primary education
throughout later mediaeval and renaissance Europe. But to Constantine may
be given the credit for its revival at Byzantium; for, to teach practical wisdom,
the material for such teaching is required, and was in his time extremely scanty.
With tireless zeal he set about the enormous task of creating such material,
and set about it in three ways: first, by diligent search for and collection of
books, of which the supply was quite inadequate26 ; second, by the compilation
of anthologies and encyclopedias from such books as existed but were too
tedious or prolix for any but a scholar to read27 ; third, by writing or causing
to be written histories of recent events and manuals of technical instruction
on the various departments of business and administration. 28 A school of
historians wrote beneath his eye, sometimes at his dictation. 29 Documents
from the files of every branch of the administration, from the foreign ministry,
the treasury, the offices of ceremonial, were scrutinized and abstracted.30
Provincial governors and imperial envoys wrote historical and topographical
reports on the areas of their jurisdiction or assignment. 31 Foreign ambassadors
were diligently questioned as to the affairs of their respective countries. 32
From every quarter the tide of information rolled in, was co-ordinated and
written down. Learning became the key to worldly advancement.33 The principle

24 Plutarch, De Virtute Morali, (ed. Bernardakis, Leipzig, 1891), pp. 154, 155. For

this technical usage of crocp(rx and cpp6v"l)mc; cf. D. A. I., P 7 ; Romanus was of course to be
crocp6c; as well as cpp6vLoc;, but practical wisdom is the end of our treatise.
2S Cf. Ad Demonicum, p. 9 C, (~ou)..e;u6e:voc; rrrxprx8dyrx'trx, X'tA.), with D. A. I.,
46167 (&~LOV ')'lXP, cpLA'ttX'te: u[e, X'tA.); ibid. p. 11 E ( &crrte:p ex 'ttXLdou 7tpocpepnc;), with
ibid. 1313 (we; ex 7ttX't"pLXWV &'l'JO"tXUpWV rtpocpepe:Lv).
26 De Ger., I, p. 456; Theoph. Cont., p. 212; Prooemium ad Excerpta de Legationibus

(M. P. G., vol. CXIII), c. 633.; Exe. de leg., ed. de Boor, I, p. l.

'rl wid. PP 633, 636.
28 Theoph. Cont., pp. 3, 4; D. A. I., P25 (eaocpLcra"ljv XtX't"' erxu't6v). For Constan-

tine's own works, see Rambaud, op. cit., p. 73, and for those compiled under his aegis,
wid., pp. 78ff.; also Moravcsik, in Atti del V Congresso Internazion<ile di Studi Bizantini,
(Rome, 1939), I, pp. 514-516, and id., Byzantinoturcica, (Budapest, 1942), I, pp. 207ff.
(2nd ed. pp. 358ff.).
29 Rambaud, op. cit., p. 65.

30 Bury, in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, XV, 1905, pp. 539ff.

a1 Theoph. Cont., p. 448.

a2 Bury, op. cit., pp. 553, 556.
83 Theoph. Cont., p. 447.
General Introduction ll

laid down by the illiterate Basil I 34 found its ultimate fulfilment in the educa-
tional reforms of his scholarly grandson. This is the true glory of the Porphy-
rogenitus. Among the great emperors who enriched the middle-Byzantine
heritage between A. D. 843 and 1204, none is to be compared with Constantine
VII for depth of scholarship, catholicity of interest or fineness of taste. Of the
last, his Life of his grandfather is a unique memorial. It was Constantine who
amassed the libraries from which his successors acquired their learning. With
him Byzantium, rapidly approaching the apex of its military glory, as rapidly
approached the apex of its intellectual achievement, an achievement fostered
by a princely patron of the arts whose like the world scarcely saw in the
thirteen centuries which divided Hadrian from Lorenzo the Magnificent.
The De Administrando lmperio, 35 to give this nameless treatise the Latin
title attached to it by Meursius,36 was written and complied, as we know from
internal evidence, between the years 948 and 952. 37 It is a manual of
kingcraft addressed to the youthful Romanus, the emperor's son, and is in
form, like numerous other contemporary manuals on various subjects, avowed-
ly didactic. It aims at teaching38 the youth to be a wise sovereign, first by a
knowledge of past and present affairs, and second by giving him a summary
of the experience of others in circumstances analogous to those likely to
surround himself; so that, knowing what policies have succeeded or failed in
the past, he may himself be able to act prudently and successfully in the
future. The matter of this teaching is a political and historical survey of very
wide extent, suitable to the training of one who is to rule the world. The
preface divides it into four sections: the first, a key to foreign policy in the
most dangerous and complicated area of the contemporary political scene,
the area of the northerners and Scythians)>; the second, a lesson in the diplo-
macy to be pursued in dealing with the nations of this same area; the third
and longest, a comprehensive historical and geographical survey of most of
the nations surrounding the empire, starting with the Saracens to the south-
east, fetching a compass round the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and ending
with the Armenian states on the eastern frontier; the fourth, a summary of
recent internal history, politics and organization, within the borders of the
empire.39 Upon the whole, these divisions are adhered to in the text as we
have it. 40

84 Basilii Imp. Paraenesis ad Leonem fiJ,ium (M. P. G., vol. CVII), p. XXI (7te:pl

7toct8e:ucre:wc;; cf. D. A. I., ch. l); and ibid., p. XLIX (7te:pl e:l-enic; ypoccp&v: cf. Theoph.
Cont., p. 314).
85 For full bibliography, see Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, I, pp. 215-221 (2nd
ed. pp. 367-380).
88 Johannes van Meurs (1579-1639); see below, p. 23.
:n Bury, op. cit., pp. 522ff.
as D. A. I., 113 , (8tM~oct).
89 ibid.' p a-w
40 Bury, op. cit., p. 574.
12 General Introduction

The method of compilation has been elucidated in detail in the General

Introduction to the Commentary41 These findings can here be very briefly
summarized. The work as we have it now is a rifacimento of an earlier work
which corresponds to chapters 14----42 in the present arrangement. This
earlier work was a historical and antiquarian treatise probably entitled Ih:pl
&6v(;)v, which the emperor had compiled during the 940's as a companion
volume to his Ile:pt ee:l'.XT(J}V. As the Ile:pl 6e:&'t'wv described the origins, anti-
quities and topography of the imperial provinces, so the Ile:pl &8vwv told the
traditional, sometimes legendary, stories of how the territories surrounding
the empire came in past centuries to be occupied by their present inhabitants
(Saracens, Lombards, Venetians, Slavs, Magyars, Pechenegs). These chapters,
then, are the earliest parts of D. A. I. The remaining parts of the book (except
for a few chapters - 23-25, 48, 52, 53 and perhaps 9 and 30 - of source-
material included by oversight) are notices of a different kind: they are political
directives, illustrated by contemporary or nearly contemporary examples.
Chapters 1-8, 10-12, explain imperial policy towards the Pechenegs and
Turks. Chapter 13 is a general directive on foreign policy from the emperor's
own pen. Chapters 43-46 deal with contemporary policy in the north-east
(Armenia and Georgia). Chapters 49-52 are guides to the incorporation and
taxation of new imperial provinces, and to some parts of civil and naval
administration. These later parts of the book are designed to give practical
instruction to the young emperor Romanus II, and were probably added to
the Ilt:pl e6vwv during the year 951-952, in order that the whole treatise might
mark Romanus' fourteenth birthday (952). The book as it now stands is there-
fore an amalgam of two unequal parts: the first historical and antiquarian,
the second political and diplomatic.
The sources of the various sections, where these are known, are noted
in the apparatus to the present volume. But the peculiar construction of the
book, with its diversity of styles and often careless expression, calls for a note
of explanation regarding the English translatiop. The chief value of the treatise
to the modern historian lies in its third secti'on, which provides information
not found elsewhere about the origins and early history of many nations
established on the borders of the Byzantine empire in the tenth century of
our era. This information, valuable as it is, is often given in a style so careless
as to leave many statements open to more than one interpretation. Chapter 39
is a notable instance of this;42 but there are several others. Now, these state-
ments have been, are and probably will continue to be the subject of contro-
versy between scholars of many nations; and it is therefore our duty as trans-
lators, at whatever cost to elegance or even in a few cases to sense, to render

41 See D. A. I. Vol. II, Commentary (London, 1962), pp. 1-8; also Moravcsik,

Byzantinoturcica (2nd ed.) I, pp. 361-367.

42 D. A. I., 39a-s 1-w
General Introduction 13

as closely as possible what the text says rather than what we are disposed to
think it means to say. Interpretations may be left to a commentary. If there-
fore our rendering is in some cases ambiguous, so is the original. If it often
halts, so does the text. If it is often inelegant and uncouth, it is no more so
than the Greek. Where our author is plain and even elegant, we have tried to
preserve his idiom; where he has left his sources to tell their own stories in
their own styles, we have left them too.
With all its inaccuracies and shortcomings,43 the De Administrando
Imperio, for the bulk and variety of its information on so much of foreign
relations and internal administration, must be allowed to be one of the most
important historical documents surviving from mediaeval Byzantium, even
surpassing the great Book of Ceremonies compiled by the same indefatigable
author. Its very omissions, the lack of any historical account of Bulgaria or
of an up-to-date appreciation of the Saracen power, have their own historical
lessons to teach us: for these two longstanding menaces to the empire had at
length yielded, the one to the diplomacy of Romanus I, the other to the
hammer of Gourgen. The first-hand information comes mainly from Italy,
from the Balkans and Steppes, and from Armenia. In Armenia the advance
of the Roman arms and the retreat of the Saracens involved a complicated
Roman diplomacy in the numerous and jealous principalities beyond the
eastern frontier. In a divided and enfeebled Italy, during the interim between
the empires of Charlemagne and Otto, Byzantium was for the last time in its
history a strong military and diplomatic influence. The only hint of anxiety
comes from the north, where the watchful eyes of the foreign ministry observed
intently the ever shifting kaleidoscope of the political scene, as Magyar and
Slav, Russian and Pecheneg, Chazar and Alan made their complicated moves
between the Caucasus and the Carpathians.
There is no doubt that the De Administrando Imperio was a secret and
confidential document. It tells too much about the principles of imperial for-
eign policy and diplomacy, especially in the first thirteen chapters, to be safe
for publication. Knowledge of these early chapters would have been worth
untold sums in blackmail to the Pechenegs. Moreover, in the Armenian chap-
ters there are several traces of information got through secret service channels, 44
which the government must have been most reluctant to divulge. Nor is it
probable that the outspoken criticisms which the emperor passes on his father-
in-law and colleague46 were intended for general reading. These criticisms betray
the justifiable resentment of a prince deprived of his throne by an interloper
during a quarter of a century; but his strong regard for the imperial dignity
would have debarred him from publishing this resentment to the world at

48 Bury, op. cit., p. 574.

u e.g.: D. A. I. 43 13-w 46 54-u
45 ibid., 13149-175, 51194-186"
14 General, I ntrodu.ction

large. This confidential character of the book, confirmed, if confirmation be

required, by its manuscript history and by the circumstance that later writers
betray no knowledge of it, 46 enhances its value. It is no partial document of
propaganda, fudged up to impress domestic or foreign circles. Much of it is
an honest appreciation of the contemporary political situation, compiled
from information upon which the government based its day-to-day foreign
policy. And, as such, it is unique.

46 See below, p. 32.


The De Administrando Imperio is preserved in four mss.1 Three of these
contain the full text, the fourth a part only. These mss. are:
P =codex Parisinus gr. 2009: codex on vellum, of 211 numbered leaves. 2
There are also some additional leaves, 4 at the beginning of the ms. (3 vellum,
1 paper), and 7 at the end (4 paper, 3 vellum). The leaves are of sizes varying
between c. 23.8 cm - 24 cm X 15 cm. The first three of the additional leaves
are blank. On the recto of the fourth is a Greek table of the contents of the
codex, in a later hand ;3 on the verso of the same leaf is gummed a small slip
of paper, inscribed with the table of contents in Latin. 4 On the first numbered
page begins the first Greek text, which covers 4 pages (fol. lr-2v); it is entitled:
'Ema't"oA~ Ilu&ay6pa 7tpoi; Aoct~a (Letter of Pythagoras to Lais), and is
followed, still on fol. 2v, by a table which relates to it. The Letter and table
have been published from this ms. by P. Tannery. 6 At fol. 3? begins the text
of D. A. I, and it finishes at fol. 211r. This text originally constituted an
independent codex, with which the Letter of Pythagoras was subsequently
bound up, as is clear from the facts, a) that the numeration of the quaternios

1 See Gy. Moravcsik, ''H xe:Lp6ypexq:ioc; rrexpci~omc; '!"OU De administrando imperio''

'Erre:T1Jplc; 'ETexLpdexc; Bu~exVTLViiiv ~rrou~&v, 7 (1930), pp. 138-152.
2 See H. Omont, lnventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de la Bibliotheque Natio-

n.ale, vol. II (Paris, 1888), p. 178.

3 KwvaTexVT(v( OU) ~ex<JLAt( we;) 'Pwex(( wv) rrpoc; 'Pwexv( ov) '!"OV rnmv ulov xexl

au~exaLMex l.&voypexq:i(ex x( ext) xwpoypexq:i(ex x( ext) ITOLXA1) TL<; laToplex 't"dvouaex rrpoc; op.&Yjv
~Lo(x1Jaw T(ljc;) 'Pwext( wv) ~exaL'Ad(exc;) No. 21.
4 Codex 1783. Membr. 13. saec. Epistola Pythagorae ad La.idem cum laterculo

eiusdem de vita et morbo, victoria et clade aliisque rebus, inventione et amissione, lucro
et damno, bona via et mala. Constantini Imperatoris ad Romanum ilium Porphyrogeni-
tum Imperatorem. Est liber de administrando imperio, quern edidit Meursius. Ms. 1240.t
6 'Notices sur des fragments d'onomatomancie arithmetique', Notices et extraits

des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Nation.ale et aittres bibliotheques, vol. XXXI. 2. partie,

(Paris, 1886), pp. 231-260; cf. K. I. Dyobuniotes, 'Ovoex't"oexv't"dex', Etc; v~"l)v Lrrup(-
8wvoc; Acirrpou, (Athens, 1935), pp. 491---494.
16 Crit1'.cal Introduction

begins only at fol. 3r; and b) that the beginning of D. A. I., that is to say, the
first page (fol. 3r) of the original codex, is so much worn, and the handwriting
so indistinct, as to require its mending in brown ink by a later hand. In any
case, the Letter of Pythagoras is copied in a different, and in all probability
a later, hand. The subsequent history of the codex gives us, as we shall see,
some clue as to when the Letter became attached to the ms. of D. A. I.
The text of D. A. I. ends in the middle of fol. 211r. The rest of this page
and its verso, which, as it was the last page of the original codex, is very much
the worse for wear, contain a number of notes in different and, in some cases,
later hands. Of especial interest as casting light on the origin of the codex is
that written on the then blank fol. 211 v by the actual copyist of D. A. I., in
the same red ink which he employed for the initial letters and headings of the
chapters. Some of the letters in this note are so much worn and so dim as to
render them now almost illegible. The text of this metrical epilogue is as
follows: 1 Bl~:Ao~ X()(Lcr[ ()(()Jo~ 2'Iw&vvou '!OU ~OUX.()( 3 ypoccpYj( (}"()() xepcrlv 4 obwyevou~
OLX.E't"OU 5 MLxoc(~):A ov6oc't"i 6't"OU 'Poc~()(hou t, which makes it quite
clear that the ms. at one time belonged to the library of the Caesar John Ducas,
and that the copyist was his own confidential secretary, Michael. 6 Unfortunately
there is no date, but the name of the Caesar John Ducas, references to whom
in Byzantine sources occur between the years 1059-1081, proves that the
ms. was copied towards the end of the XI century. This is confirmed by a
dated note in a later hand on the same page, which contains a reference to the
year 1098/9. 7
Concerning the adventures of the codex during the Byzantine age we
have no other information, apart frQm the evidence of marginal notes to be
described lower down; it emerges agaiQ only towards the beginning of the
XVI century, when it was copied in 1509 by_Antony Eparchus, very probably
in the island of Corfu (see ms. V below). By the middle of the century our ms.
was in Italy, whither it had been brought perhaps through the agency of
Janus Lascaris.8 The first mention of it in Italy is in the catalogue of the
library of Cardinal Niccolo Ridolfi. 9 On the death of Ridolfi in 1550, it passed,

6See G. Kolias, "O xcxfocxp 'Iwciw1J~ b.ouxcx~ cXVTLypcxq:ic:u~ -rou cod. Par. Gr. 2009
-rou De administrando imperio', 'E7t&-r1Jpt~ 'E-rcxLpdcx~ Bu~cxVTLviiiv 2:7tou8wv, 14 (1938),
pp. 300-305; Gy. Moravcsik, 'La. provenance du manuscrit byzantin du De admini-
strando imperio', Bulletin de la Sociite Histori,q_ue Bulgare, 16-18 (1940), pp. 333-337;
B. Leib, 'Jean Doukas, Cesar et moine', Analecta Bollandiana 68 (1950), pp. 163-180.
- In the deciphering of the text I was given valuable assistance by Prof. F. Dolger (Mu-
nich) and Dir. V. Laurent (Paris), to whom I express my sincere gratitude.
7 See Gy. Moravcsik, 'E7tc:-r1Jplc; 'E-rcxtpdcxc; Bu~cxVTtv&v ~7tou8wv, 7 (1930), p. 141,

but cf. V. Laurent, Erasmus, 3 (1950) p. 766.

8 See B. Knos, Un arnhassadeur de l'heUenisme - Janus Lascaris - et la tradition
greco-byzantine dans l'humanisme franyais, (Uppsala-Paris, 1945), pp. 213, 216.
9 Num. 21. Constantini Romanorum Imperatoris ad Romanum filium descriptio

gentium et locorum, ac varia historia ad rectam administrationem tendens. See B. Mont-

faucon, Bihlwtheca bihliothecarum manuscriptorum nova II (Parisiis, 1739), p. 777.
,, / ,. ...... "
-ro lJ -ro -an> v
~ ~ 0-
" . ".
\U-f J<... co.
. fl. a.A. t<. !SJ~ a.t
P o - I ~ p o f.J '-1<.E
, / ,., ';
tr( ~a..1 9 l ~ ~ w r ()~rt)' iiw.~.
,, '
ITT -r-1t <'.r UJ1J CJ1 ~ t ; ~ .u.o u I<.. ct..a o 7t 9 t:
/ '
~ / '
' J I
~e1> a.rTZTO q t ~ ' I<.~ &J.'
,, ~ )('f I frv ~ ' ~ ~
~ ,.. / . \.- "
\~J.-O x:r .I ~ 9(""t tr 0' ~ X"t> ..,.,. dr ,-co JJ
/ ' "'b / "
~vr KOO .LU <IJ 4>0C> H - ~'1-u..D M ~. o-r-1
" ..1J...L t
"" .1-....
-ro ur w
' aJ --rTj ' J.J tJJ lU ~

.> ' , / > " (\

~ur ov tLJV M,_o .u.Jrv. ov va-p ~'w.J ~
~ -wv~t
. "
.1...1..ft).J W
"' . ' :-r-1
p O() ~UT.
K dJ.' '< p a.J LU (-u.J
' ' "
J<. cu )\_(1.l) 0- ~ ~ '-".

1(. ell
K.o.J K cu W w ~ dJ
, I
4 01
.> '

w 'O V
" ,,/ "
-rD f...l. /\ o ~-rvu TO "'- W f o 0-
' JI
.. ..11 g
' ,./ , ' > ,.. .> ,,

: J.LM 4 W1I CJ OU tp-f> ~-tu""bo ~~ ~.-

0 ~JJ~ wp ln:Dcr wo~

~ K~ o~ UJWT"jVW t<;~ ln<..r~ Olrv"Tb~
. ~-r-i>
' '
, ..... .,,., J "

~~ lr.f ~ JJ ~ t< cu cU J /.n< El 0-C Kev

Ao )(_cup; I) oun~--
Cod. Parisinus gr. 2009. fol. 12v
Manuscripts 17

along with others of his books, into the possession of Pietro Strozzi, and later,
in 1560, into the collection of Catherine de Medici. At this period some chap-
ters from it were transcribed by Andrea Darmari (see ms. M below). From
Catherine's library it passed in 1599 to the Bibliotheque Royale in Paris,
where it was numbered 2661. 10 Now, since the relevant entry in the catalogue
of Ridolfi's library is simply a Latin rendering of the Greek note on the recto
of the fourth fly-leaf at the beginning of our ms. (see above), and since this
entry notes D. A. I. only, we conclude that the Letter of Pythagoras was
attached to our ms. subsequently to its being placed in the Bibliotheque
Royale. This conclusion is confirmed by the circumstance that the present
sumptuous binding of gilt red morocco bears the cypher of King Henry IV
This manuscript, some pages of which have been published in facsimile,11
I have studied by means of photographic reproductions in the Library of the
Hungarian National Museum, and also by examination of the original in
the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris in 1936 and in 1948.
The text of D. A. I. was, as we have seen, copied by a certain Michael
Roizaites. Only in two passages (fol. 31 v_3zr = 1422 crutjieu3o()(p't'upouv't'o<;
-156 7toAeouc; X.()(L, and 35v_36r = 206 'X()(L TI]v v~crov - 21 13 yevfo.Sm)12
has another hand relieved him. The text is written in single columns, and the
columns vary in dimension between c. 16-17 cm. deep X 11-12 cm. across.
The medium is the usual dark brown Byzantine ink, save that initial letters
and headings of chapters are in red, a detail which goes back to the original
copyist. The script is a mixture of uncial and minuscule; y, S, e, ~. lJ, x, A,
, ~. 7t are written both ways indifferently; uncial forms of ~. cp, cu are un-
common, and very rare are uncial forms af ()(, v, cr, tji. Here and there we find
a cursive .S-, while 't' occasionally rises above the height of the other letters.
Rough breathing is still angular in shape, but the smooth breathing is always
round. The writing is either on the ruled lines or under them, but never above
them. J_,igature abbreviations are frequent; short-hand abbreviations and

10 See H. Omont, 'Un premier catalogue des manuscrits grecs du cardinal Ridolfi',

Bibliotheque de l'Ewle des Chartes, 49 (1888), pp. 309-323; J. Haury, Sitzungsberichte der
phuos.-philol. und der hist. Classe der bayer. Akademie der Wiss. 1895. I, pp. 142-143,
147; V. Gardthausen, Sammlungen und Cataloge griehischer Handschriften, (Lei,Pzig,
1903), p. 18; F. Dolger, 'Der Titel des sog. Suidaslexikons', Sitzungsberichte der Baye:ri-
schen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philos.-hist. Abt. 1936. Heft 6., (Miinchen, 1936), pp.
11 See Arpdd is az Arp<idok, szerk. Csanky Dezs6, (Budapest, 1908): fol. 111r =

p. 46/7., fol. U2v = p. 168/9., fol. u3r = p. 174/5., fol. U5v = p. 140/1.; cf. Gy. Moravcsik,
Byzantinoturcica, vol. II, (Budapest, 1943), p. 51 (2nd ed. pl. II, no. 4). See also the
facsimile on the opposite page.
12 For the principles which have been applied to the transcription of the mss.

variants, see below p. 37.

18 Critical I ntroductwn

abbreviations by suspension occur rarely, and mostly at the ends of lines.

The copyist is fond of special ligatures for oc't', rJrJ, 't''t', of kinds which occur in
other contemporary mss.
In the orthography the most notable points are these: iota subscript is
never found, iota adscript once only (53382 't'~>L). As regards peculiarities of
accentuation, we may note that proper names ending in -r't'oct in many cases
carry the paroxytone accent in nom. and gen. plural (e. g. 22 Iloc't'~tvocx.('t'oct,
814 Iloc't'~tvocx.l't'wv, 53535 Xepcrwvl't'oct, 5365 XeprJWVL't'Wv); while the genitive
plural of paroxytone racial names in -oc; is sometimes perispomenon (e. g. 2843
<l>pocyywv, 32 2 ~ep~/..wv). The word e7td is occasionally accented with double
stroke: e7td (e. g. 4822 , 49 9, 4913). With regard to misspellings due to pronun-
ciation, it is particularly noticeable that the copyist makes the same error
consistently through a series of particular words or forms. Characteristic ex-
amples of such regularly repeated misspellings are: oct for e at the end of
2nd person plural verbs (e. g. 827 ha.&~ecr&oct, 53 70 &.-0-e't'<Xt, 53477 \mood~oc't'oct);
et for 1J commonly in the words d-rtc; = ~'t't<; (e.g. 13 6, 26 64 , 29 234 ), efaep = ~7tep
(e.g. 3849 , 50192 ) and d~ = ~c; (e. g. 31 1, 351, 43187 ); and in the augmented
forms of the verb OCL't'W {e. g. 29167 ehlcr<X't'O = fl-rljcr<X't'o, 42 29 d-rljcrav-ro =
iJ-rljcrcx.v-ro, 50209 d-rljcroc-ro = fl-rljcroc't'o); 1J for et almost invariably in the
infinitive forms -etv and -erv (e. g. 18 7t1JO<X/...wu:x.~v, 47 9 ot<X7t'ecr~v), and quite
often also in the words ~ and ~ = d (e. g. 1387 29148 4116), o'Yj = ~>er (e. g.
1319 13146), and in the verb urrfix.w = U7t'SLX(.t) (e. g. 3838 5029 50s1). Some
confusion is seen in the use of et and 1J in the different forms of the verbs /..a~&.
vw and A.d7tw (e. g. P 31 J...d\jle't'oct = J...-filjle-roct, 25 64 crwe/..dcp&'YJ = cruve/...1jcp.&1J,
29203 &7to/..dljlecr&oct = &7to/...1jlj;ecr&e, 21 26 \me/..1j<p&1Jcr<Xv = U7te/...dcp&1Jcrocv,
2630 XOC't'OCA1Jcp&dc; = XOC't'OCAetcp&dc;, 4622 X.<X't'e/..1jcp&1J = X.OC't'e/...dcp&1J). (.t) is found
consistently for o in the -ov't'<Xt termination of the 3rd person plur. pres. ind.
pass. (e.g. 9111 XOC't'EPXWV't'oct, 31 29 7teptcrw~WV't'<XL, 3764 eupLcrxWV't'<Xt); and often
also in the termination -ov of nom. neut. partic. act. (e.g. 967 7!.xwv, 13 99 X<X't'e/..-
.&Wv, 3758 a7t'O~AE7t(.t)\I). From verbs beginning with 0 the temporal augment is
usually absent (e. g. 1351 Otoplcroc't'O, 2671 e't'ovocfo&1J, 3046 optcr<Xv). From
the point of view of the history of Byzantine pronunciation it is significant
that in our codex we frequently meet with u for ot (e. g. 20 2 mux1jcrac; = cr-rotx~
aocc;, 454 uxeu.&1icr1Jc; = otzeu&dcr1J<;, 51 120 ~vu!;av = ~voti;ocv), and vice versa
( e. g. 935 7tpotvocv = 7tpuvocv,
f I 26 52 ovotov't'ec;
)I >
= ovuov't'ec;,
I 53 cppotoc't''t'O-
evoc; = cppuocn6evoc;). This proves that at the period when the work
was copied, the pronunciation of these two sounds was still identical (a modi-
fied u). An odd feature, which we meet here and elsewhere, is the frequent
interchange between the forms ~de; and uerc; (e.g. 27 35 4315 5369} As regards
consonants, we note uncertainty in the writing of double consonants (e. g.
p 27 av't'L't'tXcrecr-3-oct, 159 CflOCJtX't'OV, 42 23 evoc/.../..occr6evot, 919 LOUVVLOU, 2822 Vi')CJCJWV,
4539 cr-fiepov); and the substitution of .&, 7t for v&, V7t' (e. g. 13 107 cru7te-
.&epLi1.crat, 269 IlocA<XLCJ't'LVYJ, 27 76 e7tpw-rotc;); and of X" for YX" (e. g.
2997 cr7t'/..ocx.vYJcr.S-dc; = crrr/..ocYX_vtcr.S-dc;). These details also throw light on
M anuscriptJJ 19

contemporary pronunciation. There is a curious use of v for y before y, x., x.

(e. g. 27 73 K6vx.op~oc, 29 38 vx.pu!J-oc'!oc, 43 113 0Locyovyy0~ov'!e:c;, 52 11 xovx_u-
/..e:u'!ocl); moreover, while on the one hand the accusative sing. in oc of 3rd
declension substantives and the -.&Yj or -"t) of the 3rd pers. sing. aor. pass. indic.
add a v before a word beginning with a vowel (e. g. 13 32 ~occn/..eocv, 2649
pLvocv, 26 65 .&uyoc't"tpocv, 53 317 vux.'!ocv, 32 33 &yevv~~hiv, 43 177 &7te:mocAlJV), on
the other hand the v of the acc. sing. of tycx.c; (e. g. 929 , 41 6, 46 151), and of the
1st pers. sing. aor. pass. indic. drops off before words beginning with a con-
sonant (e. g. 27 28 tvotcr.&lJ, 29 168 e~LW:X..&lJ, 53 847 -fivocyx.occr&Yj).
In the ms. we note several words erased, amended, completed or correct-
ed. A detailed study of the original may identify traces of at least six different
hands in the text and, besides, of five other hands which have added marginal
notes. There is no doubt that the copyist himself made some erasures and
corrections; but from the styles of the handwriting and from other evidence
it can be established that many alterations have been made by hands in the
XIV and later centuries. In one place a marginal gloss bears a date which
proves it to have been written in 1361/2 (168 ). To determine the chronology
of certain other alterations we may argue from the fact that in V, which was
copied from P, we often find the true text as it was before correction, which
proves that at least these alterations in P were done by a hand posterior to
the date when V was copied, that is, posterior to 1509 (e.g. P 19 e&vwv P V:
e.&wv py II 3844 0 'AJ..oU't"~l)c; p v: ~ocAoU't"~"tjc; py II 3849 'AJ..oo't"~Yj p v:
~oc/..oo'!~ Yj PY).
In the margins of the ms. are notes, some of which are from the hand
of the original copyist, but others, as the style of handwriting demonstrates,
from those of later readers, principally of the XIV and XVI centuries. Some
of these notes are in Latin. In the marginal notes, too, we may distinguish at
least six hands. Those which go back to the hand of the copyist are mainly
chapter-headings and citations of the contents, which were added to the text
either by collaborators of the imperial author or by later scribes and readers.
At least one of these original notes is not contemporary with the work itself,
as is proved beyond doubt by its reference to the Abbot John Tornices as
holder of the office of Syncellus, an office which, as we know, was conferred
on him about the year 979 ;13 this note, therefore, was written about three
decades after the treatise was compiled.
A list of these original comments, and the passages to which they
refer, is as follows: 11 Ile(pl) '!WV Iloc't"~Lvocx.L'!WV II 21 Ile:( pl) '!WV Iloc-
'!~Wocx.L'!WV {x.ocl) '!WV 'Pwc; II 31 Ile{pl) '!WV Iloc't"~LVocX.L't"(wv) (x.ocl) Toup-
x.{wv) II 41 Ile(pl) '!WV y' e&v(wv) II 51 Tie:(pl.) '!WV Iloc't"~LVOCX.L't"(wv) (x.ocl)
't"(wv) Bou/..y&pwv JI 6 1 Ile(pl) '!WV Iloc-r~wocx.L't"(wv) (x.ocl) Xepcrc.>vL-rwv II 71 Ile:-
(pl) 't"(wv) &7to Xepcrwvoc; a7tOCJ'!MO(evcuv) ~OCcrLALX.(wv) ev IIoc.~LVOCX.lOC II 81

13 N. Adontz, 'Tornik le moine', Byzantion, 13 (1938), pp. 148-149.

20 Critical Introduction

IIc:(p!.) TOU chtocr't"EAAO( vou) ~o:crtAtx.( ou) tx. T(Yjc;) 7t'6A( c:wc;) Otoc T({;)v)
7t'OT(oc)({;)v) II 823 Ilc:(pl) 't'OU XA'Y)ptxou roc(3pt1)A II 91 Ile(pl) TOU 7tW<;
XOCTEPX.WVT(oct) oi 'Pwc; ev KcuvcrTOCVTL\IOU1t'6(/,et) II 922 Tie:(pl) TW\I ),e:yo(vcuv)
XOC"t"OCpocxT( wv) II 939 Ile:(pl.) TOU (3' i:ppocyfL( ou) II 943 Ile:( pl) TOU y' q>pocy( ou)
II 945 Ile:(pl.) TOU o' q>pocy(ou) II 957 Ile:(pl.) 't'OU e' i:ppayou II 961 Ilc:(pl)
Tou c;' cppixyou II 964 Ile:(p!.) -rou ~' i:ppixyou II 9 72 Ile:(p!.) Tijc; v~crou xal.
TOU opuoc; xal TW\I .&ucrtwv II 9114 Ile(pl) T(wv) Oi.)~cu(v) II 101 Tie:(pl.) -rYjc;
Xix~ocp(ixc; II 11 1 Ile:(pL) TI)c; Xe:pcrwvo(c;) xoct -r(Yjc;) Boocr7t6pou II 13 73 Ile(pl)
Tou Acx7tpou II 161 To .&e:oc-rtv -rwv ~ixpixxtv(wv) (xocl) 7toiov x.p6(vov)
e~lj/v&(ov) II 2116 ~Lepe:(cnc;) TWV 'Apoc~cuv II 2137 e' &.px/)yo(c;) 'Apoc~cuv II
21 49 Oihoc; 7tcxpe:xoc&'Y)cre:(v) T~V Kcuvcr-rixv-rwou7to(J..w) 11 22 9 ,C:pY/ 11 2240
Ile:(pl) T~c; v-Yjcrcrou TI)c; Kp-f)T'Y)c; II 2261 .~cr7t'Y)' II 31 6 ~toc TL AE:ycunixt Xp(w)-
~oc-rot II 3310 II6.&(ev) Aeycu(v)T<XL Za:x?. ooot II 341 Ile(pl) E't'Ep(wv) e&vwv II
3618 Ile:(til) 't'OU ocy(ou &.7to(cr-r6Aou) Aoux.oc X.IXL IlocuAou II 3715 ''0-rt "1) &pxo(v)-

TE<; dcrl(v) ev IlixT~tv(ix)x.Lix II 3733 "On (x.ix!.) de; ' p'Yj ~ Iloc~tvocx.L(oc) II
38 10 "On oi Toup(x.ot) de; ~' otixtpouv-roct II 42 1 Ile(pt)~y'Y)(crtc;) yewypix(tptx.~)
TI)c; crx.u&tx.Yjc; yYjc; 11 43 136 015-ro(c;) ecrTl(v) 7t(ix-r)~p Ntx.o(/..ocou) ay(cr-rpou
-rou Topv(x'Y) II 44 1 Ile:(pl.) -r(wv) x&(cr-rpwv) -r{~c;) AvocToAYJC, II 45 1
Ile:(pl.) TW\I 'I~~pcuv II 4556 015-ro(c;) {ecrT!.v) 0 T~ttcr:x_(Yjc;) emXA'Y).&e:tc; II
45100 Ile(pl) 't'OU xoc{cr-rpou) TOU 'A~v(xou II 45103 Oo-ro(c;) (fo-rlv)
Zoup~<Xvfl{l)c;) 0 7t(ix-r)~p 't'OU Topv(x'Yj -r(ou) oc~ii 't'OU &.p-r(lwc;) cruyx.eAAou II
46 1 II6&(e:v) yey6voc(cnv) oL "I~'YJ?E<; II 47 1 Ile(pl) T{wv) Ku7tpLwv II 50235
Ilo(ou 't'LfJ.~ocT(oc,) ~" TOU (7tpCU't'OCJ7tOC&ocp(ou) oc!;lcu<X II 511 Ile(pl.) TOU
opocuvf.ou II 5310 06-ro(c;) (&cr-rlv) 0 't'OU e:yoc/..ou Kcuvcr't'<XVT(Lvou) 7t(a-r)-Yjp.
The marginal notes appended by later hands consist principally of
repetitions of words or names occuring in the text; but there are a few which
are worth noting from the point of view of their content. These are:
31 Ifo.T~Lvocxoct ot biXxec; 7tp6Tepov P 0 (cf. Suidas s. v. 6.ocxec;, ed. Ada Adler,
II, p. 2.) I 51 Iloc't"~tvocxoct ot ~c~xec;, Bou/..yocpot ot Mucro[ P 0 II 168 vuv oe
{ecrTLV) ,C:cuo' (tvOtX.Ttwvoc;) LE' we; dv<XL &.7to -r6-r(e:) ~cue; vuv XPOVOL lj;' pa II
21 69 Ilepl -rou 'AA~ -rou ya~pou -rou Mou&.e& P 2 II 21 74 II6J..eoc; AJ..~ Moc~[oc P 8 II 28 25 Mocoococ(uxov) -ro vuv Moc/..oc6x( ov) P 8 II 29 208
T pocyouptov P 7 !! 30115 'AA~ouvou P 7 'Af..7t6voc ps II 32 11 ~ep~ALoc P 6 Toc
vuv Lep~OL<X ev -rYi Bepotoc P 8 II 3212 Lep~AOL OLOC -r( OOUAOL pcuoccx( we;) P 5 II
3620 <l>ocpoc v~croc; ~ Al~evoc P 8 II 36 21 BpocT"t:'f)c; vYjcroc; -roc Ilpch?.:,oc P 8 \I 4024
'ETe/, 7to(Tocoi;) x.(ocl.) Kou~ou P 8 .
Marginal notes and textual emendations are especially frequent in the
chapters dealing with the Arabs (14-22), a fact which, like the gloss of the
year 1361/2, mentioned above, suggests that this section of the treatise was at
some time or another an object of peculiar interest to Byzantine readers.
The original text has not merely been subject to emendations and alter-
ations by later hands, but has also been touched by the hand of time. We
have said that the writing on the first and last pages of the originally indepen-
dent ms. was so much worn and faded that it had to be rewritten. Traces of
M anu.~cript8 21

such rewriting are observable in other parts of the codex as well. Apart from
these ravages of time, some leaves (fol. 59, 63, 75, 80) have received such
material damage through clipping of the margins that the text itself is impaired
and some letters are missing.

V =codex Vaticanus-Palatinus gr. 126: codex on paper of 271 number-

ed leaves; 3 additional leaves at the beginning, 1 at the end. Leaves measure
21.2 x 15.4 cm. Ms. contains several works. After D. A. I., which covers fol 21
to 1271 , come works of Tzetzes, Theophrastus, Bessarion and Nicolas Secun-
dinus, though these have been copied by other hands. 14 At the end of the text
of D. A. I., at the bottom of fol. 1271 , are two notes in the hand of the copyist:
M~oc -r4' &(e)cJ> -r<T> Myov x.oct yvwfnV -rote; &v(&pw7t)otc; owpouEvcp: ,occp6': LOU-
' ) c:, n en/\ELWV'
v(tcp ' . , / o.( lJ ) : ,ocqwoNv ocLcp
' ' 'Av-rwvrnc;
tc;'7l . c:ycu
' ' o' "E7tocpzoc; 7tOCLc;
- cuv
""' xoc-roc'
-ro ,occ:p&'ov ~-roe; ~ypocljJoc -ro &vcu&(c:v) ~L~/...Lov (Glory be to God who giveth under-
standing and knowledge to men: finished, 5th June 1509. - 16 May, 1554:
I, Antony Eparchus, then a boy, wrote this book in the year 1509.) It was,
then, the well-known humanist of Corfi.ot origin, Antony Eparchus (1491-
1571), who copied the ms.-apart from a singlepassageatfol.16v (= 1319 2-197 ),
which is in another hand - in the 18th year of his age; three years before, in
1506, he had completed his ms. copy of the Gospels. 15 The ms. passed into the
possession of John Egnatius (1473-1553), 16 probably very soon after it was
copied, since Egnatius in the book which he published in 1516 refers to it as
being already in his library. 17 It should seem that the second note, dated 16th
May 1554, was penned when Eparchus, after the death of Egnatius, came
across his own copy among the relics of the deceased. The codex next passed

a See H. Stevenson, Codices manuscripti Palatini rrraeci bibliothecae Vaticanae,

(Romae, 1885), p. 60.
15 See E. Legrand, Bibliographie hellenique au 15e et J6e siecles, I, (Paris, 1885),

pp. CCX-CCXXVII; L. Dorez, 'Antoine Eparque', Me'langes d'archeologie et d'histoire,

13 (1893), pp. 281-364; M. V ogel-V. Gardthausen, Die griechischen Schreiber des M ittel-
alters und der Renaissance, (Leipzig, 1909), p. 35.
16 Stevenson, op. cit., p. 302; A. Firmin-Didot, AldeManuce et l'hellenisme a Venise,

(Paris, 1875), pp. 449-452.

17 . hie (sc. Constantinus) a literis, optimisque disciplinis non abhorrens, quas

pene extinctas ab interitu uindicauit, librum Romano filio reliquit. in quo summam totius
imperii, sociorum omnium foedera, hostium uires, rationes, consilia explicuit. quern nos
in bibliotheca nostra tanquam thesaurum seruamus, in quo multa de Venetis etiam nostris
imperator ipse disserat. See J.B. Egnatius, De Caesaribus libri III a dictatore Cae.sare ad
Constantinum Palaeologum, kine a Carola Magno ad Maximilianum Caesarem, (Venetiis,
1516) (sine numeris pag.); cf. Romanorum principum ll. III, ex recognitione Des. Erasmi
Roterodami, (Basileae, 1518), p. 850.
Critical I ntroductwn

to the Bibliotheca Palatina at Heidelberg, where it appears in the catalogue

compiled by Fr. Sylburg about the year 1584.18 From Heidelberg it was trans-
ferred in 1623, along with other mss., to the Vatican Library in Rome.
In the margins of V, as of P, there is a number of notes in Greek and
Latin, which are the additions of later readers. An exceptionally large pro-
portion of these notes is appended to the chapters dealing with Venice (27, 28),
which obviously were of particular interest to Italian readers. Some of these
are worth our attention: 2769 occr't"po~AlJ<; oxoc7tc:'t"ocvLo<; II 27 73 Kovx6poLoc II
27 80 K6ypocoov vide ne I'pocoov II 27 82 'PL~oc/..EvcrlJ<; II 27 83 ALx.~v't"~Loc II
27 86 Mocooux.ov II 27 87 Bpouvoou/..ov (sine acc.) II 27 88 AocupL't"ov II 27 93
'Pl~ocA't"ov !! 28 22 'Ad~o/..occ; II 29 258 TpocyoupL<; II 29 263 Koc't'c:poc.
I have studied this ms. partly by means of photographic reproductions
in the library of the Hungarian National Museum, and partly by examination
of the original in the Vatican Library in 1927 and in 1936.

F =codex Parisinus gr. 2967: codex on paper, of 241 numbered leaves

and 11 additional leaves. Leaves measure 32 X 21.5 cm. Apart from the text
of D. A. I., which covers fol. Ir to sov, ms. includes several other works, such
as compositions of Photius, Themistius, Choricius, Polybius and Apollodorus. 19
The first part of D. A. I. (fol. Ir to 16V) was copied by Antony Eparchus, as
appears from a comparison of the script with that of V; the remainder (fol. l 7r
to sov), together with the excerpts of Polybius and the work of Apollodorus,
which are together at the end of the ms. (fol. 125r to 24Ir), is the work of an-
other hand. Omont in his catalogue identified this copyist as the Cretan Michael
Damascene, but in the index of the same catalogue we find instead the name
of Valeriano de Forli.20 A comparison with the script of the last named and
with other mss. of Michael Damascene21 shows that the copyist of the latter
part of D. A. I. was not Valeriano de Forli, but Michael Damascene.
The first mention of F occurs in the catalogue of mss. sent by Jerome
Fondulo to Fontainebleau in 1529.22 That the ms. there mentioned is m fact

18 126. Constantini Imper. ad Romanum filium suum liber de Notitia utriusque

Imperil, orientalis sc. et occidentalis in quo et de rebus Turcicis, aliisque nationibus hodier-
nis. Citatur in eodem Theophanis Chronographia bis ... See Friderici Sylburgii Catalogus
codicum Graecorum M .SS. olim in Biblwtheca Palatina, nunc Vaticana asservatorum ... ,
(Francofurti ad M., 1701 ), p. 40.
19 See H. Omont, Inventaire sommaire ... III, (Paris, 1888), p. 76.
Introduction. Liste des copistes des manuscrits grecs, (Paris, 1898), p. XXXIII;
cf. M. Vogel-V. Gardthausen, op. cit., pp. 311, 371.
21 Cod. Paris. gr. 1926, 2937 (Michael Damascene); cod. Paris. gr. 1687, 1823,

1830, 2376 (Valeriano de Forti); cf. H. Omont, Facsimiles des manuscrits grecs du XVe et
XVJe sikles, (Paris, 1887), II pl. 36., 48.; E. M. Thompson, Handbook of Greek and Latin
Palaeography, (London, 1906), p. 178; E. Thompson-Sp. P. Lampros, 'Eyx_c:tplSwv
f.i,i:r;vrx'r,c,"cwtx'ijc, rcixAcxtoypixqilcxc,, (Athens, 1903), p. 297.
22 No. 25. Kwva't"cxVTlvou ~cxatA&wc, rcpoc, ulov 'Pwixv6v. See H. Omont, Catalogues

des manuscrits grecs de Fontainehleau sous Fraru;ois Jer et Henri II, (Paris, 1889), p. 372.

our Fis proved by later catalogues, which mention not only D. A. I., but also
the other components of the same ms. These catalogues are: the catalogue of
1544 ;23 that of 1550, by Angelo Vergetius and Constantine Palaeocappa ;24 and
that compiled in the reign of Charles IX (1550-1574). 25 Since, as we shall
see, Fis a copy of V, it is certain that it was written between 1509-1529, to
which period are assignable also the water-marks of fol. 1-80.
I have studied this ms. both through photographic reproductions and
by examination of the original in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris in 1936
and in 1948.

M =codex Mutine,nsis gr. 179 (III F 1): codex on paper, of 104 leaves.
Leaves measure 32.4 X 22.4 cm. Fol. 2r to 6V of the ms. contain text of chh.
15-21 of D. A. I. (151 Ile:pt -rou yevouc; -rwv <l>oc-re:.L-rwv - 21 118 ~Lrl ;l)piXc;),
copied by Andrea Darmari. 26 As to chronology, we know only that the dated
mss. of this famous copyist fall between the years 1560-1586. 27 I have studied
the relevant portion of this ms. by means of photographic reproductions.

Of the Greek text in its entirety seven editions have hitherto been
published. The first edition was published in 1611 by John Meursius (= Me)
under the title De administrando imperio2il a title which he himself gave to
the work and which has been since then generally adopted. In his notes he
informs the reader that the basis of his edition was the Vatican ms. (= V),
which was at that time still in the Bibliotheca Palatina at Heidelberg. Meursius

23 No 199. Kcuvo"t"<XVT(vou (3<Xat'Atcuc; 7tpoc; ulov 'Pw<Xvov X<Xl <I>wdou m:pl t' fYYjT6pcuv.

See H. Omont, op. cit., p. 365.

24 <~KcuvaT<Xvt"(vou (3<Xat:Atcuc; vou.&e:a(<Xt. No 334. Bt(3A.(ov <X1 i}xouc;, E:v8e:8uevov

8ep<XTL A.e:ux(ji, e:tal 8' E:v <XOT(ji T<XUT<X" KwVCJT<XVTlvou (3cxatl.Ewc; vou.&e:al<XL 7tpoc; TOV rawv
ulov <XOTOU 'Pcu<XVOV TOV Ilopq.iupoyewriwv, 87t'wc; 8e:~ YLVWCJXE:LV 7t'<XVToc; rnvouc; <puae:tc;
TE: X<Xl ll~1J K<XL l&LW<XT<X, X<Xl T67tcuv X<XL xwpwv <XOTwV, X<Xl 7t'OtoV e~ <XOTwV 8uvcxt"<XL ootpe:A'ijCJ<Xt
'Pw<X(ot<; K<XL 7t'OLoV ouxt, X<XL LCJTop(<Xc; Ttvttc; vt<Xc;. <l>cuTfou 7t'<XpL<Xpxou 7te:pt ilifxcx P1JT6pcuv.
0e:ta-rou ... . See H. Omont, op. cit., p. 113.
25 No 560. KwvCJTcxn(vou (3<XmAl:wc; vou.&e:a(cxu See H. Omont, op. cit., p. 449.
26 See V. Puntoni, ' dei codici greci della biblioteca Estense di Modena',

Studi italiani di filologia claaaica, 4 (1896), p. 495.

27 See Vogel-Gardthausen, op. cit., pp.16--27.
28 Constantini Imperatoris Porphyrogeniti, De Administrando Imperio, ad Roma-

num F. Liber nunquam antehac editus. Ioannes Mevrsivs primus VtiJgavit, Latinam inter-
pretationem, ac N otas adjecit. Lvgdvni Batavorvm. Ex officina typographic. loannis
Balduini, impensis vero Ludovici Elzeviri. CIO.IOC.XI.
24 Critical Introduction

worked on it by favour of the then librarian, Janus Gruterus. 29 Six years

later a new edition came out, but is was simply a literal copy of the first.30
The text, with corrections from Bandur's edition, was also published by John
Lami in his complete edition of the works of Meursius.31
A century after the first edition, that is, in 1711, the work was republish-
ed by Anselm Bandur (= Ba). 32 It appears from his introduction that Bandur
collated the text of Meursius' edition of 1617 with the original Paris ms. (P},
and was thus able to introduce several corrections into his text. 33 Bandur's
edition was twice reprinted: an uncorrected reprint appeared in 1729, in the
Venetian collection of the Byzantine Historians34, and in 1864 Migne repub-
lished Bandur's text with a few corrections. 35
The final edition was the work of Emmanuel Bekker ( = Be), 36 who did
not divulge his methods, though it is clear that he did not use any fresh ms.
Editions containing excerpted chapters only of D. A. I. have generally
followed Bekker's text. Such are, e.g., the editions of Fr. Racki,37 H. Marczali,38

29 Scias autem unde habeam. Descripsi ante quatuor amplius annos ex Codice

qui est in Bibliotheca Palatina, et Ioannis Baptistae Egnatii olim fuisse perhibetur ...
Quin accessit hue quoque comitas V. C. Jani Gruteri, eius praefecti, per quem liber mihi
quotidie ad earn accessus patuit. See eil. cit., Notae, p. 2.
30 Constantini Porphyrogennetae Jmperatoris Opera. In quibus Tactica nunc primum

-prodeunt. Ioannes Mevrsivs collegit, coniunxit, edidit. Lvgdvni Batavorum. Ex Officina

Elzeviriana. Anno CIOIOCXVII.
31 Joannis Meursi Operum volumen sextum ex recensione Ioannis Lami, Florentiae,

CID.10.CC.XLV., cc. 929--1132.

32 lmperium Orientate sive Antiquit.ates Constantinopolit.anae in quatuor partes distri-

butae . . . Opera et studio Domni Anselmi Banduri Ragusini, Presbyteri ac Monachi

Benedictini e Congregatione Melitensi. Tomus primus. Parisiis. Typis et sumptibus Joannis
Baptistae Coignard, Regis et Academiae Gallicae Architypographi. l\IDCCXI. (Corpus
Byzantinae Historiae XXXIII.), pp. 53-157.
33 dmprimis textum Graecum contuli cum Codice MS. membranaceo Bibliothecae

Regiae, optimae notae num. 2661. quern annis ab hinc circiter quingentis scriptum fuisse
aiunt: innumerabiles mendas, quibus Meursiana editio undique scatebat, sustulimus,
loca corrupta ac mutila quae plurima erant in textu Graeco edito ex eodem MS. Regio
sarcivimus. See op. cit., p. IV.
84 Imperium Orientale sive Antiquitates Constantinopolitanae in quatuor partes

distributae ... opera et studio D. A. Banduri ... Venetiis 1729. (Corpus Historiae Byzan-
tinae XV.) I., pp. 45-127.
35 Patrologiae cursus completus ... Series Graeca posterior ... accurante J. P.

Migne t. CXIII., Parisiis 1864, c. 158--422.

36 Constantinus Porphyrogenitus De thematibus et De administrando imperio. Acceilit

Hieroclis Synecdemus cum Banduri et W esselingii commentariis. Recognovit Immanuel

Bekkerus, Bonnae MDCCCXL. (Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae), pp. 65---270.
s7 Fr. Raeki, Document.a historiae Croaticae periodum antiquam illustrantia (Monu-
menta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium VII.) (Zagrabiae, 1877), pp. 264-419.
3s Pauler-Szilagyi, A 11Ul{}yar honfoglalas kUtfoi, (Budapest, 1900), pp. 110-136;
H. Marczali, A rnagyar tiirtinet kutfoinek lcizikonyve (Enchiridion fontium historiae Hun-
garorum), (Budapest, 1902), pp. 27-55.
EditioM 25

J. B. Bury,39 St. Stanojevic - V. Corovi6,4o A. Gombos,41 and G. Cankova-

Petkova - P. Tivcev. 41 bts Only C. G. Cobet, who published a part of ch. 9
dealing with the Russians, 42 and E. Jakubovich, who published chh. 38-40
dealing with the Hungarians, 43 made a fresh collation of P. Certain variants
in Pare cited by V. Thomsen, 44 G. Feher, 45 F. Sisi646 , H. Gregoire47 and K. 0.
Falk47 bls in their works. A new edition of the chh. on the Southern Slavs pre-
pared by R. Vari was never published, and his ms. is in the archives of the
Hungarian National Museum. 48
The plan for a new critical edition of D. A. I. originated when the
Hungarian scholar, R. Vari, at that time a young man, began preliminary
researches in 1892 with a view to elucidating the ms. tradition. 49 The plan next
engaged the English historian .T. B. Bury, who proposed to include the work
in his collection of Byzantine Texts. But these projects came to nothing.
Bury, in a letter dated 5th October, 1925, announced that he had given up
the plan of an edition, which he surrendered to me.

89 J. B. Bury, The e,arly History of the 8lavonic Settlements in DalmatUi, CroatUi,

& SerbUi, Constantine Porphyrogennetos De administrando imperio, Chapters 29-36.
(Texts for Students No. 18.), (London, 1920).
40 St. Stanojevic-V. Corovic, O~a6pam1 H3BOpH 3a cpncKy HCTOpttjy I, (Beograd,

1921), pp. 58-72.

41 A. B. Gombos, Catalogus fontium historUie Hungaricae aevo ducum et regum ex
stirpe Arpad descendentium ab anno Christi DCCC usque ad annum MCCCI. T. I, (Buda-
pestini, 1937). pp. 720--727.
41 bis lp'hl.IKH H3BOpH 3a 6'hJII'apCKaTa HCTOpH51 v (Sofia, 1964), pp. 198--220.
42 C. G. Cobet, 'Locus Constantini Porphyrogeniti ex codice archetypo Parisino
descriptus', Mnemosyne, 4 (1876), pp. 378-382.
43 E. Jakubovich-D. Pais, 0-magyar olvas6k0nyv (Tudomanyos Gyujtemeny 30.),
(Pees, 1929), pp. 6-10.
44 V. Thomsen, Der Ursprung des russischen Staates, (Gotha, 1879), p. 59.
4 5 G. Feher, 'Ungarns Gebietsgrenzen in der Mitte des 10. Jahrhunderts. Nach
dem De administrando imperio des Konstantinos Pcrphyrogennetos', Ungarische Jahr-
biieher, 2 (1922), p. 46. = 'Magyarorszag teriilete a X. szazad kozepe tajan Kcnstantinos
Porphyrogennetos De administrando imperioja alapjan', Szazadok, 56 (1921-22), p. 354.
4 6 F. Si.Sic, Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara, (Zagreb, 1925), p. 239.
47 H. Gregoire, Annuaire de l'lnstitut de Philologie et d'Histoire Orientales et Hlaves
V. Melanges Emile Boisacq, (Bruxelles, 1937), p. 450.
47 bis Dneprforsarnas namn i Kejsar Konstantin VII Porfyrogennetos' De admini-
strando imperio (Lund, 1951).
4s 12. Quart. Graec. fol. 11-79, 99-105.
49 R. Vari, 'Jellmtes Constantinus Porphyrogennitus De administrando imperio

czimu munkajanak Mziratair61', AkademUii Ertesito, 6 (1895), pp. 710--712.

26 Critical Introduction

Of the full text of D. A. I. four translations have been published, two
in Latin, one in Russian, and one in Croat.
The first Latin rendering, supplied by Meursius, was printed in bis
edition of 1611 and afterwards reprinted without alteration in the edition of
1617: it appeared side by side with the Greek text. It was reprinted by Lami
in his collected works of Meursius, as an appendix. 60 The translation of Meur-
sius was radically revised and amended by Anselm Bandur in his edition of
1711, and the revised version was published in the Venice edition of 1729.
Bandur's rendering was also republished by Lami, side by side with the
Greek text, in his collected works of Meursius. The same rendering was intro-
duced, practically without alteration, by Bekker into his edition of 1840
and by Migne into the text of his Patrologia (1864).
D. A. I. was translated into Russian by G. Laskin, 61 and into Croat by
N. Tomasic. 62
Translation of select chapters or sections have been published in many
works and in many languages. We may instance the following: several passages
in Latin translation are to be found in Stritter's collection; 63 N. V. Malickij
published a revised Russian translation of chh. 1-14, 38-40, 42-46 and 53,
which was found in ms. among the papers of V. V. LatysevM; Russian render-
ings of other passages are found in the works of E. Kunik, N. Protopopov,
A. Zernin, V. Jurgevic, K. Grot, F. I. Uspenskij, S. P. Sestakov, F. Westberg,
N. P. Kondakov and others. K. Dieterich turned some chapters into German. 66
German translations of select passages are found in the works of A. C. Lehr-
berg, E. Kunik, V. Thomsen and others; French translations in the work of
M. Brosset; and English in that of C. A. Macartney. Serb and Croat renderings
of select passages have been published in the works of Fr. Racki, A. Pavi6,
F. SiSic, G. Manojlovic, Stanojevi6-Corovi6, B. Ferjanci6 and others; and

60 See ed. cit., c. 1133-1208.

51 'Co'I~rnetti51 l{oHCTaHT1rna 6arp~mopom1aro: ,,0 eeMax"b" (De thematibus) H
,,0 ttapoti:aX'h" (De administrando imperio)', 4TeHi~ B"b l1Mn. 06~ecTB1> HCTOpiH H Ape-
BHOCTeii poccii:\.cl{HX'h npn MocKOBCKOM'h YHnBepcnTerl 1899, I (188), (Moskva, 1899),
pp. 1-262.
52 Vjesnik k:r. Hrvatsko-Slavonsko-Dalmatinskoga Zemaljskog Arkiva, 20 (1918),

pp. 1-91; Vjesnik k:r. Drtamwg Arkiva u Zagrebu, 3 (1928), pp. 1-70.
53 J. G. Stritter, Memoriae populorum olim ad, Danuhium, Pontum Euxinum,

paludem MaeotUlem, Caucasum, mare Caspium et inde magis ad, septemtriones incolentium
e Bcriptoribus historiae Byzantinae erutae et digestae I-IV, Petropoli, 1771-1779.
64 (V. V. Laty8ev-N. V. Malickij), 'l{oHCTaHTHHa EarpHHOPOAHOro 06 ynpaB-

nettHH rocyti:apcTBoM,' llf3secrnH rocyti:apcTBeHHOH AKati:eMHH WCTOpHH MaTepHaJibHOH

1<ynbTYPb1 91, Moskva-Leningrad, 1934.
65 K. Dieterich, Byzantinische Quellen zur Lander- und Volkerkunde I-II, (Leipzig,
Relationship of Manuscripts and Editions 27

Bulgarian in the work of G. Cankova-Petkova-P. Tivcev. A Hungarian ver-

sion of the chh. dealing with the Hungarians may be found both in the
editions of H. Marczali and in the special study of K. Szabo.


A full collation of the four mss. (P, V, F, M) and of the three editions
(Me, Ba, Be) shows their mutual relationship to have been as follows:
V is a simple transcript of P. This is clear from the following considera-
1. V contains many orthographical errors, which are due to the peculiar
and individual forms of letters employed by P, that is to say, they are due
to palaeographical causes. Antony Eparchus imitated faithfully in many
places the peculiarities and abbreviations in the script of P, but occasionally
misread some of the letters and abbreviations, e. g.: 13183 7ti::fnylvi::O'.&cx.t P:
7ti::pt~ve:cr.&cx.t V II 296 a Xpcu(3oc-rot P: Xpwoc-rot V II 30110 Bpoc't'~cx. P: Bpoc't'~w
v II 4288 Xcx.p&xou/... p: Xcupocxou/... v
II 4387 eyypcx.({)OV p: &yypcx.({)OV II v
43 111 Kcx.><Lx(ou P: KtxLou V II 43 169_ 170 cx. 3 ' KptvLT(YJv) P: &xptvL't'Yjv V II
50199 npo(3/. Yj.sivTcx.c; P: npox/..'Y).&eV't'cx.c; V II 53425 fom:ucri::( v) P: ~7ti::cre:v V II
53429 A.i::A.1J.&6't't P: /.i::.&6Tt V.
2. In other passages some letters of P are indistinct and were in conse-
quence omitted by the copyist of V, e. g.: 13 136 7tpoO'i::'t'p(~cx.To P: npoi::'t'pe~cx.To
V II 14 16 O''t'pi::({)6i::voc; P: cruvcx.vcx.Tpi::({)6c:voc; V II 25 14{).&dc;
p : i::TCX.7t({)dc; V.
3. Further, it is clear that in two places the copyist of V has written a
passage twice over, just because the initial words of the duplicated passages
happen in P to recur at the beginning of a line. These dittographies are:
50126 Mi::cronoTcx.Lcx.v - 50128 .&ex. iter. V. II 51 198 cx.yLcrTpou - ovToc;
om. et a3 ' - Tcx.1;.i::toi::ui::tv (cf. 51 194-195 ) iter. V.
4. Basic corruptions of P recur in V. Common to both versions are:
P19 CX.U't'WV om. p v II 14 oc:Lv om. p v II 990 xcx.tpoc;] 't'cx.poc; p v II 1377
0i::ou om. P V II 26 71 post eTYJ lac. in<l. P V II 2947 'Pw&vouc;] Koocvouc;
p v II 2950 't'OC ~e:xchi::pcx.] 't'cXO XOCO''t'pcx. p v II 3229 XPLO'' t'LCX.VWV J xp6vwv
P v v
II 31 22 Xcx.pcx.f36"YJ] Xcx.f36YJ P II 383a Ai::f3i::Stcx.J xi::J..ocvotcx. P v _II 42 23
't'ptcx.x6cnot] 't'OC P V II 42 27 o xcx.l P V II 53 101 &..&po(/...ouc; P V.
5. Antony Eparchus incorporated into his version additions and alter-
ations made by later hands in P, among which is the note, already referred
to, which bears the date 1361/2, e. g.: 168 post ,c;p/.! siglo /. adhibito vuv ae
(tcr't'tv) ,c;wo' (lvotxTtwvoc;) ti::', we; dvcx.t &no T6't'(i::) ewe; vuv xp6vot ~' mg.
-Jd pa : ,c;p/\ vuv oe: 0''t't ,c;wo tvot:X.'t'twvoc; ti:: , we;
u.u '\I - "' l I (' " - )< I T
e:~vcx.t CX.7to
> \ 't'O't' i::
I (
i::wc; vuv
) '' -

XPOVOt "'!' ' V II 21 55 post ,tXCX.VOV
' S. V. add . 'YJ't't
,, .,., "
~ 't'Yj pa : tXCX.VOV,
' Y)'t'Ot
" "
~I v II 2281 post Bcx.crt/...dou s. v. add. 't'OU ex Mcx.xe:oov(cx.c; ps: Bixcrif.dou 1'0U
ex Mcx.xe:oovlcx.c; V.
Critical Introduction

6. In two passages of the text of P (2253 , 22 57 : correction of the word

'Ap&~w") we recognise unmistakably the handwriting of Antony Eparchus
(= P4).
These examples prove indisputably that the youthful Antony Eparchus
copied V from P in 1509. For all that, V is not a faithful, verbal transcript of
P. The text ofV, as compared with P, shows many significant variants, a large
proportion of which has crept into the editions (Me, Ba, Be). It is unnecessary
to detail all the errors of V; some examples are:
I. The copyist of V often omits words or phrases, e. g.: 915 xixl oc7tepxov-
't"<XL om. V (F Me) II 1349 (3ixcrLMc.uc; om. V (F Me Ba Be) II 21 49 _ 50 -rou
Mouoce:.& b.pOC't"tJO"E" ..Yjc; &.px~c; 't"WV 'Apoc(3cuv, oox ex 't"OU yevouc; ~" om.
V (F Me) II 2557 _ 59 &v -rc'j) BixyMa, fow.i 3e x. tjc; -rou Mou&e:.& ye:ve:iic;,
~'t"ot -rou Mouxoue:-r . o?! 3e:unpoc; xix.&t~e:-rixL om. V (F Me) II 4057 e7toYJcre:v
utov -rov 'E~e/..e:x_ om. V (F Me) II 45 11 X,p"Y)oc-rLcr&~vixL om. V (F Me Ba Be)
ll 5090 _ 91 'Icr-rfov, 8-rt ~ -rou Xixpcrtocvou cr-rpix't""Y)ytc; -roupix ~" -ro 7tocA.octov
njc; -rwv 'Ape:vtocxc.uv O"-rpix't""Y)ylaoc; om. V (F Me) II 50152 xixl om. V (F Me
Ba Be) II 51 72 _ 74 o -rou 7tpc.u-rocr7tix.&ixplou 'Apcre:vlou xixl ixyyA.ocf'l-rou 7toc-r~p.
0 U'... t"OL oe:,
~I 0" TE 0
' 7tpCU't"00"7tix'"'
ITixpLoc; 0' 11 ooixpwv
~' "'
xixt\ 0' 7tp<U't"00"7tCX'ITCXpLOc; A'e:wv 0'
'Ape"'YJc; om. V (F Me) II 53343 -344 Kixt A.eye:t tji 7tixtalcrxn. II&c; e:i'.>pe:c; -ro
7tpiiyix -rou-ro ; om. V (F Me).
2. The copyist of V read or transcribed some words incorrectly,
e. g.: 969 <fl.&oc~e:Lv P: <p.&&ve:w V (F Me Ba Be) II 2550 xponi.&ev-roc; P (Ba
Be): xpoc't"tJ&Ev-roc; V (F Me) II 27 87 Bpouv?lov P (Ba Be): Bpou8ov V (F
Me) II 3042 &.pe:cr.&ev-re:c; p: epixcr.&ev-re:c; v (F Me Ba Be) II 3294 ~xonixc;
P (Be): ~x.ovnc; V (F Me Ba) II 3864 7tpo pl)Wvnc; P: 7tpoe:Lp"Y)tvoL V
(F Me Ba Be) 11 40 7 K&:"ixpoL P {Ba Be): B&:xixpoL V (F Me) II 4034
~<fle:"ao7tA6xoc; P (Ba Be): ~({)e:v3ovo7tA6xoc; V (F Me) I/ 42 106 ~7tix-rixA.ou
p: 7tO't"ixou v (F Me Ba Be) II 4326 eO"X~7t't"E't"O p {Be): emte7t't'E't"O v
(F Me Ba) 11 44 19 'A7te:A."ocp-r P (Ba Be): 'A7te:A.x&p-r V (F Me) II 50148
BocMixx(ou P (Me Ba Be): Kixoccrixxlou V (F) II 51 114 7tAoxooc; P: 7tAoxocc;
V (F Me Ba Be) II 53 271 ruxlixv P: yuvoci:xoc V (F Me Ba Be) II 53403 (3oc-
A.e:-rixt P: A&"e:-re: V (F Me Ba Be) II 53525 7tpixyix-rdixc; P: 7tpocyoc-roc; V
(F Me Ba Be).
3. The copyist of V sometimes replaced the numerical cyphers of P by
the verbal equivalents, or, conversely, rendered the numerals of P by numerical
cyphers, e.g.: 936 ix' P: 7tpw-ro" V (F Me Ba Be) II 945 3' P: -rhixp-rov V
(F Me Ba Be) II 953 ~~ P (Me Ba Be): c,' V (F) /I 167 t(3' P: 3w3exoc-rov
v (F M Me Ba Be) II 2316 P: ae:u-rpocc; v (F Me Ba Be) II 2628 ix'
P: 7tpw-ro" V (F Me Ba Be) II 29 248 Locc; P: oc' V (F Me Ba Be) /I
30 20 /' P: )'._LA(c.u" V (F Me Ba Be) II 466 y' P: -rpe:'Lc; V (F Me Ba Be) II 526
Mo P (Me Ba Be): WV F.
4. The copyist of V occasionally changed the word-order, e. g.: P 40
ixtC:1vtoc:; xixl &."w/,e.&poc, P: &.vwf.e&poc; xixt ixlwvtoc; V (F Me Ba Be) II 71 _ 2
7tep~ -rwv &.7to Xepcrw"oi; &.7toO"'t"e:N1oivwv ~O(.O"LAtx&v P: 7te:pt Twv oc7tocrnAA.oe-
Relationship of Man11sr,ripts and ErlitionB 29

vwv ~IXIHALXWV OC7t;J Xe::pawvo<; v (F Me Ba Be) 11 B105-l06 e~epx(t)\l't'IXJ, &pz(J\1-

't'E:c; P: &pzov-re:c; &~epx.ov-raL V (F Me Ba Be) II 1350 _ 51 8La 't'ou ocnef..01) f)
0(e:o)c; P: 0 t)(e:o)c; SLO: 't'OU ocyy"Aou v (F Me Ba Be) II 178 fo.\H<J'J't'('I. OC7t;J
xa~/.ou P (M): oc7to x1Xfi/,f,U fo.Sfovw. V (F Me Ba Be) 11 2H 258 v!]alov
ecrt"Lv Lxpo(v) p: Lxp6v fo-rL V"!](jlov v (F Me Ba Be) 11 3292 lv 't'fJU't'<J
ye:v6e:voc; p: ye::v6e:voc; ev 't'00't'(t) v (F Me Ba Be) II 4042 fo-rLv ;J'/YP~)'i
nocvu P: oxup6v fon mxvu V (F Me Ba Be) !I 4!150 va~Jv w'.>-rou P: whou
va6v V (F Me Ba Be) 11 50 226 't'"'~c; cr.u't'ou P: whou 'r"~c; V (F Me Ba Be).
5. The copyist of V occasionally made stylistic changes, e. g.: 164-5
xlXl 't'lc; o 't'a crx.-Y)n't'pa 't'~c; ~1XO'LAe:l1Xc; 'Pc.ualc.uv 8Lt7tc.u(v) P (M): xal 't'Lc; ~v
't'6n o ~IXO'LA(e:oc;) 'Pc.u1Xl(wv) V (F Me Ba Be) II 2!J 37 _ 38 lhixne:pCY.cranwv
7t0'C'E': 't'C-.UV 'p wixvc.uv,
- 7t0L"1JO'IXV't'E:c; Ol)'~C'OL evxpuIX'C'IX p (B a B e ) ; OLIX7te:po:acr.v-
I ' I ~ I

't'E:t.; 7tO'C'e oL 'Pc.uocvoL enoL"!]O'IXV o\hoL eyxpuix v (F Me) II 3860-61 7t0tpa

't'W\I Iloc't'~LVIXXL't'WV aux e8t~IXV't'a p: !J..E:'t'tX 't'WV Iloc't'~LVIXXL't'WV aux eno(!]alXv
V (F Me Ba Be) II 46 110 ~IXA(~'' ocu't'O de; xav't'apLav P: /..ix~C:}v IX1j't'o de;
xov't'ifpLOv 7te:pLe&!]xe: xlXl V (F Me Ba Be) II 5067 't'OU 't'e:Adv 1Xu't'oOc; P: ivoc
't'e:'AwcrL 't'rl V (F Me Ba Be).
6. The copyist of V occasionally inserted words which are missing
in P, e. g.: 948 post ocn1Xv'C'ix add. -r.X ov6~u/.1X 't'OC V (F) II 961 ante 8e:u-re:pav
a<ld. de; 't'OV V (F Me Ba Be) II 9 106 post Kl1X~av a<ld. 7ta't'IXfLOV V (F Me) I!
18 1 post 'Apoc~c.uv add. &px:~yoc; V (F Me) II 29 203 ante e/./..anoc; add. -rau
v (F) II 339 post ~IXO'LAelX add. 'Pc.u&vc.uv v (F) II 4032 post exdva add.
't'O V (F Me Ba Be) II 42 66 post expL add. -rou V (F Me Ba Be) II 50229 ant,e
7t1X't'pLXLOc; add. 6 v (F Me Ba Be) II 5325 post Xe:pcrc.uwrwv add. xwpe<c; v
(F Me Ba Be) II 53 308 ante n1XL3c.uv add. 't'Wv V (F Me Ba Be) II 53 390
post e:&ac; a<ld. au V (F Me Ba Be) II 53480 post n6/.e:wc; 2 add. ixuT"~v V
(F Me Ba Be).
If we look more closely at the variants of V, we observe that they are
only in part oversights or slips of the copyist, while others of them represent
a deliberate attempt to emend the text. Antony Eparchus, like so many other
humanists, was, it should seem, no slavish copyist, but showed some indepen-
dence in his efforts to correct what he was copying. This is clear also from the
fact that in many places he has emended not only misspellings in P, but also
textual corruptions.
Comparison of the mss. makes it clear that F is copied immediately
from V. This is proved not only by the circumstance that at the end of the
text of F we discover the same chronological note which, as we saw, Antony
Eparchus appended to V in 1509, but also by the fact that all the omissions,
repetitions and variants of V recur in F; that is to say, where P and V disagree,
F invariably follows V to the letter. The copyist of F was faithful to the text
of V, but here and there introduced noteworthy corrections of his own.
It is also beyond question that in his transcription into M of the section
relating to the Saracens, Andrea Darmari copied from P. This is proved
indisputably by the fact that where P and V disagree, M always agrees with
30 Criti,caJ, Introduction

P, and further that Darmari introduced into his text corrections and additions
made by later hands in P. Numerous errors distort his text; and in two places
the copyist has incorporated marginal notes from P as though they were
As for the editions, Meursius, as he tells us himself, used V: but com-
parison shows that in many places he has diverged from his original. These
divergences are in most cases blunders on the part of Meursius, and only in a
few instances can be regarded as deliberate attempts at emendation. Some of
his blunders Meursius himself corrected in the Notae breves and Errata
appended to his edition, but most of them perpetuated themselves in the
later editions, Ba and Be.
Discrepancies between the text of Meursius and V are:
1. Meursius omitted many words and phrases, e. g.: 2 3 7t'poc:;
&.A.A-fi"Aouc:; om. Me II 13 198 xocl .&wv om. Me II 21 91 _ 92 Mocutou yep<Uv 1t'poc:;
TOV '{Epov-roc TOU om. Me II 263 TOU om. Me (Ba) II 2612 ecr-recp.&'t) 7t0CpcX TOU
-r6n minix. Kocl om. Me II 27 79 xcfo--rpou om. Me (Ba Be) 11 29 16 _ 17 xocl
XOCTixoc&i::tv, -rlve:c:; XIY.'t'OLXOUO'L\I exi::t.&i::v TOU 7t'OTocou, 3tocne:pcX.O-ocvnc:; om. Me
II 29 253-254 OAOV ,,., XOCL\ 7tOL'Y-)O'OCL 't'OC\ 7t0CAOC'
' Y')fJ.OC't'OC 't'OU-
xocO'Tpou om. Me II 3611 _ 12 '&~ocn-rtcrTot' pl)vi::oov-roct, Ti) Twv Pwoclwv 3E:
~toc"Aex-rcp om. Me II 43 17 0-m ocu-rou &voc/...oc~eO".&oct xocf. dcrocyocye:i:v om. Me II
4466 TO xoccr-rpov om. Me (Ba Be) II 4653 TO om. Me (Ba) II 4953--05 xocl
) f \ ) "'). ,.. ) \ ""' f! ..., i
) ...,. '/ \ ) I(\_
OCVIXO"TI)O"O\l't'OCL XOCL OC7t1XYYAOUO"L\I OCUTO -rote:; uto!.c:; OCU't'(J)V, ~\IOC W'l E7tLl'.0CV-Ct)\l't'OCL
-rwv dii::pyi::crtwv, c1v e7tOLlJcri::v o 0i::oc:; 3t<X 7tpi::cr~e:twv -rou &.7tocr-r6A.ou om. Me II
5365 7t1Xp~ TW\I Xi::pcrWWt'W\I om. Me II 53129 ocu-rooc:; om. Me (Ba Be) II
53172 _ 173 't'07t!p ., '
7tO/\'Y)crOCvnc:; -rov ~
\ ""'ocupooc-rov
' ' ' Y)O'OCv, e:v
e:vtX' ' cp 7 om. M e II
53602 crnov, on XOCL i::npoc r-PUO"L<; 0''t'L\I E:XLO' OC<p'lTIX\I OC\IOCoLoOUO'OC om. Me.
'I ' " \t I ()_ I ,, Cl. ' ' ~ ~ -
- ,,

2. Meursius misread or miscopied several words, and his edition has also
typographical errors, e. g.: 121 .&i::oqmMxTw {P) V (F Be): &i::ucpu/...cX.x-rn Me
{Ba) II 910 ixl A.omocf. l:x/..oc~tvloct (P) V (F): ot A.ot7tol l:xA.oc~lvtot Me (Ba Be) II
1717 cX7tOX't'Voe:voc:; (P) V (F): cX7t'oxnw6i::voc:; (M) Me (Ba Be) !I 27 30
Aocyoo~ocp~oL (P) V (F): Aoyou~ocp~ot Me (Ba Be) II 37 22 Koupx.ou't'oct (P)
V (F): Koupxou't'cx.\I Me (Ba Be) II 405 KoupTouyi::pocTou (P) V (F):
KoupTUyi::p1hou Me (Ba Be) \\ 43 70 3tocTp~occ; {P) V {F Be): ~m-rptljJocc; Me
(Ba) II 43110 &.ve:~Mcr't"l')O'\I (P) v (F): e~M.Cl"t'"l)cr Me (Ba Be) II 4973 't'O
-c[ (P) V (F Ba Be): -r6-ri:: Me II 505 -rou nocp' ocu-rwv n/...ouevou mix-rou
(P) V (F): TWV 7tocp' ixu-rwv -ri::A.ouevc.uv 7tocx-rc.uv Me (Ba Be) II 53ua ~ti.i::t<;
(P) v (F Ba Be): oMdc; Me II 53357 ex).i::;occr&c.ucrocv (P) v (F): ex:Ae;ocTC.UO'OC\I
Me (Ba Be) II 53428 &vi::x_.&~voct (P) V (F Be): ~vi::x&Yjvoct Me (Ba).
3. Meursius in most cases replaced the numerical cyphers of V by the
verbal equivalents, e. g.: 957 (P) v (F): mnrov Me (Ba Be) II 185 y' {P)

V (F M): Tploc Me (Ba Be) II 29 98 p' (P) V (F): xoc-r6v Me (Ba Be) II
29 265 ~i::' (P) V (F): 3i::x.(mevn Me <Ba Be) II 3050 ,oc (P) V (F): "f..LAL<UV Me
(Ba Be) II 37 33 ' (P) V (F): ncrcrocpocxovToc Me (Ba Be) II 4038 oc' (P)
V: 7tpw-roc; (F) Me (Ba Be) II 4939 y' (P) V (F): 't'pL'tfl Me (Ba Be) II
RelatioMhip of MannBcripts and EditioM

51 21 W (P) V (F): 8e:i'.m:pov Me (Ba Be) II 53 295 L' ~ LW (P) V (F): 8xoc
~ ocb'Oe:xoc Me: (Ba Be).
4. Meursius made occasional changes in word-order, e. g.: 27 2o
oc7tocr't'oc'Al]vocL [J.OL (P) V (F): oL oc7tocr't'OCAlJVIXL Me (Ba Be) \\ 29 211 i:r<pocy'ljc;
ocu't'ou (P) V (F): OCU't'OU acpoc'(iic; Me (Ba Be) \\ 29 286 x.e:'i:cre: x.M3c.uvoc (P)
V (F): x.A68c.uvoc x.e:'i:cre: Me (Ba Be) \l 32 136 't'wv 'Pc.uoclc.uv f3occrL'Ae:oc; (P) V
(F): ~OCO'LAe:oc; 'Pc.uoc(wv Me (Ba Be) II 4051 xupLOC ov6[J..OC't'OC (P) v (F): ov6-
oc't'OC xopLoc Me (Ba Be) II 45 141 ye:vecr&ocL 3ou/..oc; (P) V (F): 3ou/..oc; ye:ve-
cr&ocL Me (Ba Be) II 50 130 _ 131 't'WV 'Pwoc[cuv &;oucrlocv (P) V (F): &;oucr(ocv
't'WV 'Pc.uoc(wv Me (Ba Be) II 51 125 ~occrLALX.Ov 3powvLov (P) V (F): 3pow-
vLov ~OCO'LALX.OV Me (Ba Be) II 53369 7tA'1jpO<popljcrocL v opx.c.u (P) v (F): v
opx.cp 7tA'1Jpocpopl]crocL Me (Ba Be).
5. Meursius here and there inserts words missing in V, and hence
in P also, e. g.: 9 1 ante 'Pc.ucr(occ; add. -rijc; Me (Ba Be) II 963 post 't'OO't'ou
add. xocl Me II 2229 ante 'loucr't'MIXvov aJld. 't'Ov Me (Ba Be) II 2264 ante
TI)v 1 add. 3Li1. Me !I 253 post Bpe:'t''t'OCV(ocv add. cXAAcX Me II 2528 post e<me:p(ou
add. AL~O'tjc; Me (Ba Be) II 2563 post O't'L add. v 't'cj) Me (Ba Be} II 2744
anw 't'wv add. 3L!X. Me (Ba Be) II 4060 ante utol add. ot Me (Ba Be) II 43 73
post de; add. 't"'1Jv Me (Ba Be) II 46 15 ante 'Pc.uocvlocc; add. 't'~c; Me (Ba Be)
II 504 post't'pou add. Tou Me (Ba Be) II 50 229 ante ~occrL/.ec.uc; aJld. 't'Ou
Me (Ba Be) II 53 288 post 't'OCU't'OC add. 't'Cl Me (Ba Be).
If we take into consideration that the ms. V used by Meursius contains,
as we have shown, innumerable errors, we can scarcely wonder that the first
edition presents a sufficiently corrupted version of the original. It should, how-
ever, be emphasized that Meursius, particularly in his notes, made a large
number of emendations to the text, and of these emendations later editions
have made use.
The edition of Bandur marks an advance on that of Meursius; Bandur,
as he himself records, collated Meursius' text with P, and was thus able to
correct, both in his text and in his notes, a large number of errors originating
partly in V and partly in Me. But Bandur did not make his collation with the
necessary care, with the result that many omissions and blunders escaped his
attention. How many errors of Meursius were corrected by Bandur, and how
many Bandur transferred to his own edition, may be easily discerned if we
look at the examples given above in our examination of the relationship of V
and Me, and note the proportion of the number of errors found in V Me and
Me only to the number of errors found in V Me Ba or V Me Ba Be, and in Me
Ba or Me Ba Be. To the number of inherited blunders Bandur added a fresh
crop of his own, e.g.: 68 m:m:pL Ba (Be) II 2961 1; om. Ba II 2982 p"Y)ve:oov-rocL
Ba (Be) II 3094 ot /..omol 1:x.J..oc~ivioi Ba (Be) II 40 12 ALoov't'LWl Ba (Be) II 45 21
xocl1 om. Ba (Be) II 46 111 Kc.uvcr-rocv't'vcp (per comp. P)] Kwvcr't'etV'!~ Ba (Be) II
46 144 Kc.uvcr't'ocni:voc; (per comp. P)] (Be) Kwvcr't'occ; Ba II 51 70 7tpc.u-roamx&;
om. Ba (Be) II 51 200 Aoyou~ocp3(rf Ba (Be) II 53 218 v 't'cj) 't'Ou <l>ocpvocx.ou
<npoc't'<';'> om. Ba (Be) II 53 251 cX.px.ovou Ba (Be) II 53455 "t"'i)c;1 ]'t'Yjv Ba (Be).
32 Critical Introduction

Bekker's edition marks no considerable advance. He made no study of

mss., and therefore made no use of fresh ms. material. He republished Bandur's
text, which he occasionally emended by his own conjectures. Although he
recorded in his critical apparatus the variants between the mss. used by
Meursius and Bandur, and between their respective editions, yet he merely
copied this information out of Bandur's notes, as is seen from the fact that
he reproduces Bandur's typographical errors. Bekker's edition therefore
repeats numerous errors of earlier editions, as appears in our examination
above of the relationship between V Me and Ba; and he added to their number
the slips and typographical errors of his own edition, e. g.: 21 42 xpo~oc/./..ovTixt
II 2616 't"OV J T"~V II 2926 xa<JTpov 2 om. II 3078 xixl 6vov om. II 3088 xixl om. II
30103 _ 105 ordinem versuum permut,avit II 37 2 ot om. II 37 18 Kou/..7te1) II 3749 7tA1Jcr(e:-
a-re:pov II 3755 xone:upoc 11 4544 Tov 1 om. JI 45 101 7tpocrqic.ccn~6e:voc; !I 45 145
l\famhov II 4669 7tiicrixc; II 4 719 v om. II 4942 T.AAt>: II 4960 7t0'..poc86ne:c; II
50 79 -r~v om. II 50 213 NLKYJTY)t; II 51 159 v~mov Tuyxifve:w '"Cov ~ixcrt/, xoc&wc;
e:tpYJ70'..L, xixl 't"O om. !I 51174 T<J> ~C.CcrtAe:~ II 53267 Te: 1 om. II 53510 TO xcopov om.
In the light of our examination of the mutual relationship of mss. and
editions, we may summarize as follows the history of the text of D. A. I.
Of D. A. I., as of the De Cerimoniis, only one ms. survives from the
Byzantine age. 5obls In view of the fact that none of the later Byzantine histor-
ians or chronographers makes use of the work, we must conclude that D. A. I.,
which was a confidential, indeed a most secret, document, was never published,
but only preserved at the imperial court. There, probably, it was discovered
by a member of the imperial family, the Caesar John Ducas, who between
1059 and 1081 had it copied for his library. But P is not an immediate copy
of the original. Since P exhibits so many corruptions, and one marginal note
refers to the year 979, we must postulate, between the archetype and P, yet
another copy, probably made towards the close of the X century after the
death of the author. Marginal notes and emendations make it clear that P
continued to be read during the Byzantine age; from the note of 1361/2 and
from other corrections we may conclude that the chh. on the Saracens were
of peculiar interest at the period when the Ottoman Turks had crossed the
Hellespont (1360) and were threatening the capital.
After this the history of P is obscure. We do not know where it went
from the library of John Ducas or what was its fate, until it came into the
hands of Antony Eparchus. Certain it is that during the Renaissance the
interest of Venetian humanists was aroused by the chh. of the work dealing
with Venice, as is clear from the marginal notes to V; and that it is owing to
this circumstance, not merely that the copy from the library of the Byzantine

60 bis But see now C. Mango-I. Sevcenko, 'A New MS of the De Cerimoniis', Dum-

barton Oaks Papers, 14 (1960), pp. 247-249.

Rekltionship of Manuscripts and Editions 33

Caesar reached Italy, but also that, at the beginning of the XVI century, two
other complete copies of the work were made there as well. Upon the copy of
.Antony Eparchus was based the first edition of Meursius, the errors of which
Bandur endeavoured to correct by a collation with the Byzantine copy; but
even so, many inherited errors were transmitted not only to his own edition
but also to the final edition of Bekker, published more than a century ago.
The relationships of mss. and editions may be seen at a glance in the
following tree:
(about 9a2)

(after 979)

(between 1059-1081)

(between 1009-1529)

(between 1060--1086) (1611)


34 Critical Introduction


It will be clear from our examination of the relationship of mas. and
editions that all the known mas. of D. A. I. derive from a Byzantine copy of
the XI century, P, which is thus the source of the whole textual tradition. On
this ms. therefore, a new edition must be based. 56 However, as we have empha-
sized, P exhibits additions, erasures and emendations which are partly the
work of the copyist or a contemporary, and partly of various later hands.
These last are again divisible into two categories: into those which were added
to P before V and M were copied, and those which were added after V and M
were copied. Insertions of the former class, which go back to the Byzantine
age, are of unequal value: we find among them alterations which are mere
arbitrary additions of later readers, such as the marginal note of 1361/2; but
there are others, especially in the chh. dealing with the Arabs, which do emend
errors which have occurred in the copying of P. Additions of the second cate-
gory, dating from the post-Byzantine period and consisting of arbitrary alter-
ations made by later readers, are of no value whatever; a characteristic speci-
men of these is the garbling from analogy of the original name '.AJmoutzis'
(see 38440 3849 ). But, apart from the attentions of later hands, P has also, as
we saw, sustained material damage; and to restore the occasionally faded or
mutilated text we are compelled to have recourse to the copies of P, made
when P was in better condition than it is to-day. For these reasons, then, to
restore the original text of P, use must be made of its copies, V and M.
But even if the text of the Byzantine version preserved to us be purged
of its later alterations and be restored, so far as may be, to its original state,
the question remains whether P, thus restored, can be regarded as a faithful
replica of the original text of Constantine. Since our new edition rests upon
one ms. only, which cannot be checked by comparison with any other, the
problem thus raised can be solved only by reference to internal evidence,
that is, to the condition of the text as preserved in P and to the linguistic
peculiarities of the work. There can be no doubt that copyist's errors have
crept even into P. It can be demonstrated that in some passages the copyist
has omitted words, as is seen is cases where the text is mutilated or unintelli-
gible (e.g. 14 , 919 , 1377 , 22 61' 2671> 46 95). It is also certain that, in other passages,
we have to deal with more serious corruptions (e.g. 13177 , 29 58 , 29229 , 3833, 42 23,
53 101 ), which can only be conjecturally emended.
In correcting the text of P, we have to take into account the fact that
D. A. I. is compiled from various sources of which the language is not uniform.
In some chapters we find vulgarisms whose removal would distort the genuine

66 See Gy. Moravcsik, 'L'edition critique du De administrando imperio', Byzan-

tion, 14 (1939), pp. 353-360.

Method of the Edition 35

form of the work. 67 But since, as we saw above, the orthography of Pis extre-
mely faulty, there are many places where it is not easy to determine which
linguistic peculiarities are native to Constantine's text and which are to be
put down to the copyist. So, for example, we see in P forms which indicate the
amalgamation of the participles of onloc and d8ov (e. g. 45 140 , 49 28 , 49 34 , 53193 ,
53 419 , 53 429 ), a phenomenon exemplified also in papyri and other demotic
texts. 6 8 Again, as is well known, in later Greek certain forms of indicative and
subjunctive coincide in pronunciation; and since P often confuses the diphthong
e:L with the vowel 'Y), these forms coincide and amalgamate in its text also. It is
well known, too, that in the post-classical age the conjunction tvoc is followed
by indicative as well as subjunctive; and since the orthography of P is not
consistent, we sometimes find after ivoc indicative and subjunctive forms used
alternately even in the same sentence (e.g. 1381- 83 , 53 516 ). All these and other
confusions in the orthography of P (e. g. absence of the temporal augment)
often make it hard to determine when we have, or have not, the right to correct
Again, it is common knowledge that Constantine drew one part of his
material from written sources which have come down to us independently.
Such sources are, apart from citations of Holy Scripture, the Chronicles of
Theophanes and George Monachus, the Ethni,ca, of Stephanus of Byzantium,
the Acts of the Synod in Trullo, etc. Elsewhere, passages of D. A. I. agree so
closely with parallel passages of the De Thematibus, attributed to the same
imperial author, and of the work known as Theophanes Continuatus, that for
these passages we must postulate a common source. Some passages, then, of
D. A. I. have come down to us immediately, and do not depend on P. We can
thus compare the text of P with the text of the sources of the work, which
sources may be used to restore the text of D. A. I.
A comparison of the text of P with that of the sources and of other
parallel passages shows that the author sometimes followed his originals faith-
fully, but at other times modified their styles, and occasionally supplemented
his sources with others of unknown origin. But for our appraisal of the text
of Constantine it is of great importance to realize that the text of D. A. I.
preserved to us, when compared with the text of its sources, gives evidence
in several places of serious corruption. At first sight we might conclude that

57 See Gy. Moravcsik, Tt:X cruyyp&:tXTIX KwvcrTtXVTtvou TOU Ilopq:mpoye:vvf)Tou &.rco

y).wcraLxljc; &rc61jie:wc;', Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici, 5 (1938), pp. 514-520.
ss See S. G. Kapsomena.kis, Voruntersuchungen zu einer Grammatik der Papy,..;, der
nachchristlichen Zeit, (Munich, 1938), p. 91.
36 Critical Introduction

P is a faulty copy, and that these errors must be corrected from the sources.
But this is not so. A more searching examination shows that these supposed
corruptions were to be found already in some mss. of the sources themselves
(e.g. 25 30 , 4249 ). It follows that, as Constantine or his collaborators copied the
sources they used out of mss. which were themselves corrupt, it is incorrect to
attribute these corruptions to the carelessness of the copyist of P or other
copyists of D. A. I.; we must, on the contrary, suppose that these very cor-
ruptions stood even in the original ms. of Constantine. Recognition of this
fact, and of its bearing on the restoration of the original form of D. A. I.,
enjoins upon us the preservation of these corruptions in our text; since, if we
emend P, we shall be disturbing the true text as Constantine wrote it. Of
course, in the many cases where direct evidence is lacking, it is very hard to
pronounce whether a corruption is of pre- or post-Constantinian origin, that
is to say, whether it has been introduced by the copyist or existed already in
the mss. of the sources and was thence transferred to the original ms. of Con-
stantine. In this difficulty we derive some assistance from the fact that, con-
sidering the corruptions from the point of view of their nature and quantity,
we note a great difference between those sections of D. A. I. which are based
on contemporary information and those which the editor has derived from
older, written sources. In the former sections we find fewer errors, mainly of a
minor character; but in the latter, which had been subject to continual trans-
cription over a period of a century or more, the corruptions are proportionately
greater in numbers and importance. This principle cannot be used as an
absolute criterion; we have in each case, according to the nature of the corrup-
tion, to judge whether the corruption in question is or is not anterior to the
age of Constantine, and whether in consequence we may or may not retain
it in his text.
In view of these facts, the principles applied to the new edition may thus
be summarized:
The new edition is based on P, the text of which, however, in places
where it is disturbed by material damage, erasures or alterations by later
hands, is restored by reference to V and M. The critical text diverges from P
when the text of P appears to be corrupt, that is to say, in places where it
may be supposed that, owing to copyists' errors or alterations by later hands,
the text of P does not correspond to the original text of Constantine's work.
In such places we have taken into account the variants of the later transcripts
(V, F, M) and editions (Me, Ba, Be) and the conjectural emendations of later
researchers; and on the basis of these we have emended the text of P.
Besides, the critical text diverges from P in spelling also. Modern spelling
has been adopted, which has involved the tacit correction of errors arising
from itacism, of accentual errors (including the Byzantine system of enclitic
accentuation) and of other irregularities. This has been done the more readily
since in our description of P above we have pointed out its orthographical
peculiarities. We have kept the forms of the codex for the ephelcusticon and
Method of the Edition 37

for elision, although P is not consistent in their use. As regards numbers in

the text, Puses verbal forms and cyphers indifferently, sometimes in the same
sentence; we have substituted verbal forms for cyphers in the text only where
consistency absolutely demanded it.
The apparatus criticus falls into two parts, and contains
I. references to sources and parallel passages (F);
2. variants of mss. and editions, and emendations and conjectures of
scholars ( V).
In the first section we have directed attention not merely to the imme-
diate sources of Constantine but also to other, parallel passages which may
assist the understanding of passages to which they are referred. But we have
restricted ourselves to Greek sources only, because the enumeration of all
parallels in the different Western and Eastern sources would have made the
apparatus too bulky. In cases where there is no question of borrowing, but
only of a common source, of similar sources of information, or simply of
fortuitous concord, we cite the works in question with the symbol
In the second section, the following principles have been adopted. In
each case where, for reasons already set forth, we diverge from the text of P,
or where traces of emendations or erasures appear in the text of P, the fact is
noted positively; i. e. we indicate the origin of the variant adopted in the text,
and the reading of P, and if necessary, the readings of the later transcripts
V, F, M, and of the editions Me, Ba, Be. In all other cases, that is, where the
form adopted in the text differs only in spelling from the form found in P, or
when noteworthy variants are recorded in later transcripts or editions, we
note negatively, that is, we confine ourselves to a reference to the variants in
the transcripts or editions in question.
In its references to P, the apparatus records not only the corrections of
the copyist himself (P 1), but also the alterations and the marginal notes made
by different later hands (P 2-P 9 ). By the symbol px are noted the alterations
or erasures which were made by an unrecognizable hand before V was copied,
and by the symbol PY are noted the alterations or erasures which were made
by another unrecognizable hand after V was copied. We have left unnoted
erasures or alterations which are of a purely orthographical character, or those
which occur in words whose meaning is obvious, though we note all erasures
and alterations met with in uncommon proper names. Unnoted also are traces
of occasional attempts by later hands to amend faded writing, unless such
traces suggest that the text has been altered.
Orthographical irregularities of Pare noted in the apparatus only when
they occur in uncommon proper names, words of foreign derivation, colloquial
words, or where the handwriting of P admits of more than one reading; and
lastly where the accent falls on a syllable other than that which generally
carries it. Abbreviations of P are noted only where their interpretation is
doubtful, or when numerals are denoted by letters.
38 Critwal Introduction

Variants found in V, an immediate transcript of P, are noted in the

apparatus only in cases where the parallel passages of P have suffered from
material damage, erasures or alterations by later hands, or where V gives a
variant which differs from the variant of P and which may serve to elucidate
or emend the text. Variants found in F, a transcript of V, are noted only in
exceptional cases, i. e. when F supplies some emendation of substance, or
where the parallel passages of both V and P show trades of alteration. Variants
found in M, a transcript of P, are noted only when erasure or alteration is
found in the parallel passage of P.
We regard it as unnecessary to note in the apparatus all the omissions,
all the blunders and all the alterations of later transcripts and editions, especi-
ally as in our description of mss. and editions we have already given several
examples. The apparatus, therefore, notes only the variants which are in-
formative from the point of view of the restoration or history of the text (in-
cluding the discrepancies between our new text and the text of Be). Note
that where reference is made to the text of the editions, the abbreviations
noted above (Me, Ba, Be) are employed; but where we refer to emendations
or conjectures in the notes or apparatus of the editions, we cite them under the
names of the respective editors (Meursius, Bandur, Bekker).
If a source copied word for word by Constantine has come down to us
independently, our apparatus notes variations therefrom, but not omissions
and arbitrary alterations made by Constantine, who often modified the word-
ing of his sources. Where, however, the author has inserted anything into the
text of his source, this is noted in the apparatus.
In respect to these sources, it has been found necessary in two cases to
examine their mss., and make use of the results of the new collation. The
relevant passages of the edition of Theophanes Continuatus I have collated
with V (= codex Vaticanus gr. 167), and of De Thematibus with C (= codex
Parisinus gr. 854); the variants are noted in the apparatus. Special treatment
had to be applied to the text of George Monachus; for, as C. de Boor has
shown, the emperor Constantine made use of that variant of his text which
is represented by codex P (= cod. Coislin. gr. 305). We have therefore consider-
ed in the apparatus those variants especially which occur in this codex of
George Monachus.
In the apparatus ms. variants are noted in all cases in the original spelling,
omitting only the horizontal strokes above proper names and the dots over
the Landu. Variant proper names are given an initial capital. Uncial numerical
signs are replaced by the usual minuscule forms, and the horizontal stroke
above them by the acute stroke universally employed to-day. Signs and
technical details of the apparatus of our edition are generally in conformity
with the ruling of the International Union of Academies. 69
69 Emploi des Bignes critiques, disposition de l'apparat dans les editions savantes de

t.exte.s grecs et latins. Conseils et recomma.ndations par J. Bidez et A. B. Dra.chma.nn.

Edition nouvelle par A. Delatte et A. Severyns, (Bruxelles-Paris, 1938).
Method of the Edition 39

Lastly, we have included in the apparatus most of the emendations and

conjectures of scholars known to us, though they are not all of equal value. 60
This course is justified by the fact that the bibliography relating to D. A. I.
is so rich and extensive that many individual conjectures are extraordinarily
difficult to find. The work has in the past attracted so many different scholars,
and their studies are published in so many different languages, that it is prac-
tically impossible for one who is not a specialist to know them all. 61 We hope
that it will be of service to those who use this edition to find collected here all
the resources of previous research directed towards critical examination of the
text, and that they will be able to build further upon the foundations here
laid; for research on D. A. I. is by no means exhausted yet, and the present
edition aims at providing future research with a sure and reliable substructure.

80 I have also made use of some comments of Prof. Ph. Kukules (Athens) which

he kindly communicated by letter, and for which I express my sincere gratitude.

61 See the complete bibliography by Gy. Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, vol. I,

(Budapest, 1942), pp. 215-221 (2nd ed. pp. 367-379). - The studies published since are
as follows: M. Vasmer, Die Slaven in Griechenland (Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akade-
mie der Wissenschaften, Jahrgang 1941., Philos.-hist. Klasse No. 12., Berlin, 1941);
A. Vogt, 'Le protospathaire de la phiale et la marine byzantine', Echos d'Orient,
39 (1941-42), pp. 329-332; M. Laskaris, 'La rivalite bulgaro-byzantine en
Serbie et la mission de Leon Rhabdouchos (917), (Constantin Porphyrogenete,
De adm. imp. chap. 32)', Revue historiq_ue du Sud-Est Europeen, 20 (1943),
pp. 202-207; H. Gegroire, 'L'origine et le nom des Croates et des Serbes',
Byzantion, 17 (1944-45), pp. 88-118; K. H. Menges, 'Etymological notes on some
Pacanag names', Byzantion, 17 (1944-45), pp. 256-279; K. Czegledy, 'A IX. szazadi
magyar tortenelem fl5bb kerdesei', Magyar Nyelv, 41 (1945), pp. 33-55; G. Vernadsky,
'Great Moravia and White Chorvatia', Journal of the American Oriental Society, 65 (1945),
pp. 357-359; J. Deer, 'A IX. szazadi magyar tortenet idCSrendjehez', Sz<izadok, 79-80
(1945-46). pp. 2-30; J. Harmatta, 'Szines lovu nepek', Magyar Nyelv, 42 (1946), pp.
26-34; G. Labuda, Pierwsze panstwo slowiaitSkie. Panstwo Samona, Poznan, 1949. pp.
194-262. For bibliography since 1949, see Gy. Moravcsik, Byzantinot11rcica (2nd ed.) I,
pp. 367-379; D. A. I. vol. II, Commentary (London, 1962); Byzantinische Zeit.schrift 55
(1962) and subsequent volumes.
F = Fontes et loci paralleli
V = Variae lectiones et coniecturae

P = cod. Parisinus gr. 2009 (cf. pp. 15-21.)
p1 = ma.nus prima
P~ = ma.nus recentiores
px = ma.nus incerta (ante a. 1509)
PY = manus incerta (post a. 1509)
V = cod. Vaticanus-Palatinus gr. 126 (cf. pp. 21-22.)
v1 = manus prima
V 2 = manus Secunda
F =cod. Parisinus gr. 2967 (cf. pp. 22-23.)
F 1 = manus prima
F 2 = manus secunda
M =cod. Mutinensis gr. 179 [III Fl] (cf. p. 23.)

Me = editio Meursiana (cf. p. 24.)
Meursius = notae Meursii
Ba = editio Banduriana (cf. p. 24.)
Bandurius = animadversiones Bandurii
Be = editio Bekkeriana (cf. p. 24.)
Bekker = apparatus criticus Bekkeri
edd. = editiones Me Ba Be
Migne = editio a Migne curata (cf. p. 24.)
Bury= editio cap. 29-36 a J. Bury fa.eta (cf. p. 25.)


Georg. Mon. = Georgius Monachus, ed. C. de Boor (Lipsiae, 1904)
Georg. Mon. BEPV = codices B E P V a C. de Boor collati
De Them. = Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, De Thematibus, ed. I. Bekken
(Bonnae, 1840); ed. A. Pertusi (Roma, 1952)
De Them.c = cod. Parisinus gr. 854 a me collatus
Theoph. = Theophanes, ed. C. de Boor (Lipsiae, 1883)
Theoph. codd. = codices a. C. de Boor oollati
Theoph. bcdefghm = codices bod f g h ma C. de Boor collati
Theoph. Cont. = Theophanes Continuatus, ed. I. Bekkerus (Bonnae, 1838)
Theoph. Cont.v =cod. Vaticanus gr. 167 a me collatus



<TI po o l Lo v.)
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e:m ULcp I ' \

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lac. 1, 17. 5 XIXlhcr't'~ - .&p6vou: cf. II Paralip. 23, 20. 8 eu/..o
yfiaouaL - E:.&vwv: cf. Psalm. 71, 17.




A wise son maketh glad a father, and an affectionate father taketh

delight in a prudent son. For the Lord giveth wit to speak in season, and
addeth thereto an ear to hear; with Him is the treasure of wisdom, and from
Him cometh every perfect gift; He setteth kings upon the throne and giveth
unto them the lordship over all. Now therefore hearken unto me, my son,
and being adept in this my teaching thou shalt be wise among the prudent,
and be accounted prudent among the wise; the peoples shall bless thee,
and the multitudes of the nations shall call thee blessed. Be instructed in
what it behoves thee before all else to know, and lay hold skilfully upon
the helm of the rule. Study the things that are now, and be instructed
concerning the things that are to be, so that thou mayest amass experience
with sound judgment, and thou shalt be most competent in thine affairs.
Lo, I set a doctrine before thee, so that being sharpened thereby in experi-
ence and knowledge, thou shalt not stumble concerning the best counsels
and the common good: first, in what each nation has power to advantage
the Romans, and in what to hurt, and how and by what other nation each
severally may be encountered in arms and subdued; then, concerning their
ravenous and insatiate temper and the gifts they demand inordinately;
next, concerning also the difference between other nations, their origins

V Tit. 1 post Kwvcr-rocvr(vou add. -rou edd. II 4 7topcpupoyvvrrrov] litte:ras cpup

s. v. add. P1 II post (1occrt'Aoc add. vou.&i::cr(ocL F 2
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t-'CX.O'L/\E:UE't'Cil ,,
e:VE:XE:V <X/\"Y)' '~
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'I) oE:c.,L<X aou
G. G. I
X.OC't'E:Uv-UVvE:L"Y)O'OCV ~ \
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<Xl>'t'OU > I
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-, If: G. 't'<X\ oLXOCLCU-
~ I

oc-r& crou. I1 po rrpoa6>7toU ocu't'ou 7tEaouv't'<XL 7to"'Aewt, xcxl. "Ad~ouaL 45

5vp xouv ot EX&pol. <XO't'ou. Koc't'<XaxLcxa&d1) TO a't'i'As:xoc; -rou yevouc; I cxu't'ou
rroJ..uyovlocc; cpuMoLc;, x.ocl. ~ <1XLOC "t'OU X<Xp7tOU <XU't'OU E7tLXOCAU\jJ<Xt op'Y)
~occrlA.e:toc, O't'L Ot&: crou ~ocaLAE:uouaL ~occrt"AE:i:c; oo~OC~OV't'tc; as: de; 't'OV cxtwv<X.

F 28 <iic; &.1t0 - 29 &.Tt'o emu: cf. Deut. 28, 7; le. 10, 18. 31 Tp6oc;
J.ii<.jle:TIXL: le. 33, 14. 31 o IlixVToxpiX:t'c.>p U7te:pixcrme:~: Zach. 9, 15. 32
xix-re:u&uve:'L crou -roc 8Lix~i)ixTIX: cf. Psalm. 39, 3; 118, 133. 32 i:8p&cre:L -
33 &.cr&Ae:uTov: cf. Sap. 4, 3. 33 'O &p6voc; - oc1hou: Psalm. 88,
37. 34 ol ocp&IXAot- ~At7tOVTE:t; cf. I Paralip. 21, 3. 34 ou8ev - 35
xixAe:7t&v: cf. lob 5, 19; Sap. 3, 1. 35 cre: e~e:M~OCTO: Deut. 14,
2. 35 &.7to i)TplXt; occp6iptcre:v: cf. Galat. 1, 15. 36
Tijv IXUTOU - ~8wxe:v: cf. Esd. 1, 2. 36 Tt&e:Lxe:v - 37 ecp' u<.jl1jAOU:
cf. Psalm. 17, 34; Ezech. 40, 2. 37 we; 7t6/.w - 38 ocv6<.jiwcre:v:
cf. Matth. 5, 14. 38 iflcrTE: - e&vi;iv: cf. Psalm. 71,
IO. 38 7tpocrxuve:fo.&oct - 39 yljv: cf. Psalm. 32, 14; 71, 11. 40
XOCTEUOOWV: cf. Psalm. 67, 20, 41 foTc.> - e1t'ocuT6v: cf. Exod. 13,
J 9. 42 :Exe:1toccrOCT(I) - 43 xdp crou: cf. Exod. 33, 22; Sap. 19, 8.
and customs and manner of life, and the position and climate of the land
they dwell in, its geographical description and measurement., and moreover
concerning events which have occurred at various times between the Romans
and different nations; and thereafter, what reforms have been introduced
from time to time in our state, and also throughout the Roman empire.
These things have I discovered of my own wisdom, and have decreed that
they shall be made known unto thee, my beloved son, in order that thou
mayest know the difference between each of these nations, and how either
to treat with and conciliate them, or to make war upon and oppose. For so
shall they quake before thee as one mighty in wisdom, and as from fire
shall they flee from thee; their lips shall be bridled, and as darts shall thy
words wound them unto death. Thou shalt appear terrible unto them, and
at thy face shall trembling take hold upon them. And the Almighty shall
cover thee with his shield, and thy Creator shall endue thee with under-
standing; He shall direct thy steps, and shall establish thee upon a sure
foundation. Thy throne shall be as the sun before Him, and His eyes shall
be looking towards thee, and naught of harm shall touch thee, for He hath
chosen thee and set thee apart from thy mother's womb, and hath given
unto thee His rule as unto one excellent above all men, and hath set thee
as a refuge upon a hill and as a statue of gold upon an high place,
and as a city upon a mountain hath He raised thee up, that the nations
may bring to thee their gifts and thou mayest be adored of them that dwell
upon the earth. But Thou, 0 Lord my God, whose rule abideth unharmed
for ever, prosper him in his ways who through Thee was begotten of me, and
may the visitation of Thy face be toward him, and Thine ear be inclined
to his supplications. May Thy hand cover him, and may he rule because
of truth, and may Thy right hand guide him; may his ways be made straight
before Thee to keep thy statutes. May foes fall before his face, and his
enemies lick the dust. May the stem of his race be shady with leaves of
many offspring, and the shadow of his fruit cover the kingly mountains;
for by Thee do kings rule, glorifying Thee for ever and ever.

43 ['occrLJ.e:ueTc.> - 1) 8e:~Loc crou: Psalm. 44, 5. 44 xocw>&uv-

.&e:l1Jcrocv - 45 Toc 8LxoctciiocToc crou: Psalm. 118, 5; cf. Psalm. 5, 9. 45
Ilpo 1tpocrcii1tou-n-oJ.etot: cf. Psalm. 71, 9; Lev. 26, 8. 45 J.e:l~oum -
46 OCUTOU Psalm. 71, 9; Is. 49, 23. 48 8Loc crou - ['occrtJ.e:Li; Prov. 8, 15.

V 20 xocl1 om. V edd. I/ E:&<7iv (lUtera v erasa) PY: t&v<7iv P V edd. iJ 22 TLVL V
edd.: TLCJL p II 24 1tOCOfJ edd. 1tOCCJ1) v: 1tOCCJL p II XOCTOC Tlvoci; p I 31 xocl crou
p II 35 occp6p11cre:v p II 36 OC1JTOU Migne II Te&1Jxe:v p II 37 crxbt1)V coni. Moravcsi.k:
crxt1tc.>V P cn<o1t-f)v Meursius Ba Be I/ 38 8wpocpope:L&ocL V F edd. 8opocpope:~
cr.&oct p 8opucpope:fo&ocL F 1 II 40 ocvciiJ.e:&poi; xoc! oc!ciivwi; v edd. ii 43 08'Y)yf,cre:t v
Me: 68L'ffiCJ1] P 68l)yficr7l Meursius Ba Be
I, 2
1. rr e: P t ,. wv n a: ,. ~ Lv oc x L,. w v, x oc l 7t P a i; 7t 6 a ()(. a u -
~ cD. t. o v T oc L e:-ra Tou ~ocaLl.ewi; 'Pc.ucxlcuv
e: ,Lp YJ V e: U
' 0 V 't' e: t;.

''Axoucrov -rotvuv, ute, & oL ooxe:~ (odv) ae: ~ ocyvoe:~v, xocl

68Be vo~wv ye:vou, ivoc x-r~crri xu~epv'Y)aLv. <l>Yjl yd:p xocl -ro~t; &A.f..oLt; oc7tocmv 5 I
dvocL XOCAOV 't"WV U"/t'O't'E:'t'OCyevwv 't'~V .X&Yj<JLV, OLOCcpe:p6v't'wc; crol, -rel'> ot
u7tE:p itjc; miv-rwv O"W't"Yjptocc; 6cpdJ..ov-rL oLoce:pLv&v xocl n-fiv xocrLx~v
OAXOCOIX 7n)OOCAtouxdv 't'E: xocl xu~e:pv.iv. Et oE: croccpe:~ xocl XOC't'Yjoc~e:uevcp
6rP Mycp xocl ofov e:Lx?j pfov't'L 7te:~0 xocl iX7tA.o"r:x0 7tpot; -rYJv 't'WV \ npoxe:Lkvwv
' I
e:xp'lJcrOC'l)V '1-1;
O'l)AW<1LV, 'I'\
'l)oe:v C1
1.TOCUoccrric;, ULE:. O'u yocp
' e:moe:Lc.,LV
, 1'1- i: XOC11.11.Lypoc-
I ........
cplocc; ~ cpp.Xcre:wc; ~'t''t'LXLcrevY)t; xocl 't'O Ot'Y)pzvov OLO')'XOU<1Yjt; xocl utJniMv
7tOL~crocL Ecr7tOUOocmx, &/..Ail fJ.CXAAOV ota XOLV7)t; xocl xoc&wt"AY)ev"f)c; &7tocy-
)'EALOC; OLOOC~OCL CTOL fo7te:ucroc, &ne:p ofoocL oe:~v ere: ~ &yvoe:~v, xocl. & 't'~V
E:x ocxp.ic; E:ne:Lploci; cruve:crlv 't'E: xocl cpp6V'Y)<1LV e:uocpwt; <10L OOVCX.'t'OCL
rrpo~e:ve:~v. 15
<nr ., f.l.'
T 7t0AOCtJocvw '
yocp XOC't'IX' ., '
7r0AU '
auqie:pELV ' '
oce:t - A
't"Cp ., -
tJOC<1LAEL 'P woctwv
e:Lp~vYJv E:.&1..e:tv xc.w e:-ra -rou &voui; TWv Iloc-r~tvocxt'twv xocl cptl.txd:i;
I - I I;; ~
\ >
7tpoc; <X.U't'O\Jc; 7rOLE:L0"1TOCL (t
O"UV1TYJXOCc; -re: XOCL\ 0"7t0Voocc;
(1 \
XOCL\ OC7rOO"'t'AALV XOC1T > (1>

EXIXcr't'OV xp6vov E:v-re:u&ev 7t?Oc; OCU't"oOc; OC7t0Xptcrtocptov [J.E:'t'cX ~E\IL(.t)'\I OC?o-

6VP ~6v-rwv I
xa:l. 7tpoc; 't'O &voe; E7tL't' Y)OELC.U'\I xcx.l &vocA.oc~&:ve:cr&ocL exe:~&e:v 20
o~pouc;, ~'t'OL oljitoocc; XOCL &7tOX?Lcrtocptov, ohwec; EV ~ 3-eocpUAOCX't'CJ)
TOC'J't'Yl rr6'),e:t e:-roc -rou xoc&unoupyouv't'ot; de; -rocuToc auve:A.e:uaov't'ott, xocl
~OCO"LALXWV e:ue:pye:mwv xocl cptAO't"LfJ.LWV 't'W'\I r.oc~c.uv 7tcXV't"WV 't'OU ~ocm
J..e:uov-roc; &rroA.ocuaoucrw.
''O't"L ye:t't"\ILOC~e:L 't'O 't'OLOU't"OV &voe; 't'WV Iloc-r~L\IOCXL'tWV Tei> epe:t 25
itjc; Xe:pcrwvoc;, xocl d ~ cpt"A.wc; xoucn 7tpoc; ~ac;, Mvocv-rotL xocToc -rYji;
Xe:pcrcuvoc; > J: I
ec,e:pxe:cr1.TOCL (1 I
XIXL xoupcre:ue:w \ .t.y
XOCL\ ;AYjL<.,<11.TOCL OCU't'YJV 't'E: 't'Y\)V x e:p-
> I (1

crwvoc xocl. Til /,e:y6e:voc xJ..ocToc.

69Be 2. n e: p l 't' wv II oc 't' ~ Lv oc x L 't' w v x IX l. 't' w\I 'p wc;.

' 0't'L xocl. -ro~c; 'Pwc; ot Iloc't'~tvocx'i:'t'oct ydTove:c; xocl oopoL xoc&e-

........ I
O'" t'OCV l)\ 7tpoc;
' I I'
'I' I

' p <.Ucrtocv, XOCL txocvwc; CXUTfJV rrocpOCtJAOC7r'

't"YJV I \ ' - A t'OUO"L XIXL 11.uocLVOV't'OCL.
' ' I ' .... I

"0't'L xocl. OL 'Pwc; OLOC crnouo7)c; EXOUO"LV dp~VYJV EXELV e:-rd: 't"WV 5

F 1. 4 ''Axoucrnv - &:yvodv: cf. Prov. 1, 8; De cerim., ed. Bonn. p.

456, 3-4. 5 vo~CilV - XU~pvt)crL\I Prov. 1, 5. 8 El oe -
13 fom:ucroc: cf. De cerim., ed. Bonn. p. 5, 2-4. = ed. Vogt I. p. 2, 15 - 17.
1, 2
1. 0 f t h e P e c h e n e g s, and how many advantages
accrue from their being at peace with the
e m p e r o r o f t h e R o m a n s.

Hear now, my son, those things of which I think you should not be
ignorant, and be wise that you may attain to government. For I maintain
that while learning is a good thing for all the rest as well, who are subjects,
yet it is especially so for you, who are bound to take thought for the safety
of all, and to steer and guide the laden ship of the world. And if in setting
out my subject I have followed the plain and beaten track of speech and,
so to say, idly running and simple prose, do not wonder at that, my son.
For I have not been studious to make a display of fine writing or of an
Atticizing style, swollen with the sublime and lofty, but rather have been
eager by means of every-day and conversational narrative to teach you
those things of which I think you should not be ignorant, and which may
without difficulty provide that intelligence and prudence which are the
fruit of long experience.
I conceive, then, that it is always greatly to the advantage of the
emperor of the Romans to be minded to keep the peace with the nation
of the Pechenegs and to conclude conventions and treaties of friendship
with them and to send every year to them from our side a diplomatic agent
with presents befitting and suitable to that nation, and to take from their
side sureties, that is, hostages and a diplomatic agent, who shall be collected
together under charge of the competent minister in this city protected of
God, and shall enjoy all imperial benefits and gifts suitable for the emperor
to bestow.
This nation of the Pechenegs is neighbour to the district of Cherson,
and if they are not friendly disposed towards us, they may make excursions
and plundering raids against Cherson, and may ravage Cherson itself and
the so-called Regions.

2. 0 f t h e P e c h e n e g s an d t h e R u s s i a n s.
The Pechenegs are neighbours to and march with the Russians also,
and often, when the two are not at peace with one another, raid Russia,
and do her considerable harm and outrage.
The Russians also are much concerned to keep the peace with the

V 1. 4 8e:i:v add. Moravcsik II 6 -riji V edd.: -ro P II 11 8t1Jp1)evov V

8tl)pl)evov Me II uljiriAoU Meursius Ba Be II 12 xoc~riAtevl}i; p II 13 crot:
cre V edd. II 21 IS~ri8oci; P II 28 x).~oc-roc P.
2. 2 Iloc-r~tvocxhoct P II
2, 3, 4
Iloc't'~LVOCXL't'WV. , Ayop&.~oum y.ip e~ O:U't'WV f36o:c; xo:l farrouc; xod rrp6f3o:'t'oc,
XOCL E:x 'C'OU't'WV e::uo:pfon:pov OLO:~Wcn XO:L 't'pU<pE:pW't'e::pov, errd 'Y)oE:v '!WV
rrpoe::Lp'Y)e:vwv I 'I'
..,wwv , ' 't'1)
e::v - 'p wen~ , xoc..:ri;;cr't"Y)xe::v.
0. L 'Al,,..., , ouoe:: , "'\ 7tpoc;' U7te::popLouc;
' I

., ,
' I 0.
oUVOCV' t'OCL !hU/\Wc; OL' p- cue;, E:L, 'Y') e::'t'OC\ '!WV - IT OC't'I''..,L-
..... ' , I ~ ~f , - It - t I
VOCXL't'WV e::Lp'Y)VE:UOV't'e::c;, oLO't'L OUVOCV'C'otL - e::v 't'<p exe::Lvouc; "t'WV OLXE:LWV 10
t - , \ ' 6 \ , , ,
1)7t'oxwpe::w - o:u't'oL e::rre::px e::voL 't'O: e::xe::wwv occpo:v ..,e:w 't'e:: xocL /\Uotwe::a..:ro:L. ('I' \ ... , 0.

~LO iiA"'Aov oce:l 0'7rOUO~V ot 'Pwc; 't'L&E:V't'O:L - OLOC 'C'e:: 't'O Y) 7tOCpotf3A.oc7t't'e::cr.&ocL
7vP 7t0Cp, O:U't'WV , - XOCL\ OLOC I\
"' \ 't'O' ,Lcrxu pov E:LVOCL T
't'O\ 't'OLOU't'OV
- l!O.
c;..:rvoc; - cruo:x.iocv ,

rrocp' OCU'C'WV XIXL xe::Lv OCU't'OU<; de; ~o~&e::Locv, we; &v xocl. Tijc;
" A 0. I
e::x' I(I_Tpocc; OCU"t'
' -
W ,
V OC7r0C/\/\O:' .,., ,
t' t'WV"t'O:L XOtL\ 't"Y)<;- I
t"'OYj'ITE:LOC<; .,
Xot'C'ot7t0/\0CUOLE:V. 15
''O't'L oM rrpoc; Tfiv f3ocaiJ...e::uoucro:v 't'OCU't' YJV '!WV 'Pwoc(wv 7t6ALv
OL'p-we; rrocpocyLve::cr'ITOCL I (I_
C'O:L, e::L, 'Y\) e::'t'oc\ 't'WV - IT OC't'I''1.,LVO:XL"t'<-UV e::LpYjVE:UOV-
' I

,, i' , ,, ' , ~' ' - ' _,

't'e::t::;, OU'C'E: 7r0AE:(LOU xocpLV, OU"t'E: 7tpocy0t't'E:Lott::;, E:7tE:LOYj - SV 't'<p e::'t"O: '!WV
rr"A.olwv de; 't'ouc; cppocyouc; 't'OU rro't'ocou ylve::a&otL 't"oOc; 'P&c; xocl. Y)
M\lixcr&oci OLe:A&e::iv, e::i. Y) e~ocy&.ycucrt 't'OU 7tOTOCou 't'OC 7tAoicx. OCU't'&v, xocl. 20
, \ '!WV
7OBe e::m - wwv " t-'AO:cr't'O''I' "'
t1.,0V't'e::c; OLOCt' A,O:O'WO'LV, - '
E:7tL' t"LI lo.
'ITE:V't"O:L 't"O't'E:
' -

O" OL' '!OU- 't'OLOU'' C'OU e::..:rvouc; ''Cl. - IT OC'C'I''..,LVOCXL"t'-WV, XotL'
'!WV I' 1
p~oLwc;, " ot't'e:: 7tpoc; ouo
' '<''
' '<'' - '
7tOvouc; O:V't'1;;XE:LV l) oUVOCV'C'OCL, 't'p07t0UV't"OCL XOCL XOC'C'OCC1<pot1.,0V't'otL.
' ' L I')'

3. 11 e:: p l. 't' wv I1 ot 't' ~ Lv oc x L't' & v x ot l. T 0 u p x w v.

0'C'L xoct 't'O 't'WV ToupXW\I yevoc; ey&:J...wc; 7t't'OEL't'OCL xo:l oeoie::

't'ouc; dp"t)e\louc; Tioc't'?:wocxl't'occ; oL.i 't'O 7to/../..&:xic; ~'t''t"Y).&9jvoci 7totp' otu't'wv

xocl. 't'e::A.dwc; crxe::oov 7tOCpo:oo&Yj\IOCL occpocvLcrtJ-<t'> Kocl. OLOC 't'OU't'O q>o~e::pol. ocd
- T ' ' TI
't'OLc; oupxoLc; OL OC't'1.,LVOCXL't'OCL voL..,OV't'OCL, XOCL crucr'C'E:/\/\OV'C'otL <X7t <XU'
'I' - ''I' ' ,.,., ' ' ' C'-WV. 5

4. TI e:: p l 't' w v I1 oc 't' ~ Lv ot x L't' & v :x. ex. l. ' p & c; 'X. (/.. l.
To up x w v.

''0-.i Tou f3o:cnJ..ewc; 'Pwocf.wv e:-.0: -rwv Tioc-.~ivo:XL't'WV dpl)ve::uov-

't"Oc;, oihe: ot) 'P(;)c; noA.eou v6cp XOC't'OC 't'1jc; 'Pwocf.wv emxpot't'e::Locc;,
gvp oihe:: ol Toupxoi Mvocv't'O:L E1te:/..&e:i:v, ocJ.."A' o\S't'e:: \ \mE:p -njc; dp-fiv"Y)c; e::yciJ..oc 5
xo:L\ urre:poyxoc
' I
XP'YIJ(LOC't'cJ.x -.e:: xoci\ 1tpocyoc-.o:
rrocpot\ 't'C,.....UV <p wo:iwv
ouvo:v't"OCL ~f

cX7rOCL't'e:'i:v, oe:oi6nc; ~v OLOC 't'OU 't'OLOU't'OU &vouc; 7tOCpoc 't'OU ~o:aO,.wc;

xo:'t'' ocu't'wv crxuv b 't'Cj} E:xdvouc; xoc't'.i 'Pwocf.wv E:xa't'po:Te::ue::w. Ot
( yocp) Iloc't'~tvocx.i't'ocL, xocl r(l 7tpoc; 't'OV ~OCO'LAeOC <pLAL~ cruvooue::voL xocl
rrocp' b<.dvou OLOC ypocchwv xocl. ociipwv OCVOC7te::t&6e::voL, OUVOCV't'OCL p~of.cuc; 10

V 21 -;;wv V edd.: 'tt.v P \\ lha.~~crwcrw edd.

2, 3, 4
Pechenegs. For they buy of them horned cattle and horses and sheep,
whereby they live more easily and comfortably, since none of the aforesaid
animals is found in Russia. Moreover, the Russians are quite unable to
set out for wars beyond their borders unless they are at peace with the
Pechenegs, because while they are away from their homes, these may come
upon them and destroy and outrage their property. And so the Russians,
both to avoid being harmed by them and because of the strength of that
nation, are the more concerned always to be in alliance with them and
to have them for support, so as both to be rid of their enmity and to enjoy
the advantage of their assistance.
Nor can the Russians come at this imperial city of the Romans, either
for war or for trade, unless they are at peace with the Pechenegs, because
when the Russians come with their ships to the barrages of the river and
cannot pass through unless they lift their ships off the river and carry them
past by portaging them on their shoulders, then the men of this nation of the
Pechenegs set upon them, and, as they cannot do two things at once, they
are easily routed and cut to pieces.

3. 0 f t h e P e c h e n e g s a n d T u r k s.

The tribe of the Turks, too, trembles greatly at and fears the said
Pechenegs, because they have often been defeated by them and brought
to the verge of complete annihilation. Therefore the Turks always look on
the Pechenegs with dread, and are held in check by them.

4. 0 f t h e P e c h e n e g s a n d R u s s i a n s a n d T u r k s.

So long as the emperor of the Romans is at peace with the Pechenegs,

neither Russians nor Turks can come upon the Roman dominions by force
of arms, nor can they exact from the Romans large and inflated sums in
money and goods as the price of peace, for they fear the strength of this
nation which the emperor can turn against them while they are campaigning
against the Romans. For the Pechenegs, if they are leagued in friendship
with the emperor and won over by him through letters and gifts, can easily

8. 5 Iloc-r~Lvocx'LT1u Be Ifo-r~tvocxhoct F 1 Me Ba: IIoc-rl:tvocxocL P JI &7t': u7t' edd.

4. 4 o! add. Jenkins II 5 ToopxoL P II 8 '[JOSt taxuv punctum posuemnt
P V Me Ba Migne II post lxa-t"pocnoe:tv punctum '[JOS?Urunt P V F Be comma
posuerunt Ba Migne JI 9 y~p add. Moravcsik: 8e add. F 1 Be II IIoc-rl:tvaxl-rocL P.
4, 5, 6
XOC't'a rijc; xwpcxc; 't'WV 't' 'Pwc; XOCL 't'WV Toupxwv E7ttp:x_e:cr.S-ext xexl E:~ocvopcx-
't'ex' 't"OU't'WV
' ~ '
XexL' 7tCXLoexptex n
Xext' ..,A'Y)L'o0"1Text
... ,.-
't' Y' )V xwpocv
, -

71Be o. II e: p l 't' wv II ex 't' ~ Lv ot x L't' wv X ex


B o u J... y cX. p w v.

"On XOCL 't'otc; BouJ...ycX.poLc; cpo~e:pw-re:poc; &v dvexL o6;e:Le:V 0 't'{;)v

9rp 'p wocLr WV A I
' XOCL' ocvexyX1JV
' ' 'Y)O'U:;(totc;
' ' 7tt't'LV'VotL
' Q' 't'OU't'OLt::;
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x 't'OU e:-r.X 't'WV Ilex-r~LvexXL't'WV dp'Y)Ve:ue:w, E7tLO~ xext 7tpoc; exu-rouc; 5
-rouc; B ou/\ycxpouc;
I .. , OL' Lp'f)e:voL
' , II ex't'._,,wexxL't'CXL
y - ..
7tAYjO' ,,..

~ou/,"f)&WO'LV, ~ oi' OLXEiov xtpooc; ~ 't'rJ 7tpoc; 't'OV ~<X.O'LAtex 'Pwo:.[wv

I ' - ~,
:x.ex1n-rL e:u:x_e:pwc; OUVOCV' t'Ott XOC't'CX B QUI\
\ i
' I
XCXL OC7t0 't'OU
\ ' \ -

7te:ptov-roc; 7tA~&ouc; xoct ~c; tcrxuoc; exO-rwv \me:pvtxiiv ocO't'ouc; xext ~niiv.
~tiX -rou-ro xocl ot BouA.yocpot &.ywvex xoct cr7touo~v ot'Y)ve:x&c; E::x_oucrt -rou 10
dp'Y)ve:ue:w xoct oovoe:'i:v e:-ril -rwv Ilcx-r~LVotXL't'WV. 'Ex "t'OU yilp 7to/..Mx.Lc;
ur.' OCU't'WV XOC't'OC7tOAe:'Y)&~voct xod 7tpextoe:u&!fivcxt "t'?j ne:lp~ E:yvwxocm
9vp xocAov x.cxl crurpE:pov dvcxt -ro dp-l)ve:t'.mv &.d npoc; cxuTouc;.

6. II e: p t -r w v X ex
L X e: p O' W V LT W v.

"On xext e't'e:poc; J..ococ; -r&v -rowu't'wv IlcxT~wexxt-rwv -r0 E:pe:t

rijc; Xe:pcrwvoc; 7tocpcX.xe:tnoct, ohtve:c; xext 7tpocyex-re:uov-.cxL e:-roc -rwv
Xe:pcrwvL't'WV, xocl 1tOLQU(J'L -rile; oouA.dcxc; exO't'WV 't' xexl 't'OU ~cxcrt/..E:wc; e:rc;
' 'P (l)(J'L'CXV XOCL' X oc..,,expLexv
"!' -rr1v Y ' xexL' 't'l)V
xexL' e:tc;
7texV't'OC 't'CX' XL1TV
' -Q 5
pIJ, O'Y)Aov6't'L '; nexpoc 't'{;)v Xe:pcrwwr&v 't'OV 7tpocru7te:cpwv'Y)-
72Be vov Lcr.&ov i'.mE:p 't':;jc; 't'OLexU't' Y)c; Otexxovlcxc; x.ex't'cX 't'O &.v~xov 't':;jc; oouJ...e:tocc;
xcxl -rou x.6nou ocu't'wv, ofov ~J...ocntoc, 7tp&votex, x.expE:pLex, crYJev't'O'., 7tene:pw,
l()rP oe:pcX't'LOC &A.'Y)&LVcX II&p \&txex xexl 't'e:pcx e:'lo'Yj 't'cX tm' exU't'hlV E:m~'Y)'t'OUe:voc,
xex.&wc; iiv E:xoccrToc; Xe:pcrwvhYjc; e:x.cxcr't'ov Ilcx-.~tvexx.tTIJv 7tdcrn crucpwv&v 10
YJ 7te:tcr.&'fi. 'EA.e:u.&e:pot yocp one:c; XOCL ofov oc1h6voot OL "t'OLOU't'OL fiex-r?:;:LvOCXL-
't'CXL ouoe:texv oou/,dexv &ve:u tcr&ou 7tOLOUcr( 7tO"t'.

F 6. 8 ofov - 9 E:m~1J't"oue:voc cf. Eparch. bibl. IX. 6., ed. I. et P. Zepos,

Jus Graecoromanum II. p. 382. 9 Ilocp.fhxoc: cf. Ioannes Lydus,
De magistr. II. 13., ed. Wuensch p. 68, 23-24.
4, o, 6
come upon the country both of the Russians and of the Turks, and enslave
their women and children and ravage their country.

5. 0 f t h e P e c h e n e g s a n d t h e B u 1 g a r i a n s.

To the Bulgarians also the emperor of the Romans will appear more
formidable, and can impose on them the need for tranquillity, if he is at
peace with the Pechenegs, because the said Pechenegs are neighbours to
these Bulgarians also, and when they wish, either for private gain or to
do a favour to the emperor of the Romans, they can easily march against
Bulgaria, and with their preponderating multitude and their strength
overwhelm and defeat them. And so the Bulgarians also continually struggle
and strive to maintain peace and harmony with the Pechenegs. For from
having frequently been crushingly defeated and plundered by them, they
have learned by experience the value and advantage of being always at
peace with them.

6. 0 f t h e P e c h e n e g s a n d C h e r s o n i t e s.

Yet another folk of these Pechenegs lies over against the district
of Cherson; they trade with the Chersonites, and perform services for them
and for the emperor in Russia and Chazaria and Zichia and all the parts
beyond: that is to say, they receive from the Chersonites a prearranged
remuneration in respect of this service proportionate to their labour and
trouble, in the form of pieces of purple cloth, ribbons, loosely woven cloths,
gold brocade, pepper, scarlet or Parthian leather, and other commodities
which they require, according to a contract which each Chersonite may make
or agree to with an individual Pecheneg. For these Pechenegs are free men
and, so to say, independent, and never perform any service without remuner-

V 5. I -r&v2 om. V edd. II 6 Iloc-r~tvocxhoct P.

6. I Xepcrwvl-rcuv p II 4 Xepcrcuvhcuv p II 6 Xepcrwvhcuv p II 8 xepocpLoc
Meursius JI cs~ev-roc edd. II n-tn-ept Ba Be II 9 post &:J.1).Swoc et 7ttXp3txoc punctwn
posuit p Ilocp4hxoc scr. Moravcsik Ilocp-0-txoc coni. Bekker Sestakov: mxp3txoc
P edd. II 11/2 Iloc-r?;Lvocxhoct P.
7, 8
7. Ile:pl. TMV &7to Xe:pcr&vllt; &7tocrTe:J..J..otvwv
~ oc cr LJ.. Lx & v f; v IT ot T ~ Lv oc x ( ~

''0-n ~vlx.oc rre:p&.ari (1occrLALX.ot; di; Xe:pcrwvot ~ve:x.ot -riji; Totcxunii;

~ '
O(j)E:L/\E:L 'n' CX'
e:u,,.ui; , ltOCJTE:/\ IT OCT1.,LVOCXLCXV
'"').e:LV e:Lc; :>" ' :Kot'l E:'
' ltL1.,
:>" 'Y)'t'E:LV

'',r1 ~
o'l'wcxc; 7t0Cp ' OCUTWV
~ ' Totc;, XOCL' e:px.ozvwv
' ' ' -
CXU't'WV, e:v
't'OUt; ' 5
oynoocc; de; TO x.&.mpov Xe:pcrwvoc; xpotTouevouc; XCXTCXAL'ltctve:LV' OCUTOt;
iovp oE: e:Toc [ -rwv otoccrwcrTwv 7tpoi; ITocT~wcxx(cxv &7ttpxe:cr&otL xotl TOC E:vTe:-
TOC/\e:vcx ' "' - O'L oe:
:>" - t'CXL CX''' lt/\"f)CJTOL
'' X.OCL'
TWV mxp' CXUTOLt; O''ltotvlwv o!;e:'i:c; E:m.&u'Y)TCXL ocvtOYjV E:m~l)TOUcrLV ~e:v&.ALOC
tx.ocv&., ot E:v o~Loe:c; &AA.ex E:v Mycp ocu't'Wv xotf. &"'A"'Acx J..6ycp 't'WV cxuTwv IO
.... ( ~\ ' - \ 1. I ' - \ ~\ ' \
yuvocLXWV, OL oe: OC'ltOO'WCJTOCL Tot c:v U7te:p TOU X07tOU CXUTWV, 't'ot oe U7te:p
t \ -

Tou x67tou TWV ~J.,6ywv otuTwv. Ehcx, dcrepx.otvou 't'ou ~otcrLALxou di;
T"Yjv xwpcxv CXUTWV, ~YjTOUCJL 7tp6Te:pov TcX TOU ~otcrtAtWt; owpcx, XotL 7tOCALV,
oTe xopecroucrL Tooc; &:v&pw7toui; cxuTwv, ~l)TOucrL TeX 't'Wv yuvotLxwv otOTWv
X.OCL\ 't'(l)V
- yove:wv ' OCUTWV. ' - 'A"'..,
/\/\ot\ XotL\ ucrOL
TW- I :>"
, ' t'O
OCU' ' V U7tOcrTpe:-
( I
73Be I
rp (j)OVTCX 7tpoc;
11 , n-
' X
~ ,
- ' n
, , , _
I , ' - :>" -
eT CXU't'OU 1 1.,l)TOUCJL 7totp CXU't'OU
, _ ,.., , , _
, ' -

poyt::U'ITYjVotL oLcx TOV XO'ltOV CXUTWV Te: XOCL TWV CX/\Oywv CXU't'WV.

' '
8. II e: pl TWV CX'ltO ~ e: a <p u A rX x 't' ou 7t 6 A e cu c; ti. 7t o-
O'TE:AAoevwv ~otcrLALXWV e't'cX X.EAcxvo(wv otoc Te:
-rou Aocvou(Hou x.otf. 8&.vcx7tpL xotf. 8ocvoccrTpt
'lt 0 T oc 0 u : v IT ot T ~ Lv ot x l ~

"OTL xcxl di; To epoi; 't"Yjc; Bou"Aycxploci; xot&e~e:TcxL "Acxoi; Twv IlotT~L- 5
vcxx.LTwv, E:rrl To epoc; 't'ou Aocvot7tpL x.cxt 't'ou A&.votcr't'pt xotf. Twv E:Tepwv
Twv E:xe:i:cre: 6vTwv rroTcxwv. Kott {?icxm"Atxou &7tocr't'e:AA.01.dvou E:vTe:u.S-e:v
e:TcX xe:'Acxv&wv, OUVCXTOCL x.cxl :x.wplc; TOU de; Xe:pcrwvot OC'lte:'A&e:i:v bJTcxu&ot
11 v P cruvTowc; XOCL Toc:x_e:wc; e:uptcrx.e:LV TOUt; CXUTOUt;
I \ ' ( I IT CXT1.,LVCXXLTott;,
' :>" , '

e:upwv Yjvue:t otdt &:v.&pc~mou ocO't'ou o {?ioccrt'Atx.6c;, ev't'oc; 't'WV :x_e:A.cxvolwv IO

Evwv xcxl e:&' E:cxuTou TeX {?ioccrLALXOt E:mq>e:p6e:voc; xocl q>UAcX't'TWV ev ToLt;
z.e:'Aocvo(oLc; 7tp&.yocTCX. Koct xcx-.epx_OVTCXL 7tpot; cxu-.6v, xcxt 1he: X.CX't'EA.0-wcrtv,
ornwcn 7tpoc; cxu-.ouc; 0 {?ioccrLAL:X.Oc; &:v&pw7touc; OCU'tOU 6ynocxc;, x.ocl Aot{?icfve:L
xcxt cxuToc; &rro TWv -.otouTwv Ilcx't'~tvotxtTwv hepouc; 6~Lootc;, x.cxt x.poc-.e:i:
ocuTouc; de; -.oc x_e:Mvotcx, xcxt -.6-.e: crucpwve:'i: e:'t'' otu-.wv xcxt <Sn 16

V 7. 1/2 -r&v &7toonllovwv ~MLALx&v &7to Xepo&vo<; V edd. II 5 IS\ji1J8oc<;

p 8 lfo-rl:wocxhocL p II 9 0'7t'OCVLWV p II ocvocl81JV p edd. II 14 xoptoOUO'L
versionem Laskin secutU8 coni. Moravcsik: x(J)p-l]oouoL P x.(J)p(O'ouoL coni.
7, 8
7. Of the dispatch of imperial agents from
C h e r s o n t o P a t z i n a c i a.

When an imperial agent goes over to Cherson on this service, he must

at once send to Patzinacia and demand of them hostages and an escort, and
on their arrival he must leave the hostages under guard in the city of Cherson,
and himself go off with the escort to Patzinacia and carry out his instruc-
tions. Now these Pechenegs, who are ravenous and keenly covetous of
articles rare among them, are shameless in their demands for generous gifts,
the hostages demanding this for themselves and that for their wives, and the
escort something for their own trouble and some more for the wear and tear
of their cattle. Then, when the imperial agent enters their country, they first
ask for the emperor's gifts, and then again, when these have glutted the
menfolk, they ask for the presents for their wives and parents. Also, all who
come with him to escort him on his way back to Cherson demand payment
from him for their trouble and the wear and tear of their cattle.

8. 0 f t h e d i s p a t c h o f i m p e r i a 1 a g e n t s w i t h s h i p s
o f w a r f r o m t h e c i t y p r o t e c t e d o f G o d t o P a t z i-
n a c i a along the Danube and Dnieper and
D n i e s t e r r i v e r.

In the region of Bulgaria also is settled a folk of the Pechenegs, toward

the region of the Dnieper and the Dniester and the other rivers of those
parts. And when an imperial agent is dispatched from here with ships of
war, he may, without going to Cherson, shortly and swiftly find these same
Pechenegs here; and when he has found them, the imperial agent sends
a message to them by his man, himself remaining on board the ships of
war, carrying along with him and guarding in the ships of war the imperial
goods. And they come down to him, and when they come down, the imperial
agent gives them hostages of his men, and himself takes other hostages
of these Pechenegs, and holds them in the ships of war, and then he makes

8. 5/6 Ilrx-r~tvocxh<i>v P II 8 XEFawvoc Be: XEpcrwvo~ P Me Ba. II 14

P lJ
8, 9
' '
7tOtYJO"OUO'LV Ot II y - (.l. "). I l! I
OC.'t\,LVIXXL't'OC.L 7tpoc; 't'OV 1-'IXO"Lr.tXOV 't'OU<; upXOU<; XOC.'t'CX 't'CX I I I I

i2rp ~tX.xoc.voc. IXU't'WV, emalO(.t)O"LV OC.U't'oi:c; Toce; ~OC.O"tALXcX<; acupe:tX.c;, xcxt cX lvoc."Aoc.~ci
VE:'t'OC.t cpl"Aouc; e~ OC.U't'WV, oaouc; ~OUAE't'IXt, xoc.t U7tOa't'pcpe:t. Ou't'CU aE: XP~
aucpcuve:i:v e:T' oc.uT&v, &aTe:, oTtou &v oc.uTouc; b ~cxat"Ae:uc;,
1t0Ll)O"CUO"t ~ "). '
E:L' t'E: etc; ' ,
't'OU<; p- cue;, E:t't'E:,, e:tc; ' 't'OU<; , B our.yocpouc;,
"). I E:L'
t'E: 20
\ ' T I E' \ \ ~ \
74B e xoc.t e:tc; 't'ouc; oupxouc;. LO't yoc.p OUVOC.'t'OL 't'OU 7tCXV't'otc; 't'OU't'ouc; 7tOr.e:e:w,
I I - ' I "). -

XOCLI 7tOr.r.IXXtc;
"). "). I
XOC.'t', OC.U' , ,., Q_ I
t'C- UV EmrOVTE:<;, (.l.
cpol"'e:pot \ -
vuv Q_
't'OU't'O a-Yj"Aov XOC.L E:ne:u&v EO''t'W. Tou yO:p XA't)ptxou rcx~pL~A 7t0't'E: 7tpoc;
Touc; I TI ,
oupxouc; oc.7tOa't'oc.r.e:vToc; .,, ' \ xe:r.e:ucre:cuc;
oc.7to "). I (.l. ").
1-'cxatr.LXYJ<; -
xoc.t\ 7tpoc; \ ,
oc.uTouc; ,

EL7t6noc;, lht '0"Ae:t'>c; OYJA07tOte:i: u~c; cX7te:"A&e:i:v xcxt cX7tOOLW~OC.t 25

12VP 't'OU<; ITot't'~tvoc.xhoc.c; cho 't'OU 't'67tou CXU't'WV xoc.t xoc.&ea6=tjvcxt uocc; (ue:i:c;
yocp xoc.t 7tp6Te:pov E:xe:foe: hoc.&~e:a&e:) 7tpoc; To e:tvoc.t 7t'f...YJalov 't'ijc;
., I Q_ I"). > I")."). > < I < -
r.e:toc.c; ou, xoc.tI o't'e: ''
ve:11w, ot7tOO"' t'E:1V1.CU, xoct\ e:v I
TotX,e:L e:uptcrx(.t) ucxc;,
7t0CV't'E:<; OL &pxov't'e:c; 't'WV ToupX(.t)\I t~ cpcuv?i e;e:~6l)O"OC.V, O't't" 'He:i:c;
e:TotI 't'ouc; , IT oc.'t'..,tvotXLTotc;
y I '
e:oc.u't'ouc; ,
ou' (.l.t-'oc.r.r.oe:v
,., ").
ou' ycxp I "' I
ouvcxe:vcx Q_
- I ) I I \ I I"). \ "). I ").I \ \ 'l'I
!J.E:LV 7tpoc; OC.U't'OU<;, O't't XOC.L zcupoc e:yotr.l) XOC.L r.OC.O<; 7to11UI; XCXL XCXXCX 7tlXtotCX
da( xoct Tou "Aomou Tov "A6yov TouTov 7tpoc; ~~c; ~ e:l7tjic; ou yocp
OC"(IX1tW!J.E:V OC.U't'OV.
''O 't'L XOC.LI Ot' IT OC.'ty' oLVOC.Xt'- t'OC.L E:XE:L1.TE:V ' -o. 't'OU- UOC.V1X1tpe:cuc;

\ ?!_ 'l' I \ > \ ' - "I 1y

't'O i:;oc.p ote:pX,OV't'OC.L, XIXt IXE:L exe:tcre: XOC.110Xottpt..,oUO'LV.

13rp 9. IT e: p t 't' & v & 7t o ' P cu a l ex c; k p x o . ev w v ' P & c;

. e: 't' oc 't' w v 0 v 0 ~ u A cu \I ev K cu v a 't' IX v 't' Lv 0 u 1t 6 A e: L.

"O't't 't'OC &.7to -rijc; e~cu 'Pcualoc.c; ov6~UAIX xcxnpx.6e:vcx bl Kcuv-

,., e:tm
cr't'ot\l't'L\IOU7to11e:L ' \ e:v \ oc.7to
' \ 't'OU- Ne:oyoc.pooc.c;, ~I ' ... ~ ~ Q_"). '(.l.
E\I cp ~cpe:vooavr.oc.l"'oc;,

o' utoc;" ''Iyy(.t)p, 't'OU- ~px.ovToc;

1! 'Pcumoc.c;,' ' o_1y,e:To, e:tat
' \ oe: "'' xoc.tI cx7to
' \ TOI 5
xcimpov 'Jv Mt'Awlcrxoc.v xoc.t oc1to Te:"AtoUT~oc.v xoc.t T~e:pvty&yoc.v xoc.t
oc7to Tou Bouae:ypoc.M. Toc.ihoc. ouv &rroc.v't'oc. atoc Tou 7to't'oc.ou xoc.Tepxonoc.t
75B e uoc.voc.7tpe:(.t)c;,
x.oc.t\ e:mcruvoc.yov't'IXt
' '
't'OI x.ota't'pov
I I TO\ Ktooc.l"''P.oc., TO\ e:rrovocx-

~6evov ~oc.~IX'riXc;. ot aE: ~XAtX~OL, ol 1tlXX't'LW't'OC.L OC.O't'WV, ol Kpt~'Y)'t'OC.LYJ-

13vp vol. A.e:y6e:vot, xoc.l. ot Ae:v~oc.v!fjvot x.oc.t oc.l A.omoc.l ~X.AIX~YJVLOC.L de; 't'cX OpYJ IO I
IXU't'.WV X07t't'OUO"L 't'OC ov6~uA.oc. v 't'~ 't'OU xe:tfuvoc; X.ottp~, xocl XOC.'t'otp't'L-
O"IX\l't'e:c; oc.uToc, "CoU xoc.tpou &.votyo&vou, ~vlxoc. 8toc.A.u&7j o't"6c;, de;
I 1t/\'.,Y)O"LO\I
-roc.c; ' ouaoc.c;
" .,, ' I
/\L voc.c; E:Laoc.youaLV OC.U"COC..
' I KI ' ~Y) i:;xe:
OC.L E:7tE:LO' .!. -
' (.l.'"I
AOUO"LV de; 'TO\I 7t0't'otov 't'O\I 6.tX.voc.7tpLV, &.7to "CWV E:xe:foe: oi'.i't'oL de; "CO\I

V 16 IlixTl;tvocxhcxt P II 34 Ilix't'l;tvixxl't'IXL P.
9. 1 ante 'Pro<Jla.c; add. Tijc; edd. II 4 Ne:oyixp8ifc;: Ne:oyixpoa. (sine acc.)
coni. Bayer Neuoyixp8ix (sic) coni. Racki Ne~oyixpa&c; coni. Bury Obolensky
Ne:uoyixpMc; Kukules 11
8, 9
agreement with them; and when the Pechenegs have taken their oaths
to the imperial agent according to their 'zakana', he presents them with
the imperial gifts, and takes from among them as many <friends' as he sees
fit, and returns. Agreement must be made with them on this condition, that
wherever the emperor calls upon them, they are to serve him, whether
against the Russians, or against the Bulgarians, or again against the Turks.
For they are able to make war upon all these, and as they have often come
against them, are now regarded by them with dread. And this is clear from
what follows. For once when the cleric Gabriel was dispatched by imperial
mandate to the Turks and said to them, The emperor declares that you
are to go and expel the Pechenegs from their place and settle yourselves
there (for in former days you used to be settled there yourselves) so that
you may be near to my imperial majesty, and when I wish, I may send
and find you speedily, then all the chief men of the Turks cried aloud with
one voice, We are not putting ourselves on the track of the Pechenegs;
for we cannot fight them, because their country is great and their people
numerous and they are the devil's brats; and do not say this to us again;
for we do not like it!
When spring is over, the Pechenegs cross to the far side of the Dnieper
river, and always pass the summer there.

9. 0 f t h e c o m i n g o f t h e R u s s i a n s i n 'mo no x y 1 a'
f r o m R u s s i a t o C o n s t a n t i n o p 1 e.

The 'monoxyla' which come down from outer Russia to Constantinople

are from Novgorod, where Sviatoslav, son of Igor, prince of Russia, had
his seat, and others from the city of Smolensk and from Teliutza and Cher-
nigov and from Vyshegrad. All these come down the river Dnieper, and
are collected together at the city of Kiev, also called Sambatas. Their Slav
tributaries, the so-called Krivichians and the Lenzanenes and the rest of
the Slavonic regions, cut the 'monoxyla' on their mountains in time of
winter, and when they have prepared them, as spring approaches, and the
ice melts, they bring them on to the neighbouring lakes. And since these
lakes debouch into the river Dnieper, they enter thence on to this same

6 Mtf.wlm<.Ct\I: (E)tf.wlax"" coni. Racki II Te:f.wuT?:"": Te: Atou-r?:cx\I coni.

Safarik Manojlovic -re: Awu((3)T?:Q(v coni. Racki II T?:e:pvtywyCtv V edd.
T?:e:pvtyrouCtv coni. Racki II 8 de; (etiam Bandurius): bd edd. II 10 o[ /..omo!
:Exf.Ct(3(vwt edd. !I :Exf.Ct('LVLO:L P II 11/2 XClTa.ptjcrCtVTi::c; P edd. II 12 cxuTii
corr. Moravcsik: Ctu-rwv P edd. II 13 txi::i:va. edd. II 14 Tov1 om. edd. II
' ' ' , 1 ' , ' Kl A \ ,,
OC.U't'O'\I 7t0't'OC!J.O'll E:LO'l;;PXOV't'OC.L, XOC.L ome:pxov-roc.t etc; 't'O'll LOtJOC, XOCL crupoUO'LV 15 \

etc; \
TIJ'll >l:f
E:<.,,OC.p't'LO't'll, XOCL\ OC.7tE:!J.7t0/\0VO'L'll OCU'
J t >
t'OC\ e:tc;
... -
<i>c;. ot oe:
-rouc; p- ~\ p-
<i>c; I

O'XOC.<pLoLOC. '~ XOC.L' .ovoc.' - t'OC ocyopcx-,.OV't'e:c;,

't'OC.U' ' ./_,, 't'O'C 7tOC./\OCLOC
... \ OCU' ' t'<-U'\I !J.0'110<.,,U/\OC
'?: ...
-. ' '!: ' - A,..,-. ,.,..,
XOC't'OC./\UOV't'e:c;, E:<., OCU't'(s)'\I 1-'0C/\/\OUO'W 7tE:/\/\OC.c; XOCL crxocpovc; etc; CXU't'OC. xoc~l ' .\ ' ' '
14r P .../\OL7tCX.c;' I '
x_pe:toc.c; * * * E:<.,,07tAL-,.OUO'
'!: ... ,,, L'll OC.U' ' t'O'C. KOC.'L 'I OU'llLOU !J.l)VO<; oLOC
I ' ~
' -
7to-roc.ou Aoc.voc7tpe:(J)c; &;, xoc't'epxov-roc.t de; 't'o Btn't'~e~"tJ, 20
07te:p &cr-rl 7totXTLCU't'txov xcfo-rpov -r&v p&c;, xoct cruviX.&pot~6e:vot &xe:foe:
.ezpt Mo xoc.t 't'pt&v ~.e:p&v, ~vlxoc &v &rcocv-roc &7tocruvocx&&crt -roc ov6-
i: ... 't'6't'E: CX.7t0Xt\IOUO'
' - LV, XOC.t' xoc.npxov't'OCL ' ~' 't'OU
OLOC - etp"'l)e:vou
' ' UOC'
A llOC.7tpe:<i>c;

7to-roc.ou. Koc.t 7tp&-rov ev ~px_ov-roc.t de; -rov 7tp&-rov cppoc.y6v, -rov i7tovo-
oc.-,.oe:vov 'E crcrou7t"t), - o!\ e:p.Yjveue:-roc.t
' p wcrtO''t'Ll xoct\ ."-'XAOC.tJ"'l)Vtcr't't
~ ... A ' ' .'Y\j xot.oc- - 25
O'OC.L ' 0 oe: ~' 't'OU't'OU, cppoc.yoc; \ 'rOO'OU't' - 6\I eO''t'L\I
' ' vO"O\I
O''t'evoc;, J! 't'O' 7tAOC't'oc;
... ' 't'OU-
14VP 't'~UXOC\ILO'TIJplou .foov Se OCU't'OU 7ttTpoc.t dcrt pt~t.ocroct I uljJ"tJAOCL V"tJO'LCU\I
76 B e oLKYJV ' '
ot7tocpoc.woe:voct. II poc; \ oc.u-rocc;
' \ ouv "t e:px_oe:vov
' ' '~
-ro\ Uo(.t)p I ..
xoct' 7tA"Y)u-
pouv x&:x.d&e:v oc7toxp'Y).vt~6e:vov 7tpoc; -ro xoc-r<i> .epoc; ~xov .E:yocv xoct
cp6(3ov &7ton/..e:'i:. Koct 8tct 't'ou-ro /;crov ocu-r&v ou -ro/..&crtv ol 'P&c; ote:/..- 30
n -
1TE:LV, ,., -. ' 7tA'
OCl\AOC. -. Y)O'L' O\I O'XOC./\Cl)(jOC.'
"I ' \l't'E:t; x.oct' -rouc; ' e:v
' n
OCV1TpCU7tOUc; ' R -. '
> \ ?: 1 \ "I~'I. \ I > I > \ I?: ... TO.>
e:tc; TIJ'll <..."tJPOCV, 't'OC Of; /\OL7tOC 7tpoc.y.oc-roc. eotO'OC.VTec; e:tc; 't'OC !J.OVO<.,,UAOC, e:w
oihc.uc; yuvo1 -roi:c; 7tOO'LV oc.u-rwv \ji"t)f..otcpouv-re:c; * * *, tvoc -Yj 't'LVL J..l.&cp
7tpocrxpoUO'CUQ'L\I. ' T OU't'O
- oe: ~\
7tOLOUO'L\I - OLt .e:v \ ... t ~\
1t/\CUp~. OL oe: !J.t;O'OV, OL oe
I J. ' ~\

\ > \ (.I. 1 \ \
XOC.L e:tc; TIJ'll 7tpu.voc.v .e:-roc XO'\l't'otptCU\I XO\l't'Oi--e:uo.e:vot, XOC.L e:-roc 't'OLOCU't'Y)<; 3.,e<
I \ I I

ocmiO"'Y)c; &; 3tE:pxov-roc.L 't'O\I 't'OLOU't'O\I 7tpW't'O\I q:ipocyov OLOC Tijc;

lWP yc.uvlocc; xocl ..=tjc; ox&"IJt; 't'OU 7tO't'ot.ou . H 'llLXOC. oe otE:/..&cucrt 't'O\I 't'OtOU't'O'll I
cppoc.y.6v, 7tocALV oc7to Tijc; ~'t)piic; ocvoc./..oc.~oc.v6.e:vot 't'ouc; /...omouc; oc7to-
... I \ L > \ <I I \ > ...
7t,..eoucrt, xoct xoc-ri;;px_onoc.t e:tc; 't'ov e:npov cppoc.y.ov, -rov em,..e:yoe:vov
'PcuO'LG't'L Ev Ou/...(3opo-l, l:x'Aot(3Y)VLO''t'L oe 'Ocr-rpo(3ouvmpcix_, '57te:p epY)- 40
ve:oe:'t'ott '-ro V"tJO'Lov -rou cppoc.y.ou'. ''Ecr-rtv xocxdvoc:; 5.otoc; -r<!> 7tpw't'cp,
xoc.Ae:7t6t; 't'E: xoc.l 8ucrorl~oooc;. Koc'!. mx),L\I x(3oc.A6v-re:c; 't'O\I AOC.0\1 Otot(3t(3oc~OUO'L
-roc ov6~u/...oc, xoc..S-wc; xoc.t 7tp6-re:pov. o.olcuc; 8E: 8tepx_ov-roc.t xoc'I. -rov -rpl-rov
cppoc.y6v, 't'O\I A.e:y6.e:vov re:A.ocv3p(, a p.'YjvE:UE:'t'OCL LXAOC.(3Yj\ILO''t'L 'fixoc;
cppocyou', d.S-' o<S't'c.ut; Tov ..E:-rocp't'ov cppoc.yhv, 'tov .eyocv, 'tOV &m/...e:y6.e- 45
'110\1 'Pc.ucrLO''t'L ev , Ae:tcpbp, LXAOC.~"'l)'llLO''t'L ae Neoccr1j't, 3t6't't ql(.t)AE:UOUO'L\I
ot 7te:A.e:x&vot e:Lt; -roc A.t&ocptoc. Toti cppocyou. 'Ev 'tOU't'cp oi'Jv -re;> cppocy.Cj>
.. ,
15VP ITT<OC/\W\IOUO'L\I OC.7tOC.\l't'OC.
., I, , - ,
e:tc; TIJV "('YJ\I opv07t/\CUpoc., n' ... '?:''
XOC.L, e:.,,e:px_oV' t'OCL ()L, wpt-

V 15 -ro11: Meursius Ba Be \I K~6(jix edd. ll 16 k~&p'O)OW P edd. JI 18 ante

m~AJ.ixc; add. xixl edd. 11 19 lac. ind. Moravcsik Kcxl o{hc.>c; addendum coni. Bek-
ker II 24/5 'tO\I bto11oixl;6e:vo11 'P(l)a~a't'( <E:v ... >.''t'L <BE:> Ne:acrourrij, a
E:pT)VEue:wt coni. Kunik aliquid excidisse susp. Thomsen II 25 'Eaa01m'ij: Ne:craount
coni. Bandurius Ne:aaou1tij coni. Bayer Thunmann afari.k Kunik Gedeonov
Thomsen Hru.Sevskyj II :ExAix~wtaTij P \I 25/6 xot&aa.~ (etiam Cobet):
river, and come down to Kiev, and draw the ships along to be finished and
sell them to the Russians. The Russians buy these bottoms only, furnishing
them with oars and rowlocks and other tackle from their old 'monoxyla',
which they dismantle; and so they fit them out. And in the month of June
they move off down the river Dnieper and come to Vitichev, which is a
tributary city of the Russians, and there they gather during two or three
days; and when all the 'monoxyla' are collected together, then they set
out, and come down the said Dnieper river. And first they come to the first
barrage, called Essoupi, which means in Russian and Slavonic 'Do not
sleep!' ; the barrage itself is as narrow as the width of the Polo-ground;
in the middle of it are rooted high rocks, which stand out like islands. Against
these, then, comes the water and wells up and dashes down over the other
side, with a mighty and terrific din. Therefore the Russians do not venture
to pass between them, but put in to the bank hard by, disembarking the
men on to dry land leaving the rest of the goods on board the 'monoxyla';
they then strip and, feeling with their feet to a void striking on a rock, ***.
This they do, some at the prow, some amidships, while others again, in the
stern, punt with poles; and with all this careful procedure they pass this
first barrage, edging round under the river-bank. When they have passed
this barrage, they re-embark the others from the dry land and sail away,
and come down to the second barrage, called in Russian Oulvorsi, and in
Slavonic Ostrovouniprach, which means 'the Island of the Barrage'. This
one is like the first, awkward and not to be passed through. Once again they
disembark the men and convey the 'monoxyla' past, as on the first occasion.
Similarly they pass the third barrage also, called Gelandri, which means in
Slavonic 'Noise of the Barrage', and then the fourth barrage, the big one,
called in Russian Aeifor, and in Slavonic Neasit, because the pelicans nest
in the stones of the barrage. At this barrage all put into land prow foremost,

xoLiXaocL Me Ba xmia.&ocL Be II 27 pL~"l)oc'LocL P Me Ba Cobet: pL~LxocrocL Du

Cange Be II 29 eyoc11 edd.: eyoc P II 33 lac. ind. 8LepxmrrocL vel 8toc(3iX~oum11
excidisse conicie118 Moravcsik aiJpoUCJL\I coni. Kyriakides crupoUCJL\I llCUTcX coni.
Dujcev II 34 Toiho 8E: 7towuat11: TOCUToc, 08orcowum11 coni. Jenkins II rc:f..wpqi: coni.
Jenkins rc:f..wpoc P: rc:f..wpoc11 Ba Be rcpwpoc11 Meursius II 35 xovro~Eu6E110L: xono-
(3o:f..oue:11ot vel xone:u6e:voL coni. Meursius II 36 rcpw't'o\I V edd.: cc' P II 40 Ou:f..(3opal:
Ou:f..(3opal seu Ou:f..opal coni. Thunmann 0u:f..cp6pc; coni. Zeuss IJ I:xAoc~L11taTt
p II '0a't'po(3ouvhtpocx edd. '0aTpo(3'10ut rcpocx coni. Zeuss II 41 ootroc; p II 42
xoc:f..e:m7ic; p II 8ua81e1;08oc; pl V1 edd.: 8La8tE:1;o8oc; p II 44 't'OV :f..e:yoE\10\1 ('PromaTl
E:v> I'e::f..oc118 {p }l, ~x:f..oc('LllLCJ't'L (8E:. .. ), 8 ep1]v<:UETOCL coni. Kunik aliquid excidisse
susp. Thomsen II re::>-oc118pt: I'e:)..oc118( coni. Kunik Gedeonov II 44/5 I:x:f..oc-
(3MCJTL a(3611e:'t'~ 0 eaTL) lixoc; cppocyou coni. Lehrberg II 45 't'hocpTO\I v edd.:
8' P II eyoc11 edd.: eyoc P II 46 'Ae:tcp6p (etiam V1 F Cobet): 'Ae:tcpocp V edd. II
Ne:occrli: Ne:voccriiT coni. Thomsen II 48 post Cf.n;oc11Toc add. Tii 0116/;u:f..oc Ta V II
op-0-6rcpropoc Meursius II 48/9 optae:11ot (sine acc.) p II
crl:vot &vSpe:~ <puAcine:tv TI)v ~ly"Aocv e:-r' ocu-rwv, xoct &7tlp;cov-roct, xoct
-r<X.c; ~ly"Aocc; oihot Stoc -rouc; Iloc-r~tvocxl't'occ; &ypu7tVcuc; cpuM.-r-roucrtv. Ot 8e 50
"\ \ \I I ,,
77Be AOt7tOt -roc 7tpocyoc-roc, oc7te:p e:;coucrtv e:tc; -roc ov sUAOC, ocvoc/\ocl"'ocvoe:vot,
,, , 6t:' "\ \ , "\ (.l. I

't'OC ~uxocptoc e:Toc 't'WV ocMcre:cuv OtOC 't'OU ~'Y)pOU OCU't'OC Stoc~t~OC~OUO'L
' e:,,
t/\LOC "t:' e:c.uc;" ,, otE:/\'
ocv ~ '1TC.UO'
n L 't'OV ' <ppocy(J.OV. ' ETn>
~1.T ''
OU't'Wc; OL< e:v ' crupovnc;,

oi SE: xoci e:Lc; -rouc; (.)ouc; ~occr-rci~ov-re:c; -roc ocu-rwv ov6~uA.oc de; -ro -rou
cppocyou &xe:L'-3-e:v epoc; Stoc~t~if~oucrtv' xf1.l ou-rwc; pl7t't'OV't'E:<; OCU't'OC e:Lc; 55
\ \
't'OV 7t0't'OCov XOCL\ 't'OC\ 7te:-r..,,te:v-roc
y I 1 (.li .....
OCU't'C.UV e:l"'A'YJO'XOe:vot, ' J I
e:tcre:p;cov-roct, I

16r P XOCL' fJ.U'"'n >

ITL<; E:VOC7t07tAf:OUO' , LV. 'A7tE:p;(Oe: / JVOL oe: ~' e:tc; > 't'OV ' ,
7tE:fL7t't'OV <ppocyov, ,

TOV E7tovooc~6e:vov 'Pc.ucrtO''t'L E:v Bocpou<p6poc;, 1:x"Aoc~'Y)VLO'Tt Bou"Av'Y)- ae:

7tpoc;c, St6-rt fl.e:yoc"Ariv )..v'Y)v &7to-re:"Ae:'t, mf"Atv de; -rocc; -rou 7to-rocou yc.uvlocc;
ft:' j n \
't'OC\ OCU' > -
t'WV ovo,u ~
,oc otOCl"' (.l. (.l. I
Ll"'fJ.O'OCVTE:c;, xocvc.uc; XOCL\ e:tc;> \
't'OV -
7tpCU't'OV cppocyov \
\ ~ I
xoct oe:u-re:pov, XOC't'OCAOCl"'ocvoucrt (.l.
"\ I
-rov e:x-rov <ppocy 6v, "\r.e:yoe:vov e:v
\ I I \

p WO'tO''t't\ AE:OCV't'L, ~X/\f1.1"'1JVLO''t'L

I ~ (.l. "\ \ ~\ B
oe: y
e:pou't'..,,'Y), " ' '(.>.
0 E:O''t'LV 1-'PfJ.O"oc ve:pou '
I I -

' ~ (.l. I
XOCL otOCl"'OCLVOUO'L XOCt OCU't'OV oot(i)c;. \ , \ ' KI I ' \
oc~ OC7t0 't'OU't'OU OC7t07tAi:;OUO'L XfJ.L
I;1. , \

7tpoc; \ '
't'OV ''(J.~
e:l"'ooov <ppocyov, I
' "\ I 'P cucrtcr-rt\ e:v ' ~ ~-rpoux.ouv,

~xA.oc~"t)vtcr-rt SE: Noc7tpe:~~' 8 ~p"t)ve:ue:-roct 'txpoc; <ppocy6c;'. Kocl Stoc~ocl- 65

voucrtv de; -ro J..e:y6e:vov 7tpococ 't'OU Kpocplou, E:v cJ> Stoc7te:p&crtv &7to
16vP 'Pc.ucr(occ; ot Xe:pcrc.uvti:oct I
xocl OL Iloc-r~tvOCXt't'OCL e7tl Xe:pcr&voc, ~xov 't'O
> \ > \
ocu-ro I \
7te:pococ 't'O e:v 7tr.oc-roc;, ucrov \ "\ I J!
-rou- (t7t7toopotou, -.ul oe:\ u'foc; <X7tO ~ I ~
xoc-rcu1,f. I

" I I f/ J! "\
e:wc; O't'O\) 7tp0XU7t't'OUO'tv U<pOCAOL, UO'OV XOCL CfiV'OC ... e:tv crocytnocv 't'OU -ro,e:uov- \ n 1y I t:' I -

Toe; E:V' " nlTE:V e:xe:tcre:. - "On 1TE:V XOCL' e:tc; 't'OV ' 't'OtoU't'OV - 't'67t0'11 xoc-re:p;cov't'OCL 1 OL 70
Iloc-r~wocxt-roct, xoci 7toAe:oucrt -.ouc; 'Pwc;. Me:-roc SE: -.o Ste:"A&e:tv 't'ov
78Be 't'OLOU't'OV -r67tOV TI)v V~O'OV, TI]v E:m!..e:yob.l'Y)V I
0 ''Aytoc; rp'Y)y6ptoc;
"\ (.I.I > 'I' I \ \ n I > - > "\ - \ \ ~
XOC't'OC/\OCl"'ocvoucrtv' e:v "(J V'Y)O'Cj> XOCL Toce; '\T\)O'tf1.c; OCU't'<.UV E:7tL't'E:AOUO'tv 0 tfJ. 't'O
txe:foe fo-roccr&oct 7toce:yE:&YJ 8puv, xocl &uoucrt 7te:nwouc; ~wnocc;. IT11-
yvuoucrt , 11>'
oe: xoct\ crocyt-r-rocc; yupove:v, rAr.r.Ot
I l{"\ "\ In II>\
oe: xoct\ ,f, 'fc.utoc xoc~ xpe:oc-roc, xoct 75 I \ I \

e:c., c.uv e:xe:t c;x.ocmoc;, c.uc; -ro e:voc; ocu't'c.uv e:7ttxpoc-re:-t. 'P't7t't'oucrt oe:
't:' .,. ,, !!. ' 'n , - ' ~' xoct'

l 7P crxocpcploc 7te:pl 't'WV 7te:-re:tvwv, e:he: crcpoc~oct oct)'t'ouc;, J e:he: xocl cpocye:tv, e:'l't'e:
XOCL ..,,cuv-roct;; e:occre:Lv ocui:ouc;.
\ )" - ' I I, 'A7t0' oe: ~\
't'OU- V"tJO'LOU 't'OU't'OU I II fJ.'t' )"... tvfJ.Xt't"'Y)V
I , OL'
'Pwc; OU <pof3oUV't'OCL, ewe; &v <p&OCO'CilO'tv de; 't'OV 7tO't'ocov 't'OV LE:AtvOC'll.
Et&' oihwi;; &7toxtvoune:c; kc; ocuTou E:xpt -.e:acrocpc.uv -1je:pwv oc7to7tJ...foumv, 80
e{.t)c; OU XOC't'rJ.AcXf3c.ucrtv de; TI)v ALfl.V'Y)V 't'OU 7tO't'OCfLOU a-r6tov o?Jcrocv, E:v TI
, f:LV XOCL' '1') V'-Y)O'Ot;; 't'OU- 'A)'LOU
E;(j' ' A'nLvE:p (OU. K OC't'OCr.OCl"' "" A'OV't'E:c; OU' ... \I OU't'Ot
.,. 't"'Y' )V
-roLocUTIJV v=tjcrov, 7tpocrocvoc7tocuoumv E:ocu-rooc; xe:'foe: gwc; Mo xocl. -.p~wv
~e:pwv. Kocl. 7tifALV 't'OC OCU't'W'\I ov6c;uJ..oc, de; 8crocc; &v AL7tCUV't'OCt xpdoci;,
7tpL1tOWUV't'f1.L, TeX TE: &pe:voc xocl 't'OC XfJ.'t'OCp't'LOC xocl TOC ocux_l:vtoc, &m:p 85

P 72 -rfiv v~aov - rpY)y6ptoc;: cf. Not. episc. (s. XIV.), ed. G. Parthey
p. 130. No 3, 754.
and those who are deputed to keep the watch with them get out, and off
they go, these men, and keep vigilant watch for the Pechenegs. The re-
mainder, taking up the goods which they have on board the 'monoxyla',
conduct the slaves in their chains past by land, six miles, until they are
through the barrage. Then, partly dragging their 'monoxyla', partly por-
taging them on their shoulders, they convey them to the far side of the
barrage; and then, putting them on the river and loading up their baggage,
they embark themselves, and again sail off in them. When they come to the
fifth barrage, called in Russian Varouforos, and in Slavonic Voulniprach,
because it forms a large lake, they again convey their 'monoxyla' through
at the edges of the river, as at the first and second barrages, and arrive at
the sixth barrage, called in Russian Leanti, and in Slavonic Veroutzi, that
is 'the Boiling of the Water', and this too they pass similarly. And thence they
sail away to the seventh barrage, called in Russian Stroukoun, and in Sla-
vonic Naprezi, which means 'Little Barrage'. This they pass at the so-called
ford of Vrar, where the Chersonites cross over from Russia and the Pe-
chenegs to Cherson; which ford is as wide as the Hippodrome, and, measured
upstream from the bottom as far as the rocks break surface, a bow-shot in
length. It is at this point, therefore, that the Pechenegs come down and
attack the Russians. After traversing this place, they reach the island called
St. Gregory, on which island they perform their sacrifices because a gigantic
oak-tree stands there; and they sacrifice live cocks. Arrows, too, they peg in
round about, and others bread and meat, or something of whatever each
may have, as is their custom. They also throw lots regarding the cocks,
whether to slaughter them, or to eat them as well, or to leave them alive.
From this island onwards the Russians do not fear the Pecheneg until they
reach the river Selinas. So then they start off thence and sail for four days,
until they reach the lake which forms the mouth of the river, on which is the
island of St. Aitherios. Arrived at this island, they rest themselves there for
two or three days. And they re-equip their 'monoxyla' with such tackle as is
needed, sails and masts and rudders, which they bring with them. Since this

v 51 &11ocAoc~6e11ot v edd. II 57 ne7t"t'Oll edd.: e' p II 58 I:x/'t'l p II 58/9

Bouf..111J7tpocx: Bo/..11out np&x coni. Zeuss \I 59 /..[111)11: 8111J11 coni. Lehrberg Zeuss
Thomsen Hru8evskyj II 61 ante 8e:1hepo11 add. el~ TOii V edd. II 62 Ae:iXvn:
AroifVTt seu AroiX118t coni. Zeuss II I:x/'t'l P II 64 ~80011 edd.: ~ P II
l:Tpouxou11 (etiam Cobet): l:Tpou~ou11 V edd. II 65'3t11taTl P II Noca't'pe~~
coni. Falk II 65/6 8tcx(3cx110V't'e:~ Me Be 8tcx~oc(110VTcxt l\foursius Ba II 66 Kptixp[ou
coni. Vasmer Bpcxp[ou coni. Falk II 67 Xepac,)11(-.oct P II IlixT~t11ixxhixt P II 69 npo-
XU7t't'OUat11 GcpcxAOt coni. Jenkins: 7t1Xp1XXU'lt't'OUCJW ol tp(f..ot p edd. II cp(/..m: ocp-&cx/..o(
Ba II qiM11e:tv V edd. II 71 IlcxT?:wcxx(Tcxt P II no).eouat V edd.: no/..e:wm P II 77
e:he xcx! cpcxyd\I ehe xoct aqiiXl;cxt IXU't'OU~ V Me Ba II 78 IXUTOU~ (add. etiam Bandurius):
om. V edd. II 79 ou om. Me II 82 'E.&cxtplou P II 84 cxu't'wll: fauTw11 V edd. 11 /..(m..iVTixt
scr. Moravcsik ).(no11Tixt P: /..dnwVTcxt Be \I
9, 10
' L 'E m:L\ oe: ~\ 't'O\ O''t'6rnv 't'OU- 't'OtOU't'OU I
7tO't'ocou- &O''t'L\I'
YJ' 't'OtOCU'I t'"Y)
17vp /..(vri, xoc&wc:; e:tp"tJToct, xoct I xpocTe:t expt Tijc; &cx.:Aoccraric:;, xoct 7tpoc; 't"Yiv
.&<f"Aocaaocv XE:t't'OCt ~ v~aoc; 't'OU 'Aylou At.&eplou, ex 't'WV E.xefoe cX7ttp)'.,OV't'OCt
\ ' A r I ~
7tpoc:; 't'OV UOC\IOCO''t'ptv 7tO't'ocov, XOCL\ oLOCO' O..L
C.1.hrc;V' '
t'e:c; &XE:LO' -
E: 7t0C/\LVI'\ '

1"0CL. 'H vlxoc ae: ytVYj't'OCt xoctpoc; E:m't"fioetoc:;, cX7tOO'XOCAWO'OCV't'E:c:; ~PXOV't'OCL 90

e:tc; 't'OV 7tO't'OCov ' ''t'OV
' "&7tL/\e:y
l 6 e:vov ''A 0'7tpov, XOCL' ' '
oOL(t)<; , ... E: ocvoc-
7tOCUO"<ie:vot, cX7toxwouvnc; pxov't'oct de; Tov Ze:/..wocv, de; 't'O Tou
A R' 7t01"0C!J.OU- -../\e:yoe:vov
' -.. '~
7t0CpOCX/\OCOLOV. K OCL' e:(l)<;
,, OU .,. otE:/\'ITfilCiL
~ i-..n '
79Be 2:e:"Awocv I 7tO't'oc6v, 7tocpoc't'ptxouaw oc1hoi:c; ot Iloc't'~tvocxhoct. Koct eocv
7tof..A<fxtc:; ~ .&oc"Aoccraoc ov6~uJ..ov e:tc; 't"Yiv ~v oc7toppl~ri. axoc/..wvouaw 95
isrp OAOC, (voc 't'Otc; Iloc't'~LVOCXLTOCtc:; OCV't'L7tocpoc l't'ocx.&&crt\I oou. , A7to oE: 't'OV
2:e:/..wiiv OU cpo~OUV't'OCL 't'LVOC, OCAAOC 't"Yiv njc; BouJ..yocplocc; nv evOUO'OC(J.&VOt,
e:tc; 't'O\ 't'OU- UOCVOUpLOU
A R'
O''t'OI !J.LOV epxov't'OCL.
,, 'A7t0\ oc; ~l
A P.'
110C!J.pOCVOUO' LV Etc;' 't'OV\ K (.t)V07tot.\I, .1 XOCL\ OC7t0
' \ ~OU - K filV07tOC - E:L<; ' K (.t)VO''t'OCV't'LOCV

* * * e:tc;' 't'UV l
l B ocpvocc:;,
XOCL\ OC7t0' \ B I J!.
ocpvocc; c;px.ov't'OCL etc;' \
't'OV 7tO't'ocuv l 100

rljv LltT~lvocv, 1foe:p 7tocv't'oc dat ~ Tijc; Bou"Ayocplocc;. 'A7to 8E: Tijc; !l.t't'~Lvocc;
de; TOC -Njc; Me:a'tj~plocc; tp"t) xoc't'oc"Aoc~ocvouatv, xoct o\hcuc; xpt 't'OU't'cuv
b 7t0AUWOuvoc:; OCU't'WV xcx.t 7te:plcpo~oc:;, OUO'Ott~o06c; 't'& xoct xoc"Ae:7toc; OC7t0 -
7te:poclvrnxt 7tAOUc;. 'H oe :x.e:teptoc; 't'OOV OCU't'WV 'P&c; xoct crxAYJpO: 8tcx.ycuyfi
' L\I OCU'
E:O"t' ,, t'"Y). 'H VLXOC ' 0' Noc;pptoc; L R '
!J."tJV l L n
E:LO'f;/\'tr"(), 'o..'
C:Uve:fil<; OL' OCU' 'i:'
' t'(-t)V E:<.,,e:pxov- 105
18VP 't'OCL ot.pxovnc:;
1{ I \
e:Toc 7tOCV't'(.t)V 't'WV
I - p- ' \ \ K' R
we; OC7t0 't'OV LOCpOV, XOCL OC7tepx.ov't'OCL \ ' ,
' \ .... ~ (\ -.L
e:tc; 't'OC 7t0/\UOLOC, 0 /\c;YE:'t'OCL yupoc, 'tJYOUV e:tc:;
I ,, '
\ ~ .... R ,
~X/\CX.p'tJVLocc; 't'(t)V 't'E:
- B e:pptOC-
P. ,

V(.t)\I xoct TOOV Llpouyou~t-r&v xocl Kpt~t't'~oov xoct 't'OOV ~e:~e:plcuv xoct /...ot7t&v
~XAOC~(.t)V, o(Ttvtc:; datv 7tOCX't'tW't'OCL 't'OOV 'P&c:;. fl.t' 8/..ou oe 't'OU X,E:t&voc:;
&xe:foe: 8toc-rpe:cp6e:vot, n< &:7to !J.'YJVOt; 'A7tpt/..lou, otoc/..uoevou ToullO
7tocyouc; -rou !l.ocvoc7tpe:cuc:; 7to't'ocou, xocTepxovToct 7tpoc; Tov Kloc~ov. Koct
d&' o(h(.t)c; &7to/..oc~ocvov-roct 't'OC ocu-r&v ov6~u/..oc, xoc&wc; npodp'YJ't'OCL, xoct
E.~o7t/..L~ov-roct, xocl. 7tpoc; 'P(.t)ocvlocv xocTtpx.ov-roct.
''O't't ot Oo~ot Mvocv-roct To'Lc; IlocT~tvocxlToctc; 7to/..e:e:Lv.

80Be 10. IT e: p t 't' lj c; x oc ~ oc p l oc c;, 7t & c; a E: L 7t 0 A e: e: r G & oc t

K ex t 7t tX p 0C "t' ( V W v.

19rp ''O't't ot Oo~oL 8Uvoc\l't'OCL 7tOA.e:e:'i:v 't'OUc; Xoc~ocpouc;, we; OCU't'oi:c:;

' , t:
7t'/\'Y)GL<Xi,,O\l're:c;, omwc; XOCL 0 E:<.,,OUO'
.... I .,,
LOXpOC't'(.t)p 'A/\OC\I l occ:;.
\ ' ' I

V 88 'E&()(tplou P II 89 6.iivixaT(:WI eoni. Laskin: Aocvcmpw P edd. II 90 i<.()(Lpoi;;

Meursius Ba Be: 't'()(poi;; P II 94 IfaT~wcodT()(L P II 95 i.i.o116~u/..ix edd. 11
99 Kcu1107toc P 11 Kro11aTix11Tixv edd. II 100 lac. ind. X()(l. ~7tO K<i>vaTixV't-lixi;;
excidisBe coniciem Jenkins II 101 y1ji;; edd. II 6.h~w()(i;; P II 105/6 dipxovni;;
e~tpxo\ITIXt V edd. II 106 post Klix~ov <UU. 7tO't'()(o11 V Me II 107 7toM8ptix
9, 10
lake is the mouth of this river, as has been said, and carries on down to the
sea, and the island of St. Aitherios lies on the sea, they come thence to the
Dniester river, and having got safely there they rest again. But when the
weather is propitious, they put to sea and come to the river called Aspros,
and after resting there too in like manner, they again set out and come to the
Selinas, to the so-called branch of the Danube river. And until they are past
the river Selinas, the Pechenegs keep pace with them. And if it happens that
the sea casts a 'monoxylon' on shore, they all put in to land, in order to
present a united opposition to the Pechenegs. But after the Selinas they
fear nobody, but, entering the territory of Bulgaria, they come to the mouth
of the Danube. From the Danube they proceed to the Konopas, and from
the Konopas to Constantia, and from Constantia to the river of Varna, and
from Varna they come to the river Ditzina, all of which are Bulgarian terri-
tory. From the Ditzina they reach the district of Mesembria, and there at last
their voyage, fraught with such travail and terror, such difficulty and danger,
is at an end. The severe manner of life of these same Russians in winter-time
is as follows. When the month of November begins, their chiefs together with
all the Russians at once leave Kiev and go off on the 'poliudia', which means
'rounds', that is, to the Slavonic regions of the Vervians and Drugovichians
and Krivichians and Severians and the rest of the Slavs who are tributaries
of the Russians. There they are maintained throughout the winter, but then
once more, starting from the month of April, when the ice of the Dnieper
river melts, they come back to Kiev. They then pick up their 'monoxyla',
as has been said above, and fit them out, and come down to Romania.
The Uzes can attack the Pechenegs.

10. 0 f C h a z a r i a, h o w a n d b y w h o m w a r m u s t b e m a d e
upon it.
The Uzes can attack the Chazars, for they are their neighbours, and
so can the ruler of Alania.

Meursius II 8 (coni. etiam Schlozer Nevolin): & edd. II 107 ~x).ix(3w!ixc; P /I

107 /8 Te: Bep(3t&vrov: Te:(3e:p(3tiXvcuv coni. Safa.rik Te: 6.e:p(3tcivrov coni. Marquart
Sachmatov II 108 ~e:f'e:p!rov V coni. Sachmatov Le:ue:prov P: l:e:(3tpwv coni.
Racki Le:~!prov coni. Marquart Le:p(3!rov edd. I/ 112't'cxL edd.: P IJ 114 Ou~oL P.
10. 2 rccxpci -rtvwv Be I/ 3 Ou~oL P JI 4/5 'AAixv(ixc; oTL Ba. Migne
10, 11, 12, 13
"On -roc E:vvfo. x"A(ocw. -r~c; Xoc~ocp(occ; 't"?j 'A"Aocv(~ 7tocpocxe:LV't'OCL, 5
\ ~
.'t'OCL 0 'A"'/\OCVO<;, EL ()'.pOC XOCt t--OU/\E:'
' I A "I ' ,, -
t'CX.t, 't'OCU' \ ~
t'OC 7tpoctoEUE:LV I
XOCt e:- I \

YOCA"tJV ~A&~"tJV xocl ~voe:tocv E:v-re:u&e:v -ro'i:c; Xoc~ocpoLc; 7toLe:'i:v E:x. ycX:p -r&v E:vvl:oc
I "\ - , n
't'OU't'(J.)V X/\LOC't'WV "1) 7tOCO'OC y~WY)\ XOCL\ OCC()'
I ' y
ITOVLOC 't"'Y)c; oc~o:.pLocc; XOC'n' I
ITE:O''t"YJXEV. - x I

11. IT e: p L 't' 0 u x oc Cl' 't' p 0 u x Ep Cl' (;) v 0 c; XOCL 't'OU \ -

x oc I Cl' 't' p 0 u B 0 Cl' 7t 0' p 0 u.
"O TL 't'OU 'i:
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"tJ e:Lp"tJ-
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1 -"l"I I I \ ;I -

19vp Mcuc; 'P<Uoclcuv, eocv OL Xoc~ocpoL oO ~OVAWV't"OCL 'T~V 7tpoc; 't'OV ~OCO'LAEOC 5 I
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e:pO'CUVOC. K OCt\ E:L' 7tOL"tJO"YJ't'OCL - I

0'7tOUO~V 0 't'OLoihoc; E:~OUO'LOXptfrwp 't'OU XC.UAUELV ocO-rooc;, e:yoc"A"t)c; xocl

' .c; e:Lp"tJY"tJ<;
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.,, A '
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e:TcX cpocmoc't'ou tm-rl&e:a&ocL 't'TI Xe:pawvt xocl. -ro'i:c; x/..(occrLv, &c; ~ 7tpoc;
&cpo-repouc; EV 't'OCU'tci> 7tO"Ae:e:'i:v e~LO';(UOV't'e:c;, e:p"t)VE:OE:LV ocvocyxoca&~crOV't'OCL.

2()rP 12. IT e: p l 't' ~ c; oc 0 p "tJ c; B 0 u Ay IX p l oc c; x oc l. 't' 1j c;
x oc ~ oc p l ex: c;.
''0-rL xocl. ~ ocup'Y) "Ae:yotv'Y) Bou)..yaploc Mvoc't'ocL -ro'i:c; Xoc~ocpotc;

13. IT e: p l. -r i1 v 7t J... YJ a t oc ~ 6 v -r w v E: & v & v -r o 'L c;

T 0 up x 0 L c;.
''O't't To'Lc; Toopxotc; 't'IX -roL()'.U't'oc ~&v"tJ 7tocpocxe:w-rocL 7tpoc; E:v -ro
8u't'LXW't'e:pov &poc; OCU't'WV ~ <I>p()'.yy(oc, 7tpoc; ae: 't'O [3ope:LO't'e:pov ol Iloc't'~L
VOCXL't'OCL, x()'.t 7tpoc; -ro e:O"Y)~pwov &poc; ~ e:yoc/.:'l Mopoc[3loc, ~-roL ~ 5
zwpoc -rou ~qie:v8o7tMxou, ~'t'Lc; X()'.t 7tOCV't'e:"Ai1c; ~cpocv(cr.S-'Y) 7tocpoc 't'WV 't'OLOU't'CUV
Toupxc.uv, X()'.L 7t0Cp' oc\m1v X()'.'t'Eax_&.&Tj. Ol ae: Xpc.u~&-rot 7tpoc; 't'cX i5p'Y)
To'Lc; Toupxotc; 7tet.pocxe:tv1'oct.
2ovp ''OTt Mvocnoct xocl. ol IToc-r~tvocx'L-roct 't'O'Le; ToupxoLc; E:m-rl.S-e:a.S-oct I
\ '
XCX:t e:yoc/\c.uc; ~ ,
7tpet.toEUE:tV /\OC7t't'E:LV cx:u-rouc;, xoc.S-6.ic; xocl. E:v -rci> Io
XOCt\ 7t0Cp0Ct'A I

7tEpt Iloc't'~LVOCXL't'WV xe:cpocA.oc(cp 7tpoe:Lp"t)'t'OCL.

v 'AAcxvlcxc;, OTL Be II 5 ewf:rx. edd.: .&' p II xf.1)cx't'CX p II 7 ewecx edd.: .&' p

8 i<.A1jchwv TOU't'W\I V Me Ba i<.f.Lchwv 't'OUTW\I Be II xf.1)1hw11 P.
10, 11, 12, 13
Nine regions of Chazaria are adjacent to Alania, and the Alan can,
if he be so minded, plunder these and so cause great damage and dearth
among the Chazars: for from these nine regions come all the livelihood
and plenty of Chazaria.

11. 0 f t h e c i t y o f C h e r s o n a n d t h e c i t y o f B o s p o r u s.
If the ruler of Alania is not at peace with the Chazars, but thinks
preferable the friendship of the emperor of the Romans, then, if the Chazars
are not minded to preserve friendship and peace with the emperor, he,
the Alan, may do them great hurt by ambushing their routes and setting
upon them when they are off their guard, in their passage to Sarkel and
the Regions and Cherson. And if this ruler will act zealously to check them,
then Cherson and the Regions may enjoy great and profound peace; for
the Chazars, afraid of the attack of the Alans and consequently not being
free to attack Cherson and the Regions with an army, since they are not
strong enough to fight both at once, will be compelled to remain at peace.

12. 0 f b I a c k B u I g a r i a a n d C h a z a r i a.
The so-called black Bulgaria can also attack the Chazars.

13. 0 f t h e n a t i o n s t h a t a r e n e i g h b o u r s t o t h e T u r k s.
These nations are adjacent to the Turks: on their western side Francia;
on their northern the Pechenegs; and on the south side great Moravia, the
country of Sphendoplokos, which has now been totally devastated by these
Turks, and occupied by them. On the side of the mountains the Croats are
adjacent to the Turks.
The Pechenegs too can attack the Turks, and plunder and harm them
greatly, as has been said above in the chapter on the Pechenegs.

11. 2 Booa7t6pou P II 7 &<pu'A.&:x-rotc; coni. Kyriakides II 8 ><A1J<ncx P I/

Tt"otl]ai;;.-cxt edd. II 10 Xtpawv P // xA.1Jcx.-cx P II 12 xA.1Jcxatv P.
12. 1 njc; 2 om. V edd.
13. 4/5 Ifo.-?:tvcxxl.-cxt P II 5 post epoc; Yi lac. ind. Jenkins excidisse
s'U.Ypiciens Xpc.>(3cx.-(cx 1jv 8e Tt"o.-& o .-(moc; ii vel huju.smodi all<juid II 9 Ifo.-i:t
vcxxkcxt P II
'E7ttCl''T"YJcrov, uie, 3tocvolocc; ~oc 'TY)c; cr~c; "A6yotc; E:o'Lc;, xocl yv&&L,
ex O'OL SV'TSAAOocL, XOCL e~e:Li; EV XOCLp<j} we; ex 7tOC'TpLXWV &'Y)crocupW\I 7tpotpepe:tv
"I -
E:t'..Ui; XOCL' E:7tLOE:LXVUO'
' "' I
, ''I Cl''(\lTL OUV, 'l'
O'" TL
't"OLi; ~ope:(otc; cX7tOCO'L yeve:crL i:pucrtc; i:lcr7te:p xoc&ecr't"YJXE:V 'TO ev x_p~occrt 15
ALXVOV xocl 1h/,YJcr'TOV xocl 'Y)Oe7tO't"E: x.ope:vvue:vov, o&e:v 7t0CV't"OC E:m~'Y)'t"e:i:
\ 1 ' I \ , >f \ ' Q. 1 rl 1
XOCL 7tOCV'T(t)V e:i:pLE:'TOCL, XOCL oux e:x_e:L -rocc; e:mvutocc; opcp 7te:ptypoci:poe:vocc;,
&/.../...' &d 't"OU 7tAdovoc; E:m&ud, XOCL ocv't"l tx.piic; wi:pe:"Ae:(occ; e:ycf.1.oc xep3'1)
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82Be , , , t" , "' , , n. - , , ,
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- '"I - tf >\
cruve:-rwv oc7to"'oytc.uv ocvoc-rpe:7te:Lv
xoct' 'oc7toxpoue:cr'lTocL, I(\
oc~'t"tve:c;, ocrov
njc; 7tdpocc; ~de; XOC't"OCAOC~e:i:v ~3uv~&'l)e:v, ~c; ev TU7t<p 7te:pLAoc~e:'i:v,
'TOLOCU'Toc( 't"LVe:c; ecroV'TOCL.
EL ~ '
, OCt.,LC.UCl' OUO'L' 7tO't"E: XOCL' OCL' ' TYJO'
, OV'TOCL E:L',, t"E: <X.1.,ocpot, x ''I"
E:L',, TE: T oupxot,

E:L'" t"E: XOCL' 'p- we;, YJ'' e:-re:pov

'' ' 't"L E:' lTVOc; 'TCUV
''Cl - l"ope:LWV
A ' XOCL' ~ "-'XUvLY.(t)V'
C\ - 0 t IX 7t01'.l'.0C""' 25
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-rtvoe; 3oul.docc; xocl {moupylcx.c; ocinwv &n:omcx."A~voct ocu't"o 'Le;, oihwc; X.P~ cre:
' O"If\OY"IJO' ' OC(jvOCL,
(\ O'
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(X. 7tocp'
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21 vp uwv xoce: "'ocuxtoc ovocx.1.,e:'t"ocL, ou-re: 7tocpoc ocv'l]'p(i)7tWV xocTe:crxe:ucx.crv'Y)crocv, ' ' (\ I I (\

oihe: E:~ &v&pc.u7tLV(t)V -re:xv&v E7tE:Vo~&YjO'<X.\I Yi E~YJpyoccr&'Y)crocv, &"A"A' we; 30

' \ i ,_ ( I ' J I i I I t I
oc7to 7t'OCr,octocc; tcr't"optocc; e:v oc7toppYJ'TOLc; "oyoLc; ye:ypoce:vov e:uptcrxoe:v,
,, 0' 0
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l"OCO'L/\E:OC I - ' -
e:XE:LVOV \ e:yocv,
't"OV I
'TOV '

7tp&Tov XpLcr-rtocvov ~occrt"Ae:ocrocv-roc, 3t' &yye"Aou oc1h<j) TcX.c; 't'Otcx.oTocc; crTo"Acl:c;

>!: I < - "I "I I
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oc7te:p ue: Le; xcx.e:A<X.UX.LOC I
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Stwplcroc-ro ocu-r<j) &e:'LvocL 't"OCU't"OC bJ Tfl e:yOCA:J 't"OU 0e:ou ciy(~ SXXA'Y)O't~, 35
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22rp 3'Y)o-re:/,~c; xocl e: \yoc"A'Y) 't'U"('X.cXVIJ 3e:cr7tonx~ S:opT1j. L\to 31-i 8e:ou 7tt:iocr-
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&ucrLOCcrTI)pLcp -rou ocuTou vocou &7toxpeocTocL, xoct de; x.6crov T~c; ExXAYJ- 40
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F 12 'ETilaniaov - crijc; cf. Prov. 23, 5. 13 & aot E:nehl..ocu

Prov. 6, 3.
Fix, my son, your minds's eye upon my words, and learn those things
which I command you, and you will be able in due season as from ancestral
treasures to bring forth the wealth of wisdom, and to display the abundance of
wit. Know therefore that all the tribes of the north have, as it were implan-
ted in them by nature, a ravening greed of money, never satiated, and so
they demand everything and hanker after everything and have desires that
know no limit or circumscription, but are always eager for more, and desi-
rous to acquire great profits in exchange for a small service. And so these
importunate demands and brazenly submitted claims must be turned back
and rebutted by plausible speeches and prudent and clever excuses, which,
in so far as our experience has enabled us to arrive at them, will, to speak
summarily, run more or less as follows:
Should they ever require and demand, whether they be Chazars, or
Turks, or again Russians, or any other nation of the northerners and Scy-
thians, as frequently happens, that some of the imperial vesture or diadems
or state robes should be sent to them in return for some service or office
performed by them, then thus you shall excuse yourself: These robes of
state and the diadems, which you call 'kamelaukia', were not fashioned by
men, nor by human arts devised or elaborated, but, as we find it written
in secret stories of old history, when God made emperor the former Con-
stantine the great, who was the first Christian emperor, He sent him these
robes of state by the hand of His angel, and the diadems which you call
'kamelaukia', and charged him to lay them in the great and holy church
of God, which, after the name of that very wisdom which is the property of
God, is called St.Sophia; and not to clothe himself in them every day, but
only when it is a great public festival of the Lord. And so by God's command
he laid them up, and they hang above the holy table in the sanctuary of this
same church, and are for the ornament of the church. And the rest of the
imperial vestments and cloaks lie spread out upon this holy table. And
when a festival of our Lord and God Jesus Christ comes round, the patriarch
takes up such of these robes of state and diadems as are suitable and appro-
priated to that occasion, and sends them to the emperor, and he wears them
in the procession, and only in it, as the servant and minister of God, and
after use returns them again to the church, and they are laid up in it.
Moreover, there is a curse of the holy and great emperor Constantine en-

V 21 &7t"oxpoue:cr.&ocL corr. Moravcsik: iXvocxpoue:a.&ixL P edd. /I 24 Toupxot

P II 25 !3ope:twv P II 26 fo.&'l)'t"OOV P IJ 28 &7t"o'A.oylaixa-Om P edd. I/ a-roA.ixl]
corrupto perga-meno litteras cxl 8. v. iter. pa II 29 u&v (etiam Meursius);
1j&v V edd. II 30 &~e:tpyiXa.&"fjaocv Be II 32 !3ixaLMix Be: [3ocatMixv P !! 34 &rre:p
udc; (etiam Meursius): & 7t"1Xp' ~&v Ba Be II Mye:-re: v Me; Mye:'t"IXL p Ba
Be II 35 l>wplaoc-rw p II 35 njc; om. edd. II 43/4 E)( 't"WV: 't"U ex Me Ba TE
ex Be II 45 &7toa-re'A.A'lJ P II 47 iXv-rLaTpeqi'lJ P II
e:yocl\OU A
I K t'..UVO""C"OCV'tWOU E:O'"C"LV e:v 't'YJ OC"'(LC(; "C"OCU'tfl 't'pocr.c:<.,,'(l
I ' I ' L"I' - '-
't"Y)c; I I

Tou 0e:ou txx.AYJcrlcXi:; tyye:ypocev"fJ, xoc.&wi:; ocuT<;> oLci 't'ou &yye/...ou 50

, <:- ' ,, ,, A , n- A , , ~, , ,, /
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l (I I > (I l'I' I - l "I I > I l ~I I
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oc1hoc; t"C"E:poc ooLoc xoce:f:v ~Ol>A"f)&'?j, tvoc xocl. CXU't'cX ~ 't'OU 8e:ou tXXA"f)O'LCX 55
' "I
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XCXXL"'(XIXX@;; 1 '
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O"rL ouoev tvocV"C"LOV "C"WV 7tpoa't'e:'Tcxyevcuv xocl. ex 7tCXAOCLOU Cfll>AOC't''TOevcuv

i I I .,\ , I Q.. \ ti ( 1 - I I
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xi:pe:poevou e:pLv.iv TE: xocl. e:/...e:'t'OCV, wi:; e;'lrrs:p 7tO't'e 't'OA~acuaf. 't'Lvs:i:;
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OCUTO &7to 't'OU (8e:ou) ot' &.yyE:.A.ou TCj> s:yoc/...cp xocl 7tpW"t"cp ~OCO'LAE:L XptO""C"L-
ocv<J>, ocy(cp Kwvcr't'OCV"C"LV<p tcpocve:pw&"f) xocl. eoLMx..&"fJ Ilocpocyys:"Alocc; oS:
c:y&:.'Aocc; 7tE:pl 't'OU"C"OU mx.pcl: "C"OU OCU"C"OU &yye'/...ou eoE:;oc"C"o, wi:; 7tOCpcX" xoct 7tOC7t7tWV mo-Tw&E:vnc; 7tA"f)pocpopoue:&oc, tvoc E\I 6\loti:; 80
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85Be &~occrcpoc/,L~6e:voc; 7te:pl -rouTou &v TlJ ciyl~ Tpoc7te~ri Tijc; 't'ou 8e:ou txx'A'YJ- I
24vp O"L1Y.c; ocpiXc; E:yypoccp!fjvocL 7tE:7tOL'Y)XE:V, tvoc 0 ex
"C"OU I "C"OLOU"C"OU nupoc; de; 85

F 61 Eic; - 66 t7te:cmiXaix-ro: cf. Theoph. p. 453, 25-30; Georg. Mon.

p. 765, 8-14.
graved upon this holy table of the church of God, according as he was char-
ged by God through the angel, that if an emperor for any use or occasion
or unseasonable desire be minded to take of them and either himself misuse
them or give them to others, he shall be anathematized as the foe and enemy
of the commands of God, and shall be excommunicated from the church;
moreover, if he himself be minded to make others like them, these too the
church of God must take, with the freely expressed approval of all the
archbishops and of the senate; and it shall not be in the authority either
of the emperor, or of the patriarch, or of any other, to take these robes
of state or the diadems from the holy church of God. And mighty dread
hangs over them who are minded to transgress any of these divine ordinances.
For one of the emperors, Leo by name, who also married a wife from Chaza-
ria, out of his folly and rashness took up one of these diadems when no
festival of the Lord was toward, and without the approval of the patriarch
put it about his head. And straightway a carbuncle came forth upon his
forehead so that in torment at the pains of it he evilly departed his evil life,
and ran upon death untimely. And, this rash act being summarily avenged,
thereafter a rule was made, that when he is about to be crowned the emperor
must first swear and give surety that he will neither do nor conceive anything
against what has been ordained and kept from ancient times, and then may
he be crowned by the patriarch and perform and execute the rites appro-
priate to the established festival.
Similar care and thought you must take in the matter of the liquid
fire which is discharged through tubes, so that if any shall ever venture
to demand this too, as they have often made demands of us also, you may
rebut and dismiss them in words like these: This too was revealed and taught
by God through an angel to the great and holy Constantine, the first Chri-
stian emperor, and concerning this too he received great charges from the
same angel, as we are assured by the faithful witness of our fathers and
grandfathers, that it should be manufactured among the Christians only
and in the city ruled by them, and nowhere else at all, nor should it be sent
nor taught to any other nation whatsoever. And so, for the confirmation
of this among those who should come after him, this great emperor caused
curses to be inscribed on the holy table of the church of God, that he who

V 49 (jocmAt<c; om. V edd. o

II 50/1 0e:oc; 8tiX -rou &yyeJ,.ou V edd. 51
l>wp(crix-ro P II 54 &vix&e:oc-r1:'lJ't"IXL Meursius Ba Be II &7tOX'lJPUT't"'lJTIXL Meursius
Ba Be II 65 XIXX~V xocxoc; p II 69 cpuAixnotv<v edd.: CflUAIX't"'t"OsvoLc; p II 70
To/.. firm Ba Be II 73 xpljcrixt p ii crtcp6vwv p II 76 IXU't"OU<; edd.: IXU't"otc; p II
f!xoic; V edd. II 77 &7to -rou om. edd. II 0e:oi3 a.dd. Moravcsik II 77 /8
XpLcr-riocvij) Meursius Ba Be: XpLcrnixvwv P II 82 7tocpixm~rr'l)T1Xt edd.: m~poc7t-
7te:'t"IXt p II
E1"e:pov e&voi:; ~OUVO'..L 't'OA~crO'..<; fJ.~Te: XpLcrTLO'..Voi:; 6vooc~E:'t"O'..L, ~Te: &.~LO'..<;
't'LVO<;' .,, O'
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.... O''t:'..c,LOU' .... t"O'..L. !MV\ Z'"l 9\.' e:L ''
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XO'..L' O'..'TW' '

> fJ. f; \ ' ' - >I ' Cl 1y \ "" 1y

e:x.jJO:l':l)'t"O'..L X.O'..L EL<; O'..LCUVO'..<; O'..LCLJV(J}V OCVO''TL<., 'Y)'t"OCL XO'..L 7totpcXoe:LycX't"L1..,'Y)-
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7te:tpwe:vo.:;. KcXl. 7tpoe:Tpe~cXTo 7tcXVTcX<; Tou.:; ~~'Aov xcXl. cp6~ov 0e:ou
ex_ovw.c;, w.:; XOLVOV E:x&pov XO'..L 7to.:po:.~cX':''Y)V ~.:; e:ycX.A'Y)t; 't"O'..OT'Y)t; EV't'OA:;j.:;,
Tov TotoliTov E:mxe:tpouvTrt.. 7tOLe:'Lv &.vcXipdv a7touooc~e:Lv, xcXl. Ex_&la't"cp
<xrt..i) XcXAe:rcq, rcrt..pcXrcEf.L7te:cr.&cXL .&cXvcx:rc::i. ~uvE~'Y) 8 7tO'Te:, T~<; XcXXloti:;
25rp &.d xwprt..v e:upLcrxoOaY)<;, TLVcX 't"WV ~e:'t"Epcuv a'TpiX'TI)"(WV 8& \pcX r.cXpcX 95
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, , , , , - - , ~, i ,... , ,
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'<" \ TOU
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86Be , , - , - ' , '.,,

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O"UVLO"'t'O-'..V yocLX.O'..\ (J'UVOCA-120 ;

F 98 rtup - 99 ocv&:),wae;v: cf. IV Reg. l, 10-12; Apoc. 20, 9; Socrates,

Hist. eccl. VII. 43. 100 cpo(joc; - Tp6oc;: cf. Exod. 15, 16; Psalm.
54, 6. 104 'All' &ye 87J e:T&:f3lJlh: Homeri Od. VIII. 492.

V 86 ovo&:~l)TCXL edd. I\ 88 bt(j&:lll)TOCL Be II cxlwvcx V edd. I\ &.vc:x.&e:ocrt-

should dare to give of this fire to another nation should neither be called
a Christian, not be held worthy of any rank or office; and if he should be
the holder of any such, he should be expelled therefrom and be anathema-
tized and made an example for ever and ever, whether he were emperor, or
patriarch, or any other man whatever, either ruler or subject, who should
seek to transgress this commandment. And he adjured all who had the zeal
and fear of God to be prompt to make away with him who attempted to do
this, as a common enemy and a transgressor of this great commandment, and
to dismiss him to a death most hateful and cruel. And it happened once, as
wickedness will still find room, that one of our military governors, who
had been most heavily bribed by certain foreigners, handed over some of this
fire to them; and, since God could not endure to leave unavenged this
transgression, as he was about to enter the holy church of God, fire came
down out of heaven and devoured and consumed him utterly. And thereafter
mighty dread and terror were implanted in the hearts of all men, and never
since then has anyone, whether emperor, or noble, or private citizen, or
military governor, or any man of any sort whatever, ventured to think of
such a thing, far less to attempt to do it or bring it to pass.
<But come, now, turn', and to meet another sort of demand, monstrous
and unseemly, seemly and appropriate words discover and seek out. For
if any nation of these infidel and dishonourable tribes of the north shall ever
demand a marriage alliance with the emperor of the Romans, and either to
take his daughter to wife, or to give a daughter of their own to be wife to the
emperor or to the emperor's son, this monstrous demand of theirs also you
shall rebut with these words, saying: Concerning this matter also a dread and
authentic charge and ordinance of the great and holy Constantine is engraved
upon the sacred table of the universal church of the Christians, St. Sophia,
that never shall an emperor of the Romans ally himself in marriage with
a nation of customs differing from and alien to those of the Roman order,
especially with one that is infidel and unbaptized, unless it be with the
Franks alone; for they alone were excepted by that great man, the holy
Constantine, because he himself drew his origin from those parts; for there
is much relationship and converse between Franks and Romans. And why
did he order that with them alone the emperors of the Romans should

~e:'t"IXL V II 88/9 7t1Xpot8e:Lyix-r(~e:'t"IXL V II 89 6 om. edd. II 90 rrixpix(joc(ve:w V

edd.: 1t"ixpoc~ix(vov P /II 91 :n:pou-rpe<jiix-ro edd. II 93 -roto\ho Ba Be -rou-ro Meur-
eiue II 93/4 x.&la-r(\l (xixt) )(IXAe:1t"(i> coni. Moravcsik: x-raTw )(IXAe:rrw P x-
-r[a-r(\l -r(jl xixAe::n:Cji Ba Be e:u.&uc; -r(ji )(IXAE7t(jl Meursiue x-rlaT(\l xocl )(IXAE7r0
Bandurius an x.&la-r41 vel olx-rla-rcii omissis -r(jl )(IXAe:7t(jl? Bekker II 99 xix-re:A&ov
EX 't"OU oupixvou v Me II iivljAWO"EV v edd. !I 102 6 orn. edd. II 104 , AA>..' &ye: Be:
ii)..AiXye: P II 107 ix!-r-fiae:TIXL edd. II au7te:&e:pLiiaixL P !! 108 de; corr. Kyriakidee:
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't'OLoo-rcuv ocu't'ou 7tocpocv6c.uv occre:~"t)chwv Ev 'r?i 't"OU 0i::ou hxf..."1jcrt~

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471. 147 Ilwc; o xopLc; - 149 Bou)..y&pc,i: cf. Georg. Mon. (cont.), ed. Bonn,
p. 905, 19-907, 5; 913, 6--8; Georg. Mon. (cont.), ed. Istrin II. p. 56,
8-34; 60, 6--8; Theoph. Cont. p. 414, 1-415, 9; 422, 1~13. 150 ll>Lw't"1)c; xixt
&:ypocix.-oc;: cf. Acta 4, 13.
intermarry? Because of the traditional fame and nobility of those lands
and races. But with any other nation whatsoever it was not to be in their
power to do this, and he who dared to do it was to be condemned as an
alien from the ranks of the Christians and subject to the anathema, as a
transgressor of ancestral laws and imperial ordinances. And that emperor
Leo aforesaid, who also, as has been described above, unlawfully and rashly,
without the consent of him who was then patriarch, took from the church
the diadem and put it about his head and was summarily punished in full
for his wicked attempt, dared to make light of and to disregard this com-
mandment also of that holy emperor, which, as has already been made
clear, is engraved on the holy table; and as he had once put himself outside
the fear of God and His commandments, so also he contracted an alli-
ance in marriage with the chagan of Chazaria, and received his daughter
to be his wife, and thereby attached great shame to the empire of the Romans
and to himself, because he annulled and disregarded the ancestral injunc-
tions; yet he, however, was not even an orthodox Christian, but an heretic
and a destroyer of images. And so for these his unlawful impieties he is
continually excommunicated and anthematized in the church of God, as
a transgressor and perverter of the ordinance of God and of the holy and
great emperor Constantine. For how can it be admissible that Christians
should form marriage associations and ally themselves by marriage with
infidels, when the canon forbids it and the whole church regards it as alien
to and outside the Christian order? Or which of the illustrious or noble
or wise emperors of the Romans has admitted it? But if they reply: How
then did the lord Romanus, the emperor, ally himself in marriage with the
Bulgarians, and give his grand-daughter to the lord Peter the Bulga-
rian ~ , this must be the defence: The lord Romanus, the emperor, was
a common, illiterate fellow, and not from among those who have been
bred up in the palace, and have followed the Roman national customs from
the beginning; nor was he of imperial and noble stock, and for this reason
in most of his actions he was too arrogant and despotic, and in this instance
he neither heeded the prohibition of the church, nor followed the command-
ment and ordinance of the great Constantine, but out of a temper arrogant
and self-willed and untaught in virtue and refusing to follow what was

V 121 post 'Pwoclwv signum interrogationis posuit Moravcsik: 'Pwcdwv

8tiX Be JI 122 -rou ofou 8-fi1w-re: edd.: -rotou8lj7to-.e: P II 123 SuvocE:vouc; edd.:
8uvocE:vou P Mvoccr&oct coni. Kyriakides JI 124 7tocpoc(3a:nic; edd.: mxpocf3iXTIJv P II
128 Tt"oc-rptocpxe:uovToc; edd. II 129 rxe:tpae:wc; P I/ 138 XptO"'t"Lixvoc; 7jv b<e:Ivoc; edd. II
143 aune:.&e:pti:X~e:tv P II 144 ocu-ro Ba Be: ocuT<li P II 145/6 xxphwv Meursius
Ba. 11147 xup"t)c; p: xupLOc; edd. II 148 O"UVETt"e:&e:plixae:v p /J xupL<p edd. II 149 xup1)c;
P: xu(Mc; edd. 11151 w&pocE:vwv Be: -re;-rpocevwv P II
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162 xcd add. Jenkins I! 167 'E7td I>' coni. Bekker II 168 xcd 2 om. edd. II
right and good, or to submit to the ordinances handed down by our fore-
fathers, he dared to do this thing; offering, that is, this alone by way of
specious excuse, that by this action so many Christian prisoners were ran-
somed, and that the Bulgarians too are Christians and of like faith with us,
and that in any case she who was given in marriage was not daughter of
the chief and lawful emperor, but of the third and most junior, who was
still subordinate and had no share of authority in matters of government;
but this was no different from giving any other of the ladies of the im-
perial family, whether more distantly or closely related to the imperial
nobility, nor did it make any difference that she was given for some service
to the commonweal, or was daughter of the most junior, who had no autho-
rity to speak of. And because he did this thing contrary to the canon and
to ecclesiastical tradition and the ordinance and commandment of the
great and holy emperor Constantine, the aforesaid lord Romanus was in
his lifetime much abused, and was slandered and hated by the senatorial
council and all the commons and the church herself, so that their hatred
became abundantly clear in the end to which he came; and after his death
he is in the same way vilified and slandered and condemned inasmuch as
he too introduced an unworthy and unseemly innovation into the noble
polity of the Romans. For each nation has different customs and divergent
laws and institutions, and should consolidate those things that are proper
to it, and should form and develop out of the same nation the associations
for the fusion of its life. For just as each animal mates with its own tribe,
so it is right that each nation also should marry and cohabit not with those
of other race and tongue but of the same tribe and speech. For hence arise
naturally harmony of thought and intercourse among one another and
friendly converse and living together; but alien customs and divergent
laws are likely on the contrary to engender enmities and quarrels and hatreds
and broils, which tend to beget not friendship and association but spite
and division. Mark, too, that it is not for those who wish to govern lawfully
to copy and emulate what has been ill done by some out of ignorance or
arrogance, but rather to have the glorious deeds of those who have ruled
lawfully and righteously as noble pictures set up for an example to be copied,
and after their pattern to strive himself also to direct all that he does; since
the end which came upon him, I mean, the lord Romanus, through these

170 ove:L8lcr&"I) p II XUp'Y)t;; p II 172 cX7t0: e7tl edd. II 176/7 xpcx-ruve:Lv scr. Moravcsik
xpcx-rolv'Y)v P: xpcx-re:'tv edd. II 177 &v&xpcxcrw coni. Jenkins: &v&xpLcr1Jv P
&v&xpLO"Lv edd. II 183 m~<puxe:v PY 7tE<puxe: Ba Be: 7tE<pmxe:v P V 7te:<ptA1JXe:
Meursius II ~i>'Y) edd.: tj&'Yj P II 185 <pLA.e:'t (littera v erasa) PY Ba Be: <pLAe:rv P V
<pLAwv Meursius Ii 186 &7te:py&~e:cr&cxL (l-ittera cr inserta et littera -r in .& correcta)
py Ba Be: cX7te:pycX~E:TCXL p v Me II 187 E:vv6wi;; Meursius Ba Be: evv6oLi;
P ~v v6oti;; coni. Kyriakides JI 192 8Yj V 8~ P: SE: edd. 11
13, 14
bw:v6v fo't'tv 7tpoc; crcucppovtcrov mx:p&oe:tyoc 't'ci> ~ouAoevcp 't'OC xocxwc;
mx:p' kxdvou 7tpocx&eV't'oc ~1Jl-ouv.
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14. IT e p l. 't' ~ c; ye: v e: oc I- o y ( oc c; 't' o u M o u x o u e -r.

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F 14. 2 re:ve:cxl-oye:T-rcxt - 28 Al&pl~ou: Georg. Mon. p. 697, 13--699, 10

(cf. textum codicis P); cf. Theoph. p. 333, 14--334, 19; Leo Gramm., ed.
Bonn. p. 153, 4--154, 7; Theod. Melit., ed. Tafel p. 105, 24--106, 21;
Cedr., ed. Bonn. I. p. 738, 12-739, 15; Excerpta cod. Harl. 5624. (s. XV.)
fol. 418r sqq., ed. Sp. Lampros, NE:o~ 'E'-Al)vovriwv XV. p. 359.

V 196 ey& V e:yocl-<i>i;; edd. II 197 -r6:8e: P 11 198 ye:ve:cxt.oy(cx~ edd.:

ye:vdrt.e:cx),oy(cx~ P II b&vwv V II 200 lhe:pl)ve:ucre:-rcxt Meursius Ba Be.
14. 2 re:ve:ixAoye:hcxt (etiam Migne): I'e:ve:o:A.oyij-roc:~ edd. II Mouxoue:T
(etiam Georg. Mon.BEV) Mouxoue:8 Georg. Mon. II 4 'A~pcxiX Georg . .Mon. II;; V Georg. Mon.: xcx-rcxyolvou P xcxTcxyoevov edd. II Z'l)vcxpo~ P:
NL~cxpoi;; Meursius Georg. Mon. Theoph. II 5/6 Mouv8cxpov (etiam Theoph.codd.):
13, 14
his headstrong acts is a sufficient warning to restrain anyone who is minded
to emulate his evil deeds.

But now, with the rest, you must know also what follows, my well-loved
son, since knowledge of it may greatly advantage you and render you the
object of greater admiration. That is, once again, knowledge 'of the dif-
ference between other nations, their origins and customs and manner of
life, and the position and climate of the land they dwell in, and its geo-
graphical description and measurement', as they are more widely expounded

14. 0 f t h e g e n e a 1 o g y o f M a h o m e t.
The blasphemous and obscene Mahomet, whom the Saracens claim
for their prophet, traces his genealogy by descent from the most widespread
race of Ishmael, son of Abraham. For Nizaros, the descendant of Ishmael,
is proclaimed the father of them all. Now he begat two sons, Moundaros
and Rabias, and Moundaros begat Kousaros and Kaisos and Themimes
and Asandos and various others whose names are unknown, who were allotted
the Madianite desert and reared their flocks, dwelling in tents. And there
are others further off in the interior who are not of the same tribe, but of
Iektan, the so-called Homerites, that is, Amanites. And the story is published
abroad thus. This Mahomet, being destitute and an orphan, thought fit
to hire himself out to a certain wealthy woman, his relative, Chadiga by
name, to tend her camels and to trade for her in Egypt among the foreigners
and in Palestine. Thereafter by little and little he grew more free in converse
and ingratiated himself with the woman, who was a widow, and took her
to wife. Now, during his visits to Palestine and intercourse with Jews and
Christians he used to follow up certain of their doctrines and interpretations
of scripture. But as he had the disease of epilepsy, his wife, a noble and
wealthy lady, was greatly cast down at being united to this man, who was
not only destitute but an epileptic into the bargain, and so he deceived
her by alleging: l behold a dreadful vision of an angel called Gabriel, and

Moi.'.iacxpov Georg. Mon. Theoph. II 6 'Pcx~dcxv P II Mouv8oc:poi;; (etiam

Theoph.codd.): Mou3cxpoi;; Georg. Mon. Theoph. II Kouacxpov (etiam Georg.
Mon.): Koupcxcrov Georg. Mon.P Theoph. \I 0e:ll)v Georg. Mon. Theoph.:
0ul'tjv P edd. II 7 'Acrcxvlfov Cod. Harl. "Acrcx8ov Georg. Mon. Theoph. II
&vwvuoui;; Meursius Be Georg. Mon.: owvuoui;; p ci:yvwcr.-oui;; Theoph. II
Moc:8tcxvl-r'flv P II 9 '!Ex-riiv P II 10 'Ol)pe:hcxt P II 'Acxvl:-rcxt (etiam Theoph.):
'Acxvhoc:t Georg. Mon. II Avcx8dxvu-rcxt ae:
o(hwi;; deest in Georg. Mon. II 11
cxu-rou wu: -rou 7l'poe:tp'fjE:vou Georg. Mon.P Theoph. II Mouxoue:S Georg.
Mon. II tcr&onucrcxa&cxt P: tcr&wTe:ucrcxt Georg. Mon. ta&o8oTfiae:a&cxt edd. I\
12 Xcx8tyi Georg. Mon .. : X&8tycx P Xcx8lyoc: edd. Xcx8lycxv Theoph. I\ 13
&JJ..oqi)"Aw.1: ooq>UAWV Georg. Mon. II 16 cruvcxvcx't'pe:qi6e:voi;; v Me Ba II 17 ).uae:ti;;:
pficre:ti;; Georg. Mon. II
14, 16
r (Xi"PLYJ/\ ovoo:n,
A \ 'I ' I \ \ t I ' - \
XIXL Yj \)7tOq>e:pc.uv OCU't'OU TIJV 'IJ'O.IXV OAL"(C.Up(I) XIXL 7tL7t't'(I)>), O.L ''I - \ I

31 vp &mcrnu&YJ, I
cru~e:uSoocp't'upounoc; IXU't'Ci} , Apetocvou 't'tvoc; ovocxou
.I. ~ I
'fe:Uo(!)YUou ~ ,
ot '
IXO"Xpoxe:poe:tocv. K IXL\ OU',, t'C.Ut:; YJ "(UVYJ\ 7tAIXVYj'
I "' 'I
&IJ..ocLc; yuvocL~LV ooq>UAoctc; XYJpO~occroc 7tpo<p~'t'YJV OCU't'bv e:!voct, 7tp0~A&e:v
't'o ife:uSoc; ~c; &7toc't"Y)c; xoc1 de; &vopo: q>UAocpxov 't'o~vooc Bou~ocxixp. 25
'H oi'Jv yuv~ &ocvoucro: xoc1 't'OU't'Ov StocSoxov xoc1 x"AYJpov6ov xo:'t'o:Ae:lifixcrix
't'WV ~ocu~c;, eyve:-ro m:ptq>IXv~c; XOCL &yo:v um:poocrtoc;, xocl xoc-rfoxe:v
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' , 't'Ov' 7tocpixoe:tcrov ' "' 30
32rp dcrepxe:-rixt xcxl &M.oc, 5cro: q>Au Jo:pe:'i:. Ilpocreox.ov't'o:t SE: xo:l de; 't'b rijc;
'AcppoOLTY)c; &O''t'pov, 8 xoc'Aoucrt Kou~ocp, xo:l &vocq>wvoucrtv ev 't'TI
7epocre:uxfl ocu-rwv ou't'c.uc; ' AA'AIX oM: Kou~ocp, 5 ecr't'tv 'o &ebc; xix1
'A cppooL't"Y)
~I . T'ov yocp
' \ ""e:ov
0. \ "A"",,
A/\IX 7tpocrovoo:1.,oucn, ,.,,. 't'O\ oe:
"'' ouo: '" OCV' ' t'L\
't'OU XOCL cruvoe:crou 't'L'lTE:IXO'LV, XIXL 't'O
- " Q.1 \ \ 'K fl. I ' 'I - \
OUt'IXP XOC/\OU(jL 't'O Clt.O"'t'pov, XOCL\ 35

/\e:youcrtv OU',, t'C.Uc;' 'A""' ,, K OUt'IXp.

11>. rr e: P t -r o u y ev o u c; .. w v <1> oc 't' e: L't' w v.

'I O''t'E:OV, O't'L YJ m.
1 '
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11V 't'OU- Mouxoue:'t', XIXL OC7t EXE:LYYjc;
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1 1
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Tdve:cr.&oct 7tocp' oA.ty(!)v &vopwv.

F 28 Koct HlL8oc~e:v - 31 e:lcrepxe:-rocL: Georg. Mon. (cod. P) app. ad p.

699, 10; cf. Theoph. p. 334, 20-22. 31 Ilpoae:uxov-roct - 36 Kouf3~p:
cf. Georg. Mon. p. 706, 1-13; Cedr. ed. Bonn. I. p. 744, 9--21; Exe. cod.
Harl. 5624. I. c. p. 362.
15. 10 Ou xcxf3cxlloce:uoucrt - 14 &v3pwv: cf. Leo, Tact. XVIII. ll2-ll5.,
ed. Migne, P. G. 107. c. 972 D--973 B.
14, 15
being unable to endure his sight, I faint and falh>; and he was believed
because a certain Arian, who pretended to be a monk, testified falsely in
his support for love of gain. The woman being in this manner imposed on
and proclaiming to other women of her tribe that he was a prophet, the
lying fraud reached also the ears of a head-man whose name was Boubachar.
Well, the woman died and left her husband behind to succeed her and to
be heir of her estate, and he became a notable and very wealthy man, and
his wicked imposture and heresy took hold on the district of Ethribos.
And the crazy and deluded fellow taught those who believed on him, that
he who slays an enemy or is slain by an enemy enters into paradise, and
all the rest of his nonsense. And they pray, moreover, to the star of Aphro-
dite, which they call Koubar, and in their supplication cry out: Alla wa
Koubar, that is, 'God and Aphrodite'. For they call God 'Alla', and 'wa'
they use for the conjunction 'and', and they call the star 'Koubar', and so
they say 'Alla wa Koubar'.

15. 0 f t h e t r i b e o f t h e F a t e m i t e s.
Fatem was a daughter of Mahomet, and from her are begotten the
Fatemites. But these are not from Fatemi, from the country of Libya, but
dwell in the district north of Mecca, away behind the tomb of Mahomet. They
are an Arab nation, carefully trained to wars and battles; for with the aid
of this tribe Mahomet went to war, and took many cities and subdued many
countries. For they are brave men and warriors, so that if they be found
to the number of a thousand in an army, that army cannot be defeated
or worsted. They ride not horses but camels, and in time of war they do
not put on corselets or coats of mail but pink-coloured cloaks, and have
long spears and shields as tall as a man and enormous wooden bows which
few can bend, and that with difficulty.

v 22 'ApLCXVOU p II 24 ootpuAcxLc; (etiam Theoph.d): oo<pUAOLc; Be Georg. Mon.

Theoph. II 25 qiu:Aocpxov Meursius Ba Be Georg. Mon.: ipl:Aocpxov P II Bou(3&xcxp:
'A(3ou(3&:xcxp coni. Thunmann II 27 &ycxv xcxl Georg. Mon. p II um:poUO'Wc;:
m:pLoumoc; Georg. Mon. um:p7tAOumoc; coni. Stephanus II 28 At.&pl(3ou Be
Theoph.g Al&p~{3ou p: 'E&pl(3ou Georg. Mon. Theoph. II 31 xocl &:AAcx, ocrcx
tp:Aucxpd deest in Georg. Mon. Theoph. II tp:Aucxpe:i: Be: tp:Aucxp'ij P II 33 o V edd.:
ou P II xocl Meursius Ba Be: "ti P II 34 Tov (littera v addita) P 2 V edd.: -ro P II
'AU& V: 'AUcx (sine acc.) P II 34/5 &.vd -rou xocl cruv8foou nAfcxaw V edd.:
&v-rL xocl cruvll' n-Ofomv P accentum 8tipa &.v-rl add. itemque -rou et ou s.
v. add. P 2 &.v-rl. -rou xcxt cruv8foou 11ig. iter. P 2
lo. 1 irwipit cod. Mutin. gr. 179 [= MJll 3 cI>cxTe:d-rcxL P II <I>a-r1) edd.:
<l>&:"t'e:IJ P II 5 -rou1 om. edd. II 9 <pocrchov P II qioachov P II 12 po8w-ra edd.
po8o-riX P: pu-rL8wT& coni. Meursius <et
II 14 -re:lve:a-&cx~ ~) coni. Kyriakides.
16, 17
93Be 16. 'EK T o U
- K OC Vo v O c;, 0 0 e: " E: OC 't' L a e; V 1: 't' E: <p 0C V 0 c;
I .,. '
V' I I
o '

33rp oc & 'Y) oc 't' L x 0 c; 7t e; p l 't' Yi c; 't' w v 1: oc p oc x 'Y) v wv I e~ 6 a 0 u,

ev 7toLcp Xp6v<J> -rYjc; 't'OU x6crou crucr't'OCO'E:(!)c;
0' 't'OC
e; y e; v E: 't' o, 't' L t; \

P w oc l (!) v a L 7t w v. 5

'E~~/-&ov ot 1:ocpocx'Y)vol 'Y)vl Le7t-re:~plcp -rpk(l, tv3tx-rtwvoc;

~ I ' \~' ~
oS:XOCT'Y)c;, etc; 't'O O(!)OE:XOCTOV E:TOc; 'H pOCX/\E:LOU,
,, I ,,
e:'t'oc; OC7t0 )('t'L(jS:(!)<; xocrou , \ I I

c;p/-'. To SS: &eocTtv -r&v ocu-rwv 1:cx:pcx:x'Y)vwv &yve-ro de; ~vex; Le:7t-rt-
~ptov Tpl't"Y)V, ~p~ 7tt7t't'YJ. Etc; -rouc; ocu-rouc; xp6vouc; 7tpW't'O<;; &px'Y)yoc;
-r&v 'Apoc~(!)V Mouoce:&, ov ot "Apoc~e:c; Mouxooe't', xocl 7tpo- 10 o
<p~'t''Y)c; OCU't'WV XP'YJoc-rlcrcx:c;, ExpOC't' Y)Cl'S: ae: -rYjc; &px~c; 't'WV , Apoc~Ci>V ET'Y)
' '

17. E x .. o u x P o v L x o u .. o u ex: x ex: P l o u e e o cp & v o u c;.

'\ "' ' CX:7tEt'
, T<p- S:',, t'E:L, ',,Y)"(OUV ,.,~ p/\V'
T OUTCJ> , P.'L(!) Moucx:eV''
" 't'C-i>V ""

33vp ocpx.'Y)yoc; xocl ~euSo7tpO<f>~'t''Y)c;, 7tpOX,E:LpLcrcie:voc; &v IT' CX:U't'OU , A~ou~cixoc

pov, 't'OV xocl Bou7tOCXT(!)pCX:, cruyye:vYj CX:UTOU. Ot ae: 7tE:7tACX:v'Y)VoL 'E~pcx:i:ot
bl &pin -njc; 7tcx:pouo-Locc; ocu-rou v6tcrcx:v dvcx:t 't'ou-rov -rov ncx:p' cx:u-roi:c; 5
7tp0CJ'OQ)(.{!)E:VQ'J x ptO''t'OV, we; XOCL 't'LVocc; 't'WV 7tpoux6VTWV CX.U'
I ( I >--
t'(!)V 7tpocr-
e:f...&dv ocu't'ct>, xocl aE~occr&ocL 't'1Jv OCU't'OU &p'Y)O'XELOCV, xcx:l XOC't'CX:Amdv 't'~V
TOU &e:67t't'OU M(!)crE(!)c;. 8e:(!)p~crcx:v-rec; SE: ocu-rov fo&lov't'CX: OC7to xoc~/-ou,
eyvcucrocv, OTL OUK fo't'LV, ov &voLcrocv. 'ESlaoccrxov aE: CX:U't'OV &.S-t't'CX:
94Be XOCTOC TWV XpLO''t'LOCVWV, xcx:l SLYjyov cruv cx;u-rct>. 00-rol dmv ot ataci~CX:V't'E:<; 10
ocu't'ov 7tocpocSE:ze:cr&oct E:p'Y) TLVcX 't'OU v6ou, ~v 't'E: 7te:pt-roYjv;l ?i.XAcx;
TLVoc, cfoe:p 7tocpoc<puA&novTocL ot 1:ocpocx'Y)voL IlpwToc; oi'.iv 'A~ou~ocxocp
, ) '& , , , ,
3P 'Y)XO ,ou 'Y)O'E:V OCU't'OV XOCL 7tpO<p'Y)TYJV
E:X'Y)pUr.,EV, ~,
OLO I, ,
X.CX:L, OLOCooxov
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xoc't'E:f...mev. 'Ex.p&:T'Y)O'E:v 0 ~ oci'.pe:crtc; ocu't'ou 't'cX E:p'Y) 't'Yjc; At&pl~ou, npw'Y)v
E:v bl x.pU7t't'(i} fr1) oexoc, 't'O oe
fo1_r:1.:r:ov OLOC nof...ou oolwc; e't' Y) oib<oc, 15

F 16. 1 'Ex -rou - 5 OLE7tWv: cf. H. Usener, De Stephano Alexandrino,

Index lect. Bonn. 1879. p. 3-16., 1879/80. p. 15-22, Notae Bullialdi
ad Ducae Historiam, ed. Bonn. pp. 622-626. 6 'E~'ij'Ml-ov - 9
TIEm-n: cf. Leo Gramm., ed. Bonn. p. 152, 20-153, 3; Cedr., ed. Bonn.
I. p. 717, 7-17; Excerpta cod. Bruxellensis II 4836. (s. XIII.) fol. 90v,
ed. J. Davreux, Byzantion X. p. 99.
17. 2 Tou-rcp - 10 cxu-rijl: Theoph. p. 333, 1-13; cf. Cedr., ed. Bonn. I.
p. 738, 3-11; Exe. cod. Harl. 5624., I. c. p. 358-359. 10 Ou-roL
- 11 m:pL-roljv: cf. Georg. Mon. p. 700, 5-6; Cedr. I. p. 739, 22. 14
'Exp&-r1Jcre:v - 23 &oLxouevoLi;;: Theoph. p. 334, 17-27; cf. Cedr. I. p.
739, Hi-17; Exe. cod. Har 1. 5624., l. c. p. 359.
16, 17
16. F r o m t h e c a n o n w h i c h S t e p h e n t h e a s t r o 1 o g e r
cast from the stars concerning the Exodus of
t h e S a r a c e n s, i n w h a t y e a r o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n
o f t h e w o r 1 d i t t o o k p 1 a c e, a n d w h o t h e n h e 1 d
t h e s c e p t r e o f t h e e m p i r e o f t h e R o m a n s.

The Exodus of the Saracens took place on the third day of the month
of September of the tenth indiction, in the twelfth year of Heraclius, in the
year from the creation of the world 6130. And the horoscope of these same
Saracens was cast in the month of September, on the third day of the month,
the fifth day of the week. At this same time Mouameth was first chief of the
Arabs, whom the Arabs call Mahomet, who was also their prophet, and
he held rule over the Arabs nine years.

17. F r o m t h e C h r o n i c 1 e o f T h e o p h a n e s,
of blessed memory.

In this year 6139, died Mouameth, chief and false prophet of the
Saracens, having appointed in his stead Aboubacharos, or Boupaktor, his
kinsman. And the deluded Jews at his first appearance had taken him for
the Christ whom they expect, so that some of their leading men approached
him and received his religion and forsook that of Moses who beheld God.
But when they saw him eating camel's flesh, they realized that he was
not what they had thought him. But they taught him to do nefarious
crimes against the Christians and continued in his company. These are they
who taught him to accept some parts of the Law, both the circumcision
and other matters, which the Saracens observe. The first to come after
him, then, was Aboubachar, who had proclaimed him to be a prophet and
was for that reason left behind to succeed him. And his heresy prevailed
in the district of Ethribos, at first in secret ten years, and at last through

V 16. 1 ou: &v edd. II 4/5 xod -rlc; o -roc crx'ij1npcx T'ijc; ~occrLAdcxc; 'Pwocwv
lhbtwv: xocl -rlc; -Jiv -r6-re: o ~ocm)..e:uc; 'Pwcx(wv V edd. II 7 BwBbtoc-rov V M edd.:
~~ P -rcji iW E'<e:L (sc. 'HpocxAdou) Cedr. -rcji . . . BwBe:xchcp -rou Mwoce:&
x.p6vcp Leo Gramm. II 8 post ,C:p)..' siglo ./. adhibito vuv Be (eD"'!tv) ,C:wo' (tvBL-
x-rLwvoc;) te:', we; dvocL &rec -r6-r(e:) EWc; vuv ;x,p6vot 4'' mg. add. P 3 , qttae omnia in
textum receperunt V M Me, qua de causa caput hoc insiticium esse suspicatus est
Meursius II 10/1 rcpo<p1}TI)c; P 1 V M edd.: TCpocp~-rIJv P 1 11 cxu-rwv P 1 V M edd.:
cxu-rov P II SE: om. V edd. II 12 evvcx edd.: -&' P.
17. 2 l)youv ,c;p)..&' in Theoph. II Mouoce:B Theoph. II 3 &:v-r' cxu-rou in Theoph. II 4 -rev xoct Bourc&x-rwpcx in Theoph. 11 Bou-rocx-rwpcx V
edd. II 5 ":'ou-rov: cxu-rov Theoph. II 7 xcx-rcxAme:i:'v: &.cp'ijcrcxt Theoph. II 8 &:rro
xcx~)..ou folHov-roc V edd. II 9 BE: deest in Theoph. IJ 10 BiMcrxov-re:c; edd. 11 14
8 deest in Theoph. II AWp~ou P 2 V edd. Theoph.g: At-&plou P 'E&p~ou
Theoph. JI 15 8exoc1 edd.: i' P II 8 in Theoph. II 8excx 2 edd.: i' P II
17, 18, 19
XCXL\ cpo:ve:pcuc;
. . . ETI)
,, E:VYUI..
, , ' (
'E~'~ . . . '
~ ~'
oLoOC:c.,E:Y OE 't'Ouc; E:CX.U't'OU U7tYj)<Oouc;, O't'L 0t OC:7tOX'
t'E:L- I fl I

voc;c; ex.&pov ~ &7to ix.&pou &7t0X.'t'E:Vv6evoc; &xCi>AU't'Cil<;; de; TOY 7tOCpocae:Lcrov

> I \ ~\ I~ ~ (.). I \ I \
ELO'Ep)'..E:'t'OCL, '!OY OE: 7tCXpOCoE:LO'OY crotpXLX.1)<;; 1-'PCilCl'E:W<;; X.OC:L 7tocre:c.uc; XOCL
l~c:wc; yuvoctx.&v EAeyev, 7tO't'OCov a OLVOU X.OC:t eAL't'oc; xoct y&"Aocx.Toc;
xoc:-roc:ppdv, xocl yuvotLX.WY TIJY opoc:crLV &criJyxpL-rov, OU 't'WV 7tocp6v't'CUV, 20
ill' rJ.N,wv, xcxl 'r~Y i:~LV 7to'Auxp6vLOV Ecpoccrxe:v xoct aLocpx.~ 't'~Y ~aov~v
't'LVOC:' OCO' I \ 'I
(l)'t'Lotc; X.OCL Ci>pLOt<;; e7t/\E:OC:, I Q -
cru7t0t1TE:LY '"l'I
't'E: OC/\/\'f)/\OLc; XOCL l'I \

34vp ~o1J&dv ocaLx.ouevotc;.

18. A Eu 't' E: p 0 c; & p x 'f) y 0 c; T (!) y 'A p oc ~ (l) v, 'A ~ 0 u-

A ' ,, I
I-' oc; X oc; p, E: 't' 'f) 't' p LOC.

Oo't'oc; 0 'A~ou~cX.xocp 7tpwToc; ~v 7t6ALY r&~oc:v xoc:i

7toccrocv o:u-r~c; ~v 7te:plxwpov. Te:Ae:uT~ a o oc:uToc; 'A~ou~cX.xoc:p &:l)pe:ucroc:c;
t"'IJ 't'pLOC,
XOCL\ 7t0CpOC/\OC:t-'
(.).I \ ' \
cx.px1JY O''uoc:p, XOCL\ xpcx.'t'E:L- 't'WV
~ 'Apoct-'(l)y
'R 5
~'t''f) aci>aexoc.

95Be 19. T pl 't' o c; & p X "1J yo c; 'A p cX. ~ Ci> v, 0 u oc: p.

'O ocu-roc; oi'Jv Ouocp E7tE:O''t'pcl't'EUO'E: XOC't'cl rijc; IlocACX.LCl''t'LV'f)c;, x.ocl
7tOCpoc:xoc&laocc; EV ocu-rYJ i7to'At6px'f)<TE:Y 't'~Y 'IEpoucroc:A~ ate-ri') xp6vov,
\ ,..,. (.). ~,...
x.ocL trocpE:/\OCt-'e:v otU't"f)V oo/\cp' \ ~
. ..:...Ci>cppovwc; yoc:p, o 'I e:pocro/\ucuv
I 'I' I'
' I

'lTE:L<.p XLYoue:voc; '-,'f)/\cp XOCL <XYXLVOL~ oLot7tpe:m.uv, /\Oyov t:;/\OCl-'E:Y 7tOC:p > 5
Q I I )'I'\ > \ 'I I J!"I (.).
~ I I

ocu't'ou u7tE:p 't'Wv xxA1JcrLWv 't'Yjc; nocO"f)c;'t'lv'f)c; &crcpcx."AfoT0tTov, &cr't'e:

3.51'P &xoc:Smphouc; I e'i:wxL 't'cXc; EXXA'f)O'LOC:c; x.cxt &.rcop&~'t'ouc;. Toi:hov rnwv 0
Lwcpp6vtoc; E<f>'f)' 'E7t' OCA1J.&doc:c; 't'OU't'6 Ecr't'LV 't'O ~MA.uyoc: rijc; ep'f)<i>-
crecuc;, 't'O' p'' f)1TE:Y ~ ' uotYL'f)/\
n' oLoc A ' 'I 't'OU ~ 7tpO<f>'f)'t'OU
' e:cr-roc;
' ' e:v
' 't'07t<p
' cx.ytcp.
' ' 0.,.U't'oc;
\ \ ,,.., ~ 'I ~ ~I ~...
TOY VCXOY E'-,'f)TI)O'E:Y 't'CUV OUOOCLWY, UY cpxooo'f)crE: """O/\Owv, 7tpoc; TO 7tOL1JO'
I " ' ~
OCL 10 I \ '

whov 7tpocrxw1l-r-fiprnv 't'l)c; cxu't'ou ~Aoccr<p'f)Locc;. Kocl fo't'L ~cue; TYjc; ~e:pov.

F 18. 1 Lidi-repoi;; - 6 8w8e:xoc cf. Theoph. p. 336, 4---8, 14---16, 28-29;

337, 13-17; Exe. cod. Harl. 5624., 1. c. p. 363.
19, 2 'O oc:uToi;; - 11 ~"Aoc:m:p1J(oc:i;;: Theoph. p. 339, 15-24; cf. Cedr., ed.
Bonn. I. p. 746, 8-15. 8 TO ~8e"Auyoc: - 9 ocylcp: Matth. 24, 15;
cf. Dan. 9, 27; Vita Sophronii, ed. A. Papadopulos-Kerameus, 'Avci"Ae:xToc:
'le:pocrol.umx'iji;; cr-toc:xuof..oyloc:i;; V. p. 144.

V 16 fr!) deest in Theoph. II vvoc: edd.: .&' P II 17 cX7tO (etiam Theoph.cdefm):

u7to V edd. Theoph. II &:7toxTe:vv6e:voi;; Theoph. &7toXTe:v6e:voi;; P: &noxTe:t-
v6e:vo<; edd. II &xwMTwi;; deest in Theoph. II "tOV dee,st in Theoph. II 19 ae:
(etiam Theoph.h): TE: Theoph. II 20 XCXTOC:ppe:iv dee,st in Theoph. II T~V opcxcrtv
&cruyxptTov dee,st in Theoph. II mxpovTwv (etiam Theoph.efghm): 7totpoucr&v
17, 18, 19
war another ten years, and openly nine years. And he taught his subjects
that he who has slain an enemy or is slain by an enemy enters unhindered
into paradise, and said that it is a paradise of carnal eating and drinking
and lying with women, and that a river of wine and honey and milk flows
down it and the women are incomparable to look upon, not such as we
know here but other, and he fabled that intercourse with them is of long
duration and the pleasure continuous, and other matters replete with
libertinism and folly; and they are to forgive one another and aid one
another when wronged.

18. The second chief of the Ar abs, Abo u b a ch a r,

t h r e e y e a r s.
This Aboubachar first took the city of Gaza and all the terri-
tory round about it. And the same Aboubachar died after ruling as emir
three years, and Oumar succeeded to the rule and governed the Arabs
twelve years.

19. T h e t h i r d c h i e f o f t h e Ar a b s, 0 u ma r.
This same Oumar marched against Palestine, and laid siege in it
and blockaded Jerusalem for the space of two years, and took it by guile.
For Spohronius, bishop of Jerusalem, one moved with divine zeal and
excellent in sagacity, received from him a most sure undertaking concerning
the churches throughout Palestine, so that the churches were neither de-
stroyed nor sacked. When Sophronius saw him, he said: Of a truth this
is the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the prophet, that
standeth in the holy place. He demanded the temple of the Jews that
Solomon built, to make it the place of worship of his blasphemy. And it is
so to this day.

Theoph. II 21 Etpoc:axe:v: e:!voc:t Theoph. II 8Lcxpx'ij -r~v Be Theoph.: Stcxpxtwc~v

p II 22 n"). e:cx v edd.: 7tAE:(1) p e:cr-roc Theoph. II Te:: ae: Theoph.
18. 2 -rploc: scr. Moravcsik: y' P Ba Be II 3 'A(3ou(3&:xcxp (etiam Theoph.ef):
'A(3ou(3&xcxpoc; Theoph. II 5 -rplcx edd.: y' P 81.'io 1jicru hie, sed alio loco y'
Theoph. II 5 Oucxpoc; Theoph. II 6 8W3e:xcx edd.: t(3' P.
19. I Oucxp] litteras rest. P 2 II 2 Oucxpoc; Theoph. II E7te:cr-rpche:ucre: (etiam
Meursius Migne Theoph.): &l't'e:cr-rp&:-re:ucre: V edd. II T'ijc; deest in Theoph. II
3 ev cxu-rn E7t'OAt6pK1J<JE:V deest in Theoph. !I ~v 'Ie:poucroc:).~: ~v &.ylcxv 7t6AtV
Theoph. II 4 xoc:l deest in Theoph. II oc:u~v Mt..ip] litteras ~v Mt..w rest. P 2 II
Mt..ip: t..6ycp Theoph. !I htcrxo7toc;: &pxte:pe:uc; Theoph II 5 &d(p xtvoue:voc; ~~A(p
XCXL cXYXLVOLq'. 3toc:7tpE7t(l)V deest in Theoph. II 5/6 7toc:p' CXUTOU urrE:p TWV EXXA"fjO'tWV
Tijc; deest in Theoph. !I 6 &.mpoc:Afo-rcx-rov (etiam Theoph.cocld.): foq>oc:t..da:c;
Theoph. II 6 wcr-re: - 7 &7top&~-rouc; deest in Theoph. II 7 6 deest in Theoph. II
9 &cr-rwc; P E:cr-rwc;!g II Ou-roe;: Oiioc:poc; Theoph. II IO 7tpoc; -ro deest
in Thcoph.
20, 21
20. T -r oc p T o c; 'A p &. ~ w v & p x 'YJ y 6 c;, 0 u .& &:. v.

00-roc; Aoc~&:.vs:L 't'~\I 'AcppLx1jv 7toMcp' xocl (J't'OL x~crocc; cp6pouc;

e-ra 'r&v "Acppcuv u7tfo-rpet./Jev. TooTou crTpOCT'Y)yoc; XP'Y)o:-r(~eL Mocu(occ;,
0' 7t0Cp0CA\)CJ';' C(c; 't'O\I ' XOAOO' "\ O"OV ' 'P'~ ooou XOCL' 7tOp..:r'Y)O'OCc; K'U7tpov 't' Y')V V'-Y)O'OV

X.O:L' 7tO:O'
occ; -ro:c;
t; O:U'' t' Y- )c;. O"'U't'oc; 7t0Cp0CA0Cf.Lt-'
XOCLl Y'Y)crov
- 't' Y\ )V ''A pocoov,
"' 5
'> ' -
35vp XO:L n')\I 7't"OALV IY.UT'Y)c; E:Vtmp'Y)O'E:V,
\ I ' L I ' \ - ,
XOCL 't' Y)V V'Y)O'OV OCOLX'Y)'t'OV XOC't'E:O''t' Y)C>E:V

E(t}c; 't'OU vuv. Oo-roc; '!~v v~crov 'P6oov XOC't'OCACX:~WV xoc.&e:D.e: 't'OV ev O:U't'.:yj
96Be ;w/-ocrcrov eToc XLALoc -rl;' g,.'YJ ... ~c; ocu't'ou J LSpucre:c.uc;, 8v 'Iouaoct6c; -rLc;
7topoc; &ivYjcroce:voc; 'ESecrcrYjv6c;, 0' xoc~Aouc; cp6p-rwcre:v cx:u'tou -rov
Xct.),x 6v. 0 u-roc; .,. o' MOCULo:c; e7te:aTpoc-reucre Xct.L xoc-roc K (t}\/CJ't'ocv-rwou1toAE:(t}c;,
I ' I ' ' ,, 10
XOCL E:AUfLYjVOC't'O 't"Y)\I 't'E:
' '"I I I ''E cpecrov XOCL \ 'A' \ ' ~
/\LXOCpwxcrcrov XOCL ..:...upYYjV XO:LI '

-rocc; AOL7te>:c; 7tOAE:Lc; cuvLocc;, oc; XOCL yeyove:v 't'C-UV 'A pocl"'wv
\ ; \ '; 'I I " \ I 'fl.. '
ocpx_Yjyoc;\ 7te:7t't'oc;

I I O'fi \ "\ \ >I

e-ro: 'r'Y)V uvocv 't'E:AE:UTYJV E:'t'YJ E:LXO<TL 't'ecrcrcx:poc. >I I

21. , E x 't' 0 \) xp 0 v Lx 0 u 0 e: 0 <p &:. \I 0 \) c; g 't' 0 c; OC> 7t \

0 X 't' L-

er e cu c; x o er o u ,c; p o oc

'Ia,.fov, ihL 7tpoc; 't'TI -re:Aeu't'n Mo:ulou, 't'Wv 'Apci~wv &.px'Y)you,

3WP dITTjA.&ov ot MocpSochocL de; 't'OV Al~ocvov, xcx:l expOC't'YjCl'CX:V &7to j ToU Mocopou
opouc; scuc; -njc; ocy(occ; 7tOAecuc;, xocl EX.E:Lpwcrocv-ro 't'OCc; 't'OU AL~OC\IOU 7te:pLcumic; 5
~ -., > I >
XO:LI 7t0/\/\0L
\ "\ \
oOUAOL XOCL\ OCU't'oxvove:c;
(l_ \
7tpoc; OCU' I
t'OU<; I
XOCTE:<puyov, WO''t'E: oL > f/ "'

0 ,Lyou xpovou etc; 7t0A/\CX:c; XLALCX:oocc;

')' I , ""' "I'"'
(l_ IK OCL\ 't'OU't'O
CX:'(l_\ I

xocl. oi ao~oUAOL O:U't'OU, E<po~~&ricrocv crcp6apoc. Kocl OC7t00''t'EAAE:L 7tpEcr~E:Lc;

7tpoc; -rov ocO't'oxpthopoc Kei>vcr-rocvTtvov ~'Y)'t'Wv dp~v'Y)v. 'E7tt 't'OCOTYl T?j
7tpoqi&.creL 7tE7tE:'t'OCL 7to:poc 't'OU ~IY.crLM(t}c; K(t}VCJ't'OC\l't'L\IOU, 't'OU op&oo6~ou, 10
' - 'rOV- 11 cuycuvOC't'OU,
I Y)c; 0' E:7tLXA'
' I "I Y)\I II L't'1y.,YjXCX:UoYjc;.
I"' TOU't'OU
I oe:

xoc-ro:),oc~6v ...oc; &v ~up(~, Mocu(occ; &M~oc't'o o:uTov e't'oc eyocAYjc; 't'L-tjc;,

F 20. 2 00-roc; - 3 u7tfo-rpe:4'e:v: cf. Theoph. p. 343, 17-20, 24--28. 3

Moculw; - 5 ocurijc;: cf. Theoph. p. 345, 8-9; 343, 30--31; Cedr., ed.
Bonn. I. p. 755, 1-2, 8-9. 5 O?iToc; - 7 vuv: Theoph. p. 344,
12-15; cf. Cedr. I. p. 755, 3-5. 7 O?i-roc; - 10 xoc)J(6v: Theoph.
p. 345, 8-11; cf. Cedr. I. p. 755, 8-10; Zon. XIV. 19., ed. Bonn. III. p.
219, 7-10. 10 Ou-roe; - Kwvcr-rcxv-rLvou7t6t.e:wc;: cf. Theoph. p. 345,
16---18. 11 El..u~voc-ro - 12 'Iwv(cxc;: cf. Theoph. p. 353, 14----16;
Cedr. I. p. 764, 18-20. 12 oc; - 13 -rfocrcxpcx: cf. Theoph. p. 346,
20-21, 25; 355, 1-5.
21. 4 e:lcr'ijt..&ov - 16 e:uye:vdc; v': Theoph. p. 355, 6-25; cf. Niceph.,
ed. de Boor p. 32, 23-33, 6; Cedr., ed. Bonn. I. p. 765, 19-766, 6; Zon.
XIV. 20., ed. Bonn. III. p. 224, 11-225, 7.
20, 21
20. T h e f o u r t h c h i e f o f t h e A r a b s, 0 u t h m a n.

He took Africa by war, and arranged imposts with the Africans and
returned. His general was Mauias, who pulled down the colossus of Rhodes
and took the island of Cyprus and all its cities. He took the island of Arados
also and burnt its city, and made the island desolate to this day. When
he came to the island of Rhodes, he demolished the colossus in it, one thous-
and 360 years after it had been set up, and a Jewish merchant of Edessa
bought it and loaded 900 camels with the bronze of it. This Mauias
also made an expedition against Constantinople and ravaged Ephesus and
Halicarnassus and Smyrna and the rest of the cities of Ionia, and after the
death of Outhman was fifth chief of the Arabs for twenty-four years.

21. F r o m t h e C h r o n i c 1 e o f T h e o p h a n e s: t h e y e a r
from the creation of the world 6171.

At the end of the life of Mauias, chief of the Arabs, the Marda'ites
entered the Lebanon and took possession of it from the Black mountain
to the holy city, and made themselves masters of the summits of the Lebanon;
and many slaves and natives ran to them for refuge, in numbers which
shortly amounted to many thousands. On learning this, Mauias was greatly
alarmed, and his counsellors with him. And he sent envoys to the emperor
Constantine, seeking for peace. Therefore, the emperor Constantine, the
orthodox, son of Pogonatus, dispatched John surnamed Pitzikaudis. And
when he arrived in Syria, Mauias received him with great honour, and it

V 20. 1 &px'1Jyoc; 'Ap&:(3wv V edd. II 3 Ma:ufo:c; P Theoph.: Ma:(?ifo:c;; pa V M II

6 xa:t -r~v 2 bis P II 7 vYjcrov deest in Theoph. II ev a:u'tjj corr. Mora.vcsik:
a:u-r'ij p ea:u-r'ijc;; v M Me Ba. a:utjc;; Be ~v a:u'tjj deest in Theoph. II 8 xA.ta:
T~ : ,a:-r~' Theoph. II 9 'Elle:mvoc;; p II f:)' corr. Mora.vcsik
evva:xocr(a:c;; Ba. Be
Theoph.: ,A. P -rpt&:xov-ra: xi)..t6:1la:c;; s. v. add. P 3 V M Me II 10 Ma:u(a:c; P
Theoph.: Ma:(?.a:c; pa V M II 11 ~upv'tjv corr. Mora.vcsik: ~upv1Jc;; P l\'I ~upVCJ:v
P2 V edd. IJ 12 7te7t-roc;; V edd.: e:' s. v. add. P 1 in textum recepit M II 13
Ou.&O:v] litteras rest. P 2
21. 3 l\fauou P: Ma:(?ilou P 2 V M II 3 post 'Apii(?iwv s. v. add. 7te7tTou
P3 in textum receperunt V M edd. II 4 ol (hahet etiam Cedr.): deest in
Theoph. II Ma:plla.ha:t P II 7 Tou-ro: -ra:u-ra: Theoph. II Ma:ula:c;; P Theoph.:
Ma:(?ila:c;; P 2 V M II 8 7tpfo(?ie:tc;; P 3 V M edd.: npfo(?.1Jc;; P II 9/10/'ETil TIXUTYJ 'tjj
7tpocpcim:t deest in Theoph. II IO m~m:Tm: &7tfoTEtAE Theoph. II 10/l KwvcrTa:v-
T(vou, TOU op{to86~ou, ulou TOU Ilwywv&:-rou deest in Theoph. II 11 ulou omitten-
du.m coni. Meursius Ba.ndurius secl. Be post ulou comma posui'.t l\figne II Tou om.
v Me II o: TO Theoi;>h. II IltT1;;'1)XIXUl>1Ji;: IltTl;;txa.ul>YjV Cedr. rr~T~tya:G8tv Theoph. II
36vP xo:l cruvEcpwv~&YJ 7tpoc; &cpo-rE:pouc; yyp1X.cpov yEvfo.&ocL J dfJ~vric; E&'
opxou "I I
r1oyov E1tL
' \
crurpwvou '
' '
I (\
-rwv - 'P w-
97Be ixlcuv ~O:O'LJ1EL 7tocp0: 't'WV 'Ayixp'Y)VWV xpucrlou I XLALOCO!X.t; 't'pE'Lc; xocl 15
ocvopixc; ixtxo:Mu't'oUc; cu XOCL ~7t7t'OUc; EU(E:VEtc; v .
" ' "I ' I \ !! ' - I 'E 7tL\ 't'OU't'OU' ~
OLYJpE:vY) '(\
'f'J TCUV - 'Apoct'wv 'P. o:px'YJ
' ' ELs ' c;pY)
L ~'
ouo. K !X.L' ELt; ' Ev ' 't"Y)V ' A''n tvpLt'OUfJ. EXp!X.'
' ' t'Y)O"E:

Tf)V IXPXYJV o' \ ' 'A' '
Al'), 't' Y)V oE ~\ A" L(U7t't'OV X!X.L I IT OC/\OCLO"'t'LV'Y)V xocL uoc1X.crxov
"I I ' A I

' '
e:xpoc-rEL 0' M ocuto:c;. ' K IXL' OL' Ev ' 't' Y')V A"n LV'PLt'OV R OLXOUV't'Et;
' - E't'!X.' 't'WV - ULCUV
' -

't'OU - 'A' ' '

A'Y) E:O''t'fJ!X.'t'E:UO"!X.V XOC't'OC 't'OU \ - M !X.ULOU.
I 'O ~\
oe: M ' ' (\
OCUL!X.t; OCVvW7tALO"OC't'O 20 "I'

, ' - I -.1.
XO:'t' o:u-rwv, XOCL O'UV''IJ'i'EV 7t f\e:ov 7t!X.fJOC 't'OV 7tO't'ocov 6 \ \ ' E'urpp!X.'t'Y)V, I
( '(\
"f)'t''t'"f)V"f) 't'OI Epoc; 'AAl'), XOCL 7t!\OCt'e:v
I I \ ' fJ. 0' M OCULOCt; ' ' A"(\
't"Y)V lV'pLt'OV fJ. XO:L\
7toccro:v -r~v y~v ~c; Luplocc;. 'Expoc-r'YJcrEv 0 ~ ocu-rou ye:vEoc ~'t''YJ 7tE Kocl

37rp E-r' ocu-rov i~~A&ov ol AEyoe: !vot Mocupocp6poL oc7to ITe:pcrlOoc;, ol xpoc-rouv- I
-re:c; ewe; -r~c; cr1jEpov, xoc1. E7to"AE:'Y)O"OCV 't'~V (EVE:OCV 't'OU Moculou xocl ~cp&.vL- 25
O'OCV OCU' ' t"Y)V.
' ''E"mpocc.,,ocv l:' ~\ XCY.L\ M OCfJOUoc, 't' Y)V XECflOCAYJV
OE I \ "I\ OCU't'WV.
' - J. 7tE:/\ELCflvY)-
'""' "I ' (\

O'OCV 0 o"Alyot -rou M1X.ulou, xocl iotwx&'YJcrocv 7tocpoc -rwv Mocupocp6pwv

E:wc; tjc; 'Arpptx~c; E-roc xocl E:voc; ixy6vou -rou Moculou. '0 S ocu-roc; ~x
yovoc; 't'OU Mocu[ou E-r' o/..lywv 't'LVWV 0LE:7tEfJOCO"EV e:ic; 't'~V 'fo7tOCVLOCV EV
-rocf:c; ~pixtc; 'loucr-rtvLocvou 't'OU 'Ptvo-r1j-rou, OU)'..L oe 't'OU ITwywvcf-rou. 30
Toiho () 7tocpoc -ro'Lc; ~e:-rE:potc; lcr-roptxo'Lc; ou yE:yfJoc7t-roct. 'Aqi' oi'.> yocp
7tOCpE),1jcp&YJ ~ e:yOCA'YJ 'Pw'Y) 7tOCpOC 't'WV r6-r&wv, ~p~OC't'O OCXpW't''Y)pt&.~e:cr.&ocL
-rO: 'Pcuoc"Lxoc 7tpocyoc-roc, xocl ouoe:lc; -rwv lcr-ropLXWv -rwv ~c; 'fo7tocvlocc;
B p.Epwv - E7tOL' ' Y')O"CX't'O vELOCV, ' ''
ou-re: 't'Y-)c; ye:ve:occ; - I - -rou M OC\JLOU. ' "E x.e:L J oE ~' -rou-
98 e , ,
o:x!X.pLOU 0 Eocpixvouc; '1 LO"'t'OpLOC ou-rwc;.
, , , ., 'A f'J.'
7tE:t'LW ouv 0
.,. , M ,
ocutocc;, 0 't'WV 35
, -
LO:pO:XYJVWV ocpx_'Y)y6c;, ye:yovwc; cr-rpOC't"Y)(Oc; ~'t"Y) xc;'' oc'Y)pe:ocrocc; oe ~'t"Y)
xo'. Kocl EXpOC't"Y)O'EV ~c; &px~c; 't'WV 'Ap&.~wv 'I~lO, 0 uloc; OCU't'OU, -r'Y) c;'.
Tou-rou -rE/,Eu-rficrocv-ros, &-rixpocx&'YJcro:v ol ''Apoc(3e:c; tjc; Arnpl(3ou, xo:l
OLE(Ep&E:v-re:c; xoc-rfo't"Y)crocv E:o:u-ro'Lc; ocpx"fJrov 'A~or::"Aiiv, -rov ulov Zou(3E:p.
t'Ec; OL 't"Y)V <D OLVLX'
' \ , Y)V XOCL\ IT OC/\OCLO"' "I
t'L, V'Y)V XOCL\ uo:occrxov A \ 40
XOC't'otl<.OUV't'e:t:; 'Ayix(JYJVO(, ~pxov't'OCL 7tpbc; Oucrocv, oc'Y)piiv ITocAOCLO"'t'LV'Y)c;, xocl
7tpo~&A!.ov-ro:t Mocpouoc, xocl [cr-rwcrw ocu-rov ocpx_'Y)y6v, xocl xpoc-rEL ~c;
!X.PX."f)c; tjvo:c;
, - ~ 'IT T OU't'OU
(\f ' ~I 't'EAEU'
OCV't'Oc;, 'ARt'LE/\e:x, ' 0' ULOc; 'I

F 16 'E7tl -rou-rou - 23 ~uplixc;: cf. Theoph. p. 346, 20-347, 4;

347, 26-28. 23 Kixl &-r' ixu-rov - 30 Ilc.:iyc.:iv&:-rou: cf. Theoph.
p. 403, 12--13; 424, 12--16; 425, 13-15; 426, 1-7. 35 'Am:f3c.:i
- 37 ETYJ c;': Theoph. p. 356, 15-17; 360, 13-17. 38 Tou-rou -
46 &L6:~oxov: Theoph. p. 360, 27-361, 3.

V 13 xal deest i11 Theoph. &cpo-repouc;: bc1rnfpouc; Theoph. II 14 A6yov

V edd. Theoph.: )..6ywv P Theoph.dg II 14/15 'TCll -rwv 'Pc.:iix(c.:iv ~ixcn).e:'i:
Tfi 'Pwixix'/j 1toAt-rdq: Theoph. 15 xpucr[ou (etiam Niceph. Cedr. Zon.):
was agreed on both sides that a convention of peace should be drawn up
in writing and sworn to, on the basis of an agreed annual tribute, the Agarenes
to pay to the emperor of the Romans three thousand pieces of gold and 800
prisoners and 50 thoroughbred horses. At this time the empire of the Arabs
was divided in two parts. In Ethribos Ali held rule, but Mauias held Egypt
and Palestine and Damascus. And the dwellers in Ethribos marched with
the sons of Ali against Mauias. And Mauias armed himself against them
and joined battle by the river Euphrates, and the party of Ali was defeated,
and Mauias took Ethribos and all the land of Syria. And his family held rule
85 years. And after him came forth the so-called Black-robed out of Persia,
who hold rule to this day, and they fought with the clan of Mauias and
utterly destroyed it. And they slew Marouam also, who was its head. And
few of the party of Mauias were left, and they, together with one grandson
of Mauias, were pursued by the Black-robed as far as Africa. Now this
same grandson of Mauias with a few followers crossed over into Spain in
the days of Justinian Rhinotmetus, not of Pogonatus. But this has not
been written by our historians. For from the time of the capture of old
Rome by the Goths, the Roman possessions began to be lopped off, and
none of the historians has made mention of the region of Spain, nor of the
clan of Mauias. But the history of Theophanes, of blessed memory, has the
following account: And so Mauias, chief of the Saracens, died, who had been
general 26 years, and had ruled as emir 24 years. And Izid, his son, held rule
over the Arabs 6 years. On his death the Arabs of Ethribos were disturbed,
and they arose and set up Abdelas, son of Zouber, to be their chief. When they
heard this, the Arabs who dwelt in Phoenicia and Palestine and Damascus
came to Ousan, the emir of Palestine, and appointed Marouam and set
him up to be chief, and he held the rule 9 months. On his death, his son
Abimelech succeeded to the rule and held it 22 years and 6 months. And

xpucrou Theoph. II 16 (.i) 1 ; v' Theoph. II -rou-rou Be: 'rOU'r(.i) p II 19 Mixu(otc; P:

Mix(3fo:c; PY mg. P 7 V M I! 20 Mixu(ou P V: Mix(3ou PY M II Mixu(ixc; P V: Mct(3o:c;
PY M II &v&o7tA~crix-ro P II 22 Mixu(ixc; P V: Mixf3ixc; PY M II 23 Tijc; om. V edd. 11
m:' P V M: o' (littera 7t ex dimidia parte, e: autem penitus erasa) PY Ba. Be IJ
24 ixo-rov V edd.: ixi'.i-rwv P II 25 t1t'oMLcrixv P !I Mixu(ou P V: Mixf3(ou PY M II
27 Mixu(ou P V: Mixf3fou PY M II 28 Mctu(ou P V: Mix~(ou PY M 11 29 Mixulou
P V: Mixf3(ou PY M II 34 Mixu(ou P V: Mixf3lou pY M 11 35 7J inser. px in
textum receperunt V M Ba Be II oi".iv o in Theoph. II Mixulctc; P V: Mct(3lo:c;
PY M JI 36 &px1Jy6c;: 7tp(.i)-rocr\J(3ou).oc; Theoph. \I xc;' (etiam Theoph.efm):
x' Theoph. II 37 'Apii(3(.i)v 'l~(ll: post 'Apii(3o:iv mg. ETYJ, post L~ s. v. xixl, post
ti> s. v. 1)(.i)c; A.ix' add. P 2 lTI') LI',;' xo:l Lil' "ijoc; 'J..ix' in textum recepit M II c;': y'
Theoph. II 38 Tijc; Ba. Be: -rou P Theoph. II At&pl(3ou (etiam Theoph.g):
'E&pt(3ou Theoph. II 39 'A(31le:Mv P II -rov: TLVIX Theoph. II 40 Toiho iixoucrixv-re:c;
deest in Theoph. II 40/1 ol -rl)v <Dowlx1JV xixt Ilo:'J..a:Lcr-r(v1Jv xixl 6.o:ixcrxov
xix-roLKoiivnc; 'AyixpYJvo(: Ot <Dolvtxe:c; xixt ot Ilix'J..ixtcr-rlv1Jc; brl -rliv 6.o:rxcrxov
Theoph. 11 41 Oucrcxv: 'Amh Theoph. 11 &r,piXv P 11 42 7tpof3iXA'J..ov-rixL: lllBoucn
xe:t:pixc; lle:~LiXc; "Cfl Theoph. II 42/3 XplXTe:~ Tijc; iipx'ijc;: &1jp.:ue:L Theoph. II
43 'A(3te'J..e:x] litteras rest. P 2 II
SLocoix_e:-rocL -r1jv &px_~v, xocl. x.pc:m;;i l-r'fj xW xo:l. ljvoct.; t.;'. Kocl X.ELpou-ra:i
3grP -rouc; I -rupocwouc;,
I I XOCL' C!:7tOX"C'
' EI:VVE:L 't'OV ' 'AA"' .. - UtOV
t-'OE:A.OCV, " z f.l'
out-'e:p XOCL' OLC!:-
'I' I 45
Sox_ov. 'Ev -rou-roLc; n"Ae:u-r~ Kwvcr-rocv-rf:voc; ~occrLAEUt.;, utoc; -rou Ilwyw- o o
voc-rou, x.pocTI)crocc; 't'ljt.; 'Pwoclwv ocpx_ljc; h'fj L~' xocl. i~occrLAEUCTEv &v-r'
ocu-rou 'loucr-rLvLocv6t.;, o utot.; ocu-rou.
'fo-rfov, O't'L 0 -rfilv 'Apoc~(t)V ocpx.11y6c;, (8t.;) 7tE7t't'Ot.; cX7tO 't'OU
MouocE& txpoc't""'f)crEv 't'ljc; &px_ljt.; -r&v 'Apoc~wv, oux tx -.ou ytvouc; ~v -rou 50
MouocE&, &AA.' t~ htpocc; cpu"A!fjt.;. Koc!. 7tp&-rov Ev iXELpo-.ov~.&1) cr-rpoc-rY)yoc;
XIXL' vauapx.oc; I 1t1XpOCI 0'U'ITocv,Cl. I ocpx_'fjyou
' - 't'WV
- 'A poct-'wv,
' t'OCA.1)
' XOC't'OC'
't'ljc; 'Pwoclwv 7tOAL-rdocc; rnX. X.ELpoc; lcrx_upcic; xocl. xoc-rocrppocx-rwv v'fj&v
99Be ,occr'. Koc!. dcrljA.&Ev E(t)t.; 't'ljc; 'P6oou, XOCXEf:.&e:v E~01tAtcroce:voc; ocv~"A&Ev
3gvp ECJJc; Kwvcr-rocv-rtvoU7tOALv, xo:l. oLoc-rpl~occ; x_p6vov j txocv6v, AE:'fjAocTijcrocc; 55
't'E 't'O'C E<.,W 'l:' 't'OU- B U<.,OCV' ,.. t'LOU, U1tE:cr"C'pe:'l'e:v
I ' .I.
I ,,
OC7tpocx-roc;. 'EMJ'WVCl.' 'I''
oe: '
e:v -
'P6'1'ocp XOC'Cl.ITEL/\EV ":'"I 't'OV
.. ' "C''OV e:v' OCUT"fl
, - 'tcr-rocEvov. ''A (OCA.oc
I .. 'I'' J.
OE .,v
"C'OU ~"Alou xoc"Axouv, xe:x.pucrwtvov &rro xe:rpa"A~c; E(t)t.; 7tOOWV, .x.ov \)~oc;
~XELt.; 1t xocl 7tAOCTOc; ocvocMywc; 't'OU i)~ouc;, xoc.&wc; ocp-rupd 't'O E7tlypococ

-ro 7tpoc; 'r1jv ~occrw -rfilv noo&v ocu-rou ye:ypoctvov, ~xov o0-rwc; 60
Tov Ev 'P6ocp xo"Aocrcrov ox-r&xtt.; Shoc
AOCX,'l ,
fjt.; e:rrnte:L I I
'ITT)X.E:WV, 0(A'LVoLOc;. 'I'

"E~1-'Ev .. (). oe: "'' -rov' XOCAXOV .. ' ocu-rou ' - Y..IXL' oLE:7tEpoccrEv
~ I
ocu-rov e:v "-'UPL~,
, ' ~ ' I
xocL Ecr't"Y)cre:v
' ,,

(XU"C'OV e:tc; ocyopocv 7t0CV"C'L 't'lp 1-'0UA.Oi:;vcp. WV'fjCTOC"C'O oe: OCU't'OV 'EA1-'POCLoc;
' ' ' ' I ' - fJ. .. L ' I 'l-1 , ' -
oECT<J1)VOc;, ' e:mrpop-rwcrocc;
' I
, ' '..
f)c; x.oc'fjA.OUt.;
I I.. h
-i7tI . T E:A.E:UTIJ-
.. I 65
39rp (l'OCV't'Ot.; oi5v "C'OU Ou&ocv, OLE:OE~IX"C'O 'r1jv "t'WV 'Apoc~(t)V Iocpx_-Yjv ocu-roc; 0
Moculocc;. 'Ex.p&'t""'f)crEv OE "C'ljc; &yloct.; n6"Ae:wc; xocl. "t'WV "C'ljc; Iloc"Aoctcr-rlvY)c;
Ep&v, -r~v TE ~ococcrx.ov xocl. 'Avn6x_Etocv xocl. 7toccrocc; -rocc; "C'ljc; Atyun-rou
7t0A.ELc;. 'O OE '1-.1. 'A A'fjfl-, oc; 'YJV yoct-'poc;
I " ... P. ' TOU- M ouocE'ITCl. E:7tL I , ' 'ITU(OCTpL,
Cl. I

Ev-n <l>1>mi, txpocTIJCTEv "C'ljc; At&pl~ou xocl. n&CT"'f)c; Tl)c; -rpocx_e:locc; 'Apoc~locc;. 70
'Ev "C'OCU't"OCLc; ouv "C'OCLc; 'tjEpo:tc; oL'fj(E:p'IT'Cl.fjCTOCV 7tpoc;
I ... - ' I "' I \ 7tO/\e:ov
'.. XOC"C', 0CAA' ' .... fjA(t)V
I ..

F 46 'Ev rnu't"oLc; 48 uloc; mhou: Theoph. p. 361, 15-16; cf.

Cedr. I. p. 770, 22-24. 51 Ka.t 7tpw-rov - 54 ,': cf. Theoph.
p. 343, 30-31; Cedr. I. p. 755, 1-2. 54 Ka.t dcrijt,.&e:v - 'P61lou:
cf. Theoph. p. 345, 8; Cedr. I. p. 755, 8. 54 >t&xe:We:v - 55
Kwvcna.vnvou7tOALv: cf. Theoph. p. 345, 16-18; Cedr. I. p. 755,
17-18. 56 'EA.&wv- 57 lcrTiie:vov: cf. Theoph. p. 345, 8-9; Cedr. I. p.
755, 8-9. 57 "AyrxA.a. - 62 Alvllwc;: cf. Cedr. I. p. 755,
10-16. 61 Tov ev - 62 Avi3wc;: cf. Simonidis epigr. 165., ed. Diehl, A. L.
Gr. Il2. 5. p. 143; Strabo XIV. 2, 5., p. 652; Ps.-Draco, De motris,
ed. Hermann p. 99. 64 wv-ficra.'t"o - 65 f:)'1t 1 : Theoph. p. 345,
9-11; cf. Cedr. I. p. 755, 9-10; Zon. XIV. 19., ed. Bonn. III. p. 219,
9-10. 65 Te:A.wtjcra.v-roc;- 69 no).e:,c;: cf. Theoph. p. 346, 20-25. 71
'Ev -ra.u-ra.'c; 74 &AA.~)..wv: cf. Theoph. p. 346, 27-347, 4; 347,
he overcame the rebels, and slew Abdelas, son and successor of Zouber.
Meanwhile, the emperor Constantine, son of Pogonatus, died, having held
rule over the Romans 17 years; and his son Justinian reigned in his stead.
The chief of the Arabs who was fifth after Mouameth to hold rule
over the Arabs was not of the family of Mouameth, but of another tribe.
And first he was appointed general and admiral by Outhman, chief of the
Arabs, and was sent against the state of the Romans with a strong force
and 1200 decked ships. He proceeded to Rhodes, and thence, after fitting
out his expedition, came up to Constantinople, and lingered a long time,
and laid waste the environs of Byzantium, but returned with his purpose
unachieved. When he came to Rhodes, he pulled down the colossus that
stood in it. It was a brazen statue of the sun, gilded from head to foot,
80 cubits in height and broad in proportion, as witness the inscription
written on the base of its feet, running like this:
The Rhodian colossus, eight times ten
Cubits in height, Laches of Lindos made.
He took the bronze of it and carried it over into Syria, and put it up for
sale to any who wanted it; and a Hebrew of Edessa bought it and brought
it up from the sea laden on 980 camels. On the death of Outhman, then, this
Mauias succeeded to the rule of the Arabs. And he ruled over the holy
city and the regions of Palestine, over Damascus and Antioch and all the
cities of Egypt. But Alim, who was son-in-law of Mouameth, having married
his daughter called Fatime, ruled over Ethribos and all Arabia Tracheia.
Now, in these days Alim and Mauias were roused up to war against one

V 44 xpix-rd lt't""f) x(3' xixl 'ij'JIXr;, r;,': &1JpEucmr;, fr1) X1X ~tau Theoph. II 45 &7tox-rEWEL

Theoph. &7toX-rEvEi: P: &7tox-rdvEL V edd. II 'A(3i3EAav P II Zou(3ep) litteras ~ou

rest. P 2 II 45/6 1Mi3oxov (etiam Theoph.cefghm): dctl>ixxov Theopb. !) 46 n:Aw-r~:
iivE7tii1J Theoph. II 46/7 b (3ixcrt:AEur;,, 6 ulor;, -rou Ilwywvii-rou deest in Theoph. II
47 -r~c; 'Pcv1X(cuv cipx'ijr;, deest in Theoph. TI)v 'Pcv1Xl<0v cipx~v edd. il t~']
litteras rest. P 2 !I 4 7 /8 civ-r' IXU-rou deest in Theoph. II 48 'Ioucr-rtvtlXvor;, V I'd
edd.: 'IoucrTLIXVOc; p II 49 post iipx7Jy6c; s. v. add. !v1CJ:(3lixr;, pa in textum recez1erunt
V M edd. II 8r;, addendum coni. Bekker 11 50 ~vs. v. add. pa in textum
receperunt M Ba Be II 53 xix-r'cppcix-r<0v V1)<7>V: crxcicp1) Theoph. II 54 ,1Xcr': ,wJ/
Theoph. I 55 post lxixv6v s. v. ad-d. ~-rt ~, lt't"1) pa '~-rot ET1) ~, in textum
receperniit V edd. II 61 Tov lv 'P6&cp xo"Aocrcrov: '-rov 'H/..lou x. vel ov Elcro-
piitr;, )(. (sic Robert l. c.) fuit in sf,atu.a ' Diehl II ox-rcixtr;, (etiam Simonides
Ps.-Draco): e7tTclXLr;, Strabo II 62 A&;rr.r;,: X&p1)c; Simonides Strabo Ps. -
Draco II 6"Avatoc; P II 63 IXO-rov om. edd. 11 post E:v add. tjj edd. II 64 ov~cr1X-ro P II
65 'Ei3EcrCJ"l)v6r;, coni. Meursius 'El>Ecr1)vor;, Theoph. corli. Bandurius: 'E:l]owor;,
p 6 'EEcr1)v6r;, Be II )'7t' p EVVIXXOCJLIX<; )(CJ:( oyao~XOVTIX Ba Be: ,;>..1t'
(littera E)' 'j>(Lrtim erasa) px v Me -rpt&:xov-rix XL:Atciaixi;; XIXt oyl>o-fpto'JTIX mg.
P 2 E:wixxocrlixi;; Theoph. II 66 OMciv] litteras -&iX.v in ras . .scr. P 2 II ixu-ror;,
om. edd. II 67 Mixul()(r;, p v: Mix(3l1Xi;; PY M II 69 'AA~: , A>..~ Theoph. II or;,
~v) litteras c; ~v in ras. scr. P 2 II post &uylXTpl add. tjj edd. 11 70 AUtpl~ou
p2 V edd. : AL&plou P II
5 -re: 'AA.~ xocl. oMoculocc; E:pl~ov-re:c; m:pl. TYjc; &px~c;, -rlc; ocu-r&v xupte:Ucre:t
IOOB e 1tOC'I crric; ..:..uptocc;
"" ' ""..:..UV'Y'JX1TY)O'
Cl. ~' nocpoc' 't'OV
OCV oe: ' E,
,uq;poc't"YjV 1t'OTocov, XOCL cruvoc- I I ' I

1t't'OUO"L n6A.i::ov lcrx.upov E-r' &AA.~A.wv. Tou 0: Tto"Atou xpocTouv-roc;, xoc1

7to/...A.&v E:~ &rpo-repwv 7tm-r6v-rwv, xpoc~ocv TOC n/...~.&'YJ 't'WV 'Ayocpi'jv&v 75
39vp &q:io-rtpwv -r&v {ouo} Ep&v / <fflvt -rp6mp crrpoc~oe:v xocl. crrpoc~6r..1.e:&oc,
xoc1. &q:iocvl~E:'t'OCL 't'O ytvoc; ~&v E:x TYjc; 't'WV ocv.&p6>7twv ~toTYjc;; , Af...J...oc
xwptcr.&~'t'WO'OCV Mo ytpovTE<; E:~ &rpo't'Epwv 't'filv Ep&v, xocl. ov .iv 7tpo-
xpLVwcnv, EX.ETW Ti')V OCPX'YJV. 'O oe:
' , I ' , ~' 'A">
' ' XOCL' o( M ocutoc<; 1Jpc:cr1TY)Cl'
Ai') L Cl. OCv I ,

bl -rc'j) A6y(f ocu-r&v, xocl. E:x~ocA6VTe:c; Ex 't'WV xe:tp&v 't'OUc; ocu-r&v OOCX't'U- 80
ALouc;, oe:o6>XctO'L 't'Otc; OUO'L (EpOUO'LV, 01te:p ~O'TL O''YJfl.EtOV TYjc; cipx_!fjc; 't'WV
'Ayctpi'jv&v, xocl. 7tocpfox_ov 't'~v E:~oucrlocv ocu-r&v de; 't'~v .&t/...i')Cl'Lv 't'WV Mo
I \ - 1/ I \ ..., I
yEpOV't'Wv, 't'O npocyoc Evopxov 1tOLYJO'OCEVOL X.OCL TOU't'O Cl''t'OLX.'YJO'OCV't'e:c;,
tvoc ov ocv 7rpoxptvwmv ott ye:pov't'e:c;, e:xe:tvoc; e:a't'oct xupto<;
fl t\ "I\ I I ' f """
xoct\ ocpxriroc;
1/ ' \

/\rp 1t0CV'
4v- ' t'C.UV 't'WV- "" ~ocpOCX'YJVWV. - K OCL' ELO'E/\'\TOV't'(J)V
' "'> Cl. 't'WV ouo
I~I ye:pov't'WV II ocvoce:crov
- > I 85 I

~<; 7tocpE~o"A~c; 't'OU no"Atou 't'WV ouo Ep&v xtX.l. cr't'oc.&tv't'wv E:v 't'c'j}
e:-rocLxl(f 't'OU O''t'ptX:ron&oou ocnmpocr6>7twv, 't'OU E:v , AA.~ 0 yipwv
u~PXEv xoc-roc 't'O -r&v LocpocXYJVWV .&voe; Eu"Aoc~~c;, ofouc; E:xe:'l:vot A.tyoum
xoco~c;, 't'OU't'Ecr't'LV 1tLO"'t'OUc; xocl. ~ytoccrtvouc; 0 oE: 't'OU Moculou yipwv
tv Gx_~oc-rt 6v(f ~v e:u"Aoc~~c;, -roc o' &AA.ex. oo"Ae:po<; xocl. ocu.&oco'Yjc; xocl. 7tOVYJPLCf 90
I AL">...
' , Cl. ,
OCV'lTpW1touc;. ETme:v OE ~' (
0 't'OU
- M OCULOU , ye:pwv

IOlBe't'OV yiponoc 't'OU , Ai..~, O't'L. LU 7tp&-ro<; d1t'E, 07te:p ~OUA1J, oc; d 't'e: I
<ppovtoc; XOCL\ EUAOCjJ'
.... A\
YJI'.; XOCL\ ocx.pCJ:._\ 't'OU<;
I ,
e:ouc;I ,
XPOVOU<; ( A ......
U7tE:pi--0CAAOe:voc;. I

Kocl. &.7rExpl.&1J o yepwv -rou 'A/..~ 't'OU't'O, OTt" 'E~&~oc"Aov -rov 'AA.~
4ovp E:x -rtjc; ocpx.~c;, we; E:~~yocyov 't'OV OOCX't'U \"Atov OCU't'OU Ex ~c; x.e:tpoc; OCU't'OU 95
Y.OCL' e:tcrriyayov
, ' '
Etc; '
't'OV , '
e:ov ~ '
00CX't'UAOV ' A.!.-.
e:Xi--CJ:./\W XOCL' 't'UV
0 l. ~
'-. 't'OU-
'AA~ E:x -rou oocx't'o"Aou ou, cruve:x~oc"Awv ocu-rov xocl. -r~<; &px~c; ocu-rou.
, t'OC7t'EXpLvYJ
'(}_ 0( 't'OU- M OCULOU ye:pwv, we; O't'L. E'LO''Y' JYOCYO\I 't'UV
I , ' ,, l. M OCULOCV I

di; ~v ocpx.~v, &cmEp d~yocyov 't'OV OOCX't'UALOV OCU't'OU de; 't'OV oocx-ruMv
ou dcrocyocyw xocl. -rov (>)ocx-ru/...tov -rou Moculou de; -rov M.x-ru/...ov ocu't'ou.100
Kocl. -r6n ote:xwplcr&rjcrocv &n' &"Awv. Ilocpoc"Ao:~ocve:t oi5v 6 Moculocc;
7t'ifoocv ~v E:~oucrlocv Luplocc;, E7tEL(>)~ ow6xe:crocv &AA.fiA.otc; ol &i'jpoc'l:oL
7t0Cv't'e:c;, we; ''O 't'L OCV d7tWCl'LV ol ytpov-re:c;, (voc E:m~e:.&oc de; 't'OUc; A.6youc;
ocu-r&v. 'O youv 'AA.~ nocpocl.oc~wv 't'OV AO:OV OCU't'OU, &.mj"A-9-Ev de; 't'tX tp"Y)
4pp Al&pl~ou e:-r<X mxcrric; 't'~c; cruyyE /vdocc; octhou, x&xe:foe: 't'E:Ae:u-r~I05

F 81 llm:p 82 'Ayixp1Jv&v: cf. Achmet, Oneirocriticon, ed. ' Drexl.

p. 212, 20.

v 72 l\1aul0'.i;; P: Mix~lo.:i;; PY V M xupte:ucm V M edd.: xupte:ucH1 P

73 'Ecpp&:rl)v P II 76 &cpo-repwv om. Me secl. Be II l>Uo secl. Moravcsik II
79 ,AJ,d p II ijpfo&7)cr1Xv (coni. etiam Bekker): ~ptox11cro.:v edd. II 80 ex~iil-Aovw;
another, disputing over the rule, which of them should be lord of all Syria.
They encountered one another by the river Euphrates, and joined in fierce
battle one against the other. But when the battle was at its height and many
were falling on either side, the multitudes of the Agarenes of both parties
cried out: Why is this, that we slay and are slain, and our tribe perishes
from among living men? But let two elders be chosen apart from both the
parties, and whomsoever they prefer, let him have the rule. Alim and
Mauias were pleased at this saying of theirs, and, drawing off from their
hands their rings, which are a token of rule of the Agarenes, they gave
them to the two elders, and placed their authority at the disposal of the
two elders, confirming the matter by an oath and settling it so that whomso-
ever the elders might prefer, he should be lord and chief of all the Saracens.
The two elders entered into the middle of the battle array of the two parties,
and took their stand face to face in the space between the armies; the elder
of Alim was a man devout according to the nation of the Saracens, one such
as they call 'cadi', that is, faithful and sanctified; but the elder of Mauias
was devout only in appearance, but in all else deceitful and arrogant and
surpassing all men in mischief. The elder of Mauias said to the elder of
Alim: Do you speak first what you will, for you are prudent and devout,
and far surpassing my years. And the elder of Alim answered thus:
I cast Alim off from the rule, as I drew his ring from his hand and drew
it on to my own finger; now will I cast off the ring of Alim from my finger
and therewith cast him off from his rule also. The elder of Mauias made
answer again: I drew Mauias into the rule, as I drew his ring on to my
finger; now will I draw the ring of Mauias on to his finger. And then they
parted one from the other. So Mauias took all the dominion of Syria, since
all the emirs had sworn to each other, saying: Whatever the elders say,
we will be obedient to their words. And so Alim took his army and departed
to the region of Ethribos with all his kin, and there ended his life. After

edd. II 81 -roic;] litteras ot in ras. scr. P 2 II 87 &v-rmpo11w7t<0v coni. l\foravcsik:

iiv-rmp611cu1tOV p iiv-rt7tpOO"W1tOU edd. !I 92 oc; d "rE coni. Moravcsik: illO"TE
Ba Be we; "rE (litteris fo erasfa) py &c; fo-re p v Me oc; c; "rE M <UO"EL TE
Meursius II 93 -rouc; ouc; xp6vouc; coni. Jenkins: -roic; E:oic; Xp6votc; p edd. I
95 llo:K-rUA\ov P 2 V M edd.: Mx-ru/..ov P I! 96 E:x~&:A.<0 V: E:x~&:A/..w edd. 1<~a:/..wv
M ~x~o:A<0v P II 97 llotx-ru'Aou Meursius Ba Be: 1>0:1<-ruf..ou P II ou P V edd.:
Mo:~ou (litte1is ou in ix correctis et litterif1 ~lou s. v. additil1) PY II 99 ixu-:-ou
B. v. add. P 2 in. textum receperunt V M edd. /I 100 dm)(y&rw l\leursius
Ba Be: d11ixy'yov P dcro:y'ywv V Me II 101 &:7t') litteram cc in rafJ. scr. P2
Mo:uo:c; P: M()(~(o:c; P 2 V M !I 102 7tifoa:v om. edd. II
21, 22
-rov ~lov. Me:-roc 0: -rov &ocvoc-rov -rou 'Ai..~ "Aljpov ~y"Y)croce:vot ot -rou-rou
' ' T'1' jV 't'OU - 7tOC't'poc; ' OCU' ' t'W - V jJOUAY)V,
fJ. ... , E7tOCVc;CTT'
' L 1jCTOCV X.OC't'OC' "t'OU- M OCULOU, ' xocl
cruvlj~ocv 7t6Ae:ov lcrx.upov e:'t'oc 't'OU Moculou, xoc1 ~n'1j&v-re:c; ~q)\)yov oc7to
7tpocrw7tou ' ' - XOCL' OC7tOO"'
OCUTOU, ' ,...
t'E:L/\OCc; M ocutocc;
' ' ' E:LVE\I o>:.7tOCVTOCt;.
OC7tE:X"t' 1! K OCL'
E:X:TOTE .t ... o. 7t0CCTOC
jl\'ITE - '1j' OCPX"Y)
' ' TWV - 'A pocjJWV 'fJ. Etc;
' 't'OV
' M OC'U'LOCV. 110
'I cr-re:ov
' oc;, ~L uTL l! ouToc;
.,. o' M OCULocc; ' e:xyovoc; ,, .l
,1v TOU- ""'~oqnoc. ' ''E xyovoc;
~' TOU
oe: - MOCULOU ' ' -
U7t'1jpx.e:v 0' M'OCO"OC/\occ;, ... 0' XOCTOC' K UJVCTTOCVTLVOU7t0/\E:Wc; ,. .
' J T \ ~> t I f ) n_ \ ov
e:x:cr-rpoc-re:ucrocc;, ou-rtvoc; XOCt ot OCLTY)CTEWt; EXTLCT'IT'1j TO T<UV ~ocpOCX.'1jVWV Ai """"'

102Be I ocylcrowv E:v -rc'i) ~occrt"Atxcj) 7tpoctTwplcp. Oux ~v 0: oOToc; ocpx"Y)yoc; -r&v
41 vp 'Apoc~wv, OCAAOC I:ou"Ae:tocv tmljpx.e:v ocpx.'1jyoc; TWV ~ocpocx'1jVWV, I 0 0:115
MocCl'oc"Aocc; E:v Toc~e:t cr-rpoc-r"Y)you E:x.p"Y)oc-rt~e:v. TH"A.&e:v 0: I:ou"Ae:tocv
OCUTOU ,... 0' oe:
~' M' ..
~ ~ A .!. ' ,
otoc c..,'1jpocc;, XOCL ote:7tc;poccre:v e:v oc'l'ocxcp e:m TOC e:p'Y) "t"Y)c; " ptfX'1jt;, rJ."(WV
' t:' - ' L ' ' \ ' - 0 ' l!

e:&' Eocu-rou cr-rpoc-rtd>Tocc; Xt"Atocoocc; 7t'. Koc1 otoc Tijc; -rou 0e:ou 7tpovolocc; o Te:
cr-r6"Aoc; I:ou"Ae:'Cocv, Tou ocpx"Y)you -r&v 'Apoc~wv xoct o 7te:~oc; cr-rpoc-roc;l20
-rou MocCl'oc"Aoc l'.mfo-rpe:~ocv &7tocv-re:c; e:"t'' ocLcr:x,uvYJc;, ~n'1j.&tvnc; x.oc1
x.oc-roc7toli.e:YJ&E:v-re:c; 7tocpoc Te: -rou cr-r6A.ou xoct -r&v cr't'poc't'tWTWV Tou ~occrt-
., K' ' '
OCL e:tpY)ve:ucre:v '1j' xocv n''Y)occ; - 7tOAt't'e:toc "> ' e:m
' ' Yjx.tcrTov
' xpovo\I,
' crTpOC't''1j-
youcr'1jc; x.oc1 7te:pLe:7touCT't)c; Tijc; oe:cr7tOLVYJc; ~&v x.oc1 &.e:mocp&E:vou Mocp(occ;
42rp tjc; 0i::o't'6xou -rYjvoe: 't'~V 7t6Atv, ~c; X.OCL TIJV f1..xpocVTOV XOCL ocy(ocv e:lx.6voc jxocL125
ocu-roc; <0) I:ou"Ae:tocv ~ofo&YJ xoct EVE't'pocmi x.oct TOU t7t7tOU X.OCTE7te:cre:v.

22. 'E x. T 0 u x oc
p 0 v 0 'Y p cp 0 \) 't' 0 u oc x oc p ( 0 \) 0 e: 0 cp oc-
v o u c; 7te:p1 't'WV ocu't'wv x.oc1 7te:p1 Mocu(ou xoc1
-r '1j c; y e: v e: oc c; oc u 't' o u, CS 7t w c; o t e: 7t t p oc er e: v E; v 'I er 7t oc-
V t' Cf 'P C.U OC 't W V fl.jJ OC CT t ...I\ e: U
I t; 'I 0 U CT T t V t OC V 0' c; O
' 'P L V 0-

't' '1j 't' 0 c;. 5

A6T'1j EO''t'LV ocpx.1] tjc; ~occrt"Adocc; OCU't'OU, XOCL e:'t'OC 't'OCU't'OC E:~e:~"A~&'1j
u7to Ae:ov-r(ou, x.oc1 7tOCAtv ocv-re:tcrlj"A&e:v Ex.~oc"A6lv Tov Ae:ovTtov x.oct 'A~loc-
103Bepov, x.ocl. &<po-ripouc; OCUTOUc; Ev 't"(j l7t 17toOpo(Cf &ptoc~e:ucrocc; x.ocl OC7tOX.'t'd-
vocc;. Tou-rcp 't'c'i) ~Te:t &.7tocr't'&"A"Ae:t 'A~tE:"Ae:x 7tpoc; 'IoucrTLVLOCVOV ~e:~octWCTOCL

F 106 Me-riX - 110 Ma:u[a:v: cf. Theoph. p. 347, 2~27. 112 6

M6:cra:Aa:t; - 113 excr-rpa:w)cra:c;: cf. Theoph. p. 386, 25-26. 115
~ouA.e:'th - ~a:pa:K1Jv&v: cf. Theoph. p. 386, 20-24. 116 ..H:A.&ev
- 125 7t6A.w: cf. Theoph. p. 395, 13-396, 23; Niceph., ed. de Boor p.
53, 10-54, 1; Zon. XV. 1., ed. Bonn. III. p. 252, 9-253, 6.
22. 6 e-riX - 9 ocl't'ox-rdva:c;: cf. Theoph. p. 361, 2~28; 374, 28-375,
13. 9 Tou-rCJl - 22 vuv: Theoph. p. 363, 1-20; cf. Cedr., ed. Bonn.
I. p. 771, 4-15.

V 107 ulol TI)v -rou s. v. add. P 2 in textum receperunt V M edd. I! 108 post
cbro add. -rou edd. II 110 Ma:u[a:v V: Ma:u[' P Ma:~[a:v edd. II 112 Mcicra:Aa:~
21, 22
the death of Alim, his sons, regarding their father's counsel as nonsense,
rebelled against Mauias, and joined fierce battle with Mauias, and being
worsted fled from before his face, and Mauias sent after and put them all
to death. And thereafter the rule over all the Arabs came into the hands
of Mauias.
Now, this Mauias was grandson of Sophiam. And Mauias' grandson
was Masalmas, who made an expedition against Constantinople, and at
whose request was built the mosque of the Saracens in the imperial praetori-
um. He was not chief of the Arabs; Souleiman was chief of the Saracens, and
Masalmas held the rank of general. Souleiman came with his fleet against
Constantinople, and Masalmas came overland, and crossed over at Lampsacus
into the region of Thrace, carrying with him 80 thousand troops. And through
the Providence of God both the fleet of Souleiman and the infantry army
of Masalmas all retired with ignominy, being worsted and utterly overthrown
by the fleet and soldiers of the emperor. And our state was at peace for
many a long year, for this city was guided and guarded by Our Lady the
ever-virgin Mary, the Mother of God, by whose inviolate and holy image
Souleiman himself was awed and put to shame, and he fell from his horse.

22. F r o m t h e C h r o n i c 1 e o f T h e o p h a n e s, o f b I e s s e d
memory, concerning the same events and concerning
M a u i a s a n d h i s c 1 a n, h o w i t c r o s s e d o v e r i n t o S p a i n.
Em p e r o r o f t h e R o m a n s, J u s t i n i a n R hi n o t m e t u s.

This is the beginning of his reign; and thereafter he was expelled by

Leontius, and then in his turn came back again and expelled Leontius and
Apsimarus, and held his triumph over them both in the hippodrome, and
put them to death. In this year Abimelech sent to Justinian to ratify the

(etiam Theopb.cdfh): Ma:cra::>..iic; Theoph. II K<0vcr-ra:vnvouTC6A<:wc; corr. Moravcsik:

K<0vcr't'a:vrtvou7t0Atv P edd. 11 114 a:y(crllrnv: a:cry(lltov coni. Meursius II 115
I:oukriiiv P II ante iipx"f)yoc; add. o V edd. II 116 I:ouAEl)iiv P II 117
Kwvcr-ra:vrtvouTC6:A.i;;<0c; corr. Mora.vcsik: Kwvcr-ra:vrwou7to:A.w P edd. !I Mcfoo::>..o:c;
(etiam Theoph.dh): MMa:Aocc; Theoph. II 118 desinit cod. Mutin. gr. 179
[= M] II 119 xt:>..t<llla:c; 7t': :>..a:ov lxa:vov Theoph. !I 120 I:ouAe:"l)iiv P i -rwv:
-rou Ba Be II 121 Ma:mi:A.a: edd. II 125 Tijc; 0<:o-r6xou per comp. s. v. add. P 2
in textum receperunt V edd. II fie;] litteram c; in ras. scr. P 2 II 126 o add.
v edd. II :EouAE:7)1iv p II nllfolhj] litteram ii in ras. scr. P 2
22. 2 -rwv mhwv: -rwv <Ma:pll)a:c-rwv coni. Bury II 4 'Ioucr-rwta:\oi;; coni.
Laskin: 'Ioucr-rl:voi;; P edd. II 9 post he:t rubro atramento mg. add. C:pr/ P 1
-r(jl ,<:pr{ mg. iter. P 2 in textum receperunt V Me ,C:por/ Theoph. II '
TI)v dp~vriv ou't'wc;, (voc o ~occn/....i;;uc; nocucrn -ro -rfilv Mocpooc,'t'wv -rocyoc 10
42vp EX 't'OU At~OCVOU l<.OCL OLOCJ<.WAUCT1) 't'OCc; bnopoocc; OCU't'WV, xcx1 'A~t leAEX
owcrn 't'of:c; 'Pwoclotc; x.oc&' h&.crTI)v volcroc-roc x.l"Atoc xocl fonov i;;uye:v=tj
e:voc XOCL' A'o.' ~ -.,
L'tTW7tOC oOUl\OV "
e:voc, XOCL' "woc EX.Wert
,, XOLVOC' X.OC't'O'C 't'Ol. "!'~crov -rouc;

- K'U7tpou XOCL' 'A pEvtocc; I
XOCL' 'JRjJ"Y)ptocc;. I K OCL' E7te:'fe:v
,, .t. 0( fJ.jJOCCTL-
AEUc; Ilocu"Aov 'C'OV ocytcr-rpLOCVOV 7tpoc; 'A~tt"AEX occrcpa"A(croccr&oct 't'OC CT't'OLX"YJ- 15
TE:V'C'OC, XOCL' .,/. !"'yove:v e:yypoccpoc;
' I "I
(.l.E'C'IX' ocp't'upwv. I KOCL' Cj)LAO't'L!l."YJ'lTE:~c;
"I Cl. l

0 ocytcr-rptocvoc; u7tfo't'pe:~e:v. Koct 7tE:~occ; 0 ~occrL"Ae:uc; 7tpocre:AOC~E:'C'O 't'ouc;

Mocpoochocc; X.LALOCOocc; tW, 'C'~V 'Pwoci:x~v ouvoccr-re:locv ocxpw-rriptcX.crocc;.
Ilocmxt yocp oct vuv olx.oui;;voct 7tocpoc -rfilv 'Ap&.~wv e:!'.c; Toc &x.poc 7to"Ae:tc;
' \ Mo'l'O.1.UECT'C'tOCc;
OC7t0 I
X.OCL\ e:wc;
ti .!.
'C'E't'ocp-rric; 'A pe:vtocc; I
' I
xat\ OCOLXY)' ' I
C'OL 20
43rp huyx.ocvov otoc -.Yiv ~cpooov -rfilv Mocpoocfrwv, (f}v noc lpoccrToc"Aev-rwv, 7tocvoe:tvoc
xaxoc 7tfoov&e:v ~ 'Pwocvloc u7to -rfilv 'Ap&.~wv -rou vuv. T <j) o'
OCU' ' C-'lp e:'
,, C'e:t E:tCTEl\'
' tTWV
"I Cl. ' 0' fJ.jJCX.CTLl\e:uc;
"I I
' 'A pe:vtocv, I
' - ' ~ I t:'
E:OE:<.,OC' t'O 'C'Ouc; I

At~ocvcp Mocpooct-rocc;, XOCAXEOV 'C'E:Lxoc; OLocAUcrocc;. ITocpeAucre: oe xoct ~v

E'C'OC 'C'WV Bou"Ayocpwv 7tocytw&ELcrOCV ELPlJVY)V, otcx.-rocpcf~cx.c; -rouc; U7t0 TOU 25
' I \ , ~I I I
otXEtou 7toc-rpoc; e:vopotvouc; ye:yovo-rocc; -ru7touc;.
104Be ''E't't xpoc't'ouv-roc; 't'ou 'A~te"Ae:x, s7te:cr-rpcf 1-re:ucrocv ot ''Apoc~e:c;
tjj 'AcpptK{j x.oct 't'OCUTY)V 7tocpe/..oc~ov, x.oct &x -rou otxe:lou cr-rpoc-rou -roc~oc-rtwvoc
t'LO<; oe: ~\ YJV T
I fJ. "I '
VOV T=tjc; 'Pwoclwv ocpx=tjc;, x.oct &~oplcrocc; OCU't'OV EV Xe:pcrwvt, T=tjc; ~occrt/..e:locc; 30
43vp hpcf't'YJCTE:V. 'A~t&.pou 0 -rou Tt~e:plou -rov Ae:6v't'tov otocoe:~oc lE:vou
T=tjc; ~occrt/..e:locc; xoct -roc 't'WV 'Pwoclwv crx!fi7t-rpoc xpa-rljcrocv-roc;, -re&V"Y)XEV
'A~ t'tc;11e:x,
o' -rwv - 'A poct'wvI~ ocpx."YJyoc;,
' I
xoct\ e:xpoc'C'"Y)cre:v
' I 0'uoc1\to,
., ,~ o' utoc; "
oc1hou, ETY) &vvE:oc. T ci> o' octh<j) E't'E:L 7tcfAtV tmfo-rpe:~e:v 'Ioucr-rtvtocvoc;
de; ~v ~occrtA.docv, x.oct p~&uwc; X.IXL oce:"Awc; 'C'OCUTY)V OLOCXU~e:pvwv, T=tjc; 35
, Aqiptx!fjc; E7te:xpOCTI)O"OCV o"Aocrxe:pwc; OL 'Ayocp"Y)VOL To-re: 0 't'OU Moculou
" e:-roc' 01\tyocr't'OU
'"I - ~
-rtvoc; "IllOCOU- OLE7tc:poccre:v L e:v
' 'I (j7t0CVtq;, XOCt E:7tLCTUV-
I \ '

' t:'
OC<.,O'.c; 7tOCV't'occ; -rouc; e:x 't'OU ye:vouc; OCU'C'OU, e:xpOCTI)CTEV T"Y)V
I \ ' .... I , .... ' I ' 'I 0"7tCX.VLOCV I

't'"~c; ~e:pov, o&e:v ol TI)v 'fonocvlocv XOC't'OLXOUV't'e:c; 'Ayocp"Y)VOL MocuLii-roct

''I" T ou-rwv
' '
ocnoyovoL I
-ruyx.ocvoucrw I
ot' 't'"Y)V' K P"YJT"YJV
' ~ 40
4P 'Ayocp"Y)voL ''On yocp Mtx.oc~A. o I
Tpocu A.oc; T=tjc; -r&v 'Pwoclwv &px.-Yjc;
E7tExp&:TYJcre:v, xat ~ -rou 0woc &.v-rocpcrlcx. &yevE't'o 't'pte:Touc; x.p6vou

F 22 T<i> ~)' CJ:u-rf:i - 26 -ru7tout;: Theoph. p. 364, 4--7; cf. Niceph.,

ed. de Boor p. 36, 16--17; Cedr. I. p. 771, 18-21. 27 "En
29 xixre:cr-r1Jcr1Xv: Theoph. p. 370, 6--8; cf. Niceph. p. 39,
12-14. 29 Ae:6,moc; - 31 bcpch-YJcre:v: cf. Theoph. p. 368, 15; 369,
26. 31'Aynocpou-32 Xpct'"t7icrixv-roc;;: cf. Theoph. p. 371, 19.
32 -reil-V1)XE:V - 34 evve1X: cf. Theoph. p. 374, 14--15, 25. 34 Tij">
o' IXU'r(~ - 35 ~IXcrtAELIXV: cf. Theoph. P 374, 16, 28. 35 -rijc;; 'Aqipu6jc;;
peace on these conditions: the emperor to withdraw the Mardaite legion
from the Lebanon and check their incursions, and Abimelech to give the
Romans daily a thousand nomismata and one thoroughbred horse and
one Ethiopian slave, and the taxes of Cyprus and Armenia and Iberia to
be held commonly and in equal shares by both parties. The emperor dis-
patched Paul the imperial agent to Abimelech, to confirm the terms agreed
upon, and a confirmation was drawn up in writing and attested. The im-
perial agent was presented with gifts, and returned. And the emperor sent
and took in the Mardaites, 12 thousand of them, thereby crippling the
Roman power. For all the frontier cities now inhabited by the Arabs from
Mopsouestia and as far as Armenia Quarta were defenceless and uninhabited
because of the incursion of the Marda1tes, by whose drawing away Romania
has suffered terrible damage at the hands of the Arabs, and suffers it still.
And in the same year the emperor went to Armenia and there took in
the Mardaites of the Lebanon, thus destroying his brazen wall. Moreover,
he broke the pledge of peace with the Bulgarians, disturbing the treaty
made by his own father.
It was also during the reign of Abimelech that the Arabs marched
against Africa and took it, and placed in it a garrison of their troops.
At that time Leontius had expelled Justinian from the rule over the Romans,
and had exiled him to Cherson and had possessed himself of the empire.
But after Apsimarus Tiberius had ousted Leontius from the throne and had
possessed himself of the sceptre of the Romans, Abimelech, chief of the
Arabs, died, and Oualid his son ruled nine years. In the same year Justinian
returned once more to his throne, and during his slack and careless govern-
ment the Agarenes obtained complete control of Africa. Then, the grandson
of Mauias with a very few men crossed over into Spain, and, having collect-
ed together all of his tribe, gained control of Spain even to this day, and
that is why the Agarenes who dwell in Spain are called Mauiates. Their
descendants are the Agarenes who live in Crete. For when Michael the
Lisper had got possession of the rule over the Romans, and the rebellion
of Thomas broke out and lasted three years, then, while the emperor was

- 36 'Ayocp7)vo: cf. Theoph. p. 370. 6---7. 36 T6n: - 39 crljs:pov:

cf. Theoph. p. 403, 12-13; 426, 4--5. 40 TouTcuv - 48 crljs:pov: cf.
Theoph. Cont. p. 73, 13-76, 7; 474, 1-7.

v 12 XlAt(l( v edd. Theoph.: ,oc p II 12/3 euyevlj voe deest in Theoph. II

13 At&lo7toc deest in Theoph. II lf.voc deest in Theoph. II 19 yap a! vuv Theoph.
coni. Bekker vuv yap (omisso a!) Theoph.erm yap vuv a! P edd. JI o(xouvm P /I
Ta &xpa 7tOAs:Lc:; Theoph. Tac:; &xpo7t6As:Lc:; P edd. II 20 &olx7)Tm] &oxIJTt (litteris n
insertis) pl II 22 post vuv aliquid excidisse susp. Bury II 23 doe:>...&c~v: s:>...&wv Theoph.
II 26 tvop8vouc:; Theoph.: svop8voc:; p evop8vcuc:; v edd. ii 27 "ETL: "OTL Me II
28 T'ii 'AcppLx'ij: Tijv 'AcppLxT)v Theoph. /I Ta~aTlwva edd. II 29 ante 'IoV<mvLavov
add. TOV edd. 11 34 tvvfa edd.: .&' P II 38 'tijc:; 'lcr7tavlac:; edd. 11
' I I - fJ. .... I > .... I J \ - (J_ (J. I
e:mxpOC't'Y)O"OCO"OC, 'rO'rE '!'OU 1-'0CO"Lr.Ewc; occrx.or.oue:vou E7tL Tote; O'UfJ.1-'Ei-'YJXOO"L
7tpocyocmv, ' I
supovTe:c; ~ ,
I , ....,
>i; i: I I -
O"TOAOV LXOCVOV E-,ocpTUO"OCVTe:c; XOCL ocpc,oce:voL omo TWV TY)c; ""'LXEr.LOCc;
1-, ' \ I \ J
J \
45 - - "" ....

I \K . . '~
7tOCO"OCc; -rocc; UXr.OCoocc; VY)O"OUC: Y)pY)<.vcrocv, XOCL e:r.vOVTEc; EV I ' I K p'Y)TYJ XO'..L \ ' Q_I ' I \

lo Dc:B 81"0CUTY)V
I ,, I I ', t: I
e:UXOCL pov XOCL OCVELEVY)V e:uponEc;, Y)oe:voc; OCVTOCLpOvToc; Y) ocxo- \' \ , I "I\

fLEVOU, TIXUTY)V 7tocpe:r.ocl-'ov,

' I (J. ' ~
XOCL\ oLocxpocTOUO'LV - ,,
:::we; \
TY)V O'Y)e:pov. T'ov OE ~\ I

, . . \~ oLOCOE):'
0 U\XF.Lo ~ ~' "" ...... I XOCL\ xpocTEL- E'!Y)
..ETOCL ""'0Ur.ELocv, ,,
E7tEO"TpiX.- I

TEUO"E l\fo.croc"AfLocc;, o crTpOCTY)yoc; ~ou"Ae:,ocv, ETOC O"Tpcx:Tou oLoc ~Y1 piic;, 50

44vp OufLOCP oE: OLOC .&ocAOCTTY)c;, xocl. TYJ TOU 0e:ou cruve:pydq: OC7tpcx:XTOL e:T' I
OCLcrzuv~c; U7tScrTpElj;ocv. Tov oE: ~OUAdfLOCV OLOCOE):'..ETCX.L O\Socp, xocl. XpiX't"E'i:
-r1jc; ,-&v 'Apoc~c.ov &px.'ljc; S'!YJ Mo. Tov os OlSfLocp oLocoex.ETcx.t 'A~rn, xcx.l.
xpocTd 'L'ljc; &px.'ljc; snl. EVLOCUTOUc; Tfocrocpocc;. TouTOV OE OLCX.OE):'..ETCX.L 'focX.fL,
xo:.L xpoc-rd TI')c; &px'ljc; znl hYJ L-9-'. TouTou Te:"AsuT~O"cx:vToc;, xpocTe:'i: T'ljc; 55
&pz'ljc; MocpouOCfL TY) s~. Mocpouoc OE TE),e:uT~O'CX:V't"Oc;, 'A~oE"Aocc; TI')c;
-rwv- 'A pocl-'c.uv (J.I '
ocp):' -
..Y)c; xupLoc;
yLve:TocL, xocL xpocTe:t ETYJ xoc T ouTou
I , \ ..
Te:r.e:u'!Y)- - ,, I I

crocv'roc;, Mo:.ol.c; &pxYJy6c; 'Apoc~c.ov y(ve:TocL, xocl xpcx.Td T'ljc; &px.'ljc; hYJ
SVVEOC. Tou'!oU 7tOCpe:/...&6noc;, 'Aocpc~v T'ljc; TWV 'Apoc~c.uv &px.-Yjc; xuptoc;
y(vETOCL, xocl xpocTe:i: 'L-Yjc; &px_'ljc; ~TY) xy'. 60
'Ev TouTcp Tc!> x.p6vcp, ~youv T'ljc; Twv 'Pc.uoc(c.uv &.px-YJc; * * * Etp~-
4 5r P V't]c; XOCL\ K C.OVO"t"OCVTLVOU' ETOUc; OC7t0 X'!L IO'Ec.oc; xocrou I":> 0'7tY) T cp
I ,, ' \ I - 0~ OCUTCJ> ' -I ,,.. I

,, t'e:L 'Aocpwv, o '!WV 'A poct-'wv

e:' I ' 'A- '
ocpx.YJyoc;, TE'lTVY)XEV e:Li; TY)V Evoo't"e:pocv ~ I II e:pcrLocx.,
IQ_ '~ ' \ ' I

'L't]V xcx./10UfLEVY)V wpcx.crocv, XOCL oLe:oe:~OCTO '!Y)V cx:p)'..Y)V
\ I ~ I~ti: \ \ ' \ M ~
ocx.e:o, 0 uwc; I ' "

O'..U'!ou, cx:qmY)c; XOCTOC 7t0CV't"OC XOCL OCO'UV(Y.PTYJTOc; U7tocpx.c.uv, 'lt'poc; ov 'AA

, - , \ ' I \ ' I 11- .... -
' 65 I ' "

106Beo cXOEAcpoc; OCUTOU, O"TOCO"LOCO'OCc; EX I T'ljc; ocu't"'ljc; x wpcx.~ 't"OU Xc.upcx.crav &ex.
7tOCTpLXOCtc; - ~ ,
ouvoce:crtv, , -.. ,
EfLCfJUr.LOU ., 1
7tOr.e:ou 1
ye:yove:v "
OL' XOC'!OC\ 't"'t' ]V ""'""
XOCL'A''L"(U7t't"OV XCX.L\A Li-' fJ.' ,
UYJV e:tc; ~
TE:c; &px.occ; TeX Te: 0'1JfL6moc 7tpcXyfLocTcx: xocl ocAA~/..ouc; xocTEcr't'pe:~cx.v, crcpocycx.i:c;
xocl. ocpr.ocyoc'i:c; xocl. 7t0C'ITO(ocLc; cho7tLOCLC:, 7tp6c; Te: ECX.UTOUc; xcx.l. 't'OUc; \m' 70
, \ x
O'..U'!Ouc; pLO"'t'LOCVOUc; cruyxe:x.ue:voL. \I ''EVV'Q._CX: OY)
' I

F 48 Tov oE: - 49 Tp(a: cf. Theoph. p. 384, l&--19; 386,

20-24. 49 'E7tl TOUTOU - 51 &aMTTY)c:;: cf. Theoph. p. 386,
25--27. 52 Tov oE: - 53 ouo: cf. Theoph. p. 396, 23-24; 398, 5; 401,
13-14. 53 Tov oE: - 54 Tfocrapac:;: cf. Theoph. p. 401, 4--8, 14; 403,
24--25. 54 Toiho'll - 55 L&': cf. Theoph. p. 402, 19; 403,
25. 55 TouTou - 56 ~:cf. Theoph. p. 421, 7-10. 56 Mapou&:
- 57 xa': cf. Theoph. p. 429, 15. 57 TouTou - 59 ewea: cf. Theoph.
p. 44-8, 28; 449, 1, 4--8. 59 TouTou - 60 xy': cf. Theoph. p. 461,
7, 10; 465, 27-30. 62 Tei> o' auT<j> - 76 7tem:: Theoph. p. 484, 5-19.

v 4-4 owp[a'\I v edd. l! 47 &; coni. Moravcsik: &:ne:pouvToc:; p

civTatpot"1101J Be II 48 Tl)v: T'ijc:; V edd. II Tov edd.: Tau P II 49 ante ~ou:>..&L&:v
add. 6 edd. II 1:ouAe:7)iiv P ~oA&7)&:v Be II Tpla edd.: y' P II TOUTOU corr.
engrossed with the troubles which had arisen, the Agarenes who lived in
Spain saw their chance had come, fitted out a large fleet and started out
from the region of Sicily and desolated all the islands of the Cyclades, and,
coming to Crete and finding it rich and carelessly guarded, since none
opposed or engaged them, they took it, and hold it to this day. Oualid
was succeeded by Souleiman, who ruled three years. In his time Masalmas,
the general of Souleiman, made an expedition with an army overland, and
Oumar by sea, and by God's aid they returned with shame, their purpose
unachieved. Souleiman was succeeded by Oumar, who held the rule over the
Arabs two years. Oumar was succeeded by Azid, who held the rule for four
years. He was succeeded by Isam, who held rule for 19 years. On his death
Marouam held the rule six years. On the death of Marouam Abdelas became
master of the rule over the Arabs, and held it 21 years. On his death Madis
became chief of the Arabs, and held the rule nine years. When he had passed
away Aaron became master of the rule over the Arabs, and held the rule
23 years.
In this year, that is to say, when the rule over the Romans *** Irene
and Constantine, the year from the creation of the world 6288. In the same
year Aaron, the chief of the Arabs, died in inner Persia, that is called Cho-
rasan, and Moamed his son succeeded to the rule, a stupid, unbalanced
man in every way, against whom his brother Abdelas came in revolt out
of that same country of Chorasan together with the powers that had been
his father's, and brought about a civil war. And thereafter those who dwelt
in Syria and Egypt and Libya were split up under different governments,
and destroyed the public weal and one another, in a welter of slaughter
and rapine and outrage of every sort against themselves and their Christian
subjects. Then it was that the churches in the holy city of Christ our God

Moravcsik: TOOTcu P TouT<p edd. II 50 M&cra:>; px mg. P 8 V edd.

Theoph.cdfh: Macra:>..occ; P Macra:>..iic; Theoph. I! Lou:>..e:7)ocv P II 51 Ouap
P: Ouocpoc; P 2 mg. ps V edd. II &aA&TT7)<:; (etiam Theoph.ef): &aA&cr<l7)c;
Theoph. II 53 'Ap&f'wv] litteras &pcif' in ras. scr. P II 'A~7)o P: 'A~to
Theoph.etm 'I~to Theoph. \I 55 bd om. V edd. I! 56 Mocpoua edd. II
Mapoua edd. II 'A~oe:Mc; P II Tijc;: Ttc; V Me Ba Migne II 57 'Ap&~wv] litteras
paf' in ras. scr. P II 58 Maolc; (etiam Theoph.h): Mao Theoph. II 59 E:vvea
edd. : &' p II Tijc;: Ttc; v Me Ba Migne II 61 ad xp6vcp rubro atram ento ,c;amj'
mg. add. P 1 post jyouv s. v. TCi> ,c;cr7t"l)' iter. P 2 in textmn receperunt V Me \l
post &px'fic; lac. ind. Bury Laskin I\ 61/2 Etp~V7)c; P 2 V edd.: Etp~V7) P II 62
KwvcrTotvT(vou corr. Moravcsik: KwvcrTotVToc; P edd. II i:Toc; V edd. /I 64 Mou&e:o
Theoph. Mo&e:& edd. II 65 xal &cruv&pT7)TO<:; u7tapxwv deest in Theoph. II
&:cruv&pTI)Toc; Be: &cruvcipTtcrToc; P II 'Af'oe:Mc; P II 71 "Ev-&a (etiam Theoph.cod<l.):
ev.S-e:v Me Be Theoph. II XotTOC om. Me Be Ii T7)v &yav p Theoph. : Tijc; &ylac;
P 1 edd. 11
22, 23
45vp XpLcr-roG -roG 0e:ou ~wv rr6"Aw I
EXXA'YJO'LOCL ~p~wvTocL, -roc -re: ovoccr~pLoc
't'WV Mo e:yOC"Ac.ov '"Aocupwv, 't'OU EV ocyloLi:; Xocp(-rwvoi:; xocl. KupLOCXOU x:cxl.
't'OU- cxywu
, ..... 'A
..::..cxjJcx, XIXL, "t'O,C /\OL7tCX
... , 'A
't'WV , ,
ocyLc.ov E'u.:ruwu
Q , 'I'
XOCL, "e:ooo- e
crwu. 'E m;xpoc"t"f)cre:v oe: "t"f)c; -roLCXU"t"f)c; ocvocpXL<Xc; 1j XOC"t' <XMlJ/\Cuv XCXLI 75
I 'I'' - I , I ' , .... "\. I"\.

~ wv LocLrpovloc F!"t"f) 7teV"t'e:.

"Ew<; c1oe: Exocv6vLcre:v -roui:; xp6voui:; 't'WV , Apoc~wv 0 EV ocyloLt;
0e:orp&vlJi:;, o -r~v ov~v crucr-r~croci:; -rou xoc"Aouevou e:ycf).ou 'Aypou,
lJ-rp6.&e:wi:; 'ruyxocvwv "t'ou e:ya'"Aou xocl. e:ucre:~oui:; x<Xl. xpLcr-rLocvLxw-r&..ou
~OCCTLAEWi:; KwvO""t'<XV"t'lvou, utou Afov-roi:;, "t'OU crorpW"t'OC"t'OU xocl. ocyoc.&ou 80
~ocm'"Aec.oi:;, eyy6vou oE: Bocm"Adou, "t'OU EV ocxocpl<f -r1i v~n "t'OC crx-Yjrt"t'poc
'r-Yji:; 't'Wv 'Pwoclwv ~occrL"Adcxi:; xpoc~crocv-rot;.

4&'P 23. II e: p l. 'I ~ 'YJ p ( oc i:; x oc l. ' I cr n oc v l oc i:;.

107Be 'IAjJlJpLCXL
' ouo
'I' r '1J e:v
' 7tpui:;
l "t'OCLc;
- H pocXFE:LocLi:;
"\. ' '"'
O'"t"f)/\OCLi:;, ' '
OC7t0 I ''JAjJlJpoi:;
7tO't'OCou, oiS ev'1)'t'OCL , Arro"AA6owpoi:; EV -rTI IIe:pl. ytji:; w. 'EV"t'oi:; OE
II upl)V'f)c; jJ'YJP "t' e:cr"t'L e:yoci:; rtO"t'ocoi:; cpe:poe:voi:; e:voo"t'e:pw. TOCU'r t' YJi:;
/ ''IA ' , , / , / ' ~ /
OE rcoA"A& rpocmv .&v'YJ oLocLpe:'i:cr&ocL, xoc&che:p t H p6oo roe; t Ev -r?i ,: Ti) 5
'I':\. 'IA ' ye:vot;
XOCvQ' 'H pC1.X./\S:OC "\.I L
LO''t'OPL<f I
C.Oc; T'0 oe; jJ'YJPLXOV I

07tt;p > -
(j)'f)L\ OLXELV 't'OC\ 7t0CpOC/\LOC
I"). 'I' I "\
't'OU- oLOC7t/\OU, ~ I
oLWpLO' "t'OCL ov ) 6occrtv e:v <\ I
eov xoc-roc rpu"Aoc rrpw-rov E:v ot Ertl. -ro'i'.i:; Ecrx<XToLi:; olxouv"t'e:t; "t'OC npoi:;
oucre:wv I K'UV'YJ't'E<; OVO[J.OC...,OV'
, ''I'
t'OCL ('OC7t, EX.ELV(i)V
, I 'I'' f'I'
oe: l)Ol) 7tpoi; ' P. I
tJope:ocv ,,
r1.1j-ri;;i:;) i;;-roc OE Tocp-r~O'LOL" e:-roc OE 'E'"Ae:ucrLVLOL" e:-roc OE Moccr't'Lvo( 10
46VP i;;-roc ae: Ki;;Al<Locvo( ~7tt;L't'OC OE t ~owp6otY.voi:; t. , Ap-re:(owpoi:; oE: EV
tj ~I 't'WV ri;;wypocrpouEvwv ou-rwi:; OLOCLpe:fo.&oc( (j)l)O'LV" ' Arto oE: 't'WV
XOC't'tY.\ r ocoe:Lpoc
1 ) - <I - l'I' I > 'I' I I
II up~vocLc.ov op(t)v e:c.oi:; -rwv -rorrwv e:voo-ri;;pw xocL\ cruvwvuwi:;
' 't't; XOCL' 'J 0"7t0CVLOC ' XOCF,EL"t' "\. - OCL. u.Lnp"YJ"t'
A ' OCL oe:
'I'' U7t0
' ' p W(J..OCLC.OV
' ' OUO
e:Lc; 'I' r

E7ti7.PXLOCt; * * OLO'
, I
:'t'ELVOUCJ'(Y. OC1t0 't'WV II upYjVOCLC.OV opwv OC7tlXO'OC xocl.} e:xpL
I , ' - I , - ,, { I

F 77 a ev - 78 'Aypou: cf. Vita Theophanis, ed. de Boor p. 30, 11-12.

23. 2 '1~7)pLcn - 44 no:>.u-re::>.e:cr't'&.Tocc;: cf. Steph. Byz., ed. Meineke
s. v. r~7)pLcn. 2 r~7)pLot~ - 4 ev8oTepw: cf. Apollodori fr. 324., ed.
Jacoby F. Gr. Hist. II B. p. l19. 4 TotuT'Y)c; - 11 ij8LOp68ocvoi;: cf.
Herodori fr. 2 a., ed. Jacoby, F. Gr. Hist. I. p. 215. 11 'Ap-re:L8ropoc;
- 17 Aucr(-rotvlac;: cf. Artemidori fr. 21., ed. R. Stiehle, Philologus XI. p. 203.

v 72 n6A(V Theoph.: 7t0AE(J)c; p edd. II 76 neVTe: edd.: e' p II 78 8e:ocp&.v7)c; (litteris

7)c; s. v. additis) P 2 mg. P 8 Ba Be: 8eocp&.v~oc; P II e:y&:>.ou s. v. add. P 2 in textum
receperunt v edd. II 81 post Baat:>.dou s. v. TOU ex Maxe:oovLac; add. pa in textum
receperunt V edd.
28. 3 'Ano:>.A6oc.upoc; Ba Be 'Ano:>.A6oopoc; per comp. P: 'Ano:>.A6v~oc;
coni. Meursius I! 4 Iluplv7)c; p II EcrTLV Meineke Jacoby II evoo-repw&ev coni.
Meineke I TotUT'IJV Ba Berkel I 5 post 0 add. e:ti; Ba Berkel II 'Hp6ooToi;
22, 23
were desolated, and the monasteries of the two great Laurai, those of SS.
Charito and Cyriac and of St. Sabas, and the other coenobite monasteries
of SS. Euthymius and Theodosius. This anarchy, during which they murdered
one another and us, lasted five years.
Up to this point the history of the Arabs is set in order chronologically
by St. Theophanes, who founded the monastery of the so-called Megas Agros
and was uncle on the mother's side of the great and pious and most Christian
emperor Constantine, son of Leo, the most wise and virtuous emperor,
and grandson of Basil, of blessed memory for his tenure of the sceptre over
the empire of the Romans.

23. 0 f I b e r i a a n d S p a i n.

There are two Iberias: one, at the Pillars of Hercules, is so called

from the river Iber, mentioned by Apollodorus in 'Concerning the Earth',
II: Within the Pyrenees is the Iber, a great river running towards the
interior. In this country are said to be many distinct nations, as Herodo-
rus has written in the Xth book of his 'History Relating to Herakles': This
Iberian race, which, I say, lives on the shores of the strait, though one
race, is distinguished by names according to its tribes: first, those who
inhabit the western parts at the farthest verge are called Kynetes (and
after them, if one travels north ward, are the Gletes); then, Tartessians;
then, Elbusinians; then, Mastienoi; then, Kelkianoi; and then, thereafter,
the Rhone. Artemidorus, in book.JI of the 'Geography', says that the country
is divided thus: The interior between the Pyrenees mountains and the
district about Gadara is denominated alternatively Iberia and Spain. It has
been divided by the Romans into two provinces *** the whole extending

v Me ii p6oo't"oc; p: 'Hp6oropoc; Ba Be Berkel Meineke Jacoby II L': oeXOCT7)

Ba Be Meineke Jacoby II Tn: -rwv Ba Be Meineke Jacoby II 6 ta't"opl~: tcr-roptc7>11
coni. Meineke ta't"Opc7>11 Jacoby II 7 otxiteLv Meineke II otoc7tAOu Ba Be Meineke
Jacoby:: OtlX7tAOU p OL<Xpou v Me wxecxvou coni. Bekker II ouv6ocm coni.
Meineke II 8 obcfovTec; Meineke II 9 KJVL't"IXtc; p II ouvoct~OV't"Ott coni. Meineke I
9 oc7t' - 10 I').;ijTec; in parenthesi posuit Schulten II 9 f'opt'Y)V Meineke II
10 I'Aof)-rec; P II 'E/..euavtot: 'EAf'ua11tot Ba Be Berke! Meineke Jacoby II
Momw.10!: Mota't"t'Y)vo Ba Be Berkel Meineke Jacoby 11 11 Ke/..xtavo(: KaA7tLavo(
Ba Be Berke! KitA-rm coni. Bandurius KeA-rixol coni. Meineke II '1jotop6oavoc;
P Me t 'Y)Otopo30tvoc; Jacoby: 'l)o'Y) o 'Pooav6i; Be Berkel Meineke ~o'1) o 'P6oavoc;
Ba ~O'Y) 6 :Eapo6vmc; Unger 1)8'1) o 7top.&6c; Schulten II 'Ap-relOwpo~] litteras
Te l rest. P 2 II 13 Iluptvafo.iv P II r&oetpa] litteras et in ras. scr. P 1 I/ xoct
vooTEpw Schubart Meineke II 14 'fo7tavloc (etiam Thunmann Meineke): ~rrav(a
edd. II 15 post E7tCxpxlai; lac. ind. Re Meineke 7tpw't"'Y) ev E7tapxa suppl.
Ba Berkel II Ilupwalwv P II xat om. Ba Be Meineke Stiehle secl. Moravcsik II
'n)c; KocLv~c:; KC'.pf:YJOOVoc:; xoci TWV "t'OU Bochwc; 7tYJy&v, 'T"fj<; OE oe:u-repocc:;
TOC' e:xpi
' r ocoe:Lpc.ov
XO:L'AUO"L't'OCVLocc:;. ' A'e:ye:TOCL oe: II>' XOCL''JfJ.
II ocp'lTe:vwc:;
1\ e:uxocoLOCLc;
... I
' ... -
'I-I oII>' e:-re:p<X
' 1

108Be'l~1Jploc I rrpoc:; Ilepcrocc:; fo-rlv. To &voe; ' I~'Y)pe:c;,

we; Ille:pe:c;, Bu~~pe:c:;.
47rp t..wvucnoc; / 'Ayxou crT"tJAOCc.ov e:yoc&uwv &:&voe; 'I~~pwv. Kocl. 'ApLcr-ro- 20
cpOCVYjc:; T pL(j)OCl\'YjTL. (( 1\1' C'.VvCXVOV't'e:c; -rouc:; ''f!J.i--'YJPOC<; -rou.:; ' 'A pLcr-rocpxou 7tOCl\OCL))
1 1 1
"" (1 ' I , ...

Y.O:L Touc; "l~"f)pocc;, ouc; xop"f)ye:~i:; oL, ~o'Yj&~O"(XL op6cp. Kocl. 'Ap,e:l-
owpoi:; EV OE:U't'Ep<p re:wypoccpouevc.ov I'pococ-rLx-fi OE XPWVTOCL tj TWV
'l-roc'A&v ot ;rocpoc &oc'Aocnocv oLxouv-re:c:; -r&v 'I~~pc.ov. Kocl. &rro -r~c; ''l~1Jpoc:;
ye:vLx~c; 'I~ripl.c; -ro &Yj/..ux6v. 'E/..'A"f)vli:;, oux 'I~Yjpli:; Mevocvopoi:; 'AcmLOL. 25
Azye:-rocL xocl 'l~"fJpLx6c; t Ilp&-roc:; E:v np6i:; 'Twoc; t 'l~"fJpLxoi:; &pxot-
VOLO"L.)) L.1L~~pe:L't'O
A - oe: ' 'lfJ.
II>' 'Y) t--YJPLOCI e:Li:;
' ~I
ouo, vuv - ~' EL<;
oe: ' -rpe:Li:;,
- we;
' MocpxLocvoi:; ' e:v '
Ile:pbt/..cp ocu-r~c; IIp6-re:pov E:v oi'>v ~ 'I~YJploc de; ouo orr,pd-ro uno
'P c.oocLC.OV,
I VUVL' oe: II>' e:Lc;
' "t'pEL~ - B IXL"t'LX"f)V' "" ..:;.,7tOCVL(Y.VI XOCL' "~nocvrn:v
" I XOCL' T ocppoc-
47vp jxc.ovricrlocv. 'A7to -nji:; ye:vLx~c; ''l~"f)poc; e:u&docv 'Arto/..Awvwi:;, we; -njc:; 30
cpu/.cxxoi:; o rpu'Aocxoc:;. 'Ev -ro~i:; Ilocpc.ovuoLc; rpYJcrlv 'Ano ye:vLxwv e:u&e:~ocL
rtocpocyov-rocL, t 't'O\ e:v
1 \ uowp <Ill> t ouo11>1 ""1"1
O'Uf\f\OCt-' (J. \ <
(Y.c; ooLwc:; I -
't'YJ > (1 I \

'tOVOV l;"
rtocpOc.,UVOe:vov, I
XIXL Yj EV OC7tf\<p crx_YjOC't'L Yj EV O'UVV-E't<p.
' ,, ' ' ... - ' ,, ' (11 'A7!1\0V.. '
ev oi'>v (ocp-rup), ocpTupoc:;, o
cX:p-ruc;, Xocp0tj;, X&po7toi:;, o Xocporroc;,
109Be'Xocp6r.oL6 -r' &vocx-roc;', Tpol~YJV, Tpol~Yj \voe;, o
TpoL~Yjvoi:;, 'uf.oi:; TpoL- 35
~~vow', ''l~"fJp, ''l~'Y)poi:;, o"l~"fJpoc:;, &rp' oi'> rrocpoc Kouocopoc-rcp Ev 'Pc.oocc-

F 18 Ilap.&~vw~ - alyta:>..<;'>: cf. Parthenii fr. 10., ed. Martini,

Mythographi Graeci II. 1. suppl. p. 17; Herodianus, ed. Lentz I. p. 76,
29-30. 20 'Ayx.ou - 'I(3~pcuv: Dionys. Perieg. v. 282., ed. Muller,
G. G. M. TI. p. 117. 20 'AptaTocpttv'Y)~ - 22 op6cp: cf. Aristoph. fr.
550., 551., ed. Kock, C. A. Fr. I. p. 531. 22 'ApTe(ocupo~ - 24
'I(3~pc.:iv: cf. Artemidori fr. 22., ed R. Stiehle, Philologus XI. p. 203. 25
'E)J.71vt~ - 'Acrnlot: cf. Menandri fr. 79., ed. Kock, C. A. Fr. III. p.
25. 26 IlpwTo~ - 27 &pxovmm: Dionys. Perieg. v. 69., ed. Muller,
G. G. M. II. p. 108. 28 Ilp6Tepov - 30 Tappcxxcuv'Y)crlav: Marcian.
Peripl. II. 7., ed. Muller G. G. M. I. p. 544. 30 'Arro:>..AwvLo~ - 36
"I(371po~: cf. Apollonii Dyscoli fr., ed. Schneider p. 47.; Herodianus, ed.
Lentz I. p. 196, 22-29; II. p. 854, 1-9. 35 Xap67tm6 T' &vaxTo~:
Hom. ll. II. 672. 35 uloc; Tpotsi}vmo: Hom. 11. II. 847. 36 7totpa
Kouaopd.T~ - 38 7to/-efone~: cf. Asinii Quadrati fr. 2., ed. Jacoby, F. Gr.
Hist. II A. p. 448.

v 16 8EUTEp1X~ v edd. Meineke: wp II 17 roc8dpwv] litteras Et in ras. scr. pi II

Aoumwvta~ Ba Be Meineke II 'l~'Y)plT"fj~ Ba Be Meineke: B1Jpht~ P
18 II
IIapSsvLO~ Ba Be Meineke Lentz Martini: Ilap&uvm~ P II Ae:uxoc8(o:L~ Ba Be
Martini: Aeuxaola~ P Aeuxocol~ Meineke Lentz II 'I(3~pm P I! n:>..suaeL EV
Meineke Lentz Martini: 7tAEU<lELEV p edd. 7tAEU<T!1 tv coni. Bekker II o': oe
from the Pyrenees mountains as far as New Carthage and the sources
of the Baetis, while the second province comprehends the area reaching to
Gadara and Lusitania. The form 'lberite' is also found. Parthenius in
'Leucadiae': Thou shalt coast along the 'lberite' shore. The other Iberia is
over toward the Persians. The ethnic term is 'Iberians', like 'Pierians',
'Byzerians'. Dionysius: Nigh unto the Pillars the nation of great-hearted
'Iberians'. And Aristophanes, 'Trip hales': Learning that the 'Iberians',
who anciently of Aristarchus, and, The 'Iberians', whom thou lendest me,
to run to my aid. And Artemidorus in part two of 'Geography': Those of
the 'Iberians' who live on the coast use the alphabet of the Italians. Also,
from genitive 'Iberos' is formed the feminine 'Iberis'. A Greek woman, not
an 'Iberis', Menander, 'Aspis'. The form 'lberic' is also found: <~The first
sea is the 'Iberic' at the outset. Iberia used to be divided in two, but now
in three, as Marcian says in its 'Circumnavigation': Now of old Iberia was
divided in two by the Romans, but now in three: Baetic Spain and Lusi-
tanian Spain and Tarragonese Spain. From genitive 'Iberos' Apollonius
derives a nominative, as 'phylakos' from genitive 'phylakos'. In 'Paronyma'
he says: Nominatives are derived from genitives of more than two syllables
which, like the derivative nominative, carry the proparoxytone accent,
whether these are in simple or compound form. Simple are: martyr, martyros,
nominative martyros; Charops, Charopos, nominative Charopos, 'of king
Charopos'; Troezen, Troezenos, nominative Troezenos, 'son of Troezenos';
Iber, lberos, nominative Iberos; whence in Quadratus, 'Roman Millennium',

Ba Be Epitome Steph. Byz. II 19 ~f)vQ(;: e&vtxov Meineke Epitome Steph.

Byz. II "l(371pe:c;] litteras t(371 rest. P 2 II 20 lS-v';] litte:ras rest. P2 II 'I(3~prov]
litteras t(3~ rest. P 2 II 21 Tptqici:>..tTt P II 23 post oe:uTspci> add. TWV edd. Meineke II
rpaomx'fi Ba Be Meineke: ypaotTtXOL p II 24 fl&AIXTT()(V p v edd. Meineke:
.&&:AaTTott (littera v ex dimidia parte erasa) PY II 24 Koct - 26/7 &pxovotcrt
secl. V !! 25 'Acrrr071 P II 26 post 'l(371ptx6c; 1 add. Lltovumoc; Ba Be Berkel
Meineke II 26 IIpwToc; E:v 7tp6c; Ttvoc;: 7t6VToc; ev rrpwTtaToc; Ba Be Berkel
Meineke Dionysios II 26/7 &pxoevmcrcrot P 11 27 ~ 'I(371poc Meineke: 'l(371p[a
Ba Be Yi "l(371ptc; P JI post dc;1 add. t7tocpxac; Berkel Meineke II Tpdc; Meineke
y' p: Tp[a v edd. II 28 post Mo add. e7t0!.pxlac; Meineke II 28/9 OLTIPYi'>O U7t0
'Pcua(cuv de; E7totpxlac; Mo Marcianus II 28 orflp'YJTO Meineke II 29 Tpe:'tc; Meineke
Marcianus y' P: Tpfa edd. JI 29/30 de; 'lcrmxvlocv BoctT~xr1 v xal de; 'fo7rixv[ixv
Aoucri-ravlav xal 'fo7tavlocv Tocppixxro\/7)0'totv Marcianus !J 29 BmTlx71v Meineke II
~7tocv[ocv 1 om. Be Meineke II xocP om. V Me Be Meineke II 2:7tocv[ocv2 om. V Me
AoucrtTotv(av Be Salmasius Meineke II 30 'Ano - 38 qi71cr[ secl. V I! 30 e:ultefa
Meineke II post e:u.fte:Lav add. 7tocpocye:t Ba Berkel II 30/1 we:; Tijc; q>UAIXXOc; 6
cpu:Aocxoc;. 'A7to:>..Awvtoc; Bastius Meineke II 30 rijc; 2 ( etiam Meineke): Tau Ba Be II
32 TO E:v uowp: Tc7Jv E:v U7tEp Meineke Apollonius TO E:v "I(371p Ba Berkel II
E:v delenduin coni. Meineke II 33 rrapol;uv6e:vov: rrpo7totpol;uv6e:vm Meineke
Apollonius II arr:>..ouv Meineke Apollonius II 34 cipTUp add. Ba Be Meineke II
&pTUp ocp-rupoc:; 0 &p-rupoc; Apollonius II 6 ocp-ruc:;: a &p-rupoc:; edd . .Meineke ii
35 Xocp6rrot6 T' OC\/otXToc; Ba Be Meineke Apollonius: xocpo7toloT7)c; OC\/IXXTOc:;
P II Tpuse:tv Tpus71voc:; 6 Tpus71voc; P II 35/6 Tpu?;i]vom P JI
23, 24, 25
x:Yjc; X.LALocooc; (e:') E:o"t"LV 'I~~pwnv ou-rwc; Kocl 't'Ot A(yucrl &' &oc
xoct' 'IAt-'"fJPOLO'
I L 7t0AEfLEOV't'e:r;.))
, T'0 OCU'
' t'O' xoct' ''AAt--PWV e:v
' II ocpwvuotc; I q:J"fJO',t,
48rP Kocl ocu-roc; "I~"f)poc; -rpocyom;,ywv Ev Moc'A&ocxo'i:c; dp"fJ /-roct Kpoc-rlvou.
Afyov't'OCt ot ''I~"f)pe:c; uopo7to't'e:'i:V, wr; 'A&~voctoc; EV .L\e:mvocroqnc:r-rwv 40 w
oihc.oc; <1>u/,ocpxoc; E:v EV tjj ~' XOCL -rouc; ''l~YJpOCc; cpY)at uopo7tO't'e:'i:V 7t0CV"rocc;,
I > Q
XOCLI 't'Ot 7t/\OUc;tC.O't'OC't'OUc;
7t0CV't"(t)V OCV' 1
lTpW7tC.OV I
-ruyxocvov-rocc; (
xe:X't'"fJV't"OCt yocp J \

XOCL ocpyupov XOCL xpucrov 7tAE:fo-rov)' ovooue:'i:v -re: ocu-rouc; &d ASYEL otiX
txpoJ..oytCY.v, fo&~-rcX.c; -re q:iope:rv 7to'Au-re:/..e:cr-r1hocc;.

24. II e: p t 'I cr 7t oc v l oc c;.

II Ove:v e:tp"f)'t'OCt 'I 0"7tOCVtOC; 'AiCO\ 'I O'iCOCVOU ytyocv-roc; OU't'W XOC/\OU-
Cl_ ,, I Ii I "

e:vou. 'I 0'7tocvtoct
I ~
ouo -r"f)c;
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,, e:mxpx.toct' I
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e:yOCAYJ, ' ~ txpoc.
"fJ' oe: ,

Tocu-r"f)c; Ev+icr&"YJ Xocpoc~ ev t' Xpovtxwv 'Ev 'fo7tocvf~ -r?J txp~ tj'j
48VP E:c,C.O A OUO"t't'OCVC.OV
- 7tOC/\LV' OC7t0Cl"t'' OI CV't'(t)V, e:7te:<p'lT"fJ
' , Q U7t0
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'P (t) octwv I O''t'pOC't"'Y)- 5
yoc;' E:7t ' ' ocu-rouc;
' ' K'uw-roc;. 'O ocu-roc; ' ' oou ' ... 7te:pt' 't'WV . ., ouo ~' K'uw-roc; o'
't'WV 'Pwoclc.ov 7t'OAEfLOCpX,Oc; EV ocrpo-rzpoctc; -roc'i:c; 'fo7tocvfoctc;. 'H (j'(j'~e:voc;
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t'O\ V e:7tOLYJO'
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'IAt-'"fJptocv' ' '
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i:' t'Ot; 't'OU- E1TVOUc;''Q. 't'"f)V
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Q 10
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\ I ,.. ,.. fl J \ \ ''Jf.l. \ , J

ty ~'
EXELVOU ovooc1.,E:'t'OCL,
' 1 '
't"'Y' )V 7t0CO"OCV
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XOC/\OUV't'e:c; rry>
J. O''t'e:pov oe: rpoccrtv
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... - Q
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25. 'E x "' ~ c; 1 cr " o p f oc c; -r o u o a ( o u 0 e: o cp oc v o u c; "' ~ c;

L L y p t oc v !tj c;.

Tou-rcp -r0 E:-re:t Ouoc/..e:nwtocvoc; OU 6vov Bpe:nocvf.ocv xocl rocJ..J..(ocv

49rp XOCL' 'I 0'7tOCVLOCV
, ' OCO''lTOCt oux tcrx.ucre:v, OC/\/\OC
Q >;.., ' XOCt' 't'"f)V
' " ' E0'7te:pLOV
' ' A Lt-'A'U"fJV,

F 38 To au-ro - qi71a(: cf. Habronis fr., ed R. Berndt, Berl. Phil.

Wochenschrift XX.XV. p. 1454; Herodianus, ed. Lentz I. p. 196, 29; II.
p. 854, 9. 39 au-roi; - Kpoc-rlvou: cf. Cratini fr. 101., ed. Kock, C.
A. Fr. I. p. 46; Herodianus, ed. Lentz I. p. 196, 22---23; II. p. 854,
1-3. 40 Af.yov-ra~ - 44 rro:>.u-re::>.e:a-ra"rai;: Athen. Dipnosoph. II. 44 b.,
ed. Kaibel I. p. 102, 15-19.
24. 2 II63ev - 13 Ilavwv[o:v: cf. Steph. Byz., ed. Meineke s. v.
'I<mo:vlo:t. 4 X&pal; - 8 ~rroL~mno: cf. Characis fr. 26., 27., ed.
Jacoby, F. Gr. Hist. II A. p. 488. 9 ~11 'EA:>.71vtxwv- 13 Ilavcuv[av:
cf. Characis fr. 3., ed. Jacoby. F. Gr. Hist. II A. p. 483.
25. 3 Tou-rei> - 55 (3o:crt:>.e:ua~: Theoph. p. 93, 31-95, 25; cf. Procop.,
De hello Vand. I. 2-4., ed. Haury I. p. 320, 18-322, 4; 311, 5-313, l; 317,
9-20; 322, 4-326, 4.
23, 24, 20
V, occurs the dative plural 'Iberoisin', thus: Though warring at once
with the Ligurians and 'Iberoisi'. Habro says the same in 'Paronyma'.
And the goat-bearded 'Iberos' himself is found in the 'Effeminates'
of Cratinus. The Iberians are said to drink water, as Athenaeus says in
'Deipnosophists', II: Phylarchus in book VII says that all the Iberians too
drink water, though they are the wealthiest of mankind (for they possess
very great quantities of silver and gold), and he says that they never eat
but once in the day out of their parsimony, and wear the most magnificent

24. 0 f S p a i n.
Whence is the name Spain ? From Hispanus, a giant so called. The
Spains are two provinces of Italy: one is large, the other small. The country
is referred to by Charax in 'Chronicles', X: In Little, or Outer, Spain the
Lusitanians again revolted, and the Romans sent against them their general
QuintUSl). And, of the two provinces together, the same author writes: Quin-
tus, the Roman commander-in-chief in both the Spains. He was defeated
by Viriathus and made a truce with him. He says the country is called
Iberia, in 'Greek History', III: Spain the Greeks originally called Iberia,
not yet having learnt the title of the whole nation but calling it all after
that part of the country which is near the river Iber and derives its name
therefrom. Afterwards, they say, the name was changed to Spain.

25. F r o m t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e h o 1y T h e o p h a n e s o f
Sig r i an e.
In this year Valentinian was not merely too weak to recover Britain
and Gaul and Spain, but also lost western Libya as well, the so-called land

V 37 e' add. Ba. Be Meineke Jacoby II foTw Jacoby: ~mtv P edd.

Meineke II Ka TOL Alyucrl -It' &ct Ba Be Meineke Jacoby xa:l -ro)..(ymcrt T'
cxa (sine acc.) P II 38 'A~pwv P II 39 ocu-roc;: ouTOc; Meineke II 40 'A~h1voci'oc;
p II odrtvw OO<jMTWV p II 41 <1>)..apxoc; p edd. II 41/2 !jl7)<lL oe xat (ev 'tjj ~'>
-rove; "l(37)p0tc; mX:v-rac; uoporto-rdv xochot 7tAOUOLW't'cl't'OU<; &v-9-pwrtwv 6v-rac; Athenaeus
II 42 x><T7)V't"otL - 43 rtAefo-rov deest apud Athenaeum in parenthesi posuit
Moravcsik II 43 xal1 om. edd. Meineke II 44 -re (etiam AthenaeusCE): os
24. 2/3 XotAouevou: Aeyoevou Meineke !I 5 erteqi~1j edd.: erteqi'1) p II
7 'fortavlcnc; (1jyrovoMo) coni. Jacoby II 8 Outptoc~ou Meineke Jacoby:
Ooptoc.Bou P edd. II 11 "l~7)pot Miiller Jacoby: 'l~7)plav V edd. 'l~"l)pla P <"I(37)pot)
'l(31jpav Meineke II 11/2 'l{31jp(ocv &rt' bcdvou wv6a~ov xat Tijv rtiimxv coni. Mei-
neke II 12 ovoci~e't'otL Miiller Jacoby: ovooc~OVTott p Meineke II 13 Ifovc.:ivlav
(etiam Epitome Steph. Byz.): Ifo{vw }vlav Jacoby Ifav(av Ba Be Meineke
~rtav(o:v coni. Kyriakides 'Icmav(ocv coni. Dujcev.
26. 3 060()..ev-rma:voc; p2 mg. ps edd. Theoph.: Oo()(); P !I 4
...-Yiv TWV "Arppwv xocJ.ouSV'Y)V xwpocv 7tpOO'OC7tWAe:cre: Tp6mp TOL<j}oe:. ~uo 5
O"t"pOCT"fJYOL' :s,.,crocv, 'AETLOc; XOCL B OVLcpocnoc;, ovc; t:l.
I ' ~'
~e:ooocrwc;I XOCTOC' OCLTY)O"W

Ouoc/..e:vnvtocvou de; 'Pw"f)v OC7ttcrTe:LJ.e:v. Bowpchwc; oz T~v &px~v T~c;

E0'7tS:pLOU A Lt"U1Jc;
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ocuTou, <tlc; ocvTocpcr(ocv e:'Ae:-rwVToc; xoct ~c; AL~u'Y)c; xpocT~crocL cr7te:uooVToc;.
Koct TocuToc S:v 7tpoc; IT'AocxLolocv ~/..e:ye:, 't"~v Tou OuocJ.e:VTLvLocvou '1]-rzpoc. 10
/ oe:
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urn~ I 'AeTLOV &:7te:OE~OCV't"O. ";'Hcrocv oS: T<j) TOTS: roT&OL xocl ~&V'YJ 7t0AAOC 't'E XOCL 15
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YYl- XOCT<pXL0"1T', (\YJO"OCV. KOCL, OL, e:v , r''Y)7tOCLoe:c;, ~ i: 7
S:c., ,,
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'e:tc; r OC/\/\LOCc;
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XOCL TWV e;XS:L S:XpOCT"f)O'OCV. O't"'lTOL oe: r, n ~, rr OCVVOVLOCV ,
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,, - ,, (11 ,, - A "I I t:l. ~ ' - I

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0 p~X'()
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V foxucrsv (etiam Theoph.): foxusv edd. II 5 7tpocroc7t6Af:crs P II 7 OuotAEVTLvLocvou

edd. Theoph. : OoixAsVTLocvoc:; P OoocAEVTLVL<Xvoc:; P 2 II Bov7)cpciTLoc:; P: BovLcpcxT(ou
Ba Be Theoph. II 8 :> (etiam Theoph.b): ).cx(36noc:; Ba Be Theoph. II ante
'Ahtoc:; add. a Ba Be Theoph. II 10 OucxA.sVTLvtotvou P 2 edd.: Ouot:>..evTtotvou P II
11 Xott in Theoph. II eTot7tecp&=;jc:; Be Theoph. : 7totpot7tscp&'iic:; Ba
7totpot7tsqi-ltdc:; P II 14 suvoouVTot Theoph.: euvouVTot P suvouvaTotTov (accentu
mutato, littera a inserta et s. v. TOV addito) P 2 suvoucrTocTOv V edd. II 15 T<i)
deest in Theoph. II r6T&Ot XIXL (etiam Theoph.codd.): roT&LXtX Theoph. II 16
11-ExPt: 7ttpelv Theoph. II 17 'folyoT&oL mg. add,, P1 : om. V edd. 'foL mg.
iter. P 2 II r1j7tEOEc:; p II 20 Llotvou[3tv p v: Ll&vou(3Lv px Theoph.g 8cxvou(3tv
Theoph. Llotvou(3wv edd. 11 22 "A[3otpstc:; (etiam Theoph.): 'A(3&pstc:; edd. II
I:tyytowvot P II I:tpLOv Theoph.: I:ep(cuv P :Ee:p(cu I:spdcu
of the Africans; it happened like this. There were two generals, Aetius and
Boniface, whom Theodosius had sent to Rome at the request of Valentinian.
Boniface was given the command over western Libya, and Aetius out of
jealousy slanderously accused him of meditating rebellion and working to
seize Libya. This he communicated to Placidia, the mother of Valentinian.
But he wrote also to Boniface, saying: If you are sent for, do not come,
for you have been slanderously accused, and the emperor and empress are
trying to get you into their hands by a trick. This message Boniface received
and, trusting in Aetius as in a true friend, did not go when he was sent for.
Then the emperor and empress accepted Aetius as a loyal servant.
At that time the Goths and many very large nations were settled in the
regions of the far north down as far as the Danube. Of these the most notable
are the Goths, Visigoths, Gepedes and Vandals, who differ from one another
in name only and in nothing else, and speak one and the same tongue;
and all are of the misbelief of Arius. These in the time of Arcadius and
Honorius crossed the Danube and settled in the territory of the Romans.
The Gepedes, from whom were later divided off the Lombards and Avars,
lived in the territories about Singidunum and Sirmium. The Visigoths, under
Alaric, after taking Rome, went off to the Gallic provinces and possessed
themselves of those regions. The Goths :first held Pannonia, but afterwards
were permitted by Theodosius the younger, in the 19th year of his reign,
to dwell in the territories of Thrace, and after remaining 58 years in Thrace
they obtained permission of Zeno to possess themselves of the western
kingdom, with their leader the patrician and consul Theodoric. The Vandals,
joining up with the Alans and Germans, who are now called Franks, crossed
the river Rhine, and, under the leadership of Gogidisclus, settled in Spain,
the fust country of Europe from the side of the western Ocean. Now, Boni-
face, fearing the emperor and empress of the Romans, crossed over from

Theoph.cerm ~e:pe:1.'ov Ba Be 11 23 'HcrlyoT.&ot P II 'AA&ptxov P V Me Theoph.:

'A)..o:plxou (littera v ex dimidia parte erasa accentuque correcto) PY Meursius
Ba Be II 24 Ilo:vcuv[o:v P edd.: Ilo:vovlixv Theoph. J! 25 E:xovTe:c;: E:crxov Theoph. II
post E7te:~TIX add. Tiji Theoph.: om. Theoph.efm II ifr1) P II 27 8tixTp(ijlo:~e:~
Meursius Ba Be Theoph.: 8to:Tpltj>o:vToc; P II 28 o:uTotc; Ba Be Theoph.: o:\.rr<Xp
P II mTpE:tj>ixvToc; F Ba Be Theoph.: &mcrTpeqio:vToc; P II post kcr7te:plou ad.d,.
At~uric; edd.: deest in Theoph. II 29 Ouo:v8~)..m P V: Ouixv8~Aot py mg. ps II
30 N1.'vov (etiam Ne:r:vov Theoph.efm v1.'voc; mg. ps: 'P~vov Ba
Be Theoph. II 31 I'oylatO"XAO\I (litteris yl in ras. scriptis) P 2 v edd. ro8tylcrxAOV
Theoph. IJ 33 de; (!whet etiam Theoph.) s. v. add. P 3 in textum recepe:runt
Vedd. II
Oucxvo~/..ouc; ~'A&e:v, xcxl e:upwv TOV Ev roylOtcrXAOV TE:AE:UT~O'IXV't'CX, Touc;
OE xdvou 7t'IXLOcxc;, r6T&cxp6v TE: xixl r'Y)~prx_ov TI]v &px~v ot7t'OV"t'cxc;, 35
't"OU', t"OUc; 7tpo-rpe:'t'cxe:voc; " I
TY)V \
' L A ttA...u'I YjV e:tc; '
Tptcx I
I ~ "'). -
U7t'EcrXE:'t'O, Eq/ cT> gXCXO"t"OV 't"OU Tpl't'O\) pouc; &pxe:tv cruv cxu-r<';'>, xown OE
&.uve:cr&cxt 't"OV ofovo~rcoTe: 7t'o/..&tov. 'E7tl TCXU't"cxtc; TIX.Lt:; oo'Aoylcxtc;
, ~-. 't"OV
0 UIXVO"r)/\Ot \ 7!0p'ITov n. ' ~ A I t"E:t:;, T"r)V
otCXt--CXV' ' A tl"'UY)V
AI XCX't"cpX1)0'
CXV C/.7!0 ' '
51rp 'Oxe:cxvou xpt Tpt7t6Ae:Wc; -njc; XIX.TeX Kup~VYJV. Ot oE: 'fol lro-r&ot &vcx- 40
t"E:t:; CX7t'
O\ I' CX/V\tCXc;,
"'). "'). I e:xpCXTY)O'
' I
CXV xcxt' TY)V ' 'I 0'7t'CXVLCXV.I T tve:c;
' oe: ~ \ TY)t:; - cruyX/\Y)- "'). I
't"OU 'P wcxtwv, I cptr.ot' B OVLCf>CXTrnU, I TY)V ' 'A E:TLOU I .!. ~
't'e:UoOXCXTY)(Optcxv I cxv1)yye:t-
' I

ACXV -tjj Il'Acxxtolq., E.cpcxv~ 7tOt~crcxvTE:c; xcxl TI]v 7tpoc; Bovtcpchtov 'Ae:-rlou
, , , TOU- B OVt<f>CX't"tOU
E:7t'tO"t"Or,'1)V, , TCXUTY)V , , - CX7t00'TE:
CXUTOLt:; , .,/\IXV't"Ot:;. 'H oe: ~, n /\IXXt-
~/ '
otcx EX7t'Acxye:tO"IX TOV e:v - ' ' 'A' '~'
e:TLOV ouoe:v 'Y)O X'Y)O'E:V, '~l B ovtcpcx-rtcp oe: /\O(OV
I ~' "'). I 45
, n. ,, , , .,
7tpo-rpe:7t't'tXOV e:'IT opxwv CX7t'E:O"'t"Et/\S:V. OU oe: O't"'ITIXptou Te:"e:U't"YJO'CXV't"Ot:;,
T -
~, r n. , ., ,

r 'Y)1.,Eptxoc; - O'UCXVO'~,.,Y)/\WV ye:yove:v
't"C!)V ' '
CXU't'OXpcx-rwp. ' BOVtC{)IX' I
t"tOt:; oe:~' 't"OV'

A6yov oe:~&e:voc; 't"WV Oucxvo~AWV XCX't'e:O''t'pciTe:ucre:v, cr-rplX't'OU e:y&'Aou

51 vp J..&6V"t'oc; cxu-r<';'> &7!6 't'E: 'Pw1)c; xcxl 't'OU Bu i~cxv't'(ou, cr't"pCX't"'Y)(OUV't"Ot:;
''Amtcxpoc;. Ilo/..ou OE xpoTY)-3-EV't'Ot:; 7tpoc; rri~ptxov, ~ ..~&'Y) 0 't"WV 50
113B e 'P wcxtwv ' mpcx-roc;. I K cxt' ou-rw 11
I B ovtcpcx-rtoc; I e:Tcx' ''A cr7tcxpoc; e:tc; ' 'P WfL' ' Y)V
,., n.' ~
e:r,'ITWV, 't'Y)V U7t'O't'L(X.V otE/\UO'e:V, CX7t'OoEL<-,CXt:; TY)V IX/\'1j1TS:tlXV.
I ' "' ,., ' ~ l"C \ ,., 'n. 'H ~'
oe: 'A <pptXY)'
U7t' ~'Y)/\Ot<;; ye:yove:v. I T6-re: XCXt' M cxpxtcxvoc; ' C1't"p1X't'LW'I t"Y)t:; WV '\ xcxt' oou- ~

'Ae:uwv ''Acr7tcxpcx ~WV cruve:J..~cp&Y) U7t'O r'Y)~e:plxou, 0 e:-rO: 't"IXU't"IX ~occrt-

AEUO'CXt:;. 55
'Imfov, 5-rt -rpe:i:c; &.e:pouve:i:c; e:Lcrtv E.v 8/..71 T1j ~up(~, ~youv
<Ev) -tjj 't'wv 'Ap&~wv &.piij, <ilv o Ev 7tpwToc; xoc&k~e:Toct E.v T<';'> BcxyMo,
fo-rtv OE EX -njc; 't"OU Mou&e:& ye:ve:iic;, ~'t"Ot 't"OU Mouxoue:-r 0 oE: oe:uTe:poc;
52I'P xcx&t(e:-rcxt EV 'A<pptxfl, xocl. fo-rt E.x -njc; -rou 'A/..~ ye:ve:iic; xcxl. <l>cx I-rt&,
-njc; &uyoc-rpoc; Mou&e:&, ~-rot -rou Mouxooe:T, E.C: oi5 xcxl <l>cxn'L-roct 60
, ,.,, ~'
0' oe: 't"pt't"Ot:;
t"CXL e:v ' 'I 0'7t(X.Vtq., ' EO''t'tV
,, ~' ,
oe: IX7t0' 't'1)t:;~
ye:ve:C/.<;; -
Tou Mcxu(ou.
'lcr't'fov, 8-rt xcx-r' &.pxocc; E.v -re;> X<X.'t'CXXUpte:ucroct 't'OU<;; ~cxpCXXY)VOUt:;
7tii0"1)c; ~c; Luptcxc; Excx&&cr&YJ &.e:pouv=tjc; e:lc; -ro BcxyMo. 'Eofo7to~e:v oE
7!&0"1)<;; ~c; Ile:pcrLcxc; xcxl -njc; 'Acpptx~c; xcxl 't'Yjc; ALy\)7t't"ou xocl -njc; e:oocxL- 65
ovoc; 'Apcx~(cxc;. Kcxl. dxe:v &l)pcxolcxc; e:yci)..cxc;, ~-rot cr-rpoc-rYJylOcxc; Tcxu-
-rcxc; 7tpWTY)V , ,
cx'Y)pcxotcxv ~' ' II e:pcrtcxv,
't"Y)V I ~
.,youv -ro' x '
wpcxcrcxv, oe:unpcxv ~ I

'cxY)pCXotlXV ~' '

TY)V 'A '
<.ppLXY)V, 't'ptTY)V cx1)pCXotCXV 't'Y)V
I ' ~' ' A" L(U7t't"OV, 't"E:TIXpT'l)V I

V 34 I'oyl8tmU..ov: I'o8tymU..ov Theoph. /I 35 I'6T.&ixpov: I'6T.&o:ptv Theoph.c

I'6v.&ixptv Theoph. II I'1Jl;;C:ptxov (etiam Theoph.c): I't?;;eptxov Theoph. II
36 -rplo: edd. Theoph.: y' P II 39 Ouo:v8lj).oL edd. Theoph.: OMv81)AOt P II
40 Kup'fiv'fJV Ba Be Theoph.: KuplV1Ji; P II 42 ante 'Ae:Tou add. Tou edd.:
deest in Theoph. II 46 e:Mpxov p II I'oT-&o:pou (etiam Theoph. 0 ): rov.&o:pou
Libya into Spain and came to the Vandals, and :finding that Gogidisclus
was dead and that his sons Gottharus and Gezerichus held the rule, he
incited them by a promise to divide western Libya in three parts, so that
each of them, with himself, should rule over a third part, but should unite
to repel any enemy whoever he might be. These terms being agreed upon,
the Vandals crossed the strait and settled in Libya, from the Ocean as
far as Tripolis by Cyrene. The Visigoths, advancing from Gaul, took pos-
session of Spain also. Now, some Roman senators who were friends to
Boniface exposed to Placidia the falsity of Aetius' accusation, and showed
her also the letter of Aetius to Boniface, which Boniface had sent them. Pla-
cidia, much amazed, forbore to injure Aetius, but dispatched to Boniface a
message recalling him to his duty, together with promises on oath. Now, on
the death of Gottharius Gezerichus had become sole chief of the Vandals.
Boniface, then, on receipt of the message, marched against the Vandals, with
a large force which had come to him from Rome and Byzantium under the
command of Aspar. Battle was joined with Gezerichus and the army of the
Romans was defeated. So Boniface, accompanied by Aspar, came to Rome
and dispelled suspicion by exposing the truth. But Africa fell beneath the
Vandals. It was then that Marcian, the future emperor, who was a soldier in
the service of Aspar, was taken alive by Gezerichus.
There are three commanders of the faithful in the whole of Syria,
that is, in the empire of the Arabs, the :first of whom has his seat at Bagdad
and is of the family of Mouameth, or Mahomet; the second has his seat
in Africa, and is of the family of Alim and Fatime, daughter of Mouameth,
or Mahomet, whence the Fatemites are so called; the third has his seat
in Spain, and he is of the family of Mauias.
Originally, when the Saracens made themselves masters over all
Syria, the commander of the faithful had his seat at Bagdad. He was absolute
ruler over Persia and Africa and Egypt and Arabia Felix. He had beneath
him mighty emirates, or military provinces, as follows: :first, the emirate
of Persia, or Chorasan; second, the emirate of Africa; third, the emirate

Theoph. II 47 r'l}~tPLXO<; (etiam Theoph. 0 ): I'L~tpLXO<; Theoph. II 8~: OU\/

Theoph. II 50 I''l}~tpLxov (etiam Theoph. 0 ): I'L~EPLxov Theoph. II 52 'AcppLx~
px V 1fUJ. P 8 : 'A<ppLxij P II 54 "Acrmxpo:: TO\/ "A<mo:po: Theoph. be!m "Acr7to:pov
p Tiji "Acr7to:pL Ba Be Theoph. I! r'l}~e:plxau F edd. Theoph. 0 : n~e:plxou
Theoph. re:~e:p(xou p II 56 cie:pouve:i:<; Meursius: cie:pouve:ri; p edd. II 57
E:v add. edd. II Bo:yM8 (littera ~ in ras. scripta) PY Ba Be: I'o:yM8 P mg.
P 8 II 58 8e:uTe:po<; scr. Moravcsik: W P Ba Be II 60 <l>o:Te:rTo:L V: <l>o:TLi:To:L Be
<l>o:Tout:Tm p II 61 TplTo<; v edd.: y' p II 63 post on add. E:v Tiji edd. II KO'.TO'.-
)(l)pLe:\icro:L: xupLe:ucro:L V edd. II 64 ~up(o:i;] litteras upto:<; P 2 II &e:pouve:ri;
P: cie:pou11'ij<; Be II e:t<; (litteris restitutis) P 2 : E:v Be 11 TO scr. Moravcsik: Tw
(litteri.s restitutis) P 2 Tcj) Ba Be II Bo:yM8 ] litteras rest. P 2 II 67 Xwpo:cr&:v
scr. Moravcsik: Xwpo:crcrciv rruJ. ps Xwpocrcr&:v P Xwpocr&:v Be ii Be:uTep~v
edd.: WP 11
25, 26
52vp &.:Y)pcx.8(cx.v -ri)v <l>LALO'TL'Y), ~'t'OL I 't'O
'P&~"Ae:, ne7t'TI)V &.'t)pcx.8locv TI)v
~cx.oco-x6v, eX.TtJV &.'Y)pcx.8lcx.v 't'O XetjJ, ~'t'OL 't'O ''Ei::O'cx., e~86't)V &'r)- 70
114Be pcx.oLocv -ro XocAe:7t', oyoO'Y)V
I ' ~' I
cx.'Yjpcx.8Lcx.V 't''t)V 'A v 't'LOXE:Locv, i::vcx.T'Y)V &. 'r)pcx-
' , ' \ I ' ' I

o(cx.v 't'O Xcx.p&v, OE:X.cXTtJV &'t)pcx.olcx.v 't'O "Ei::-r, EVOE:XcX't"f}V oc'Y)poco(cx.v

-ri)v 'EcrL~~. ocuoi::x&TtJv &'Y)pcx.olcx.v -ro Moucri::"A,'t)v ti'Y)pocolcx.v
't'O TLx.pL't'. T1jc; oE: ,AcppLx.1jc:;; &"Y)c; 1hco -r1jc; 't'OU &.i::pouv~
v -ref> Bcx.yMo ~ouo-lcx.c; loLox.pcx.'t"f}cr&cr'Y)c; x.oct &'t)pocv ioLov &.vcx.yopi::u- 75
O'cXO"'rJ<;;, yeyovi::v,; 7tpourr1ipxi::v, 7tfH~'t''YJ &.'t)pcx.oloc ~ Ili::pO'lcx.,
~ ' 'Y') A"Lyun-roc:;; X.CX.'L X.CX.1TE:<,,'
oE:U't'e:pcx. (\ i:-Y)<;; OCL' A0L7tOCL,
X.CX.1TW<;; 7tpOe:Lp't)'t'CX.L. 'A p't'LW<;; I (\ ' I I

oE n&/-w -rou &i::pouv!fj -rou E:v -ref> Bcx.yM.o &ouvcx.tjcrcx.v-roc;, yeyovi::v

53rp LOL6ppu&oc; / 't'!fjc; Ile:pcrlocc; oc'Y)pocc;, ~youv -rou Xwpoccr&v &.ni::x.&"Ae:-
cri::v ecx.uTov &.e:pouv1jv, cpop&v TO x.oupocv oLoc mvcx.x.Lolwv de; -rov 80
-rpcXX'Y)Aov ocu-rou olx'Y)v ocvLcx.x.lou. Aeye:L OE &cx.u-rov dvoct (E:x) Ttjc; ye:vi::occ;
-rou 'At-~. '0 OE &.'t)pocc; 't'!fjc; e:uocx.lovoc; 'Apoc~lcx.c:;; u"ITTipxe:v &.d x.ixl
1t"OCV't'O't'E: U7t0 TI)v E:~oucrlocv 't'OU &.'Y)pOC AlyU7t't'OU. reyove:v oe CX.U't'O<;;
, X.CX.L CX.7':E:X.CX.AEO"E:V X.CX.t OCU't'Oc; e:OCU't'OV cx.i::pouV'Y)V" "I'
Q. ' ' ' ' , ' ~'
/\E:ye:t oe: ' ' ' -

x.ocl cx.uTo<; &cx.uTov dvcx.t E:x. 't'"~<;; -roG 'AA.~ ye:vi::iic;. 85

26. ' H y i:: v i:: cx. "A o y l oc -r o u 7t e: p t ~ "A e7t T o u p'YJ y o c; 0 u y w v o c;

'I crnov, o't't o P'YJ<oi: 'I-roc1,tcx.c;,
I " "I '
o e:ycx.c; AW1Tocp toe;, o 7tOC7t7t&c; -rou
'' I ' I (\I ' I -

53vp 7tE:pL~Aemou p'Y)yoc; Ouyc.uvoc;, &.7to \ Ttjc; yi::vi::iic; -rou i::y&/,ou Kocpoo/-ou
Y..OCTtJYE:'t'O, 7tE:pL OU7 7!0/\Uc;
f '\ \
\ ''
E:7tocwoc;, '
e:yxwtcx. 't'E: X.CY.t ot'Y)y'fjcx.-rcx. 1
X.CX.L 7te:pt I \ I \ \

l 15Be 7to'AEouc; &vopcx.ycx.&~cx.-rcx.. Oihoc; oi'.}v Kocpou"Aoc; \ ~v ovox.pchc.up 5 o

7tCX.V't'c.uv -rc.uv p'r)j'CX.'t'C.UV, i::l"'
, - ' 'AOCO"LAE:UO"E:
'I ~' i::tc;
oi:: ' 't' Y' )V e:ycx.A''Y)V "" ~pcx.yytcx.v. 'E v oi:: ~' I

't'IXL<;; ~epOCL<;; OCU't'OU ouoi::lc; 't'WV U7tOAOL7tC.UV p'Y)y&v h6A.'t)cre: pYjycx. ECX.U't'OV
X.OCAEcrCX.t, &./J..oc mX.v-ri::c; u-ITTjpxov U7t00"7tOVOOL cx.O-rou, 8cr-rtc; xp~oc-rcx. txcx.voc
xoct 7tAOU't'OV &cp&ovov E:v Il<x."Aoctcr-rlvn &7tocr-rd"Aocc;, E:odcx.'to ovoco--r~ptcx.
I "I "I 'O 't'OWU'V
, A C.U1TCX.pt0c; 01.noc; CX.VOCAOCl"'
(\I "I A oi::voc; 't'OC E:CX.U't'OU cr-rpcx.-re:u- 10
,. ' I ' ' - I

54rp oc-roc, X.OC't'O'C 'P' ' ,

c.u'r)c;;, ' ' 7tOAe:ou
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' ' ' C l \ . . . , I K ' t ' , ,

X.IXL E:O"TE:cp1T'Y) 7tCX.pCY. TOU 't'O't'E: 7tCX.7tCX.. OCL 'Y)'VLX.CX. U7tE:O"'t'pe:cpe:v E:t<;; ) 't' Y\)V{E:CX.U't'O-U
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, , , , 'I''
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i::y'Y)E:v -
yuvcx.tX.OC 't' Y' )V i::yCX.A'' t)V 15

Bep-rocv, x.oct 1; cx.u't"fjc; -rov 7tpopp'Y)&ev-rcx. pTjyoc, -rov Ouywvcx. hzx.i::v. Mi::-rcX.
OE -ro -re:/-i::u-rTjcrcx.L -rov Eycx.v Ac.u&ocpLov AoM~x.oc;, o \'.owe; -rou Aoootx.ou,

V 69 <l>LAL<ndi V edd. II mf:7tTIJV edd.: e:' P 11 70 ~Y..T"fJV V edd.: c,' P II

''Ee:crmx p edd. II E:~86riv edd.: ?;;' p II 71 oy86riv edd.: ri' p II E:v&:T"t)V
Be: .&' P /I 72 Be:x&:rr1v edd.: t' P II E:v8e:xchr,v edd.: tcx' P II 73 8w8e:x&:niv edd.:
LW P I\ Tptaxcxt8e:x&:T"f)v Moravcsik: ty' P Tptcr8e:x&:niv edd. II 75 ante E:v adden
25, 26
of Egypt; fourth, the emirate of Philistiem, or Rambleh; fifth, the emirate
of Damascus; sixth, the emirate of Homs, or Emesa; seventh, the emirate
of Aleppo; eighth, the emirate of Antioch; ninth, the emirate of Harran;
tenth, the emirate of Emet; eleventh, the emirate of Esibe; twelfth, the
emirate of Mosul; thirteenth, the emirate of Tikrit. But after Africa was
torn away from the dominion of the commander of the faithful at Bagdad
and had become self-governing and had proclaimed an emir of its own,
then Persia was the first emirate, as it had been before, and Egypt became
the second, and the rest thereafter in the order given above. But now,
again, owing to the impotence of the commander of the faithful at Bagdad,
the emir of Persia, or Chorasan, has become independent; and he has
usurped the style of commander of the faithful, wearing the koran on tablets
about his neck like a necklace. And he says he is from the family of Alim.
Moreover the emir of Arabia Felix used always invariably to be beneath
the dominion of the emir of Egypt. But he too has become independent,
and he too has usurped the style of commander of the faithful; and he
too says he is of the family of Alim.

26. The g e n e a 1o g y o f t h e i 11 u s t r i o u s k i n g H u g h.

The elder Lothair, king of Italy, grandfather of the illustrious king

Hugh, was by descent of the family of the elder Charles, a man much cele-
brated in song and story and author of heroic deeds in war. This Charles
was sole ruler over all the kingdoms, and reigned as emperor in great Francia.
And in his days none of the other kings dared call himself a king, but all
were his vassals; and he sent much money and abundant treasure to
Palestine and built a very large number of monasteries. Well, this Lothair
took his forces and marched against Rome and assaulted and got possession
of it, and was crowned by the pope of that time. And when he was on his
way back to his domain, that is, to Papia, he got as far as the city of Piacenza,
thirty miles distant from Papia, and there he died; he begat a son called
Adalbert, who took to wife the elder Bertha, and begat on her the aforesaid
king Hugh. Now, after the death of the elder Lothair, Lewis, kinsman

dum To\i coni. Bekker II &fJpcX:v P II 75/6 &.v<Xyope:umfofJc; Meursius Ba Be:

&v<Xyope:Ua<Xcra. p II 76 7tpWTI) edd.: a.' p II 77 oe:uTEpa. edd.: w p II 79 &.f)p&:c;
P 11 TOU Be: TO P I~ edd. !I 80 &e:pouv~v P !I 81 E:a.uTO\I coni.
Moravcsik: <XUTO\I F edd. t:l.UTO\I p II E:x add. Moravcsik: a7to add. edd. II 82
cif)pl'.Xc; P 11 83 &rip<X P II 84 &e:pouv~v P.
26. I priywc; P II 2 pt; P II 3 ptywc; P II Ka.pou:Uou P II 5 6 om. edd. II
K<ipou:Uoc; P II 6 PIJYa.Twv P II 7 ptywv P II p(ya. P 11 9 &v: E: P II 13 Ifar.(a.v edd. II
16 fr~y<X P II 17 itya.v edd.: itya. P II Aoootxou: Awlta.plou coni. Ohnsorge 11
, '
"" /
.... Q. I
' I
't' 1' )V I I IX7ttotV.
I KIXL\ :J..,v e:v '

54vp OCO''t'E:7t't"Oc;. "Ycr't'e:pov OE -1j"A&e:v de; Be:p&vocv, de; 't'O x.ocaTpov, 't'O av cX7tO px.' I
t"A(wv -rijc; l11X7tt1Xc;, X.IXt EA&6VToc; otU't'OU exe:!:cre:, E7totvfo't''Y)O'IXV otu-r<i> ot 20
't'Q\)- IXU' '
t'OU- X.IXO"'rpou,
I\ x.poc'O)O'IXV't'E:c; I
'I'). Kl ott 't'OTe: I
' I

B e:pLyye:ptoc;, I
0' 7tlX1t"7tOc;
't'OU- VUVL\ B e:pLyyi;;p'Y), L
XIXL\ E:LO"E:/\1TWV, "IQ.\
' 'Pwri I

Ecr't'eq>&YJ. Kixl e:-roc -rouTo Eo'Y)Ao7tot'Y)O"e:v J..ococ; 7to/..Uc; Tei> 'Pooou/..cplf>

de; Be:pywvLocv ov't'L, J..eyovnc;, 8TL' 'EJ..&e Ev-rocu&oc, x.ocl 7t1Xpotol0oev aoL
116Be -ro PYJY~Tov x.ocl &7tox-re:voue:v Tov Be:pLyye lpLov. 'O OE ~J..&i::v oc7to 25
Bi::pywvLocv 7tpoc; -roc ep'YJ -njc; Ilot7ttotc;, x.oct o E:v ~Lcruc; J..ococ; -1iv e:-roc
't'OU Be:pLyytpY), 0 oE: /..omoc; e:Ta 't'OU 'Poooo).cpou. Kocl. 1t"OAE:f1.~0"otVTE:c;,
' l
E:VtX.Y)O' E:V 0 BE:pLyye:p'Y)c; I
7tpW't'OV - ,...
7tOl\e:ov, X.IXL\ 7tlX/\LV ,... "I I
55rp &vlx.ri lcre:v o 'Poooi3/..qioc;. Koct ~cpuye:v o A1Xoc; Toi3 Be:pLyyep'1J, xcxl 6voc;
X.CX't"IX/\E:Lcp' ').
ITE:tc; 0 B E:pLyy&p'Y)t;
Q. \ I '
E:' TCOt' l
tjO'E:V E:CXU'
t'O' V We; Q. -
't'E:1TVE:W't'ot, X.otL\ E:7tE:O"E:V,,
foov -r&v n&ve:w-rc.uv, crxe:TC&crocc; u-rov i::Toc -njc; 06px.otc; IXUTou, -rov
~' 7tOolX
oe: ,~ IXU' ' t'OU- e:q_e:v T "!:'
e:..,,(I). 'E"I Q. \
/\'I.TC.UV oe: ~\ e:'I'tc; E:X. ' 't'WV - O"'t'pot"t'L(i)'t'(i)V - 't"OU- 'P o-
~ ~L ~ I~ ~\
oour.cpou, Qf;Q(l))(E:V IXU't'Cf> e:-rot e:votU.l\OU e:Lc; 't'OV 7tOolX, otu-roc; oe: 't'O O'Ur VO.l\OV
I "I > - \ I "I > \ > \ \ "I

> > r Q. - <:- \ \ '). Q. I > I ! \ < ~- Q. \

Q\))( E:O"CXAE:U1T1)' 't'OU oE: Y) O'IXr.E:U'ITE:V't'Oc;, otcpL'Y)O"E:V IXU't'OV (i)c; O'Y)1TE:V ve:x.pov

l! rOC. 'H yvoe:t

uV' I ~\ 0
't'OU- 'P OoOU/\cpOU ~ .... ). 6c;, u't't
'r.IX I! 0 Be:ptyye:p'Y)c; I
't'LI V. K IXL' 35
7t1Xucr1Xv't'oc; -rou 7to"Alou, ~yep&1J o Be:ptyytpYJc; x.1Xl -1i"A&e:v de; To TCotM-
/"I > (.I. >
, - I
't'LOV IXU'T(,U ovoc;, X.IXL 7tot/\LV e:x.potTijO'E:V T'ljc; \ I -
t-'IXO'L"IAE:Lotc;, I
X.IXL\ 7tOl\e: "I I
55vp 't'O' V 'P OoOU/\q>OV ~ -... X.IXL\ E:VLX.' ' I Y)O'E:V CXUTOV. ' I M E:'t'ot\ oe: ~\ I - r:i. ().I Q.
't'OU't"O auve:t-'Lt-'IX0'1T'Y)O"IXV
E:L<; > '"I "I I
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ouo\ 0< e:v \
Lt; 'I' > "I I
~E:'t'O -ro ~v epoc; -rijc; xwp1Xc;, o oE ~'t'i::poc; To ~npov. ';'Hv 8E: 'Pooou/..cpoc; 40 o
U1t"O TI)v ~ou/..~v X.IXL E~oucr1Xv -rou Bi::pLYYEP'fJ K1Xl e:TOt -rou-ro -1j"A&ov
a7to Bi::pywvLIXV -rpi::tc; otpX.~O"tOt 7tpoc; Il&m1XV 't"OU sx.ot&~otL 't'OUc; x.pot't'OUV-
't'CXc; X.IXL\ X.plX'D'J- O"IXL IXU't'OL. ' I :J.
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B 01.,oc;''!' xcxt\ 01(vywv, o 1Xoe:Acpoc; , ~ '). \ TOU- Bo..,,ou, '"' o. 7tpopp'Y)1TE:Lc; Q. \
' I

ll 7Be p~~ -;-H/v&i::v OE e:-riX /..1Xou tx.ocvou. K1Xl 1X&wv oBi::pLyytp"t)c; i)ToL&O"&'YJ, 45 I
X.IXt &.7rij/..&e:v de; O'UVOCV'O)O'LV otU't'OU 7tpoc; 7t6Ai::ov, X:IXL 7t1Xp1XXIX&E0"1Xc;
fonvox_wpricri::v IXUTouc; &.7to ALou, x.ocl &ptcre:v Tov /..ocov IXUTou Tou
c.rp 'Y\) cpovE:UE:LV
5 u- I I
't'tVIX, IXAA I >-,"I> ''
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x.pCXTijO"WO'L TLVIX e:..,,
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TI)v ptvcx IXU't'OU X.IXL -roc Mo WT(oc xcxl &.7toMwcrw, & 8-YJ X.IXL E7tOtouv. 0i::1Xcr&-
e:voL oi5v 't"OUTO ext 7tpopp1)&i::focxL 't'pdc; x.e:cp1XA1Xl, ocp1Xvnc; &vu7t68i::-roL 50
't'OC &dcx i::ucxyyE"ALcx de; -riXc; xi::tpcxc; CXU't'WV, ~).-3-ov 7tpoc; TOV Bi::pLyytp'Y)v,
> > > Q. I~
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X.CXL\ ovuoVTe:c; f
't"OU- 'f)X.t;'t"L L '"IQ. -
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't'E:Aouc; )"
1,W' Y- )c; IXUTOU, X.IXtl 't'OTE: I >I
E:LIXO"E:V IXU't'OUc; I "IQ.. -
IX7tE:AvE:LV E:L<; 't'"l)V LOLIXV 1

V 18 Ila7tlocv F edd. II 22 Bepiyyept V edd. II 25 pty1hov P II 26 IIocrcocc; V

edd.: Il&moci:; p II -Yjtcrui; Be: -Yjtcru P II 27 Beptyyept Be II 'Po8ouAq>ou edd.:
'Po86)..qiou p II 7to'/.eLaocvrec; P II 28 Beptyyeptc; Be II 7>pwTov V edd.: oc' P II
of Lewis, came from great Francia and took possession of Papia. He was
not crowned. And afterwards he came to Verona, a city 120 miles from
Papia, and on his arrival there the folk of that same city rose up against
him and seized and blinded him. Then the rule was seized by Berengar,
grandfather of the present Berengar, and he entered Rome and was crowned.
After this, a large body of the folk made a declaration to Rodolf, who was
in Burgundy, saying: Come here, and we will give the kingdom over to
you and will kill Berengar. So he came from Burgundy to the region of
Papia, and one half of the folk sided with Berengar, and the rest with Rodolf.
They fought and Berengar was victorious in the first battle, and they
fought again and Rodolf gained the victory. And the army of Berengar fled,
and Berengar, left alone by himself, made as though he were dead, and
fell down among the dead and covered himself with his shield, but left his
leg protruding. One of Rodolf's soldiers came up and stabbed him in the
leg with a spear, but he never stirred a muscle; and when he did not stir,
he let him alone, supposing him in truth to be a corpse. And the army of
Rodolf did not know that he was Berengar. When the battle was over,
Berengar got up and came to his palace alone, and again got possession
of his throne and fought with Rodolf and gained the victory over him.
Thereafter they came to terms with one another and divided the country
in two; and one of them took one part of the country, and the other the
other. But Rodolf was subject to the counsel and authority of Berengar.
After this, again, three marquises came from Burgundy to Papia with
intent to expel its possessors and possess it themselves; they were Hugh
Tagliaferro, and Boso, and Boso's brother Hugh, the most noble king
aforesaid. And he came with a large army. When Berengar heard of it, he
made ready and advanced to meet him in battle, and began to blockade
and to reduce them by hunger, and gave orders to his army not to kill any,
but if they should take any of them prisoner, to cut off his nose and his
two ears and let him go; and so they did. When they saw this, the three
chiefs aforesaid took the holy gospels in their hands and came barefoot
to Berengar and begged his pardon and swore that they would never more
come there so long as he should live; and then he let them depart to their

7toAe:(cro:ne:c; P II 29 'Po8ou)..cpoi:; V edd.: 'Pou8ou)..cpoc; P II Be:ptyyE:pt Be II

30 Be:ptyyE:ptc; Be II 31 o:u-rov V edd.: ixu-rov P II 86pxixc; scr. Moravcsik:
8opx.Xi:; p 8opxiic; edd. :I IXU'tOU (etiam Bandurius): ocu-rou edd. II 32 IXU'tOU edd. II
32/3 'Po8ou)..cpou PY: 'Po8ou)..q>ou P V I\ 34 ci:q>l'l}crtv V edd. I\ 35 'Po8ou)..cpou
PY: 'Po8oi:i)..q>ou P V II Be:ptyyE:ptc; Be II 36 Be:ptyyeptc; Be II 37 &7toAttcre:v P I
41 Be:plyyE:pl Be II 42 Be:pywvllX edd. I\ o:pxfotm Meursius II Ilo:7tlo:v F
edd. II 44 B61;;oc; mg. ps: B6?;;ov P B61;;cuv V edd. II Ouycuv V edd. Ouyov
p II 45 pff, p II Be:ptyyE:pLc; Be II 47 optcre:v p II -rou om. edd. II 49 pivix Be:
p(vixv P 11 &:7toMcucrw edd.: &:7toMoucrw P II 51 Be:plyyepw P II
26, 27
''Y O''t'Spov OE
"' 't'OU- Be:pLYYEP'fJ OC7t"E:/\'n.6 I ' Be:pwvocv,
IT V't'O<;; E:L<;; - '
' t'E:L\IE:V OCU't'OV I ' '

m. "'). A'
woc"'e:t-'e:p-ro;, o' cruv-rExvo<;;
' -
X.CXL\ -ro-re:
' I
-ro' p1)yoc-rov
' -
56VP 0 'Pooou"Arpo<;;. Koct e:-riX -roiho EfJ.~VUO"E:V 0 /-.oco<;; tjc; xwpoc<;; 8"A'f)c;; de; I
BEpywVLlxv -re}> Ouyu.>VL, -rc]l 7tpopp'Y)&EV't'L p'Y)yl, "AEyov-re:c;, o-rL <1' E"A&E,
XOCL\ 7t0CpOCoLOOfJ.E:V "'" I O"OL 't''f)V
' xwpocv.
' >) KOCL\ E:/\17'0V't'Ot;
"(\ I OCU't'OU,
' - E:7tY)pE:V
' - OCU'
' t'O
' V

( i. I \ ) f ' i \ I \ ) I ' \ t -
o "'ococ;, xocL ocrrriyocyov E:L<;; -ro mx.,,ocnov, xocL ocrre:xoc-ri::O"'t''fJO"E:v cr.u-rov PYJ'(OC.
Tov oz 'Poooi:D,rpov dnov, on ''Arre:"A&i:: i::-riX -rou rr"Aou-rou aou, &E"A"(lc;, 60
E:L<;; 't''f)V x_wpocv
' ' ' O'OU, 'C\J"').
ITEF,'1)<;;, OC/\/\OCXOU.
"' - >) 'O OE: "'' OC7t'
' -. f)A'In.TE:V E:L<;;
' B i::pywvLOCV, I E:L<;;

't"'Y' )V xwpocv ,
' -
"'). '
' I K OCL' 't'E:AE:UTY)Cl'
"'). CXV't'O<; I

' - ' -, n. O" ' 't:

OCUTOU, OC7tYjNtrE:V uywv, 0 7tpOppYjiTE:L<;; pY)c.,,, E:L<;; i::pycuvLocv, X.OCL 't'Y)V yu-
n ' ' ' B ' ' '
vOCtXIX 't'OU 'Pooou"Arpou, ~'t'Lt; xoct Bep't'oc wvooc~e:'t'O, EAOC~e:v de; yuvoc'i:xoc.
118Be T~v oE &uyoc't'epoc ocuTijc;, ov6oc't'L 'AoE"Ae:crocv, OE jowxe:v Aw&ocplcp, 't'c'J> 65
' - 'I - -
57rp UL({l ocu 't'OU, 't'({l VUVL OV't'L 'I't'OC/\LOCc; \" ' pYjyL.
' I 'H OE: "' OCVE:/\'
' "').Cl.ITOUO'
- OC E:V
' K WVv't'OCV't'L-
vourr6/,e:L x.ocl cruvocrp&e:'i:cra. 'Pwocvc'J> -rcJ> 7toprpupoyi::vv~-rcp, uf.cJ> Kc.ovcr-ro:.V't'l-
vou, 't'OU rpL/,ox_plO''t'OU oe:errr6-rou, ~'t'OL ~ &uy&'t''Y)p 't'OU OCO't'OU 7te:pL~AE7t't'OU
pY('{Oc; Ouywvo<;;, ~ wvo&~e:'t'O BEpTOC Y..OC't'~ TO ovooc 't'!fjc; &.Yjc; ocu-r!fjc;,
fiyouv -r~c;; e:y&"AYJi:; BEp't'occ;, ~'t'L<;; i::'t'oc .&&voc't'ov 't'ou 'Aoe:"A~epTou, &.vopoc; 70
' t'Y- J<;;, E:t-'
' ,, t'Yj * * *, i::'t'Wvooccrv-YJ " ' E'"'
OCU' E:' I Q_
OE: -< UoOX.LOC X.OCTOC TO ovooc
I \ \ ,,

T!fjc; 't'e: oc'Y)c; xocl. &oi::"Arp!fj<;; Kwvcr't'ocV't'lvou, Tou rpL"Aoxplmou oi::cr7t6-rou.

27. IT E: p t 'r 0u & E oc 't' 0 c; A oc y 0 u ~ IX p

0 l oc c; x oc t 't' (i) v
I \ ' ...,.
7t p L( X L7t OC 't' W V X OC L OC p 'J. 0 V 't' LW V.

'Icr-reov, O't'L EV 't'Ot<;; 7tOCAOCLOL<;; zp6voLc; X.OCTE:X.pOC't"E:L't'O ~ 7t0CO'OC E~oucrloc

57vp 'hoc),locc;, Yi n Ni::oc jrro"AL<;; xoct K&rruoc xcx.l ~ Bi::ve:~i::v86<;;, 't'6 Te: ~oc"Ai::pLVov
x.oct ~ 'A&"ArpYj xocl roc"CT~ x.ocl. rrrJ.croc ~ Aocyou~ocpo loc rrocpiX TWV 'Pwoclwv, 5
OYJAov6't'L ~occn/,i::uoEv'f)c; tjc; 'Pw'Y)<;;. Me:'t'oc OE To &.vi::"A&E:t:v TO ~ocerO,i::wv
' K (i)V(j't'OCV't'LVOU7t0/\E:L
e:v ' OLE:e:pLO'
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~f "f ~
7tOC't'pLY..LOL ouo XCXL\ 0' Ev
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E:~<;; 1t"OCTf)LXLO<;; e:xpoc't'EL 't'Y)V ~LXE:/\LOCV X.OCL TYJV
I \ ")./ \ \

K cx,,oci-'pLocv I
X.OCL 't''f)V N E:OC7tOALV X.OCL 'A oc"'cp'r)v,
\ ' I "'). ' o' oi::
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, ' ' IT OC7tLOCV
't'YjV I XOCL\ 't''f)V
58fP "t"OC' "'F\Ol7t0C
). ' 7t0CV"t"OC. K OCL' E't'/\OUV
I ' ' XOC't'' E"toc;,, - Ar-OCO"L) ,E:L- 'TOC\ ve:voLcre:voc
't'<j) I I -rep-

F 66 'H a~ - 72 8e:cm6-rou: cf. Georg. Mon. (cont.), ed. Bonn. p. 917,

11-18; Georg. Mon. (cont.), ed. Istrin II. p. 62, 15-21; Theoph. Cont.,
ed. Bonn. p. 431, 11-19.

V 54 Be:ptyytpt Be II Be:pwv<Xv P II 55 <l><XA<X~tpToi; V mg. ps <l><XA&:~e:pToi;

edd. II pty<iTov P II 56 61 om. edd. II 57 Be:pycuvl<XV ed?-. II ptyl P II 58 btdpe:v P:
bt'ijpov Be bt'ijp<Xv Migne II 59 &.7te:X1XTfon1crocv Be II plyrx P II 61 Be:pywve:to:v P:
26, 27
own country. But afterwards, when Berengar had gone to Verona, he was
slain by Flambert, whose child he had held at the font, and then Rodolf
became possessed of the whole kingdom. And after that the folk of the
whole country sent a message to Burgundy, to the aforesaid king Hugh,
saying: Come, and we will give the country over to you. And when he
came, the folk raised him up, and brought him away to the palace and
made him king again. But to Rodolf they said: Depart with your treasure,
either to your country or elsewhere, as you will. So he went off to Bur-
gundy, to his country, and there ruled over a large folk. And when he died,
the aforesaid king Hugh went off to Burgundy and took to wife the widow
of Rodolf, who was also called Bertha. And her daughter, Adelesa by name,
he gave to Lothair his son, who is now king of Italy. Now, she who came
up to Constantinople and was joined in marriage to Romanus,
the son born in the purple of Constantine, the Christ-loving sovereign, was
the daughter of the same illustrious king Hugh, and she was called Bertha
after the name of her grandmother, I mean the elder Bertha, who after
the death of Adalbert her husband reigned ten years; but she, the young
Bertha, changed her name to Eudocia, after that of the grandmother and
sister of Constantine, the Christ-loving sovereign.

27. 0 f the prov Ince of Lomb a rd y and of the pr l n c I-

p a 1 it i es an d governorships therein.

In ancient times the whole domain of Italy, both Naples and Capua
and Beneventum, Salerno and Amalfi and Gaeta and all of Lombardy,
was in the possession of the Romans, I mean, when Rome was the imperial
capital. But after the seat of empire was removed to Constantinople, all these
territories were divided into two governments, and therefore two patricians
used to be dispatched by the emperor in Constantinople; one patrician
would govern Sicily and Calabria and Naples and Amalfi, and the other,
with his seat at Beneventum, would govern Papia and Capua and all the
rest. They used to remit annually to the emperor the sums due to the treasury.

Be:pywv1Xv edd. II 63 pt!; P II Be:pywv[o:v edd. II 64 'Po8ou)..qiou PY 'Po8oi.l)..qiou

p v II ovoci?;;e:-ro p II 65 .&uylX-rEp<X edd.: .&uyo:-rEp<XV p II 66 ptyt p ll 68 YJ'rOL:
-~-rov coni. Bekker ij-ro coni. Jenkins e:houv coni. Kukules II 69 ptyor; P !!
ovoci?;;e:-ro p I! 70 1Jyouv om. v edd. II 71 post ETIJ lac. 4 litt. ind,. p lac ind,.
edd. o:urijr; *** &~o:crL)..e:ucre:v hYJ (rdv-re:) vel o:urijc; e~ixcr)..e:ucre:v ETIJ (8ex<X) coni.
Jenkins II e:-rovocX:cr.&YJ P II 72 ciric; P.
27. 1 Aoyou~ixp8ixc; edd. II 2 7tptyxrimhwv P 11 4 ante 'foxAl<Xc; ad,d. Tijc;
edd. II Kci7tu1X scr. Moravcsik: Kcmua P lfom.'i"f) V edd. II :Ecx:Ae:pwov Be:
~ix:Ae:p~vov P I! 5 I'IX"tTI) Ba Be: I'cx't7tlj P I'ixtrri sive I'o:t-fiTIJ Meursius II
Aoyou~1Xp8<X edd. II 6 ~<XcrLAe:uoE:vwv Me Ba II 10 lfo)..o:up1Xv P II 'Aci:Aq>7JV
Be: 'A<XA<p~v P JI 11 lfo7tixv edd. !I
119Be orioo-lcp. Au'tott OE 7toccroct otL 7tpopp'Y)&e:fooci x.filpocL x.ix.'tcp /x.ouno mxp<X
TWV 'Pw1Xlwv. 'Ev OE Toi:c; x.ocipoi:c; Elp~v'Y)c; njc; ~1Xcn),0oc; &7tocrToc),e:tc;
0' 7riY.'rpLX.LOc;
' Nocp07Jc:;- e:xplXTEL
' ' "t'Y'JV B e:ve:t-'e:voov
fJ. "'' X.otL' 'r'Y)V
' II'otmlXV" X.OCL' Z IXX,IX- 15
pLotc:;, 0' 7tOC7tOCc:;
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ye:vfo&ocL de:; "t"oc -rijc; ITot7tLIXc:; fLEp"fJ, x.oct E~woloccre:v o 7t1X"t'pLx.LOc; Nocpcr~c;
' \ ,
EL<; 't"OV cr"t"p1X70V "t'IX\ ELO"XOfLLc.,OfLEVIX
' 'f'f I
7tlXX.'t"ot ..., ~
"t"cp I
, '
' ' I ' ~'
'Y) XIX't"IX "t"U7tOV e:Lcrx.oLo"Y) 7t1Xp OCU"t'OU. ' ' .... 'O "''
OE: N . . ,
otpcrric:; OCV"t"EfL"Y)VUcre:v, O't"L.
I ti

' A7to 't"Wv ocu...6&L oc),J..ov i"A1tl~w &7too-T1X'A~v1Xl oL X.P~fLIX't"IX, E7te:Lo~ 20

;. '
7!0/\EfLOUc:; '
- ' '
53vp 7t~o-ocv '"iv &no 't"Wv woi:: dcrx.oL~OfLEV"Y)V i::icrx.o jLo~v e:lc:; Touc; &votx.oy1Xn1Xc;
X.otL\ fLIX/\/\OV ;. ' -
ue:tc; IX7t0 -
' \ "t'C.UV woe: -
., "' E:7tLc.,'f)'t"Et"t'E
, ,.. '
11' ' IXX.OUQ"()((j()( "1)' t-'ot(jL/\LcrcrlX
A ' E'tp"Y)V"Y)
' n - L

' - ot"t'
IXU't"lp ,, pOC><'t"OV x.oct' 'Y')AotX.O''.'t"'Y)V, YPIX'YotcrlX
'' ' IXUTov,
7tpoc:; ' ' O"t'L',, Ao:t-'e:
'P. "t'IXUToc,
<\ \ < f,..
oc X.IXL 1XpfLOc.,e:t O"OL. V'f)VELV ere: )'1Xp fLIX/\/\OV e:x.pLVoce:v oLX.IXLOV, 'Y) fLE't"IX' 25
I fi \ -;. ;. ) I "'I "
07t/\C.UV , ~vopot
wc:; e "' "' "' - X:IXL' OLEU1TUVE:LV
OLEX.oLX.EtV "' n, X.OCL' U7te:p7tO/\E:fLE:LV
' - 'P WfLIXLC.UV.
T1Xu"t"1X &.x.oocrixc:; o 7t1X't"plx.Loc; N1Xpcr1jc:; &v't"Eypocye: npoc:; T~v ~1Xcrt"Al01X, OTL'
(( 'E7tEL' OU'" t"W<;; 7t1Xp ' UfLLV ' - E:'' JOfLLO"' ' InT"Y)V V"Y)' ' nITELV X.IXL' X./\W'ITELV,
;. ' n n /
X.IX1Tot7te:p "(UV"Y),

59rp x./.wcrixL ~xw v~oc't"oc fLE't"cX Tijc; &Tpcix.Tou x.1Xt ~AIXX.rX'r'Y)t;, ivoc, ex_pLc:; &v j ~w
crw OL 'PcufLIXLOt, fL~ OUV1J&WcrLV e!;ucpocv<XL "t'otU't"IX. Ot OE A1Xyoo~1XpOot Ti;l 30
't"O"t"E X.ottpi;l Xot't"c;>x.ouv de:; Ilocvvovlocv, ~v&IX ocpTlwc:; OLX.OUO"LV OL Toupx.OL.
KrY.l &.7tocr't"d"Aocc:; b 7totTpLx.Loc; NocpcrYjc; 7tpoc; IXU't"ouc; lmwp1Xc:; n1Xv'tol1Xc:;,
120Be E0"1)J107tOL 'Y)O"E:V IXU"t'O i:c;, O"t"t. (<.!\e:u"t"e: EV"t'IXU&ot X.IXL &e:cicr1Xcr&i:: nv pfoucrocv
, , , , '1. , 'i .., , r ,e,
I , ,
x.ot'tlX TO e:tp'f)e:vov fLE:/\L xoct (IXAot, "Y)t;, we; o fLIXL, o e:oc;'t"OVIX oux. H

e:x_e:t >I
X.IXt\ E:LJ E:O"' (
tLV utv- J I
1Xpe:cr"t"OV, X.IX"t'OLX.'YI)O"IX"t'E: e:v
' rf '
IXU"'Yl, 07tWc:; e:tc:; IXtWVot<;;
J ...., J ..., 35
IXLC.UVWV ,.,, ' fLE:. T otU"t"IX
ocx.1Xpt1,.'f)"t"E: - "'' IXXOUO"IXV"t"Ec:;
oe: ' I Ot'Aocyout-'1Xpoot
'f'J. "' X.IXL\
ne:to-&ev't"e:c;, &.voc/..oc~6e:vot 't"cXc:; cp1XfLtALIXc; 1X1hwv, ~/..&ov de; Be:ve:~e:v06v.
59vp Ot OE "t"ou x.&cr't"pou Be:ve:~e:voou oux. e:'l1Xcrotv IXU"t'ouc; j ~voov Tou x.&cr't"pou
dcre:/..&e:i:v, C{>x."Y)crcx.v OE ~~c.u&e:v 't"Ou xcicr'tpou 7tA"1)crlov TOU nlxouc; dc:; TOV
7tO't"otov, OtX.OOOfL'
f l "' > -
Y)O"OCV't"e:c:; e:x.e:tcre:
f /
XOCO"'tpov tx.pov, I '!:'
Ee., > iy
OU't XOCL\ ovootc.,E't"ott 40
T yc.,Lr-t'totVOr-IX,
A 'fJ. 'tOU'tE:O"'t"tV
' ve:OX.IXO"'t"pov,
' 0" Xott' fLEX.PL
' -
"t"'f)t; cr"Y)e:pov
' O"UVLO"'
' t"OC'tlXL.

Eicr-fip:x_ono 8E: x.ixl ~voo&e:v 'tou x.cicr't"pou x.ocl iv "t"i) ExX.A"Y)O"Lq., x.ocl OLcX
rix.ocv~c:; x.upte:ucrotv't"e:c:; "t'ouc; oix.~'topocc; "t"ou x.&cr't"pou Be:vi::~e:v8ou, &.ve:i:'Aov
nocv-rocc:; :v..oct' X:ot'te:crzov
, 't"O' X.IXcrTpov.
, "E O"Cdv-e:v
n y1Xp' -
't"c.uv ' 'A"'
poct-'owv ' C-.UV
n' A ,.,. ' ' - ' ,
0"7tlY.'ITLot r-OCC!'t"IX.c.,OV't"Ec:; XotL E'\I "t"1J EXX:/\"f)O"~~ U7tO"t'p07tOV 7tOL1JO"OCV't"Et; E7tt' 't"O'
< ' ' ' 45
IXU't"O cXX"flV, 7tcXV't"OC<;, we:; dplj'tOCt, OC7tEX"t"EWIXV. Koct h-ro't"e: EX:O"'tpOC't"EUO"IXV-

F 33 yijv - 34 ya)..o:: Exod. 3, 8; Lev. 20, 24; Num. 13, 28; Deut.
6, 3 etc.; cf. Theoph. cont. p. 74, 21-22.

V 13 xo:T<f)Kouv-ro Ba Be: xo:-rotKouv-i-o P II 15 No:pcrijc; edd.: Napcr"f)c; P II

II&.nuv scr. Moravcsik: Ilcm(o:v P edd. II 17 &~o8[Me:v P JI 19 post 7to:p' o:u-rou
lac. ind. Kyriakides II 20 oL &7tocr-ro:)..1jvo:L edd. II 22 E:m~"l}Te:he:: ~"l}Te:'L-re: F Be 11
All these countries aforesaid used to be inhabited by the Romans. But in
the time of the empress Irene the patrician Narses was sent out and was
governing Beneventum and Papia; and pope Zacharias, the Athenian,
was governing Rome. It happened that fighting had been going on in the
region of Papia, and the patrician Narses had expended on the army the
tribute collected for the treasury, and the regular revenue was not remitted
by him. Narses sent back a reply, saying: l expect, rather, that money
should be sent to me from your side, since I have exhausted all the revenues
incoming from here upon the fighting that has broken out; but, on the
contrary, it is you who are demanding revenues from here. When the
empress Irene heard this she was angry and sent him a spindle and distaff,
and wrote to him: Take these, your proper instruments; for we have
judged it fit that you should spin, rather than that as a man at arms you
should defend and guide and do battle for the Romans. On hearing this the
patrician Narses wrote in reply to the empress: Since I am thus judged
by you fit to spin and twist like a woman, I will twist you hanks with spindle
and distaff such as the Romans shall never be able to unravel so long as
they endure. Now, at that time the Lombards were dwelling in Pannonia,
where now the Turks live. And the patrician Narses sent to them fruits
of all kinds and made them this declaration: Come hither and behold
a land flowing with honey and milk, as the saying is, which, I think, God
has none to surpass; and if it please you, settle in it, that you may call
me blessed for the ages of ages. The Lombards heard and obeyed and took
their families and came to Beneventum. The inhabitants of the city of
Beneventum did not allow them to come inside the city, and they settled
outside the city, near the wall and by the river, where they built a small
city, which for that reason is called Civita Nova, that is, New City, and
it stands to this day. But they began to come inside the city also and into
the church, and having by a stratagem gained the upper hand of the inhabi-
tants of the city of Beneventum, they made away with them all and
took possession of the city. For they carried swords inside their staves,
and in the church they wheeled round and attacked all together and, as
has been said, killed everyone. And thereafter they marched out and sub-

28 vo(cr.lh1v Be: vo(cr&lJ P II 30 -rcx.u-rcx. pa V edd.: Toi3Tcx. P II Aoyou~iip8oL

edd. II 31 xcx.-rc;ixouv edd.: Xcx.Tolxouv P II Ifavwvdcx.v P Ifavwv(cx.v V edd. JI
Toupxot P II 34 ijc; we; (littera ii in ras. scripta et o in w correcta) P 1 V
edd.: LO'oc:; ( ?) p II 35 urv F Ba Be: 7)i:v p II 35/6 cx.twvcx. cx.twvoc; v edd. II
36 cx.xcx.pL~lJTE coni. Bekker: co<.cx.p(~e:Tcxt P F Ba Be II Aoyou~oi:p8ot
edd. !I 40 ou V edd.: o[u] P II 41 T~1fjLTcx.v6fjcx.: T~tToi:v6~cx. V T~m~ v6~cx. F
Me II 43 xupteuacxv-m:; V edd. : xupieuacx.VT[ ec:;] P II 44 Xcx.Tecrxov Ba Be:
xcx.TE:xouv P JI ante Twv add. 8L~ edd. II 45 U7to Tp67tov P II; V edd. :
1tO[L]ljacx.vTE<:; P II 46 ~XTo-re: V edd.: ~xToT[e) P 11
6QrP Te:<; 7t~crixv 't'~v y'ljv E:xdv'lv U'TtE't'IX~lXv 't'OU Te: &Ei:x-ro<; Aocyou /~i:xpoli:xi;
xi:xl. Ko:!-o:~p(o:i; xi:xf. ~CiJ<; Ilo:7tli:xc; ocvzu T~<; 'Tope:v-rou xo:l. Ki:x/...f..m6/...e:wi;
xocl. 't'OU 'Poumocvou Y.IXL -njc; Ne:~7t6f..e:wt; xi:xl 6ic; rrll't~t; xi:xt LUpE:V't'OU
xi:xl. , Aocl-qrf]<;. IIp&-rov ot x&cr't'pov urrfipxe:v &.p'J..CY.LOV x.ocl. eyoc ~ Koc7tui:x, 50
OE:U't'E:pov ~ Ne:oc7tOJ1L<;, 't'pL't'OV ~ Be:ve:~e:vo6c;, 't'E'tocp-rov ~ ro:'l-r~, 7te7t-rov
~ 'Aiff..qrf). To ot ~1X/1e:pLVOV i>xlcr&ri E7tL '!OU ~Lxocpoou, 6-re: OLe:EpLGIXV
oL' A i:xyout-'i:x.pooL I(). '\.'
't'lX_\ 7tptyxmi:x.,.or;.
- E' \ ~\ ' -
~Lcrt oe: e:xpt 'OJ<; crrie:pov, 7J't'L<; e:cr't'LV
I ,, ' \

I 2 I B e ,LVoLXTLCiJV \ .,,>'' , e:-r7J
" ' \ X't'Lcre:wi;
IX7tO ' '
xocrou ,c;uv.,,>'' , o:cpI .. , '
, ' ou e:e:pLG17"1J 0.
"'(l A ocyou-
t-'i:xpoLOC,"'' ,,
ETI) (}'' . 'T'ltY)PXGV - ~\ C1.0E/\Cf>OL
oe: ~ "l \ ~I ~'
ouo, 0' ...:..iLXWV ~'
XOCL\ 0' ...:..iLXIXpoot;. '\.' K IXL\ 55
o tv Llxwv lxpif-r7Jcre: T~v Be:ve:~e:voov xocl. -roc fp-fJ "t'=tjc; Bocpe:w<; xocl. -rTic;
60VP Lme:voou, 0 ot LL /xi:xpooc; TO ~i:x/...e:pwov xi:xt 't~V Koc7tUIXV xocl 'tOC tp1J
-r~<; Ki:xf..CY.~pli:x<;. 'H oz Ne:if7to/,L<; ~v &.px.i:xl:ov npocL-rWpLov -rwv xoc-re:pxot-
VCiJV 7t1X't'pLXLWV, ' XIXL' 0' xpi:x-rwv - TI)V ' N EIX7t0/\LV
' .., XIX't'EL'J..EV - XOCL' 't'"Y)V
' "...:..iLXE/\LOCV,.,,
' ' ' '"" (). ' ' ' N
XIXL "f)VLXOC XIX't'E/\IXt-'e:v 0 7t1X'tpLXLO<; e:v E:OC7t0/\EL, IX7t1)P'J..E:'t0 0 oOUc, EOC'TtO- ,.., ' ' '"' 'i: N ' 60
""l\EWt; e:v ' "...:..iLXE/\L~. .,, 'H oe: ~' K'OC7tUOC '"'f)V 7t0AL<; '"" u7te:pe:ye:'lJ'"1)<;,
' '' XC1.L' EOC/\W
',.., U7t0 ' '
Twv Ouocvo~/...CiJv, ~-rot -rwv 'AcppLxwv, xocl. xoc't'Ef..ucrocv ocu"t'~v. 'Ep"Y)oxoc-
GTpou ot OUG"Y)c;, c{)xouv E:v ocutj ol Aixyou~ixpoOL. Kocl. 7tOCAW '!WV , AcppLXWV
e:r.e:pxoe:vwv ' XOC't, OCU'tWV, ' - lj)XOoof)O"EV
, "', 0' ET."LGX07t0<;
, ' A OCVOOU/\q>O<;
~ -.. '
6lrP E:Lt; '
'!OU- 7tO'tlX(J.OU, ,,_
XOCL\ e:nwvoo:.cre:v
, I
, ' I K'OC7tUOCV ve:ocv, ' 65
't'"f)V XIXL vuv OUGIXV.\ . . ";' 'A , ~ t'' ' n_ ( , ' K'
cp OU oe: E:X'tLG17"1) 1l C1.U't'"1) OC7tUOC, ELGLV E:'t'"Y) oyI .
I , \ ,,
'H () Ne:if7tOAL<; XIXL Ti ,Aiff..qiIJ xocl. -~ ~upe:v-rot; urr~pxov &e:l U7t0 'tOV
~ML"Afo 'PCiJoc(wv.
'lcrTEoV, O'tL ixcr-rpolA.ric; zpYjVzUE'tOCL -tjJ 'Pwoclwv OLOCAEx't'lj)
'xet' 't'OU O'TpOC't'OU'. 70
'foTfov, on 7tpo -rou 7te:p~crixL -rout; Be:ve:-rlxouc; xocl. otx'ljaixL de; -roc
vr;cr[ix, de; & vuv otxoucrw, E:xoc/...ouv-ro 'Eve:-rLxol, xocl. Y.oc't'cflxouv di; TI]v
i: ' e:Lc;
' IXU'
' tlX ' '!IX ' XIXG'tpoc
' XOCG't'pov
' K'oyxopooc, ~ '
xocrnpov 't'OU Nouvou xocl -re:poc 7tAe:tcrw. XOCG'tpCY..
122Bc 'Icr-rE:ov, O't'L m:pcx.m:b-rc.ov -rwv vuv xcx./...ouevwv Be:ve:-r(xwv, 7tpw-rov 75
61 vp oe: "'' 'E VE't'LXWV, - EX'tLGIXV ,, ' 7tpW'tOL<;
e:v , I
XOCG't'pov ox.upov, ev i>
' I , T. I
X.IXL\ G"YJ e:pov

\~ B , ,, ''l:
%C1.'17Ec,E':'CY.L a oouc, E:VE't'LCY.<;, e:xov XUX/\OVEV '170C ,o:crcrixv WGE:L\ L/\LWV
(\I;.' ' ~ "l'O. '') ' ..,, e:c,,
ELt; 'f)V Y.IXL E:Lcre:p:x,ov'tOCL 7t0TOCOL x.,,y1 . (."V'
J (\ \ ' I \ I ~' \
.L 7tocpx.oum oe Y.C1.L V1)GOL XOC'tOC
- \

&va:-ro/,ct:c; '!OU CY.U't'OU xcfo.. pou. ''EY.TLGOCV at xixl Ev -roc'i:r:; OCU't'OCL<; V~O"OL<; ot
vuv - B e:ve:'t'LXOL XIX/\ouevoL
I I "l I
xoccr-rpoc xoccr't'pov K oypixoov,
, '~ , i>
e:v ">'.
xo:~ "1)-rpo-
\ I 80

F 69 'laTfov - 70 aTpr.tTou: cf. De cerim., ed. Bonn. scholion ad p.

690, 23.

V 47; edd. II 51 8eahepov Moravcsik: W P 8e:uTtpcx edd. [I Tphov

rrforavcsik: y' p TptT'tj edd. II TETCXpTOV Moravcsik: 8' p Te:TlipTl) edd. II
dued all that land, both the province of Lombardy and Calabria
and as far as Papia, except for Otranto and Gallipoli and Rossano and
Naples and Gaeta and Sorrento and Amalfi. The first city, ancient and
mighty, was Capua, the second, Naples, the third, Beneventum, the fourth,
Gaeta, the fifth, Amalfi. Salerno was settled in the time of Sicardus, when
the Lombards divided the principalities. From the division of Lombardy
until to-day, the 7th indiction, the year 6457 from the creation of the world,
it is 200 years. There were two brothers, Sicon and Sicardus. Sicon governed
Beneventum and the districts of Bari and Sipontum, and Sicardus governed
Salerno and Capua and the district of Calabria. Naples was anciently the
praetorium of the patricians who came out, and the governor of Naples
had Sicily beneath him as well, and when the patrician arrived in Naples,
the duke of Naples would go off to Sicily. Capua was a very large city indeed,
and was captured by the Vandals, or Africans, who demolished it. When
it was lying a deserted city, the Lombards settled in it. When the Africans
came against them once more, bishop Landulf built a city at the bridge
over the river and called it New Capua, and it still survives. From the
foundation of this Capua, it is 73 years. Naples and Amalfi and Sorrento
have always been subject to the emperor of the Romans.
<Mastromilis' means in the Roman tongue captain-general of the army.
Before the Venetians crossed over and settled in the islands in which
they live now, they were called Enetikoi, and used to dwell on the mainland
in these cities: the city of Concordia, the city of J ustiniana, the city of
Nonum and very many other cities.
When those who are now called Venetians, but were originally called
Enetikoi, crossed over, they began by constructing a strongly fortified city,
in which the doge of Venice still has his seat to-day, a city surrounded by
some six miles of sea, into which 27 rivers also debouch. There are other
islands also to the east of this same city. And upon these same islands also
they who are now called Venetians built cities: the city of Cogradon, in

I'rtTI) Ba Be: I'cxtT'l)c; P II 7te7tTov Moravcsik: e' P m~7tTI) edd. II 53

Aoyouf?;cxpoot edd. II 7tptyx-1Jmhtt P II 54 1:': E~MTJ edd. /I 54/5 Aoyou~cxpo(cx
edd. II 55 a': p' coni. Bury II 61 Ktt7tUl) mg. V 2 II 62 'Acpplxwv P II 63 ot
om. edd. II Aoyou~cxpoot edd. II 63/4 Twv 'Acppti<wv bte:pxotvwv Meursius
Ba Be: TY,v 'Acpptx-Jiv t7tepxo&vl)v (ultima littera ll in ras. scripta) P1 V II
65 e7tov6cme:v P II 65/6 K&7tUcxv vfov TI)v coni. Be: KcX.7tUC(V vtcxv coni. Bandurius
Ktt7tC(VT-Jiv p KC(7t&VTl)V F mg. V 2 II 67 , Acx:.l.cp~ mg. V 2 !I 69 cxaTpof,:.l.l)c; p II
72 'Eve:TLKo( Meursius Ba Be: AhlxtoL P II 73 whil.: TcxliTcx coni. Bekker II
K6vxopocx P Kovx6potC( mg. V 2 II 76 'Eve:nxwv Meursius Ba Be: AtTtxwv
p II EKTLOCXV Meursius Ba Be: EKTI)OE:V p II iv1 : e p II 77 xul<Aw.&ev p:
xui<:.1.w-3-e:v edd. I! 78 de; fiv] litteras c; et l) in ras. scr. P 1 11 79 i<iiaTpou
om. edd. II 80 Be:ve:TLKOt p II Koyp&oov (etiam V): I'p&oov V2 mg. V2
x' (= :v.cX.aTpov) I'pcX.oov coni. Skok II 80/1 l);: &; co11i.
Meursius II
27, 28
7tOALc; fonv (J.E"(OCAYJ xcr.l 7t'OAAOC /..dc.juxvoc ocy(cov EV 'rOCO't'TJ OC7t6Xt::LV't'OtL'
xoccr-rpov 'PL~oc/..i::vo-Yjc;, xoccr-rpov Aouf...Locv6v, xoccr't'pov ''Ac.jiocvov, xoccr't'pov
'Pwocnvoc, xoccr't'pov ALxev-r~(oc, xoccr't'pov ITtvi::TocL, 07tt::p /..eyi::-rocL ~'t'p6~t-
. '
xcxcr-rpov B LvLor.oc,
' .. '
xoccr'T'pov B6i::c;, i::v ' <;.> 7
' ' vococ;
' 't'OIJ- ocytou
' I

OC7tOC1' t',...
Or.OIJ IT't::'T'pou, XOCC1't'pov
' 'H...r.L'C'OIJtM'-i-~cx,
'-"'lf.l. XCY.C1't'pov
' AL't'OUocyxi::pcrY)c;,
' 85
62TP Ixoccr't'pov Bp6vtov, xoccr't'pov Mocoocuxov, XOCO"'t'pov 'H~6),oc, xoccr't'pov ITpLcr't'~-
voct, xcxcr-rpov ' K .r.ouytoc,
. ' xoccr't'pov
' B pouvoov,
-~ '
xoccr't'pov <I> ocrcx(l)v,
- '
'I C1't'E' :OV, O't't
" E:LO"t ' ' XOCt\ E:' ,, t't::pOCt VYjC10L
.. ' 't'T. .J. OCIJ"Yl
\I , . . . Xc.>p~ BE:VE:'t't'OCc;.

'fo't'fov, 6-rL xoct Ev tj cr-ri::pi::~ de; 't'O epoc; ~c; 'hoc/..(occ; unocpx_oucrt 90
xcxcr-rpcx 't'WV - BE:VE:'t,'LXWV, Ot',, t'LVCXI LC1LV ,
OC' xoccr"t'pov
, K'OC7tpt::, xcxcr't'pov
N i::oxcxcr-rpov, '
xcxcr't'pov <I> wee;,' xoccr't'pov
I A"txur.ov,... '
xoccr-rpov 'A i::tocvcxc;,
' '
i::noptov '
i::ycx -ro' T op't'1.,t::r.wv,
" .. - '
xoccr't'pov M oupocv, ' xoccr't'pov
' 'P'R ..
a' , '' 'I '.I ,
t::p(J.YjVE:IJE:'t'CXL 't'07toc; IJtj}Yj/\O't'ot't'Oc; '
, EV
n_/)" ~ It' BE:VE:'t'L' OCt;,
OtL 0' OOIJt.,
xoccr't'pov Kcx~t::p't'~v-r~Yjc;. 95
'I cr-ri::ov,
' U't'L XOCL i::noptcx LC1L XOCL XOCC1'C't;;/V\LOC.
!! ' ' I ! I ' L-..-.

123Be 28. /:1 L~ "( Yj cr t c;, 7t wc; x oc 't' <;.> x ( a & "I) ~ v U \I X Ot A. o u ev Yj
Bi:: v i:: ... ( oc.

'I C1't'&' OV, O',, t'L Yj' BEVE:'t'LCX

, 't'O' c;v
... ' 3. '
jV 't'07toc; ,, '
t::p"t)oc; '
't'Lc; OCOLX"t)- I

-roc; x.cxt ~OCA't'Wo"t)c;. rn oE: vuv xcxA.ooe:vot Be:vf:-rtXOL u7ifipxov <l>pocyyot

' \ 'AX.OIJLl\E:"(L<Xc;
IX7t0 ~ I
XOCt\ CX7t0
' '
( I
'r'Y.....jc; <I> pcxyytocc;, I
XOCL' XOC't'cp- '
xouv t::Lc; ' 't'Y' )V t.,Yjp<XV
i: ' OCV'
" t'LXpu 't"'t)c;
- B E:VE:'C'L' OCc;. T OU- OE
~' 'A"t''t'L,... r.CX, 't'OIJ- l"'
.... '

't'WV A~ocp(t)v, e/,&6v-roc; XCX~ 7toccrocc; 't'OCt; <l>pocyy(cxc; XCX't'OCA"t)tO"cxevou xoct

ocqiocv(cro:v't"oc;, ~p~cxv't'o <pr::uyi::w E:v nocne:c; ot <l>pocyyot &.no 'Axouo,i::y(occ;
xoct &:7to 'C'WV hepcuv ~t; cl>pocyy(occ; xrfo't'p(l)V, ~pxe:cr&cx.t OE 7tp0t; 't'occ;
' ' t'OIJt; VY)C101Jt;
(XOLY.Yj' ' - B E:VE:'t'L'OCc; XCXL' 7t0LE:LV
't"'t)t; - EXE:LO"E
' - XOtr.Ul"' . . ' f.l.LOC OLOC
~ ' 't'O\I ' -rou- 10
~cxcrQ,E:wc; 'Anl/..oc cp6~ov. Au't'ou oov -rou ~o:crt/..E:wc; 'A't''t'(/..oc I.. Y)"CcrocE:vou
6 3rp nocjmxv ..YJv xwpocv 't'~c; ~Yjpocc; xocl &x_pL 'PwYjc; xcx1 Kat..af3plcxc; e/..&6v-roc;
XOCL' 't'Y')V BE:VE:'t'L'OCV ocxpo..:Tt::V 'o. XOt't'0CAt7tOV't'Ot;,
... ' "~
OtoELOCV ' 6V't't::c; Ot' 7tpOC17tt::cpi::u-
y6-ri::c; Ev 't'OCLt; v~crott; ~c; Bi::vt::'t'LOCt; x.oct o!ov 't"~V 3i::tl..f.ocv ocnocri::t<rocevOL,
&7t!XV't'E:t; e~ou),i::ucrocv't'o 't'OU XOC't'OLXlJC10CL hi::foi::, 07tt::p xocl E7tOLYjC10CV, 15
XCX'T'OL:X~O"IXV't'E:t; exi::Lcri:: E:xpt ~c; cr1ji::pov. Me:'t'OC oE: 't'O ocvocxwp-Yjo-ocL 't'OV
' (J.E:'t'OC' ):pOVOIJt;
' .. ..
1t0Cp"(V't'O IT L7tLVOt;
' ,... - 0 pYjc.,,
, i: Ot; ~

1'Jpxi:: -r6't'e ~c; 't't:: Ilo:7tlocc; xoct hE:p(t)v pY)yoc't'wv. E!xe:v yocp oihoc; o Ilm'i:voc;

V 82 'Pt~r.t).e:va-fic; V edd. 'Pt~r.tAtval)c; mg. V2 83 'P(l)r.tV't"tVii mg. ps I

AtXi:VT?:tii mg. V 2 II 85 'HALTouii).~oc edd. II AtTour.tvxi:pcrY)c; p mg. PB:
AtTour.tvxpae:c; edd. II 86 Mr.t8oti3xoc; mg. ps M0t8ouxo11 mg. V 2 II 86/7 Ilptcrnjvcx
27, 28
which is a great metropolitan church with many relics of saints laid up in it;
the city of Rivalensis, the city of Lulianon, the city of Apsanon, the city of
Romatina, the city of Licenzia, the city of Pinetai, which is called Strobilos,
the city of Biniola, the city of Boes, in which is a church of the holy apostle
Peter, the city of Ilitoualba, the city of Litoumangersis, the city of Bronion,
the city of Madaucon, the city of Ebola, the city of Pristinai, the city of
Clugia, the city of Brundon, the city of Phosaon, the city of Lauriton.
There are other islands also in the same country of Venice.
On the mainland, also, in the land of Italy, there are cities of the
Venetians, as follows: the city of Ca pre, the city of Neokastron, the city
of Phines, the city of Aikylon, the city of Aeimanas, the great trading station
of Torcello, the city of Mouran, the city of Rivalto, which means 'highest
point', where the doge of Venice has his seat; the city of Caverzenzis.
There are also trading stations and forts.

28. S t o r y o f t h e s e t t I e m e n t o f w h a t 1 s n o w c a 11 e d

Of old, Venice was a desert place, uninhabited and swampy. Those

who are now called Venetians were Franks from Aquileia and from the
other places in Francia, and they used to dwell on the mainland opposite
Venice. But when Attila, the king of the Avars, came and utterly devastated
and depopulated all the parts of Francia, all the Franks from Aquileia and
from the other cities of Francia began to take to flight, and to go to the
uninhabited islands of Venice and to built huts there, out of their dread
of king Attila. Now when this king Attila had devastated all the country
of the mainland and had advanced as far as Rome and Calabria and had
left Venice far behind, those who had fled for refuge to the islands of Venice,
having obtained a breathing-space and, as it were, shaken off their
faintness of heart, took counsel jointly to settle there, which they did, and
have been settled there till this day. But again, many years after the with-
drawal of Attila, king Pippin arrived, who at that time was ruling over

edd. II 87 Bpou8011 v Bpou118ouAO\I (sine acc.) mg. V2 II 88 Aa:uptTO\I

mg. V2 II89 dalv edd. II a;utjj corr. Moravcsik: r.tUTWV p edd. II Be:ve:Tl~
coni. Kukules II 92 ''AKOUAO\I mg. P 8 II 93 enoplov p II TO om. edd. II
'Pl{3a:ATOV mg. V2 : 'Pt{3cx11T611 p v 'Pl~Ot\ITOV Ba Be II 96 ewtapla: P.
28. 5 'Axoul)Ae:ylcxc; P I! 6 iiVTtxpu edd. 11 'ATAoc P 11 8 'Axoul)M:y[occ; P II
10 &mx-i)Touc; V edd. : &olxouc; P II 11 'ATll..a; P II 'ATlAr.t P II 14 &itoae:tmie:vot]
li.tteraB e:t in ras. scr. P 1 II 17 'AT().a:v P II itOtpe:yeve:To edd. II
&~k"Acpouc; -rpe:'i:c;, ohLve:c; ~pxov 7tOCC1WV 't'WV <I>pocyytwv xcxl ~XACX~1)VLWV.
I24Be Tou ' '
oE: pYJyoc; I II Lmvou
' ' (\,
E/\'ITOV't'oc; xoc-roc' 't"(.t)V
- B e:ve:-rLxcuv ' ~
e:-roc' ouvoce:cuc;
' 20
63vP j xctl "Acwu 1to"A"Aou, 7te<pe:xoclhcre:v oLoc -r~c; ~1Jpocc; he:'i:&e:v -rou ne:pococ-roc;
-rwv v1icrcuv -njc; Be:ve:-rlocc; de; -r6nov "Ae:y6e:vov 'Ae:L~6"Aocc;. Ot oi'.iv Be:ve-rLXOL
l06v-re:c; 't"OV p~yoc Ilmi:vov e:-roc -rtjc; eocu-rou ouvoce:wc; xoc-r' OCU't"WV E7te:px.6-
e:vov xcd eMov-roc e:-roc -rwv fomuv &.non"Ae:ucrcxL npoc; "t'~v v~crov -rou
Mocaoccr.Uxou (fo-rLv yocp ocu-r1J ~ v~croc; n"A1Jcrlov njc; ~1Jpocc;), ~ocA6v-re:c; 25
xe:poc-rocpLoc, &rtocv 't'O 7tEpococ evocnecppoc~ocv. Eli:; oc1)XIXVLIXV oOv e/v&wv 0
't"OU P1JYOc; IlL7tLVOU "Aococ; (ouoe yocp ~v OUVOC"t'OV OCU"t'OUc; a/..),ocxou ne:pifoocL),
nocpe:x&&Lcrocv o:u-ro'i:c; od -njc; ~1JpiX.c; ~vocc; ~, no"Ae:ouvnc; xoc&' hoccr-r1Jv
64J'P ~pa.v E:"t'' ocu-rwv. Kocl / ol E:v Be:vE't'LXoL dcr-fipx.ov"t'o de; "t'OC n"Ao'i:oc
IXU't"WV, xoct fo't'OCV't'O omcr&e:v 't"WV 7tocp' oc?nwv pLcpencuv xe:poc"t'ocplwv, 30
0 oE: p~~ Timi:voc; fo-roc"t'O e:-roc "t'OU ),ocou oc1hou EV -rij) oclyLoc"Aij). Kcxt ot
e:v ' BE:VE' ' tLXOL e:"t'OC' 't"Ot.,ELIX<;
i= ' XIXL\ pL1t"t'
OCpL(.t)V '
").L 1)\ EWV"t'e:c;
' - ocu-rouc;
' I

npoc; ~v v~aov oLocni::poccrocL. 'Anop~crocc; oOv o p~~ TI m'i:voc;, e:fae:v 7tpoc;

't"OUt; B EVE:'t',LXOU<;, O't'L',, (( (~ .17t0\ 'IT)V \ E(J.YJV
' ' X,ELpOC - XOCL\ 7tp0VOLOCV I
')'LI VEC1'1TE, E7tELoYJ
Q._ , ~'

' 't'Y)t;- e:)jc;
- xwpocc;
, XOCL, Et.,OUmocc;
'l:' ' L
e;c;n;)), o L oe:~, B EVE"t' ' LXOL CXV' , t"EAE"(OV
' 35
cxu-rc;>, O"t'L' 'Hdc; aou'AoL &e'Aoe:v e:IvocL 'rOU ~ocaLMwc; 'P(.t)oc(wv xoct
OUX,L' ' (jQI).))
- 'E7tL\ 7t0/\U "'\I ~' (J.
oe: t-'LOCO"V'EV"t'e:c; OL B e:vc::"t'
(\I L LX.OL OC7t0 ' \ 't"Y)c;
- ye:yovULocc; '

, , , , , I , , ,
64 v P OXAYJcre:wc; npoc; ocu-rouc;, e:7t'OL1)0"0CV"t'o e:LpYJVLxocc; cr7tovoocc; 7tpoc; -rov PYJYOC
~ , , , -
TI mi:vov 't'OU mxpEX,ELV OCU"t'<;'> 7tAELO"'rlX 7tOCX"t'OC. "EX't'O"t'E aE: xoc&' EXOCO""t'OV
125Be x_povov ~AIX'r'rOU'rO -ro 7tOCX"t'OV, one:p xocl ex_pL njc; O'Yje:pov OLOC l(j'cii~e:-rocL. 40
Te:"AoucrL yocp ol Be:vhLxoL "t'Cj) xa-rx_ov-rL -ro p"f)yoc-rov 'hoc"Alocc;, ~-roL Ilocn(occ;,
~ rJ.'
OLt--OCPLIX , ,Yj(J.LV '
OCO"' /\L"t'pcxc; A<;' XIXV' Cl' e:xoccr-rov
,, x.povov.
' K OCL' 'rOU't'cp , - -rpo7tcp
"t'cp '
IXUcre:v 0 e:-rocc,u m. '
i= "'pocyywv ){IXL' B e:ve:"t'L' X(.t)V 7tOF1e:oc;.
' ''0 -re: oe: ,, i=
~' lJPsOC"t'O
, 0 "'/\OCO<;
\ \ 7tpoc; ' Be:ve:"t'L'IXV XOCL\ OC7t' ' OC1UVOC"(EC1'
' fi ,,
\TOCL, WO""t'E 7tOF1/\0Uc; I

yLve:cr'ITIXL, ocvriyope:uaocv e:ocu-rouc; oouxoc "t'ov e:uye:ve:L~ -rcuv v.l\f.wv oLoccpe:pov-roc. 45

f (\ > I < I ~ - \ ) f - lh '.I ~ f

'Eyi::y6ve:L OE 0 7tpw-roc; 000~ EV ocu-ro'i:c;, 7tplv ~ &A..&e:r:v XOC"t'' OCU"t'WV 0 p~~

6&'P TI m'i: lvoc;. "H v oE: "t'cj) "t'6-re: ){IXLp<;'> 'rO oouxoc-rov de; 'r07tOV "Ae:y6e:vov T~L~L"t'OC-
!! , , , A ' ~'
vout-'oc, une:p e:p"f)ve:ue:-rocL ve:oxoccr't'pov . u.Loc oe: -ro' e:wocL
't'O' 7tpoe:LpYje:vov I

VYJC1LOV 7tA"f)C1LOV -njc; ~"f)pocc; XOLV~ ~ou"A?l e:"t'E&"f)XOCV 't'O aouXOC"t'OV de; E"t'e:pov
v"f)cr(ov, &v <\> xocl vuv fonv crfie:pov, 3Loc -ro dvocL -fixo&e:v -rtjc; ~Yjpocc;, 50
OC10V ~A7te:L 't'Lt; &vapoc (7t7tcp Ecpe:~6e:vov.

V pl~ P II
19 <l>pr.tyyLiiiv P V edd.: <I>pr.tYY&v (littera L PY II I:x).C(~tv(wv
P II 20 pLyoc; P 11 8uviie:wc; V edd.: 8uv&e:c.l[c;] P II 22 VlJcrcrwv p II
'; mg. V2 II 23 p(ya. p II 27 pL"(Oc; p II 33 p(~ p II 36 -&f>.oev v edd.:
Papia and other kingdoms. For this Pippin had three brothers, and they
were ruling over all the Frank and Slavonic regions. Now when king Pippin
came against the Venetians with power and a large army, he blockaded
them along the mainland, on the far side of the crossing between it and the
islands of Venice, at a place called Aeibolas. Well, when the Venetians saw
king Pippin coming against them with his power and preparing to take ship
with the horses to the island of Madamaucon (for this is an island near the
mainland), they laid down spars and fenced off the whole crossing. The army
of king Pippin, being brought to a stand (for it was not possible for them
to cross at any other point), blockaded them along the mainland six months,
:fighting with them daily. The Venetians would man their ships and take
up position behind the spars they had laid down, and king Pippin would
take up position with his army along the shore. The Venetians assailed them
with arrows and javelins, and stopped them from crossing over to the island.
So then king Pippin, at a loss, said to the Venetians: You are beneath my
hand and my providence, since you are of my country and domain. But the
Venetians answered him: We want to be servants of the emperor of the
Romans, and not of you. When, however, they had for long been straitened
by the trouble that had come upon them, the Venetians made a treaty of
peace with king Pippin, agreeing to pay him a very considerable tribute.
But since that time the tribute has gone on diminishing year by year, though
it is paid even to this day. For the Venetians pay to him who rules over
the kingdom of Italy, that is, Papia, a twopenny fee of 36 pounds of uncoined
silver annually. So ended the war between Franks and Venetians. When
the folk began to flee away to Venice and to collect there in numbers, they
proclaimed as their doge him who surpassed the rest in nobility. The first
doge among them had been appointed before king Pippin came against
them. At that time the doge's residence was at a place called Civitanova,
which means 'new city'. But because this island aforesaid is close to the
mainland, by common consent they moved the doge's residence to another
island, where it now is at this present, because it is at a distance from the
mainland, as far off as one may see a man on horseback.

&e)..(l)ev P /I 37 crou Be: crol P I! 38 pfiyrJ. P I/ 40 ~MTTWTo edd. II 41 pLy&Tov

P II IfamrJ.c; (sine acc.) P II 42 iicrlLv P edd. II 43 <l>prJ.yywv P II 45 erJ.uToi:c; V
edd. II 46 pl~ P I/ 47 8oux1:hov P II 47/8 T?:L~LTfi vou~rJ. V T~L~LTtX v6~rJ.
Ba Be II 49 8o'Jxi:hov] litteras Soux in ras. scr. P 1 II 50 7Jx6&ev edd.
29. II E p l 't" ~ c; ~ E A IX 't" ( IX c; XIX L
\ , -
7t' IX p IX X E L e V (t) V E & V W V.

''0't"L ~LOXA'1)'t"LIXVOc; 0 ~IX<TLAt::uc; mxvu -rijc; x.wpocc; ~EAfLIX't"Locc; ~poccr&'Y),

oto xocl &:.rro -rijc; 'Pw'Y)c; "Aocov &.y1Xyeuv e't"oc 't'ac; cpocL"A(occ; 1Xu't"wv, Ev tjj
ixu-rj) "t7jc; ~EA(J.IX't"LIXc; x.wp~ 't"OU't"Ouc; XOC't"C:O-X~VWO"EV, ot XIXl 'P(t)OCVOL 5
I~ ~
7tpocniyopi::u.., ,,(JIXV OLIX\ 't'O\ OC1t0 , \ 'PI
w'Y)c; t::'t'OLXLGV'('Y\ -)VIXL, XIXL\ 't"IXU'O)V I I
65vP "t7jc; ~i::pov I ..Yiv bcwvu(ocv evoc7tocpepov't"ocL. Oo't"oc; oi5v o ~o:m"Ai::uc;
126Be ULOXA'Y)'t"LOCVoc; XIXL 't"O\ 't'OU- 'AG7t'lU\CMTOU
,\ "'\ I \ .. "'\ L n_ XOCG't"povI ' ~I
cpxooo'Y)GEV, I, ' -
>~ <
7tlX/\OC't"LOC Eot::LIX't"O r.oyou XOCL yplX<p'Y)c; OC7t'IXG'Y)c; E7t~XELVOC, WV XIXL\ t::X,pL
"'\ I I "'\I \ - I ' L 'f I

~c; ~i::pov "t7jc; 7t'IXAottocc; i::uooctovlocc; i..d~ocvoc cpepov't'CXL, x&v o 7toMc; 10

'i , A "'.l
xpovoc; I ,
OCU' tOC' XOC'O)VIXr.CUO"EV. A"'\"'\ \ \ ' ,
.lVl.ll.OC XOCL 't'O XIXG't'pOV uLOXr.ELOC, I
't'O\ VUV -
R "'\ I ,\ '.I \ , ~'
,\ "'\
0' ocu-roc;
, \
jJOC(JLr.t::uc; uLOX/\'Y)'t'LOCVOc; cpxooo-
'Y)O"EV, o&i::v x.ocl ..Yiv E7twvulocv ~LOXA'Y)'t'LOCVOL' xoci..i::i:G&otL ot -rijc; x.wpa.c;
lx.dv'Y)c; Evcx7tt::LA~<pOCGLV. 'H oE x.ocl -rwv ocu'twv 'Pwocvwv otocxpoc't"Y)Gtc;
66rP ~v -rou 6.ocvou~i::wc; 7t'O't'otou, ot x.ocl 7to-ri:: &i::"A~ !Gocv-ri::c; 't'OV 7t'O'tocov 15
OLIX7tt::pOCGIXL xocl XIX't'OCoc&i::i:v, 't'LVEc; XIX't'OLX.OU(JLV exi::i:&c:v 't'OU 7tO't'1Xou,
~ I ''AP.
oLocm:plXO"IXV't'Ec; I T
Eupov ITV'Y) ~
E'IQ.. '.I RI ,, "'\
,, "
EXIX"Aouv-ro. Kocl oihi:: oo-roL ~"Am~ov lx.i::i:&i::v 't'ou 7tO't'1Xou xoc-rotxi::i:v
'tLVIXc;, OU't"E ExELVOL v&i::v 't'OU 7t'O't'ocou. 6.toc ouv 't'O oc67t"Aouc; i::upi::i:v ocu-rouc;
'touc; \ 'AP.t-'ocpouc; I
ot' 'P wIXVOL - xocL\ 7tpoc; \ 7t'O/\t::ov '"I ,
.!. 20
xoc't'cx7to"Ai::~G1Xv-rec;, &"AOC~ov't"o 7tp1X'i:o1Xv xocl octx.oc"AcuGlocv x.ocl &'Y)-
O"IXV. K IXL\,,EX.'t'O't'E 7tOL'YI )GIXV't'Ec; OCAAIX"(LIX '"'l"'I I ~I
olJO OL''P wocvoL - , \ 7tOCGX.OC
OC7t0 I

I \ "'\ \ ) - > I"'\"'\ r1 - I"'\ \ < I ().()../.

7COCO")'..IX 't'OV r.OCOV OCU't"Ct.lV EV'Y)Ar.OC(J(JOV, CUO"'t'E 't'cp i::yocr.cp XIXL ocytcp GIXr-r-~'t"CJ>
66vP ocM~"Aotc; auvocv't"ocv, I
'touc; Ev oc7toG-rpi::cpoevouc; &.7to 't'OU 7tocpocovtou,
-rouc; OE de; 't'~V 't"mOCU'O)V ooui..docv OC7t't::px.oevouc;. Kocl y<Xp 7tA1)Gtov Tfjc; 25
&ocMcrG'Y)c; u7to -ro ocu'to xocG'tpov XOCG'tpov fo-rw, 't"O Em"Ai::y6i::vov ~oci..wvoc,
Eye:&oc; x.ov 't'O ~tGU KcuvG't'OCV't"Lvou7t6"Ai::wc;, EV ~ 7t'OCV't't::c; ot 'PcuiX.voL
127Be auv~yov-ro xocl xoc&w7tAL~ov-ro xocl I 7tpoGoc7ti::xlvouv EX -rwv Exefoe, XIXL
7tpoc; ..Yiv x"Ai::tGoup1Xv &.~pxov't"o, TI)v &.7to -rou ocu-rou x.ocG-rpou u7tocpx.ouGocv
(ALIX 't'EGGcxplX, ~-rte; xix"L '!OU vuv xoc"Ad't'ocL KA.i::fooc Stoc -ro Guyx"Adi::w 30
't"Ouc; OLe:pxovouc; hi::i:&c:v. Kocl ex 't'WV ext::'i:GE &~px.ov-ro 7tpoc; 't'OV
67rp 7CO't"OC6v. To oOv 't"OLOU't"OV ocMocytov E7t'L 7COAAouc; x.p6vouc; ytv6i:: !vov,
ot hd.&i::v 't'OU 7tO'tocou ~x"Aoc~oL, ot xocl '' Af3ocpot xoc"Aoui::vot, xoc.&'
E:ocu-rouc; eo-x67trjO"OCV Myov'tec;, o't"L" OihoL ot 'Pwocvot, e7td E7tepocO"ocv
xixl i::upov 7tpoci:aocv, &.7to 't'ou vuv xoc&' ~wv ou ~ 7t'IXUGov't"oct otoc7tt::pwvnc;;, 35
xixl. OLoc 't"OU't"O fL'Y)XIXV1)G6i::&oc xoc't'' ocu-rwv. Oi.l-rwc; o?iv ot ~x"Aoc~ot, ot
(xocl.) "A~ocpoL, ~ou"AeuGoci::vot, XIXL OLOC7tt::pocGocnwv 7t'O't"E 'twv 'Pwocvwv,

V 29. 4 <; P II 5 'Pwocvo~ P II 8 -rou om. Bury II 9 7tr.tA&nr.t

29. 0 f D a l m a t i a a n d o f t h e a d j a c e n t n a t i o n s
in it.

The emperor Diocletian was much enamoured of the country of Dal-

matia, and so he brought folk with their families from Rome and settled
them in this same country of Dalmatia, and they were called 'Romani'
from their having been removed from Rome, and this title attaches to
them until this day. Now this emperor Diocletian founded the city of Spalato
and built therein a palace beyond the power of any tongue or pen to describe,
and remains of its ancient luxury are still preserved to-day, though the
long lapse of time has played havoc with them. Moreover, the city of Diocleia,
now occupied by the Diocletians, was built by the same emperor Dio-
cletian, for which reason those of that country have come to be called by
the name of 'Diocletians'. The territory possessed by these Romani used
to extend as far as the river Danube, and once on a time, being minded to
cross the river and discover who dwelt beyond the river, they crossed it
and came upon unarmed Slavonic nations, who were also called Avars. The
former had not expected that any dwelt beyond the river, nor the latter
that any dwelt on the hither side. And so, finding these Avars unarmed
and unprepared for war, the Romani overcame them and took booty and
prisoners and returned. And from that time the Romani formed two alter-
nating garrisons, serving from Easter to Easter, and used to change
their men about so that on Great and Holy Saturday they who
were coming back from the station and they who were going out to
that service would meet one another. For near the sea, beneath that same
city, lies a city called Salona, which is half as large as Constantinople,
and here all the Romani would muster and be equipped and thence start
out and come to the frontier pass, which is four miles from this same city,
and is called Kleisa to this day, from its closing in those who pass that
way. And from there they would advance to the river. This exchange of
garrisons went on for a number of years and the Slavs on the far side of
the river, who were also called Avars, thought it over among themselves, and
said: These Romani, now that they have crossed over and found booty,
will in future not cease coming over against us, and so we will devise a plan
against them. And so, therefore, the Slavs, or Avars, took counsel, and
on one occasion when the Romani had crossed over, they laid ambushes

F edd.: 1t"AlhELCX p ircxMmcx P 1 v II 13/4 exdvric; xwpYjc; edd. II 17 I:xh(jlvLXIX

P:\ILX~ edd. II 20 'Pwcivot P II post <in-cxpoccrxe:uiiaTouc; add. xixt V edd. II
21 xcxTcxn-o).e:(acx\ITe:c; P II 22 'Pwiivot P 11 26 x<iaTpov 2 om. Be II 27 'Pwcivm P JI
28 xcx.tton-).~1:011To P II 29 xh1aoi3pa.v P 11 30 -rE:acrocpcx edd.: 8' P II 32 ito/J..ouc; corr.
Moravcsik 7tOMUc; p: 1tOMoic; v edd. II xp6vouc; corr. Moravcsik: XPC)'JOLc; p edd. II
y1v6e11ov xp61101c; v edd. II 34 'Pw&vm p II 35 ~ om. edd. II 36 !L"'lXCXVYjO"We:&cx
Migne 11 37 xcxt add. Bury II 37 81cxn-e:pa.aiXVTwv - 38 EyxpucxTix:
OL e:yxpuocTOC
' I
XOCL\ 7tO/\.E:YjcrOCVTe:c;,
i I ' l
E:VLX"f)C10CV '
OCUTouc;. 1 K OCL\
' '> A6 e:voL TIX' TE: U7t/\.OC
OCVOC/\.OCt-' ll '> OCU'
' t'W
'> ' '> XOCL' TOC' '>/\.OL7tOC' 7tOAe:-
LxiX cr"f)e:'Loc, OLOC7te:poccrocvTe:c; of 7tpoe:Lp"1)evoL ~xM~oL Tov 7tOToc6v, ~M-ov 40
67VP e:Lc; ' T"f)V\ I. -
XAe:tcroupocv, ouc; ~\ \ ~'
XOCL LoovTe:c; ''
oL e:xe:Lcre: ovTe:c; 'P wocvoL,
N ,, ~ (\_

voL oE: TOC cpMou"Aoc xocl T~V ~67tALO'LV TWV oocpu"Awv OCUTWV, Touc;
OCUTW\I' - oocpU/\.OU<;
' ,., e:LVOCL VOfLLC10C\ITe:c;,
I < '
1)\ILXOC ,., A
XOCTE:/\.OC1;-10V OL< ~ '>'A
~X/\.OC1;-10t OL 7tpop-

p'l')&EvTe:c; de; ~\I x"Ae:tcroupocv, 7tocpe:x.wp"1)C10CV OCUTOLc; Ote:"A&e:Lv. 6.te:"AMvTWV

oe, e:u&uc; TOU<; 'Pwocvouc; oihot E~~"Aoccrocv, xocl 't'1)v ~oc"Awvoc, TO 7tpoe:tp"1)E- 45
vov xoccrTpov hpoc't"l')C10CV. Koct XOC't'OLX~CiOCVTe:c; he:'i:cre:, EXTOTe: X.OCTOC txpov
' t I
ocpc,oce:vOL ~ I
7tpoctoe:ue:tv Touc; \ <p wocvouc;,
Touc; \
e:tc; 't'ouc; xocrrouc;
J , 1
xocL\ e:Lc; '

128Be u~1J"A6Te:poc ifp"f) / xocTotxouvTocc;, ~cpocvtaocv xoct 't'ouc; T67touc; ocuTwv xocTe:-
xpii't'"Y)crocv. m oE: "Aomol 'Pwocvot de; 't'OC 't'~c; 7tOCpoc"Alocc; XOCC1Tpoc OLE:crW&Yj-
6srp 1crocv, xoct' '
't'OU- - vuv xpocToucrtv - ,,,
' ' TIX A '
ilE:XocTe:poc, TO' 50
'P ocoucrtv, I
TO\ 'A cr1t'O,., (\
CAOC170V, TO\ Te:'t'pocyyouptv, I /~
't'OC\ Lltocowpoc,
"1)' "A p1;-1"1),R "1J'
Bifx"Aoc xocl 't'OC ''Oljicxpoc, WVTtvwv xocl otx~Tope:c; ifxpt 't'OU vuv 'Pwocvot
''O-.t rhto ~c; ~cxm"Adcxc; 'Hpocx"Ae:lou, 't'oiJ ~occrt"Aewc; 'Pwoclcuv,
x.oc&' &v if"A"Ae:t Tpo7tov PYJ&ficre:cr&oct ev T(i 7te:pl Twv Xpwf3oc't'wv xcxl ~pf3/...(t)V 55
cruyypoccp~, 7toccrcx ~ 6.e:"Aoc-.oc x.ocl Toc 7te:pl ocu't'1)v &v"1J, ofov Xpwf3ocTot,
~ep~AoL, Zcxx.AoiJoL, Te:p~ouvtwToct, KocvocJ...'LToct, 6.toXA"YJTLocvol xocl 'Ape:v-
't'IXVOt,' Ot' XIXt\ II IX'(OCVOL\ 7tpocrocyope:uoe:vot, I
* * * TNYJ<; oe: ~\ 't'WV - 'P woctWV '
.. I ~ \
otlX 't"l'\)V TWV -
't'6TE: xplXTOUVTWV I (\_
xoct\ occpe:/\.E:LOCV
' ,., '
e:Lc; 't'O\
68VP fL'YjOEV 7t0C fpoc7tlXV Lx.poiJ oe:'Lv EVOC7tOVE:UC10CC11jc;, x.ocl oc"AtcrTIX oE: &7tl MLx_OC~A 60
-rou ~ 'Aop(ou, TOU T pcxu"Aou, ot TOC ~c; 6.e:A.ocTlocc; xcfoTpoc olxoiJvTe:c;
ye:y6voccrw ocu-.oxecpoc"Aot, ~Te: 't'c'jl f3occrt"Ae:'i: 'Pwoclwv, ~n ETEpcp Ttvl
' '
-'" .. \
xoct\ Toc\ e:xe:Lcre:
, -
ot" -re: x pw1;-11XTOt RI
xocL\ ~L f.I.'>
~c::p1;-1AOt xoct

Zocx./,ouoL xocl Te:p~ouvtw-roct 't'e: xocl Kocvoc"A'LToct xcxl 6.LOXA"YJTLocvol x.cxl

oL Ilocyocvol, ~c; -rwv 'Pwoc(wv ~ocm"Ae:Locc; OCCfl"Y)VtoccrocvTe:c; ye:y6voccrtv 65
I Q_
XIXL' IXUToxe:cpocAoL,
' I i.
TLVL\ "Yj\ u7toxe:Le:vot.
( I ''A pxovTIXc; oe:, ~,

cpocm, TIXUTIX TOC z&v"Yj ~ zx.e:w, 7tA~V ~ou7tocvouc; yepovTocc;, xoc&wc; XIXL oct
129Be "Aomocl LXAIX~"f)VLOCL EX,oum 't'U7tov. 'AAA.ii xocl ot 7tAdove:c; Twv TOtOUT(t)V I
69rP LxM~wv ou joE: ~oc7t-rl~ov-ro, &.At..oc expL 7toMou Ee:vov &.[3oc7tncrTot.

F 56 7tiiaoc - 69 &.f'oc7t"tO'TOL: cf. Theoph. Cont. p. 288, 18-289, 2;

Cedr., ed. Bonn. II. p. 218, 22-219, 3.

V 8tocm:p&aocne:c; 7toTE: ot 'P(l)civot btoLl)O'OC\I ouTot ~yxpuoc (~yxpuoc V)

V Me II 39 cpMouAoc P II 41 XAe:taoupocv P II 'Pwocvot P II 42 cpMouAoc
P II 1;67l'Al)O'tv P II 43 mhwv: oc\i,(;)11 coni. Bury II 44 KAe:taoupocv P II 8te:A-9'611Te:c;
v edd. II 47 'Pw&vou~ V2 edd.: Ko&vouc; p V1 F II post dc; 2 add. TeX
edd. II 49 'Pw&voL P II 50 T~ Ae:x&,e:poc coni. Moravcsik: Tocl>e: x:ocaTpoc P Ba
Be T~ t' x&.aTpoc F II 51 'Poco\imv P II Te:Tpocyyoupl)v P JI 52 ante 'P(l)iivot add.
and n.ttacked and defeated them. The aforesaid Slavs took the Roman arms
and standards and the rest of their military insignia and crossed the river
and came to the frontier pass, and when the Romani who were there saw
them and beheld the standards and accoutrements of their own men they
thought they were their own men, and so, when the aforesaid Slavs reached
the pass, they let them through. Once through, they instantly expelled the
Romani and took possession of the aforesaid city of Salona. There they
settled and thereafter began gradually to make plundering raids and de-
stroyed the Romani who dwelt in the plains and on the higher ground and
took possession of their lands. The remnant of the Romani escaped to the
cities of the coast and possess them still, namely, Decatera, Ragusa, Spalato,
Tetrangourin, Diadora, Arbe, Vekla and Opsara, the inhabitants of which
are called Romani to this day.
Since the reign of Heraclius, emperor of the Romans, as will be related
in the narrative concerning the Croats and Serbs, the whole of Dalmatia
and the nations about it, such as Croats, Serbs, Zachlumi, Terbou-
niotes, Kanalites, Diocletians and Arentani, who are also called Pagani
*** But when the Roman empire, through the sloth and inexperience
of those who then governed it and especially in the time of Michael from
Amorion, the Lisper, had declined to the verge of total extinction, the inhabi-
tants of the cities of Dalmatia became independent, subject neither to the
emperor of the Romans nor to anybody else, and, what is more, the nations
of those parts, the Croats and Serbs and Zachlumites, Terbuniotes and Kana-
lites and Diocletians and the Pagani, shook off the reins of the empire of
the Romans and became self-governing and independent, subject to none.
Princes, as they say, these nations had none, but only 'zupans', elders, as
is the rule in the other Slavonic regions. Moreover, the majority of these
Slavs were not even baptized, and remained unbaptized for long enough. But

o[ edd. II 'P<iivot P I/ 55 xcx-9-' 8v - 56 cruyypcxq>1j expunxit Racki II 55 7tept

om. v edd. II 56 post cruyypcxq>ij inserenda urrfixocx 'tote; 'P<i>cxlotc; eyevE't"O coni.
Toma.Sic II ~cx:Acx<(Cf Theoph. Cont. II Kp<[jii<ot Theoph. Cont. Xp<i>[jii<w1
Cedr. II 57 Zcxx:Aoum P Zcxx:Aouot Theoph. Cont. II KcxvcxAE:'i.'<cxL P I ~tox:Aem
cxvot P II 57/8 'Apevmvol: 'PeV'tcxvo( Theoph. Cont. II 58 ol xcxt Ilcxycxvot coni.
Bury: xcxt ot Ilcxycxvot Meursius Ba Be xcxt '17tcxycxvol P II ot xcxl Ilcxycxvol
7tpocrcxyopeu6evot deest in Theoph. Cont. II post 7tpocrcxyopeu6evot l,ac. ind.
llou:Aixwc; dcrtv u7ton:<cxyevm 't"C}i !3cxm:Ae:1.' 'P<cxl<i>v excidisse coniciens Grot
l,ac. ind. llou:Aixwc; 'ijcrcxv <<{i !3cxm:Ae:1.' 'P<i>cxl<i>v u7tO't"E<cxyevm vel talia excidisse
coniciens Bury I! 59 ciqie:Adcxv P II 60 evcx7t07tVEuaiXITT)c; coni. Bury II 61 ~e:Acx<dcxc;
P II 63 Kp<i>[jii<m Theoph. Cont. Xp<i>[jii<<v Cedr. I\ 64 Zcxx:Aouoi xa.t Be:
Zcxx:Aoue:"i<cxt P Zcxx:Aouot Theoph. Cont. II TE (hahet etiam Theoph. Cont.): om.
edd. 11 Kcxvcx:Ae:'i.''t"cxt P II ~wx:Aemcxvot P II 65 Ilcxycxvot Be: Ilcxycivot P II &qil)vtcicrcxv-
't"Ec; (littera cr era,;a, spiritu addito primaque littera t in 'Y) correcta) PY mg. p9
Meursius Ba Be Theoph. Cont.: crcxqitvi&crcxne:c; P mxq>r,vicicrcxV'tEc; V II 66 t8i6p-
pu-9-ot xcxt cxu<oxeqicx:Aot: cxu<6vool TE xcxt cxu<ollfo7to't"ot Theoph. Cont. I/ 67 E:xei
edd. dxev coni. Gedeonov JI 68 I:x:Acx!3tvlcxt P: ~x:Acx13vta.t edd. JI xcxt om. edd. II
'E7tl 8: Boccn/..e:(ou, 'tOU qn/..oxpla,.ou ~ocat/,ewc;, oc7tea'te:t/..ocv oc7toxptatocp(ouc;, 70
't:' ,
S:<.,OCL'tOUe:vot XOCL\ 7t1Xp0CXOC/\.OUV' "I -
te:c; OCU' , '
tOV 'tOUc;
I 't:' , -
&<, OW't<UV IXt--OC7tnO''tOUc;
'(). I

~OC7t'ttO'&~voct xocl dvoct, we; 'tO E~ ocpx.Yjc;, U7tO'te:'tocy&vouc; 't?) ~OCO'LAd~

- 'P (l)(J.OCL(l)V,
't"(l)V I
OCX.OUO"otc; ,
0' ocxocptoc; I
' -
xoct\ OCOLotoc;, l'ilo

~OCO'tAe:uc;, &~oc7t&ant/..e:v ~OCO'LALXOV e:'toc xoct te:pe(l)V, xocl E~OC7t'ttO'e:V ocu-rouc;

7tocv-rocc; -rouc; .. &v 7tpopp11&&v.. wv &&vwv &~oc7t'tla'touc; .. uyx.ocvov'tocc;, xocl 75
(J.E'tOC\ 'tO\ Rt-'OC7t't'LIO'OCL IXU'tOUc; ' I I
'tO'te: (), ,.,
7tpoe:t-'OC/\.E't0 '
e:tc; '
OCU'touc; I l!
Clt.pxov'tocc;, !\
exdvot ~&e:/..ov xocl 7tpoexptvocv, OC7t0 -njc; ye:ve:occ;, ~c; &xe:Lvot ~"(0C7t(J)V xocl
59vp fo-re:pyov. Kocl Ex't'o'te: I 'tou vuv &x 't&v OCU't'Wv ye:ve:&v y(vov'toct
cxpxov"te:c; , ocu'touc;,
e:tc; ' , xoct\ oux ' 't:' e:'te:pocc;.
e:c, ' I O't oe:"'' II ocyocvoL, l ot' xoct\ '"il - 'P w-

oc(cuv atocMx'tc.p Ape:V't'OCvot xoc/..oue:vot, de; 3ucr~OC'tOUc; 't67touc; xocl 80

xp"Y)vwoe:tc; I~
xocn""e: "I (
tp17'Cl.'Y)O'OCV oct-'oc7tna'tot.'().' Koct\ yocp \ II ocyocvot\ xoc'tocI 'tY)V \

~ "I If)_
't"(l)V "-'XAOCt-'(J)V "(/\WO'O'OCV OCt-'OC7t'ttO''tOt e:pYjve:ue:'tott.
- "I - ''().I ' ' I M \ ~.l.
E't"OC 01> 'tOU'tO xoct' -

OCU' ' t"Ot\ OC7tOO'

' ,.,
'tEL/\IXV' te:c; e:tc; ' 'tOV \ OCU' ' tOV ' ~
\ OCOtotov R
t-'OCO'L"IL 't:'
l\l;;OC, e:c,il't'l)O'IXV'tO
t-'OC7t'tL0'1J''Yj- o.-


tO ( l xoctI OC7tOO' '
'te: ("'/\.OCc; e:t-' Clt.7t't"LO'e:V XOCLI ocu-rouc;.
'()_J. ' I 'E 7te:L' oe:, ~I we; '
7tpoi:;- L

" ~ \ \ - ,
<p'Yje:v, O'tt otoc 't"'YjV 't(J)V xpOC'tOUV't(J)V VW17PO't"YJ't'IX xoct occpe:/\.e:totV e:tc; XOC't mv 85 Cl. ' \ ' ,.., ' 6
'tOC' 't"(l)V - 'P wocuuv I
'l""17'0V 7tpotyoc'toc,
3'."I Cl. I
xoct' ot' 'tOC\ 't"Y)c; -
A "I I

7orP olxouv'te:c; ye:y6vocatv ocu'to jxecpocA.ot, ~'t"e: 'tc";> ~ocat/..e:!: 'Pwoc(c.uv, ~n

130Be rx"M~ 'ttvl U7toxde:vot. Me:'toc 8E: x.p6 lvov 'ttvoc &7tl -njc; ~ocat/..docc; Bocat-
/..dou, 'tOU ocota(ou X.OCL oce:tV~O''t"OU ~OCO'LAE(J)(;, &J..&6v'tc..>V ~ocpOCX'Yjv&v
oc7to 'Acpptx~c;, 'tou 'te: ~ot..aocvou xocl 'tou ~oc~oc xocl ..oti Koc/..cpouc;, e:'toc 90
"I '
, XOC'te:""oct-'ov
,., R '
e:v A "I
ue:Aot'tt~, '
xoct' e:7t ' 6p17'o.YJO'OCV 't'O' xoca'tpov ' 'tOC'
, (),
BOU'tOt-'OC XOCL 'tO XIXO"tpov 't"Y)V (l)O'O'OCV XOCL 'tO XlltO''tpov 'tlX ue:XIX'te:poc, 'tO'
1 \ I \ p- \ \ I I A I

t'W. K OCtI 3'.."I jl'.17'0V
Cl. XIXL\ e:tc; ' 'tO\ XOCO''tpov ' 'P IXOUO'tou, ' XIXt\ 7tOCpe:Xot1J' 'Cl.tO'OCV IXU'tc.p ' -

~vocc; 8e:xoc7tev'te:. T6't'e: ~totO'&ev ..e:c; ot 'Pocoucroci:ot e3'Y)A07t0L'Y)O'IXV Bocat-

"I ' 'tcp - oce:tV'Y)O"tc.p
' ' t-'IXO'L"IAEL- 'P woctc..>v,
Q I Ae:yov't'e:c; OCU'
"I' ' tc.p
- OU'tc.uc;
,, 'E"'AE'' Y)O'OV 95
70VP ~occ;, xocl ~ Uaric; OC7to/ 7tOC !Poc 't&v ocpV'Y)'tWV 'tOU XptO''t'OU. o SE:
Q "I
t-'OCm/\.e:uc; \
0'7t1'"I.IX"(X.VLO''Cl.\TS:tc; \ '
OC7tEO' , "I
't"E:L/\.EV 't"OV \
7tOC'tptxtov, N LX'YI )'tOC, opouyyocptov
'ilo I

't"OU 7tA(l)tou, o~ 'tO E7tLXA'Y)V 'Oopucpocc;, e:'tOC xe:/..ocv8(c.uv &xoc't6v. m 8E:

~ocpocxrivol oc&6v'te:c; Tfiv e:'toc 'tOU a't6/..ou ifcpt~tv 'toti 7t1X'tptx.Lou 3pouyyoc-

F 70 'E7tt 81: - 79 hepw;: cf. Theoph. Cont. 291, 1-292, 13; Cedr. II. p.
220, 9-15; Zon. XVI. 9., ed. Bonn. III. p. 425, 9--426, 2. 82 Me:,iX
ae: - 84 cx1houc;: cf. Leo, Tact. XVIII. 101., ed. Migne, P. G. 107. c. 969
A-B. 88 ME't'cX 81: - 116 'Pc.>cx(<i>v: cf. Theoph. Cont. p. 289, 2-290,
23; 292, 14-294, 2; De Them. p. 61, 11-62, 18 (=ed. Pertusi 97, 18-98, 42);
Cedr., ed. Bonn. II. p. 219, 4-220, 8; 220, 15-221, 7; Zon. XVI. 9., ed. Bonn.
III. p. 425, 1-9.
v 70 !i1t'OXpt<rtcxplouc;: 7tpfo~Etc; Theoph. Cont. I 72 roe; "t'O: &a"t'e: edd. II
73 daa.xouacxc;: e1t'CXXOUO'CXc; Theoph. Cont. II 76 [jCX1t''t'(O'cxt: [jcx1t'"t'L0"-9-Tjvcxt
V edd. II 77 7tpoxptvov V edd. II TTjc; om. edd. II 81 >'P'l)vw8e:tc; (xcx"t'mxouv,Ec;)
coni. Kyria.kides I ante Ilaycxvot addendum 't'O coni. Bury !I 82 ep'Y)VEUE:'t'IXL (etiam
Bury): E:p'l)veuov't'cxt Ba Be II 83 de; bis P II 85 O't't om. V edd. II de; ('rj8~v)
in the time of Basil, the Christ-loving emperor, they sent diplomatic agents,
begging and praying him that those of them who were unbaptized might
receive baptism and that they might be, as they had originally been, subject
to the empire of the Romans; and that glorious emperor, of blessed memory,
gave ear to them and sent out an imperial agent and priests with him and
baptized all of them that were unbaptized of the aforesaid nations, and after
baptizing them he then appointed for them princes whom they themselves
approved and chose, from the family which they themselves loved and
favoured. And from that day to this their princes come from these same
families, and from no other. But the Pagani, who are called Arentani in
the Roman tongue, were left unbaptized, in an inaccessible and precipitous
part of the country. For 'Pagani' means 'unbaptized' in the Slavonic tongue.
But later, they too sent to the same glorious emperor and begged that they
too might be baptized, and he sent and baptized them too. And since, as
we said above, owing to the sloth and inexperience of those in power things
had gone the wrong way for the Romans, the inhabitants of the cities of
Dalmatia also had become independent, subject neither to the emperor
of the Romans nor to anybody else. But after some time, in the reign of
Basil the glorious and ever-memorable emperor, Saracens from Africa,
Soldan and Saba and Kalphus, came with 36 ships and reached Dalmatia
and took the city of Butova and the city of Rossa and the lower city of
Decatera. And they came also to the city of Ragusa and blockaded it fifteen
months. Then in their strait the Ragusans made a declaration to Basil, the
ever-memorable emperor of the Romans, saying this to him: Have pity
on us and do not allow us to be destroyed by them that deny Christ. The
emperor was moved with compassion and sent the patrician Nicetas, admiral
of the fleet, surnamed Ooryphas, with one hundred ships of war. When
the Saracens learnt of the arrival of the patrician admiral of the fleet with

XCX't"6nw coni. Kyriakides II 88/9: bd ri')c; [jcxatl.dcxc; Bcxm/.dou: brL ae: tjc;
~cxml.e:lcxc; Mtxcx1JI. Tou u[ou 0e:ocp/.ou De Them. II 89/90 :Ecxpcxx"l)vwv &1t'o
'Acpptx'ijc;: o[ cX1t'O Kcxp;{"IJ86voc; 'Aycxp"l)voL Theoph. Cont. II 90 :Eol.8cxvou:
:Eo/.8cxvov De Them. :Eol.Mvov Theoph. Cont. II :Eci~cx (littera . partim erasa)
px V edd. :E&~cxv Cedr.: :E&.cx P :E&.~cxv Theoph. Cont. II Kcxl.cpouc;
De Them. Kcx/.cpouc; Theoph. Cont.: KJ.cxcpouc; P KJ.cxcpouc; V edd. II 91
xcxpcx[j((t)v: xo.1t'cxp((t)v De Them. 1t'AOt(t)v 1t'ol.e:.Lxwv Theoph. Cont. II Lle:J..cxTl~:
Llcxl..cxTlcxc; De Them. Theoph. Cont. II 91/2 TeX Bou't"o~cx Ba Be r~v BouTo[jcxv
De Them.: TeX Bouyo[jcx P Bouyo[jcx mg. p1 ii Theoph. Cont. II
92 'Pwa-cxv De Them. 'Pwacx Theoph. Cont. II 92/3 TeX Lle:xci't"Epcx, TO Xck't"(t): TeX
XcX't"(t) ~e:x&n:pcx De Them. Theoph Cont. V 't"cX X.cX't"W Lle:x&'t"opcx Theoph.
Cont. II 93 x&a't"pov: fJ."IJ't"p61t'oALv De Them. Theoph. Cont. II 1t'cxpe:x&-!hcrcxv:
t1t'OAL6pxouv De Them. Theoph. Cont. II 94 8e:XCX1t'EV't"E Be: Le:' p t1t'L xp6vov ...
lxcxv6v De Them. Theoph. Cont. II 'Pcxoucrcxlot P II 97 0"1t'ACXXV"IJO~dc; P /I
N LX-fi't"cx: N LX1i't"cxv Theoph. Cont. II 98 't"O e1t'X.A1JV:'t"' emovu(cxv Theoph.
Cont. II 'Oopucpw; Be Theoph. Cont.: 'Oopucpcxc; P II :x_o:l.cxv8((t)v: ve:(;)v Theoph.
Cont. II eXcx't"6v edd. Theoph. Cont.: p' p De Them. II 99 ~CXpCXX1JVOL:
plou Tou 7t"Ac.utou, ~rpuyov xocToc"AmovTe:c; TO x.cX.aTpov 'Pocoualou, xoclloo
' '
OC\l'Te7tEpocaocv , A cr.yout-'ocpoL~,
e:v ('.), ~' X.OCL\ 7tO/\tOpX.1JO'OCV't'Ec;
.. ' 't'O\ X.OCO''t'pDV
I B'ocpEc.uc;,
Tou-ro t7t6p.&1Jaocv. To"TE ~o"Aoocvoc; x"Tlaocc; tx.E'i:crE 7tocAocTw., xocnxpocT1Jae:v
'T~V ncfoocv Ao:you~ocpolocv ifzpt 'Pw11c; ~'t'1J 't'eO'O'OCpOCXOV't'OC. 'O o0v
BOCO'l ),e;uc; oLOCI ~ ' \ , ' , ,
't"Y)V OCt't'LOCV 'TOCU'T1JV OC7tEO''TEL/\EV I ... I
7tpoc; 'TE 'TOV ' A oootzov,
~ ,_,
7IP p:rjyoc <l>pocyylocc; xocl. 'Tov 7t&.7toc 'Pw11c;, tvoc auve:7tOCfLUV'Y)'TOCL 'Tc{) 7toc lpocl05
'TOU ~OCO'LAEc.uc; OC7tOO''TOCAivn O''TpOC'TCi>- OL oE: tme:l~ocv-.e:c; 'TTI 't'OU ~OCO'LAEC.Uc;
o o
oct'T-fiaEL, 'TE p~~ xocl. 7t&.7tocc;, ~"A&ov ocrpo-.e:poL e:'tOC ouvoce:c.uc; 7tOAAYjc;,
131Be xocl. Evcu.&iv l'TEc; -.<{) 7tOCpoc 'TOU ~OCO'LAEC.Uc; OC7tOO''t'OCAEV'tL O''t'poc-.<{) ococ -re{)
Xpc.u~oc-rcp x.ocl. ~ifp~l.cp xal. Zocxt.oucp x.ocl. TEp~ouvLW't'ocLc; xocl. KocvocJ...lTocLc;
xocl. 'PocouaocloLc; ETOC 7tocv-.c.uv -r&v &.7to -.ljc; ~EA1nlocc; xcfa't'pc.uv ( OU't'oLllO
yocp '
t'e:c; ('.),t--OCO'L"I/\LX'-rJ XE/\EUO'EL
... ,
7t0Cp1JO' -
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t'C.UV e:v , A ocyou-
.), ~' 7tOCpe:XOC''" 1TLO'OCV 'tO' xocmpov ' B ocpe:c.uc;
-' , ' 1T'"Y)O'OCV OCU'tO.
XOCL' E7t0p' , '
'I O"'TEov,
' '' Touc;
O'tL ' X pwt-'oc-.ouc; R' xoct' -rouc; ' "'/\OL7touc; ' ~ ... R'
71 v P Ot' 't'OU- XOCO' ' 'TpOU 'P OCOUO'L' OU OLX1J'TOpe:c; , ' e:'t'OC\ 'tC.UV - LOLC.UV
~' OCU' , t'C-.UV x.ocpoc I(.),'
0LE7tipocaocv &v Aocyou~ocpol~. Kocl. 't'O f:v x&.a't'pov Bocpe:c.uc; x.ocl. 't~V xwpocvll5
' "' l ocv 7tOCO' - OCV OCVE/\OCt-'E'tO
' "''R 0' R t--OCO'L"'/\EUc;
' 'tC.UV
' '
oE: ~OAOOCVOV xocl. 't'OUc; AOL7touc; ~ocpocx11vouc; OCVE:AOC~E:'t'O Aooocxoc;, 0 p~~
<l>pocyylocc;, xocl. OC7t"~yocyEv ocuTouc; &v -.<{) xoca-.pcp Kocm)'Y)c; xocl. &v -re{) x&.a't'pcp
BEVE~E:\IOOU. Kocl. ouodc; OCU'tOV do Ev '(EAWV'tCI.. Efoe:v oE: 0 p-f)~. O'tL. Et
'TLc; [LOL -rov ~of...oocvov e:-.oc ocl-11-&dcr.c; ocvocyye:l"A7J ~ tmooe:l~7l ye:l.&v-.oc,120
OWO'C.U OCU't'<{) xp~oc-roc 7tOMrX. Kocl. (J.E't'OC 'tOU'tO e:I8iv 't'Lc; OCU't'O\I '(EAWV't'OC,
XOCL\ 't'cp- P1JYL
' \ A OoOLXCJl ~ J.
, ' "I 'O oe: \:'\ 7tpOO'XOCAEO'ote:voc;
.. I \
't'OV ~ ... ~
"-'OAoocvov '

72P ~pWTIJO'EV OCU't'OV, 7tOLCJl 't'p07tlp t'(EAOCO'E\I. 'O oE: Ehre:v ''Aoc~ocv doov xocl. I
\ ) ) .... 1 i I \ I I ) Ii ti \
'TOuc; e;V OCU't'7) 't'pozouc; XUAlO(J.EVOUc;, XOCt 'tOU'tOU XOCPW E"(EAOCO'OC, O'tL XOCt
) f i \ ) I \ ) I ) \ C I I \ I).
e:yc.u 7tO'TE X.E<f'OC/\1) Eye:vo11v, XCf.L OCp't'tC.Uc; ELfLL U7tOXOC't'C.U 7tOCV'tC.UV, XOCL 7tOC/\LV125
MvocTocL 0Eoc; u~&aocl E. Kocl. &7to -.6n 7tpoaExocA.e:l:-.o ocu-.ov Aoo&zoc; o

F 116 -rov 8E: - 216 c:uEpyEalcxv.: cf. Theoph. Cont. p. 294, 3-297,
23; Cedr., ed. Bonn. II. p. 221, 8--225, 8; Zon. XVI. 9., ed. Bonn. III.
p. 426, 2--429, 6; (Ps.-) Symeon, ed. Bonn. p. 695, 3-697, 2. 123
"Acx~cxv - 126 l.11Jiwacxl E: cf. Menandri fr. 3., Exe. de leg., ed. de Boor
p. 177, 12-34; Theoph. Simoc., ed. de Boor p. 243, 10-244, 17; Theoph.
p. 273, 14-27; Basilius, Para.en., ed. Migne, P. G. 107. c. XL D. Cf. V.
Grecu, Byzantinos/.avica 13 (1952-3). p. 259.

Vt~ 'Aq:ipLY.'iji; l:cxpcxioivo[ Theoph. Cont. "Aqipm De Them. II 101 cXVTEl'repcxacxv:

iivEl'rlpcxcrcr.v De Them. 8tcx1TEpifocxVTe:t;; Theoph. Cont. II Aoyou~cxp8(~ edd.
Acxyo~a.p8lcx Theoph. Cont. De Them.C II BcipE(t)i;: Bcip'l)i; De Them. II 102 e1T6p-&'l)-
mxv: i~E1T6p&l)O'CXV Theoph. Cont. II 103 TI]v om. edd. II TI]v rri'iacxv (etiam
his squadron, they quitted the city of Ragusa and took to flight and crossed
over into Lombardy and laid siege to the city of Bari and took it. Then
Soldan built a palace there and was for forty years master of all Lombardy
as far as Rome. On this account, therefore, the emperor sent to Lewis, king
of Francia, and to the pope of Rome, asking their cooperation with the
army which he, the emperor, had sent. The king and the pope acceded to
the emperor's request, and both of them came with a large force and joined
up with the army sent by the emperor and with the Croat and Serb and
Zachlumian chiefs and the Terbouniotes and Kanalites and the men of
Ragusa and all the cities of Dalmatia (for all these were present by imperial
mandate); and they crossed over into Lombardy, and laid siege to the
city of Bari and took it.
The Croats and the other chiefs of the Slavs were carried over into
Lombardy by the inhabitants of the city of Ragusa in their own vessels.
The city of Bari and the country and all the prisoners were taken by the
emperor of the Romans, but Soldan and the rest of the Saracens were taken
by Lewis, the king of Francia, who carried them off to the city of Capua
and the city of Beneventum. And no one saw Soldan laughing. And the king
said: If anybody truly reports to me or shows me Soldan laughing, I will
give him much money. Later, someone saw him laughing and reported it
to king Lewis. He summoned Soldan and asked him, how he had come to
laugh 1 And he said: I saw a cart and the wheels on it turning round and
therefore I laughed because I too was once at the top and am now lowest
of all, but God may raise me up again. And thereafter Lewis would summon

De Them.): TCiio-av 't"~v Theoph. Cont. II Aoyou~ap8(av edd. Aayo~ap8(av

Theoph. Cont. Aoyyt[jap8(av De Them. II lni n:cro-apiXxoV't"a deest in
Theoph. Cont. De Them. II 't"E:O"O"apiXxoV't"a V edd.: o-apiXxoV't"cx P 't"foo-apa coni.
Kyriakides II 104 Ao86"fJxov P Ao8otxov Theoph. Cont. Ao8ouxov De Them.
/1oJ...6cxov Theoph. Cont.V II 105 p'ijya Meursius Ba Be Theoph. Cont.
De Them. : 8ouxa P II 7t"cX7t"a (etiam De Them.): 7t"cX7t"av Theoph. Cont. II
auve:TI"a.uve:'t"m Me Ba auvma.uvaL De Them. auve:mx.oup'ijo-aL Theoph. Cont. II
107 GttTIJO"E:L: eV't"EU~e:L De Them. II p(~ p II 108 &a 't"C}i - 110
Xfo't"p(t)v: 't"cXc; o).(yci> 7t"p6o--9-e:v v"l)ove:u-9-e:Co-ac; xwpac; 't"WV ~X.At:t[j"l)VWV Theoph.
Cont. deest in De Them. II 108/9 't"oi:c; Xp(t)[jcX't"OLc; l:ep[j).otc;
Zax).ou.oLc; coni. Bury II 109 x.aP: Tcj) edd. I Te:p[jouv1w't"e:c; P II
Kava).i:'t"t:tLc; P II llO 'Paouo-a(oLc; Moravcsik: 'Paouo-lmc; P edd. 11 111/2
Aoyou[jap8(q.: edd. II 112 TCape:x.iX-9-Lo-cxv coni. Bekker 7t"t:tpe:xiX&1JO"Gtv P:
exiX&"IJO"GtV edd. exiX-9-LO"GtV Migne II BiXpe:(t)c;: Biip"l)c; De Them. II 114
'Paouo-lou V edd.: 'Paouo-a(ou P I otx-fi't"ope:c; V edd.: otX1J't"t:tl P I/ 115
Aoyou~ap8(q.: edd. II 116 't"Wv om. edd. II 117 l:o).8cxvov edd. De Them.:
~o).8cvov P Theoph. Cont. II Ao86cxoc; Be Ao8olxoc; Bury Ao8ouxoc; De
Them.: /1oA.o-fixoc; P /1o8ouxoc; De Them.C II pl~ P I/ 119 p!~ P II 120
~o).8cvov Theoph. Cont. II 121 whov V1 edd.: GtU't"W p v II 122 p1yl
p II Ao8otxcp Be: Llo).o-/ix(t) p 125 eye:v6."l)v: -ilfL1JV v edd. II 126
Ao86"Lxoc; Be: /10)..0-fixoc; P II
l 3 -9Be e:Li:;' 'n)V ' -rpot7tE:<..,OCV
' Y ocu-rou,
' - XOCL' c;uv 'Y)Ci'n I'
ITLE:V OCU'' t'-cp. O'Loe: "'' ocpxovnc;
'' T'Y-)c; K OC7tU'' Y)c;
x<Xl. Be:ve:~e:voou ~pxov-ro 7tpoc; Tov ko"Aoocvov EpwTwvTe:i:; ocuTov 7te:pl.
> - <
Q. I >'I I
U7tO'\Te;c;e;cov, I

1mmp<XfLEVOV. '0 oil: kOAO<XVoc; 7totvoupyoc; &v xocl. crxo"ALoc; drre:v 7tpoi:;l30
ocu-roui:;, O't"L. Ilpocyoc .&t"Acu d7te:LV 7tpoi:; uiic;, xocl. MooLXOC 't'OU ~ 7totp'
72vp uwv XOC't'OCO'Y)AOV ye:vfo&ocL 7tpoc; TOV pljyoc, xocl. OC7tOAecrUI T~V I EOCU't'OU
.,. ' o "'' ,
<..,WY)V. Loe: U1omx.v ocu-rcp, XOCL vocpp1Jcrocc; ,- n.' ' E:L7tEV
'l' 7tpoc; , ocu't"ouc;,
!! o ,
E~oplcrocL &eAe:L 7tOCV't'occ; uocc; EV tj e:yoc"An <l>pocyyl~. xocl. M.v ocmcr-rlj't'e:,
EXOE~occr&e: txp6v, xocyw 7tA'Y)pocpopw uocc;. Kocl. OC7te:"A&wv e:foe:v 7tpoc;l35
TOV AoMcxov, OTL' Ot ocpxov-re:c; TOU 't"67tOU TOU't"OU XotXOL dcrw, xocl. c;u
OU ouvoccrocL XUpLE:UO'OCL ~v xwpocv TOCU'n)V, EOCV ~ occpocvlcrric; -rouc; ouvoc-rouc;,
't'OUI,; OCVTL7tL'1t't'OV't"OCc; cre: OCMOC o&cre:uaov 't"OUc; 7tpW-rouc; TOU xoccr-rpou,
xocl. &rr6cr't"E:LAOV ocu-rouc; de; ~v xwpocv crou, xocl. 't"6't'e:, we; &e"Ae:Lc;, OL "Aomol.
OVTOCLI O'OL.)) K OCL\ O' ,, t'E: 7tOCpe:7te:Lcre:v
OCU' '
t'IO\I, !!LVot 1t/\'Y)pwcrri
'I I (.l,
't"'Y\ )V 1-'0U/\'Y)Vl 'I\ 40
' - \ rt <'I I It' - ' \ 't' / '
ocU'tOU, XOCL copLcre:v ye:ve:O''\TOCL OC/\UO'e:Lc; O'Lo'Y)pocc; e:Lc; 't"O e:..,opLO'OCL OCU't"oUc;,
I Q. I

73TP &7t-Yj"A&e:v o I
ko"Aoocvoi:; xd e:fae:v 7tpoi:; Touc; &pxovTocc;, a't'L ' AxfL~v ou
< \ t' 't'
mcr-re:ue:Te:, I
o't"L o< pf).._
fl I
e:c.,,opLcr't'ouc; < -
uoci:; 7tOLe:L, -
xocL\ 7tOCV't'e:/\wc; 'I - >t' > Q.
e:c.,, OCV'1Tpcu7twv I

ylve:TOCL TO v"1)6cruvov uwv; ''Owc; d .&e"Ae:-re: 't'e:Ae:l6lc; 7tA'Y)pO<pOpYJ&ljvocL,

OC7te:"A&6v-re:c; &e:occroccr&e:, 't"L &poc Epyoc~OV't'OCL 7tOCV't'e:c; ot xoc"Axe:'i:c; "TI 7tpocr't'OC~e:Ll45
133Be 't"OU p'Y)y6i:;. Kocl. d oux e:6pY)'t"e: OCU't'OUc; &pyoc~oevouc; 't"OCc; oc"Aucre:Lc; xocl. 't'OC
oe:croc, ywwcrxe:-re:, on 7t0CV't'OC 't'OC 7tocp' &ou /..oc/..ooe:voc UfL'i:V fo't'LV ~e:uo-fr
d oE: OCA'IJ&e:uw, cppO\l't'LO'OC't'e: 't"~V CiW't"IJpLOCV uwv xocl. &E: e:ue:pye:TI)croc't"e:,
TOV TOC XP'IJO''t'OC xocl. crw-rfipLoc u'i:v ~ou/..e:ucroce:vov. Ot oE: &pxov't'e:c; 7te:Lcr&Ev-
't"e:c; 't"~ 't"OU ko),oocvou Mycp, &e:occrocp.e:voL oil: xocl 't'OCc; oc/..Ocre:Lc; xocl 't'OC oe:c;oc,150
73 vp 't"E:F,E:LOCV
., , 1t/\'Y)pOcpopLocV
'I 1 r.i. OV, XOCL' E:X'
,,., " t"O't'E: e:e:/\E:'t"CUV
'I 1 I 't"Y)\I
' ot7tWAE:LOC\I
' 'I 1
P'IJYOI; Aoootx.ou. o oil: p~~ 't"OCU't"OC 'TCOC\l't'OC ocyvowv El;1j/..&e: 7tpoc; 't"O XUV'YJY-Yi-
,.,. ',!,
O'U.L. l 7tocr-rpe:'fOCV't"Oc; oe:, <t-1
I l!
(1,,px.ov't"e:i:; >
e:xpOC' I .f.
t""l)O'OCV 't'O\ ){.(1,,0''t'pov, 'I)\
Mcrocne:i:; OCUTOV dcre:"A&e:'i:v. o
oE: p~~ Ao06cx.oc; 't'~V 't"<l}\I ocpx.6v't'CUV ~VO''t"OC-
O'LV vEOCO'ote:voi:;, e:Lc; 'n)V LoLOCV X,COpOCV U7tEO''t"pe:'fe:V.
I ' \ '"" I ' I .I. O'L oe: "'' OCPXOV'
,, t'e:c; E:L7t0V'l' 155
7tpoc; 't'OV kOAOOCV6v <ff( ocpoc &f/..e:Li:; ~occ; 7totljO'OCL O'OL 7te:pl 't'ljc; ye:voev'Y)c;
de; ~oci:; mx.poc O'OU O'CO't''IJptoci:;; 'O OE YJ't"~CiOC't'O EV 't"Yl tot~ x.p~ OC7tOAUCiOCL
OCU't"6v, X<XL TOOTOU ye:vofvou, oc7tlj"A&e:v EV 'AcppLxfl de; 't'~V rnt!Y..v O:U't'OU
x.~pocv. M-lj Em/,oc&6e:voi:; ?)E: ....~c; ocpxoclocc; OCU't"OU xocxtoci:; Ecr't'pOC't"07tt8e:uae:v,
xocl ijJ..&e:v rnx ouvoce:wi:; EV Koc7t07J xocl. EV Be:ve:~e:vo<f> npoc; 't'O no"Arnpxlj-160
I \
741'P CilY.L XOCL U7tO' < 't'
t'OCsOCL '
IY..UTOUc;. I O'L oe:"'' 't"OC\ 't"OLOCU'- t'OC XOCO''t'poc xpOC't"OUV't'e:i:; OC7tE-
I - ' I

O''t'E:L),ocv 7tpfo~e:Lc; npoc; Tov pljyoc Ao06cxov &v <I>pocyyt~, l'.voc &J..&wv cruve:-
7tocovf)TOCL OCU't'o'i:c; XOC't'OC 't'OU kOAOOCVOU xocl 't"WV 'AcppLXWV. 'O oE: p-fi~
F 143 x.a.l TCa.v-re:J.wc;- 144 fLV1JfL6auvov lj.wv: cf. Psalm. 9, 7; 108, 15; Job 9, 2.
V 127 w',-rou Migne II 128 ix\rrov V 1 edd.: ocu't'w P V II 130 ~o).8ixvoc; V Ba Be: Lou)..-
8ixvbc; p II O'XOALOc;: 86A(t)V <l>oLVLXLXWV aux. &.hoxoc; Theoph. Cont. 86).wc; Cedr. II
him to his table and would eat with him. And the nobles of Capua and
Beneventum used to go to Soldan and ask him questions about the treatment
and care of cattle and other matters, because of his age and experience.
And Soldan, who was cunning and crooked, said to them: I would like to say
a thing to you, but I fear to be betrayed by you to the king and I shall lose
my life. But they swore to him, and he took heart and said to them: The
king is minded to banish all of you to great Francia, and if you disbelieve
it, wait a little, and I will satisfy you. And he went off and said to Lewis:
The nobles of this place are evil, and you cannot be master of this country
unless you destroy the powerful men who oppose you; but do you bind the
first men of the city and send them off to your country, and then the rest
will be submissive to you, as you desire. When he had won him to carrying
out his advice, and the king had instructed that chains of iron should be made
for their banishment, Soldan went off and said to the nobles: Do you still not
believe that the king is sending you into banishment, and that all remem-
brance of you will vanish from among men 1 Yet, if you will be perfectly
satisfied, go and see what all the smiths are making by order of the king.
And if you do not find them making the chains and fetters, know that all
I have told you is lies; but if I speak truth, look to your safety and reward me
for my valuable and salutary advice to you. The nobles obeyed the word
of Soldan, and when they had seen the chains and fetters, they were comple-
tely satisfied, and thereafter began to devise the destruction of king Lewis.
The king, in ignorance of all this, went out hunting. But when he came back,
his nobles had taken possession of the city and did not allow him to enter.
King Lewis, seeing himself thus opposed by the nobles, went back to his
own country. The nobles said to Soldan: What, then, would you have us
do for you, in return for the salvation wrought for us by you fo And he
requested them to dismiss him to his own country, which they did, and he
went off to Africa, to his own country. But, mindful of his ancient malice,
he made an expedition and came with a force to Capua and to Beneventum,
to lay siege to and subdue them. The rulers of these cities sent envoys to
king Lewis in Francia, asking him to come and help them fight against
Soldan and the Africans. But king Lewis, when he heard of it, having learnt

132 pljycx Meursius Ba Be: 8ouxcx P II 133 15.<<rcxv P II pl~ P !I 134 AfXe:t
V edd.: .&fklJ P II 136 Ao86'txov Be: LloX61Jxov P II T6TCou om. V Me II -i-ouTou
coni. Moravcsik: Tou P om. edd. II 139 .&e).e:tc; Be: -9-eX'l)c; P II 140 aot V edd.;
<re: P II 1TA"IJPW<f71 edd.: TCA"l)pwcre:~ P II 141 5p1J<re:v P fl 142 ~oXMvoc; Theoph.
Cont. 11 143 pl~ P II 149 O"<T"IJplcx P II 150 :EoX8cxvou V Ba Be: :EouX8cxvou
P JI 152 ptyoc; P II Ao8o~xou P II pt~ P II 154 pl~ P II Ao861Jxoc; P II 155
uTCfoTpe:~e:v: &v-9-uTCe:vocrn)<re: Theoph. Cont. II 156 :Eo).8&.vm; Theoph. Cont. II
.!MXe:tc; v edd.: -9-eX"l)c; p II -Yjiic; v edd.: uIv p II 158 ev , A<pptx1j: xcrnx
Kcxp;ffJ86vcx Theoph. Cont. II 162 ptycx P II Ao861J;(OV P IJ 163 pl~ P /I
AoMr:xoc; 'TCX:U't"CX: cx:&wv xcx:(, ovm:p e7tOL"Y)O"E:V 't'p67toV 0 };o"Aocx:v6c;, 7tdacx:c;
xcx:t 't"OUc; ocpxov't"occ;, O't"L" ~e:alouc; EMEL uocc; 0 ?-Yi~ tv <l>pocyylq. e~op(-165
134Be O"OCt, IXV' , TE:OY)/\C.UO"E:V
II' '"I
CX:U', -
TOtc;, "
O' I
t"L. (( K IXL\ CX:7te:p,, , I
e:7tOL"Y)O"CX: I
7tpO't"e:pov ,
e:Lc; '

e:'t"cx:t"AY)CX:t, O'TL foc.uaoc uocc; &7to -r&v ez&p&v u&v, xcx:t &:vw:7te:oc.:i-
XCX:'Tt ot 7tOvY)pOC OCV't"l &yoc&&v, xcx:t xcx:&wc; eotwz&YJV 7t1Xp' u&v, &p't"LC.U<;
zcx:lpc.u e7tt -r(i ocTCc.ul.dq. u&v. T6't"e: oc7topfiaocvTe:c; oc7to -rou pY)yoc; Aoootzou,
74vp oc7tta't" 7tpfo~e:Lc; 7tpoc; J 'TOV ~cx:m"Aeoc 'P<.Ucx:lwv 'TOU oouvcx:t cx:u't"otc;l 70
~o1i&e:LCX:\I xcx:l. AU'Tpwaoccr&oct 't"OU 'TOLOU't"OU XLVOUVOU. 'O oe ~occrtl.e:uc;
u7tfoxe:'t"O ~O"Y)&~acx:t IXU't"o'i:c;. Toti OE OC7toxpmtcx:pou OC7t0 't'ljc; 7t6"Ae:wc;
> (\ I > '\ t > \ >
U7tOO"' TpE:'I,!,flXV't"Oc; XCX:L\ CX:j' CX:1TOC<; IX((E:/\LOC<; 't"OLc;- I ,!,
TCe:'focO"LV IXU' t"OV OC7tOX.oLo.,,OV- l'f'

't"OI,; 7te:pl 't"lji:; 't"OU ~ocatf.e@; auocx.(occ;, -fi7tc.u 't"OU't"OU oc7tocrw&ev't"oi:; &v
T(jl xoccr"Tp<p, &xpoc~&Y) 7tocpoc 't"Wv ~Ly"A&v Tou ~oJ...Socvou. Ilpoe:yvwxe:Ll 75
yocp okol.oocvoi:; 't"~v ye:yovulocv &7tomo"A-Yiv 7tpoc; txe:alcx:v -.ou;
'P coocLC.UV, XOCL E:TCUX't"E:UO"E:V 't"OU 't"OV IX7tOX.pLO"t1XpLOV OCU't"WV xpOC't'"Y)O"CX:t,
I ' ' , - \ ' , ' - .....

75rp 07te:p xoct yeyove:v. Kpoc't'"Y)&tv't"oc; oe OCU'TOU, f:cx:&e:v -.-Yiv OC7tO't'e:l.e:a&e:t: jacx:v
7tocp' OCU'TOU oout.docv, xoct O't"L oL' ol-lycov ~e:p&v XOCTOCAoc~ocve:L ~ 't"OU
~occn"Aecoi:; 'Pwocf.cov ~o1i&e:Loc. 'O oE ~o"Aoocvoi:; e:!TCe:v "~ ocu't"~ oc7toxpLcrLocplcp,180
u't"L. ((E'L 7tOLY)O"E:Li:;,
O"OL e:L7tc.u,"
,., (\ I
XOCL\ oc.upe:wv
\:' -

IXsLW'\T"Y)<Jfl' e:L oe: Y), 7t0VY)pcp '\TOCVOC't"cp 't'"Y)V 1,,CO"Y)V OCTCO/\&O"e:Lc;. OU- oe:
'!: (\I , II'\ I - (\ I \ .,, \ , '\I T II''

U7toaxoevou ex7tA7Jp&croct 't"OC xe:"Ae:u6e:voc OCU't"~, dm:v 0 ~o"ASixvoi:; 7tp0i:;

IXU' , I
t"OV, ,,
O' t"L. K E:/\E:UW '\ I O"'t'"Y)VOCL
- I "I
ae: 7t/\Y)O"LOV I
't"OU- 't"e:Lxoui:;
;(.IXL\ 7tpoO"XIX/\E:O"IXO"' ..,., (\
'TOOi,; OC7toO"'t"eLAIXV'TOCc; ae: xocl dTCe:'i:v 7tpoi:; ocu-roui:; "Eyw Ev 't"-Yjv Soul.docv,185
135Be ~V c'.)cpe:LAOV 7t0t~ laocL, 7t&7tOLY)XOC, x.ocl. -rov ~occrLf.&IX 'Pwoc(c.uv 7te:pl. u&v
75vp e:oUO"WTCY)O"IX'
I "I '
7tAY)V ...
ouv I I,
yLvwax.e:'t"e:, u'!!t"L e:Lc; x.e:vov e:ye:ve:'t"o \ , I
"Y)' oo'1:-6 i:; ou, XOCL\
< Q "I \ I '\ >I(\ \ > t - I t I \ > \
0 1-'IXO"L/\e:ui:; 7t1X<p1XU/\OV e:ve:'t"O 't'"Y)V 7t1Xp uc.uv ye:yovULIXV LXE:O"LCX:V, XOCL OC7t0
't"OU ~ocmAtwc; ~ el.7tf.~e:'t"e: ~o1i&e:tocv' . Tou OE U7tOO"XOevou 't"IXU'rlX e:'t"OC
xocpocc; EX.7tAY)p&aoct, ~yocyov IXU't"OV 7tAY)crfov 't"OU XOCCi't"pou, xixt &v ou8e:vtl90
&ee:voc; 't"oc 7tixpoc 't"ou ko"Aoocvou p"Y)&tv't"oc TCocv't"oc, -fi't"e: 't"occ; ocTCe:tf.occ; ocu-rou
<po~l).&dc;, fi't"e: -roc'i:c; U7tOcr"JJO"e:O"LV ocu-rou 7t&La&dc;, OCAAOC 't"OV 't"OU 0e:ou
cp6~ov &v 'Tfl xocpotq. ocu't"ou &ee:voi:;, oLe:A.oylaoc-ro &v E:ocuT~, on <~~ucpepov
,!, \
> \
e:cr't"tv > \
e:e: I
ovov > (\
XIXL\ "Yj\ 't"OO"OCU'I t"OC<; 'l'uxocc; OLIX\ ',..oyou
~ "). I 11- -
xoct 7tpOOOUVOCL de; &ocVOC't"OV. Koct o-Yj 7tAY)O"LOV 't"OU 't"dxouc; OCU't"OU ye:voevoul95
\ I \ ,, I
76rP XOCL 7tlXV't"OC<; 't"OU<; ocpx.ov 't"CX:<; 7tpoO":K.CX:/\E:O"OCe:vou, '\ I 'l'
E:L7tE:V npoc; \
't"OU<; I t: ,.,,
't"OC<; 't"OU 't"OLOU't"OU xoccr-rpou 'Eyw ev, xupLO( ou, 'T~\I Stcx:xovlcx:v ou
't: ' \ I1)pCOCilX, XIXL\ 't"IX\ 7totpoc
e:c,&7t/\ 0 \
't"OU- Q1-'IXO"L/\E:C.U<;
'\I 'P c.uocLWV OY)/\C.U'
I II' "I
t"IX utv ' -

&7tocyye:lc&, 7tA-Yjv opx(~c.u u<Xc; de; 't"ov utov 't"OU 0e:ou xoct di:; 't"~V aco't"YjpLocv
7tOCV't"Oc; 't"OU xoccr't"pou xoct IXU't"WV 't"WV l)iux&v u&v, tvoc ocv-rt &ou e:ue:pye:'t"fi-200
F 167 &v-rcxTt"d)wxcxTe: - 168 &ycx&wv: cf. I Reg. 25, 21; Prov. 17, 13.
V 164 Ao06'YJxoc;] litterM Ao in rM. scr. P 1 II 167 ETcxe:eA1JcxL Ba Be II
168 8tw;<.&7)V Meursius Ba Be: e8Lwx&71 p II 169 Ao8o~xou p II 172 cXTt"O
how Soldan had acted in persuading the nobles that, the king purposes to
send you in chains to banishment in Francia, declared in answer to them:
I repent my former conduct towards you, when I saved you from your
enemies, and you returned me evil for good; and as I was cast out by you,
now I rejoice at your destruction. Then, having failed with king Lewis,
they sent envoys to the emperor of the Romans, asking that he should
give them aid and deliver them out of this danger. The emperor promised
to aid them. But when the diplomatic agent had left Constantinople on his
homeward way, bringing back to them who had sent him fair tidings of
the alliance with the emperor, he was still short of the city when he was
captured by the scouts of Soldan. For Soldan had obtained previous intel-
ligence of the sending of a mission of supplication to the emperor of the
Romans and had made efforts to capture their diplomatic agent, which
he did. From his captive he learnt of the service he had performed, and
that in a few days the succours of the emperor of the Romans would arrive.
So Soldan said to this same diplomatic agent: If you do what I tell you,
you shall be a warded freedom and very great gifts; but if not, you shall
lose your life and your death shall be cruel. The man promised to carry
out his orders, and Soldan said to him: I order you to stand close to the
wall and to summon those who sent you and say to them: 'For my part,
I have carried out the service laid upon me, and have importuned the
emperor of the Romans on your behalf; however, know that my journey
was vain, and that the emperor has altogether spurned the supplication
you made, and do not expect succour from the emperor'. When he had
promised to perform this gladly, they conducted him close to the city,
where, disregarding all that Soldan had said, neither fearing his threats
nor seduced by his promises, but setting the fear of God in his heart, he
communed thus with himself: It is expedient that I alone should die, and
not by my word entrap and betray so many souls to their death. So, when
he was near the wall and had summoned the nobles, he thus addressed
those who were in authority over that city: I, my lords, have discharged
my office and will announce to you what was declared by the emperor
of the Romans; but I adjure you by the Son of God and the salvation
of all the city and of your very souls, to reward, instead of me, my children

xptmixplou: "t"'ijc; &yye:).(ixc; 8tiXxovoc; Theoph. Cont. 7tpe:o-(je:uTI)c; Cedr. II 177

"t"OU TOV v Me Be: TOUTOV p II 180 [jo-fi.&e:tcx v edd.: [j(o]Tj-lh:tlX p II cxu-rii)
V edd.: ix(u]"t"O P II 181 7totT)o-e:tc; F edd.: 7totT)cnic; P II 8wpe:wv V edd.:
8[(t)]pe:wv P II 182 &rco).foe:tc; F edd.: &7to).[e]cnic; P &7toAecnic; V I 183
i!:X1tA"IJPWO"CXt v edd.: EXTCA("IJ]PWO"IXt p II e:!7te:v v edd.: e:(!]7te:V p II 184 on
V edd.: o"t"[t] P II nl;i::ouc; V edd.: ntx[ouc;] P II 185 &7too--rd).ixn&c; V edd.:
cX1tOO"T(e:l]A1XV"t"cXc; p v
II IXUTOUc; v edd.: cxu-rou(c;] p II 186 wqie:tAOV edd.:
6q:ie:t).o[v] P II 187 lht V edd.: 8-r[t] P II xe:vov F Meursius Ba Be: xcxtvav P II
188 7tcX-qicxu).ov Migne: 7tcxqicxti).ov P edd. 7tcxpcX q>cxti).ov coni. Bekker II
~.&e:-ro: ~1JXE: edd. II 193 CXIJTOU edd. II 196/7 i!:~oumcfocxv-rcxc; edd. II 199 uai;
v edd. Theoph. Cont.: utv p II
lY , "I (.I, - , (.I, I
cnrre: 't"OC\ 'TEX\IOC I
ou xoct\ TI)\/ \ ....
E/\7tL<..,OUO"OC\I OC7t0A0Ct--EW e: crut--LOV ou we;

yocp TI:OL~O"YJ't"E e:-roc ocu-r&v, 7tocpoc 't"OU OLxoclou XIXL Lcr.&OC7to06-rou ocyoc.&ou
0e:ou, k/..."Aov-roc; xp'i:vocL ~&vTocc; xoct ve:xpoui:;, -rov tcr&ov &.7tol.~ljie:cr&e:.
76vP Ir\..CXL' -rcw-roc - , '
e:mwv n'
7tocpe:vocppuve:v ,
ocu-rouc; ' .../\eywv
' 'E< yw' e:v ' oc7to ' ' I -rou-
136Be I ~OAOIX\IOU OC7t0AOU(J.OCL XOCL m:pl 't"~\I ~W~\I XLVOU\IC.UW, ue:'i:c; SE: crTij't'e:205
~ - ~ ~
e:oplXLDL XOCL\ fl'Y\) oe:L/\OC\lop'Y)cr'Y)'t'E,
"I I '"l"I'
U7tO(J.C.WIX't"E: I
Lxpov, I
XOCLI &Le; ' '"I I
~e:p&v cp&oc~e:L ~ OC'1tOO"'t"OCAE:LcrOC u'i:v O"W'r'Y)ploc 7tOCpOC -rou ~OCcrL:htwc; 'Pw-
oclcov. Tcxu'TOC SE: IXU't"OU d7t6v-roc;, ot xoc-rexovnc; IXU'rO\I ob<.e:LoL 't"OU
~o/,01Y.vou 7tocpoc 7tpocroox(ocv 'TOC nocp' ocu-rou :Aocl.'Y)&ifv-roc &.xoucrocvTe:c;,
e~pu~ocv E7t' OCU'TO\I -rouc; o06v-roci:;, XOCL de; -rou h&pou 7tpoe-rpe:xov, 'rLc; &poc210
njc; crcpocyYjc; OCU't"OU yeyove:v IY.U't"OUpy6c;. Tou Se 7t1Xp' ocu-r&v OC\IOCLpe:&ev-
n' C "'"111' \ \ ~(.I, "II I ~ I
'TOc;, 7t'rO'Y)ve:Li:; 0 "'"'0/\00CVOc; 't"')'j\I 't"OU jJOCO"L/\C.Wc; xoc-repzoevriv OU\IOCO"'t"ELOCV,
U7tE:O"Tpe:'fC.\I I ,I, ,
e:Lc; \
'r')'j\I ,~,
IXL EX'rO'rE Y..IY.L\ e:xpL 'rOU VU\/ XOCL OL
I - - \ (

77rp Tijc; Koc7tUYJc; I xoct ot -r9jc; Beve~e:voou dcrtv U7to -r~v E:~oucrlocv -r&v'Pwoclwv
> "I I \l- l"I ~ \
e:Lc; 't"E/\E:LOC\I oOU/\WO"L\I XOCL\ U7tO't"C!"(')')V
C \
'r')'j\I etc;' '
ocu-rouc; I
yevoe:V'Y)\I I I"\
WU'TYJV e:ue:pye:cr(ocv.
"O 'TL 'TO\ xoccr-rpov I
-rou- 'P IY.OUO'LI OU OU, XOC/\EL' "I -
t"OCL 'p OCOUO"L , "Tl- 'p wocLW\I I

'"I "I' >

oLOCF,e:X'"I I
t"cp, OC/\/\ E:7te:t\ E7tOC\ICO
> I - - r1
't"W\I Xp'Y)vwv LO"'t"IX't"CXL, /\E"(C.'t"IXL pwocLO"'t"L 0
"I I C ,, I CC

Xp"fjvuc; /\OCU exr,'Y)v .pocv oe: e:x 't"OU'TOU OCUO"OCLOt, 'Y)"(OU\I ' Ot' XOC'(\\TE<..,O(J.E\IOL
i "I _, , ... I~ ,~\ , A - ,, .,,,
Xp"i)(J.\10\1 I ,
. 'H oe: ~
XOLV'Y') (jU\l')'jI'l(TELOC, \
YJ' 7tO/\/\OCXLi:;"I "I I
e:'t occpveLpoucroc
(\ I 220
'!OC ov6oc'TOC 'T?j ivr1.).),ocy?) 't"W\I ypocchwv, e:-roc~OCAOU<rot -rYjv XA~O"L\I
'Pocoucroclouc; -rou-rouc; E:xoc:Ae:cre:v. Ot oE: OCU'rOL 'Pocoucrocf:ot -ro 7t0CAIXLO\I
' I
't"O xoccr-rpov 't"O E7tL/\e:yoevov
\ I \ ' i I Il't-rocupot, XOCL\ C.7te:Lo"t), ' ~I
13 ., , , / C\ \ / '
/\OL7t0C e:xpOCTI)'lT'Y)O"OC\I :v.occr-rpoc 7t0Cp1X 'r(J)V "'"'X/\OCt--W\I -rwv O\l't"(l)\I ev -rep 'lTE- - " ' "I / (.I, - '' \ ' - n /
7Be , ,n , , _ , , , , , , , ~,
oc'TL, e:xpOCTI)'lTYJ XOCL 't"O 't"OLOU't"O\I xoccr-rpov, XIXL OL e:v e:crcpocYIJcrOCv, OL oe:225
, "I ~\ ~ > - ~ >
"flXOC/\CO' rLO"'lT"f)O"OCV, OLC oe:
I (\
oU\l' (\I
Y)'lTE\l't"C.c; e:xcpuye:tv XCf.LI OLOCO"W' lT'(\-
Y)VOCL E:Lc; -rouc; I

7 ' ' ~
u7tox.privouc; -ro7touc;
( f I I
xoc-rcpX'Yjcrocv, ev)
c.p e:cr-rLv ocp-rtwc; I
-ro\ xoccr-rpov,
I '
, ' \ I I \ lj. \ ,,.,, "")' \
1p1Y.\/Te:c; OCU't"O 7tpo-repov L:v.pov, XOCL 7tOC/\L\I e:-roc 't"OCU't"OC (J.C.L<..,OV, XIY.L
:mx TOU'TO noc),w 't"O -re'i:zoc; OCU't"OU ocu~~O"IY.\l't"C.c; &zpL t S' ~xe:w t 't"O
xocmpov OLOC 't'O 7t),ocwve:cr&ocL ocu-rouc; xoc-r' o/.lycv xoct 7tt,'Y)&Ove:cr&ocL. 'Ex230
ae: -r&v e:-rOLX't)O"OC\l'TW\I de; 'TO 'PocoOcrLO\I dcrlv oiS-rw rp'Y)y6pLoc;, 'Apcroc-
rpLoc;, Bo<.-rcopi:voc;, BL't'cXALOc;, Boc"Ae:v"T'i:voc;, 0 ocp)'..LOLcXXC.UV, Boc"Ae:v-r'i:voc;, 0
7t1X't"'~p -rou 7tpC.U'T00"7tOC&ocpf.ou ~'t'e:cpocvou. 'Acp' oo SE: ocr.o ~ocA.&voc e:-rcl>x'Y)-
7grp crocv e:Lc; ' TO' 'P OCOUO"L I
, ov, ELO"L\I I ' ETI)
cpI i:;x_pL 1..
't' Y- )c; O"Yjp.e:pov,I
'Y,, J't'L<; L\IOLX'
, ~
t"LC.U\I '

E't'Ouc; ,c;uv~' .'Ev oE: -r(i'l ocu-r(i'l xoccr-rpcp xe:'i:'t"OCL 0 &yLoc; Ilocyxp&mo~ E:v Tc'!>235
vex<;> 't'OU ocy(ou ~-re:q;i&:vou, Tifi 6v-rL foov 'rOU OCU't'OU XOCO''t'pou.

F 203 e)J,onoc; - vEx.pouc;: II Timoth. 4, 1. 203 '!Ov ta-9-ov &.7toA1]-

ljle:a-9-E: cf. II loh. 8. 210 ~[jpu~cxv - 086ncxc;: cf. Acta 7, 54.

V 201 cro~t6v: croveuvov Theoph. Cont. 203 ante eUovToc; add. Toll V II
and her who is hoping to receive me back, my wife; for as you deal with
them, so shall your reward be from God, the just and righteous rewarder,
who shall judge the quick and the dead.>} When he had so spoken, he fort-
ified them with these words: For my part I shall be destroyed by Soldan
and the threat of death is upon me; but do you stand fast and be not faint-
hearted, but endure a little while, and in a few days shall arrive the salva-
tion which has been sent to you by the emperor of the Romans. When
he had so spoken, the servants of Soldan who had charge of him, hearing
his unexpected message, gnashed with their teeth upon him, and each
outran the other to be the author of his murder. But after he was made
away by them, Soldan, dreading the powers of the emperor that were coming
upon him, withdrew to his own country. And from that time until this day
the men of Capua and the men of Beneventum have been under the authority
of the Romans in perfect servitude and subjection, for that great benefit
which was done to them.
The city of Ragusa is not called Ragusa in the tongue of the Romans
but, because it stands on cliffs, it is called in Roman speech 'the cliff, lau';
whence they are called 'Lausaioi', i. e. 'those who have their seat on the
cliff'. But vulgar usage, which frequently corrupts names by altering their
letters, has changed the denomination and called them Rausaioi. These
same Rausaioi used of old to possess the city that is called Pitaura; and
since, when the other cities were captured by the Slavs that were in the
province, this city too was captured, and some were slaughtered and others
taken prisoner, those who were able to escape and reach safety settled in
the almost precipitous spot where the city now is; they built it small to
begin with, and afterwards enlarged it, and later still extended its wall
until the city reached its present size, owing to their gradual spreading out
and increase in population. Among those who migrated to Ragusa are:
Gregory, Arsaphius, Victorin us, Vitalius, Valentine the archdeacon, Valentine
the father of Stephen the protospatharius. From their migration from
Salona to Ragusa, it is 500 years till this day, which is the 7th indiction,
the year 6457. In this same city lies St. Pancratius, in the church of St.
Stephen, which is in the middle of this same city.

206 o/..(yov Ba Be: o/..lycuv p II 207 cpMael edd. i!pxeTIXl Theoph. Cont. II
208 otxdot: U7t"tJpET1Xl Theoph. Cont. II 211 ixOTou acpcxy'ij~ edd. II yeyove:v: yev.:Le:v
V edd. II 212 xixnpxoE:v"t)v: tpxotv"t)v edd. II 217 'Pixouo-1) P II 218 7J0St
J..eye:TIXl add. oe Be II 219 AIXU: AIXOU Migne II oe om. Be II 222 'Pixouaix!ol
p II 223 IHTIXUplX: 'E7t!ocxupov coni. Bandurius II 226 oE: secl. Jenkins II 229 o'
E:xe:w: o' Me o' ~xew Ba Be (Tou) wo' E:xe:w coni. Bekker TOU
'/f:ypv <To eye.&o.; o &pTlcu<; E:x_e:t) coni. Bury II 232 BlxTcup-ijvo<; P II
Bcx/..evTLvo.;2 Bandurius Be: BixvevTrvo<; P 711{/ P II 233/4 eTolX"fJOIXV P II 234 TO
om. edd. 11 cp': T' coni. Mikoczi 9iSi6 x' coni. Labuda II tvotxnwvoi:; edd. II
~: e~116"f)i:; edd. II 235 Tiji IXUTiji v edd.: TO IXUTO p II
"O "C'L "C'O-U 'A 0'7t'OC/\0C'
., 'nIJ"OU XOCO''tpov,
' l!
u7te:p <7t'OC/\OC'
., ' t'LOV Lxpov
' , e:p"Y)ve:UE:'
< ' t'OCL,

0 ~occrL/,e:uc:; ALOXA"YJ't'LOCvoc:; "C'OU't'O ~X't'LO'e:v e:Ixe:v oE: cxtho Wt; toLOv o!xov,
1f. ~ n
Y..OCL\ OCU/\11V >"I.), ) ~
t;;VOO..:rE:V XOCL\ 7t'OCr,CX' "I I >t: T
t'tOC, E:<, WV 't'OC\ 7t'/"I\E:LOVOC I
XCX't'E:/\Uv "I lj:\..,,,
0'0CV. LW~E:'t'OCL oE: 't'OU vuv o/,(yoc, E:~ llv Ecr"C'LV 't'O E7tWX07te:i:ov 't'OU240
I \ ( \ ..., < I A6 > T I t ' \ tf
XOCO''t'pou XOCL 0 vococ:; 't'OU ocytou Ll vou, e:v cp XOC't'OCXE:L't'OCL 0 OCU'toc; 1XYLOc:;
A6voc:;, 57te:p ~v xot-rwv -rou OCU't'OU ~ocm"AE:wc:; AtoxA"Y)'t'LOCvou. '17toxoc-rw
138Be oe:~' OCU' ' t'O-U U1t'' O,CpX,OUO'LV e:Lr."Y)[J.OC' ,., t'LXOCL' xococpocL, , !I
ocvnve:c; I' - I .,
e:v ocrc:; 't'OUt:;; 7t0Cp , OCU' t'OU- l"occrocvL..,oe:vouc; A ,... , 1
ocyLOuc; ,
E:VOC7t' L"I
t;X/\E:LE:V IX7t' ,

'A7t'O'XE:L't'OCL oe: ~\ e:v ' OCU' ' t'<. .p 't'<p- XOCO''t'p<p

' XOCL' 0' 1XYLOt:;;d 'Avoccr't'OCO' I LOt:;;. 245
"O 't'L 't'O\ 't'e:Lx.oc:; ... . . , I
't'OU 't'OLOU't'OU XOCO''t'pou OU't'e: IX.7t'O t""YJO"O'OC/\WV &O''ttV,, , ' (.l 'i ' '

> I ,, > \ > I >ii J > \ i In._ ~I ' I

E:X't'LO'e:vov, OU't'E: OC7t'O e:yx.op"Y)you, OC/\/\ OC7t'O AL'ITWV 't"&'t'pOC1t'E:oLXWV, EX,OV't'WV
de:; ljxoc:; ocvoc opyULocc; Locc;, 7t'OAAOCxLc:; xoct ocvoc Mo, xoct 't'O 7tAOC't'oc:; &voc
opyutocc:; tiic;, o('ttvE:c; ELO'LV O'UV"Y)pocrifvot xoct O'Uvoe:l>e:E:voL dc; &/,J....~/..ouc;
e:'toc' O'Lo"Y)pwv ~I
, "I I A~
o/\Ul"ocp E:YXU/\LOCO'Evwv.
, "I ' "I O''t'OCV't'OCL oe: ~' , 't"O' 't'OLOU't'OV
e:Lc:; - 250
I \ I I 11 > f I > '!" 11 "l"I
XOCO''t'pov XOCt XLOv&c:; 7t'UXVOL, e:xov-re:c; e:mx.vw xocr"Y)'t'OC<;, e:v OLc:; e:E:/\/\E:V
o' ocu-roc:; ' ' l"OCO'
A L"IAe:uc:; ' utc.XA"YJ't'Locvoc:;
A "I ' e:t"A"Y)oc-rtxocc:;
, ' e:ye:tpoct
' - xococpocc:;,
' xoct'
i1 GXE:7tOCO' ' OCt 't'O' XOCO''t'pov , U/\OV,
ll"I -1 ' ., '
xoct' 7tOLlJ O'OCt 't'OC 7t'OC/\OC't'LOC OCU't'OU XOCt 7t'IXV't'OC , - ' '
\ > I ..,. I ) I ..., > I > ( ~ f \
't'OC OLXl)OC't'OC 't"OU XOCO''t'pou E:7t'OCVW TC.UV &LA"Y)oc-rwv e:xe: vwv otwpoc:poc XOCt
'tptwpocpoc, I ,,
WO'"C'& 'i'
XOCL\ O/\Lyov , 't'OU- OCU'
e:x ' t'OU. .'t'pou
' ' T OU- oe:255 ~'

't"OLOU"C'OU XOCO''t'pou "C'O "C'e:i:x.oc:; OU't'e: 7te:pbtoc't'OV EX.Et, ou-re: 7tpoocxwvocc;,

.'."I "I '
fMIJ\.OC -rmx.ouc:;
.ovouc; U't'lJAouc:;
I "" "I \ t:
XOCL\ 't'O<,txocc:; ' c:pw-rocywyouc:;. ,

"O 't't 'C'O' xoccr-rpov ' -ro'TE't'pocyyouptv , vr;cr(ov EO''t'tv ' ' txpov ' Ev , 't'Y-J ..:rOCAIXO'Ufl,
EX,OV xoct 'tpOCX,l)AOV ~Wt; -njc:; yljc:; O''t'E:VW't'OC't'OV olx-riv ye:c:puplou, EV cl>
~ I
ote:px.ov't'OCL OL< XOC't'OtXOUV't'e:c:; - ,
ELc:; 't'O' OCU"C' ' \
O XOCO''t'pov.
I T e:-rpocyyouptv , ~'
OE "I -
XOC/\E:L-26 0
't'OCL OLOC 't'O e:t VOCL OCU't'O txpov otx-riv ocyyoup(ou. 'Ev oE: 'ti{l OCU't'i{l xcfo-rpcp
oc7t6xe:L-roct o &ytoc:; ocp-ruc; AocupE:v-rLoc:;, o &pxtotocxwv.
139Be "0-rt -ro xoccr-rpov "C'WV Ae:xoc-rE:pwv E:p"Y)ve:ue:-rocL 't-{i 'Pwoc(cuv
79vp l>LOCAEX't'<p 'fo-re: lvwevov xoct 1t'E:7t'Vtyevov', Ot6't't dcrepX,E't'OCL ~ .&oc/....OCO'O'IX
&cr7te:p y/..wcrcroc E:cr-re:vcuev-ri ifX,pL -rwv te:' (~) xoct x' t"A(wv, xocl dc; -ro -njc:;265
., ' O'"Y)t:;; cru1t'/\l)pcuoc ., ' ' E:O', 't'LV 't'O ' XOCO''t'pov.
' "EXE:L oe: ~ 't'U l 't'OLOU't'OV - XOCO''t'pOV

, "I , - ,, " "I , "

xux,,cp OCU"C'OU op-ri U'j'l)AOC, wcr'te: vcp -rep XOCAOXOCtptcp l"/\E:7t'E:LV 't'OV l)ALOV 6 - "I I A"I
I \ ""I

~hoc -ro e:aoupocve:!v, 't'i{l 8: x.e:twvt oOl>ocwc:;. 'Ev oE: -ri{l ocu-ri{l x&a-rpcp
xe:i:-roct o &ywc; Tpurpcuv &xepoctoc; 7tiiaocv v6aov lwe:voc:;, ci:Atcr-roc 't'ouc;
U7t'O me:u&-rwv &xoc&ocp-rwv -rupocvvouevouc:; 0 oE: vococ; OCU't'OU fo-rw27.0
"0-rt 't'o xcfo-rpov -rwv Atoc8wpwv xoc/..e:i:-rocL 'tij 'Pwoc(wv otoc"AexT<p
'loc Epoc', 67te:p E:p-rive:ue:-roct '&m~p-rt 1j-rov' o-ri:Aov6n on~ 'Pw-ri E:xTlcr&"YJ,

V 237 -rou: -ro Be (-ro) -rou Bury II 243 ljJ..~cmxcxt P dl..'Jlix-r~xcxt

Meursius Ba Be JI 245 post 8e a4d. xixt edd. II cxo-rij> V edd.: ixo-ro P II
The city of Spalato, which means 'little palace', was founded by the
emperor Diocletian; he made it his own dwelling-place, and built within
it a court and a palace, most part of which has been destroyed. But a few
things remain to this day, e. g. the episcopal residence of the city and the
church of St. Domnus, in which lies St. Domnus himself, and which was
the resting-place of the same emperor Diocletian. Beneath it are arching
vaults, which used to be prisons, in which he cruelly confined the saints
whom he tormented. St. Anastasius also lies in this city.
The defence-wall of this city is constructed neither of bricks nor of
concrete, but of ashlar blocks, one and often two fathoms in length by a
fathom across, and these are fitted and joined to one another by iron cramps
puddled into molten lead. In this city also stand close rows of columns,
with entablatures above, on which this same emperor Diocletian proposed
to erect arching vaults and to cover over the city throughout, and to build
his palace and all the living-quarters of the city on the top of those vaults,
to a height of two and three stories, so that they covered little ground-space
in the same city. The defence-wall of this city has neither rampart nor
bulwarks, but only lofty walls and arrow-slits.
The city of Tetrangourin is a little island in the sea, with a very narrow
neck reaching to the land like a bridge, along which the inhabitants pass
to the same city; and it is called Tetrangourin because it is long-shaped like
a cucumber. In this same city lies the holy martyr Lawrence the
The city of Decatera means in the language of the Romans 'contracted
and strangled', because the sea enters like a contracted tongue for 15 or 20
miles, and the city is on this marine appendix. This city has high mountains
in a circle about it, so that the sun can be seen only in summer, because
it is then in mid-heaven, and in winter it cannot be seen at all. In the same
city lies St. Tryphon entire, who heals every disease, especially those who
are tormented by unclean spirits; his church is domed.
The city of Diadora is called in the language of the Romans 'iam era',
which means, 'it was already': that is to say, when Rome was founded,
246 (3tcriX'Acuv P II 24 7 tYXwpijyou P: tYXwpuyou coni. Kukules II n:.-pome:ll(xwv:
Te-rpcxni:llcuv coni. Laskin II 248 opyuixc; p II tcic;; ix' v edd. II 249 opytiixc; p II 250
o'A((38w p II tYXUALIXcri:vwv edd.: tYXUALIXCJfLEVIX p II post oE: add. xcxt edd. II 251
xocrl-rcxc; P II 252 d'A'JjIX-rtxiXc; Meursius Ba Be II 254 d'A'1Jchwv V edd. 11 8t6pocpcx
p II 255 -rpt6pocpcx p II XIXt: -1) edd. II oJ.!yov edd. ; o'Alywv p ll 258 Te:-rpixyyouptv:
TE: Tpixyyoup(ov coni. Safarik TpixyouptoV mg. P 1 TpiXyouptc; mg. V 2 II txp6v
fo-rt v'1Jcrov V edd. II 261 txpov: ixxpov coni. Jenkins II -r<ji cxth<ji xiXcr-rpcp V
edd.: TO cxtho xcfo-rpov p II 262 iXpwp edd. II 263 Lie:xix-rpcuv: K1he:p1X mg. V 3 II 264
7te:m11yifvov coni. Jenkins: 7te:7tA'Y)yifvov P edd. II 265 te:': 8e:xix7ti:v-re: edd. 11
~ addendum coni. Bury II x': dxom edd. II 267 xuxJ.ov V edd. II 268 -r<ji
ixthcj) V edd.: -ro ixo-ro P /I 269 iixi:pcxmc; corr. Kukules Kyriakides: iixe:pcx!cuc;
Meursius Ba Be: &xixpe:cuc; P JI 271 i)'Atcx-rtxwc; P: dJ.'Y)ix-rtxoc; V edd. 11 272
'Pcucxlcuv V edd.: p&' P II 273 !iX ~po: V Me ~cxe:pif. P: tiX f!pix-r Meursius
Ba Be II
29, 30
gorp 7tpoe:x:ncrvov ~v 'T:O TOLOUTOV xoccr-rpov ~CJ''T:LV oE: TO xoc Jcr-rpov fJ.E"(IX.
'H oe: ll-' X.OLVlJ
' n "' - OCUTO
, ' ' ULOCoC.Upoc.
A 'll- 'E v oe: "'' -rep
- OCU'
, t'e-p XO:O''t'pep27
' 5
xei:-ro:L &v cro:pxt Yi &yloc 'Avoccr-roccrloc, Yi 7tocp&voc;, &uyoc-rlJp ye:yovu'i:o:
J (ll - I \
L'}/\E:UO'OCVTOt:;, XOCL 0 OC"(LOt;
' J - I \ ' '1

Xpucroyovoc; ovocxo<; xoct ocp-ruc; xoct ~ &.yloc OCAUO'Lt; octhou. 'O oE: VOCO<;;
"' I
,, < -> -
-rep TWV X., ~ (M.xorcpoc-re:LWV I

- e:-roc' XL 6vwv 7tp0CO'LVWV

vocep, I
XOCL' '}/\E:UXWV, - '''l
01\0t; E:LX.OVLcre:vot:;
J I J 1: < '}
e:c., Ur.oypocqnoct; / 280
&px_ocloci; 0 oE: 7t'OCTOt; 0:1hou EO'TLV OC7t'O cruyxorrYjc; &ocuoccr't'Yic;."Ecr-rLv
oe: XO:L' e:-re:pot;
,, l
vocuc; .,
1t'r.lJO'LOV I
OCU' '
t'OU- e:Lr.lJOC't'LXOt;,
,., I
'Y/' 'A"(LIX ' T pLoct;, I
' I
14OB e e:mxvw I - '"' ,
't'OU- vocou- ocu' 't'OU 7t'OC/\LV e:'t'e:pot; vocot; I OLXlJV
"'' XOC'T:lJX.Oue:vwv, I XOCLI
sovp OCUTOt; dA'l')OCTLX6t;, de; 8v :V.OCL &vE:.px.ov't'OCL OLOC xox_:A(ou.
0't't dcrtv V"l)crlo: u7t'o ...~v bnxpoc't'e:Locv ~<;; .:\e::Aocdocc; E:.x_pL Be:ve:-285

~e:voou 7tu:v.voc xocl 7toc7to/J.oc, &cr-r:e: 'l')OE7to'te: cpo~e:fo&ocL he:foe: x"Auowvoc

TCXI 7t'/.,\OLOC.
- 'E?:c., OCUTWV
' - 't'WV - V"l)mWV I E:O'
't'O' XOCO''t'pov
'Y/' B'e:xr.oc, ., XOCLI e:Lt; '

t. ''A fl. ' ' ,, '''0' ' ,

e:-re:pov V"l)O'Lov "fl
rf ,
Pt"'l'l xocL e:Lt; e:-re:pov V'i'jO'Lov 'toc I
'!'ocpoc, xocL e:L<; e:-re:pov f/

I \ A P.
out"FHXOC't'OV, OC't'LVOC XOC'tOLXOUV't'OCL e:xpL TOU- vuv.
I ,, - I - T'oc oe: "''
/\OLmx E:LO'LV OCOLX"fl't'OC, e:x.ov'toc e:p"flOXOCO''T:poc, WV 'tOC ovooc-roc E:LO'LV OU't'W<;' 290
}. I ) ) I '' ) I T \ ' I I ) f/

Koc-ro:u-rpe:~e:vw, II L~oux., ~e:/.~w, ~xe:pooc, 'AAw~rt, Lx.lJpMx.Lcrcroc, Ilup6-

't'L.oc, ME:/\E:' ., t'O-C, 'E O''t'LOUV"fl._, ,,.. XOCLI "e:-re:poc rtoc7t'O.IV\OC, I "'"'
't'OCI ,ovooc-rocI
OU' VOOU\1- -

81r P TOCL. T oc, oe:

ll-' .,
/\OL7t'OC' XOCO''t'poc,
't'OC1 OV'
t'O: E:Lt;
' i:
c.,"flpOCv 1 nL
't'OU- ..,.c;oc't'ot:; J
XOCL x.pOC't"'fl-
ITE:V't'OC 7tOCpoc' 't'WV - e:Lp'Y)e:vwv
J I ~ I fJ.
""'xAoct"wv, > I
OCOLXlJ' t'OC XOCL' i::p'i'jOC >I '/

"flOE:VOt; XOC'tOLXOUV't'Ot; tv ocu-roi:c;. 295

30. .:\ L~ "( lJ O' Lt; 7t' e: p l 'T: 0 u & E:. oc 't' 0 c; .:\ e: A oc 't' l oc t;.

Et 7tOCGLv ~ yvwGLC, xocMv, xocl -YJe:!:t; &poc -r:wv 7tf>OC"(f.J..OC't'WV TI)v

yvwcrw ., P.
XOCTOC/\O:fJ.t"IXVOV't'E:t; OU 7toppw 't'OU't'OU
I I n
' ' ''0'\nTE:V XOCL\ 7t'O-CO'L

cpocve:pocv 7tOLOue:v 't'WV e:.&' ~oct; 7tjj E:v 't'OO't'WV ~V o'fi:AwcrLV, 7t?j OE
hE:.pwv oc~LoA6yc.uv -rwwv, (vo: xocl om/.ouv t7tocxo"Aou.&?j 'to xocA6v. 5
141Be To'it; oi'.iv xocl 'r~t; .:\e::Aoc-rf.o:t; I -r:~v 7tOCpOCAlJ~Lv ~lJ't'Oucrw, 61t'wt;
tldicp.&"I) 7tocpti -rwv l:x:Ao:~Lxwv &&vwv, &v-re:u.&e:v fo-rw oc.3i::i:v, oc"A:Aoc rtp6-re:-
pov -r~v &foLv ocu'r~t; OL'fl"('l'J't'EoV. 'Ex rtoc:Aocwu 'tolvuv Yi .:\e::Aoc-r(oc -r~v

F 30. 2 7tiicrw - xix/..Ov: cf. Prov. l, 7; cf. De Cer. (ed. Bonn) 456, 4-5.

V 275 -ri;i cx1hf;i V edd.: -ro ix1ho P 11 277 post Eucr-rix.&lou ali,qwid excidisse
coni. Bury /1279 (-ri;i) -rwv coni. Bekker: -rwv P: -rij> V edd. II Xix'Axo7tpix-rlwv P II
280 uJ.oyparplcxc;: CJn')Aoypcxrpixc; coni. Meursius ii 282 d/..'r)ixnxwc; p: d'A'r)IX-
wtoc; edd. II 284 d/,'Y)ixwtwc; P: d:A'r)ixnx6c; V edd. I/ xoxA.lou coni.
Kukules: xox'Alcxc; p xox'Adixc; v edd. II 285 "0-rL v edd.: ["O]TL p II 286
xi.U8wvcx bts:lcrr:: edd. II 288 -riX: ~ edd. II 289 Aou~p!XIXTOV mg. V2 II
29, 30
this city had already been founded before it; it is a big city. Vulgar usage
gives it the name Diadora. In the same city lies in the flesh St. Anastasia,
the virgin, daughter of Eustathius, who was on the throne at that time;
and St. Chrysogonus, monk and martyr, and his holy chain. The church of
St. Anastasia is a basilica like the church of the Chalcopratia, with green and
white columns, and all decorated with encaustic pictures in the antique
style; its floor is of wonderful mosaic. Near it is another church, a domed
one, Holy Trinity, and above this church again is another church,
like a triforium, domed also, into which they mount by a spiral
Under the control of Dalmatia is a close-set and very numerous archi-
pelago, extending as far as Beneventum, so that ships never fear to be
overwhelmed in those parts. One of these islands is the city of Vekla, and
on another island Arbe, and on another island Opsara, and on another
island Lumbricaton, and these are still inhabited. The rest are uninhabited
and have upon them deserted cities, of which the names are as follows:
Katautrebeno, Pizouch, Selbo, Skerda, Aloep, Skirdakissa, Pyrotima, Meleta,
Estiounez, and very many others of which the names are not intelligible.
The remaining cities, on the mainland of the province, which were captured
by the said Slavs, now stand uninhabited and deserted, and nobody lives
in them.

30. S t o r y o f t h e p r o v l n c e o f D a 1 m a t i a.
If knowledge be a good thing for all, then we too are approaching it
by arriving at the knowledge of events. For this reason we are giving, for
the benefit of all who come after us, a plain account both of these matters
and of certain others worthy of attention, so that the resulting good may
be twofold.
They, then, who are inquiring into the taking of Dalmatia also, how
it was taken by the nations of the Slavs, may learn of it from what follows;
but first of all its geographical position must be told. In olden times, there-

290 exov-rix v edd.: xcuv[ TIX] p ll 291 Kixw:u-rpe:~E:V(7i p Kcxwvype:~e:vw seu

Kix-rixuvype:~e:vw coni. Skok I! Ilt~ux edd. I't~ux coni. Raeki II I:e:A~w P !I
1:xlp8chw:rcm V edd. I:xtpM Klcrcrcx coni. 9afarik !1 292 Me:Ae:-rc% V edd. 11
'Ea-riouv~~: I:e:cr-rpouv'fi~ (= I:e:a-rpouvfimov seu I:e:cr-rpouv-vrialov ?) coni.
Raeki Grot 'Ea-rpouv+i~ coni. Skok.
30. 3 ytv6e:.&ix (coni. etiam Bekker Bury): ytvooe:.&cx V edd. 11 4 qicxve:pav
Be: cpcxvc;pci P \1 5 -rwfuv &~ioA6ycuv edd. II xcxl om. V edd. 11 brcxvcxxoAou&'/j edd. II
7 1:xAcx~t {vt )xwv Migne I\ 8 ante -rolvuv add. h edd. II
, Erxe:v IIX7t0
81 vp ii.px~v e:v , , 't'WV
- , uupp1XXLOU,
, , , 'AV't'tt"ocpe:coc;,
IX7t0 R ,

xocl mxpe:'TdVE'TO E:v txpL 'TWV rijc; 'fo'tplocc; opwv, E7tAIX'TUVE't'O oE: txpt 10
'TOU f::..ocvou~(ou 7t'OTIXou. "H v OE cfooccroc ~ 't'OLIXU't'"I) 7te:pxwpoc; tmo ..riv
p woctCt>V
' XIXL, EVOO<.,O't'e:pov
..- t:' -
't'WV 2!"\.,
e:cr7te:p ( n ,
(l)V ..:re:oc-rwv 't'Ui 't'OLOU-

't'OV &toc -rorxocve:, 7tf..Yiv mxpe:"A~cp&l) 7tocpoc -rwv ~x"Aoc~Lxwv t&vwv -rp67tcp
- "' K ocmpov
-rotcpoe:. ' ' ' 7t'/\ 'l')cr l ov 'Acr7t1XAIX..:rou,
e:crnv 'n ~ -
o" k.JIXA(J)VIX ,.,e;ye:-rocL,
' e:pyov
!::..LOXA'l')'t'LIXVOU 't'OU ~IXO"LMwc;, &.:AA' ~ E:v , Acmoc:Aoc&oc; xocl ocu...Yi 7tocpoc 15
A ; - E:X' 'I t'tO"..:r'
n I'), XIXL' 't"IX ' IXU't'OU
' - r-IXO"L/\LXIX
f.l > '' EXELO"E - E't'UYXIXVOV
'' 1 ELt:;

s2rp oE: LIXAWVIX xoc-rc{>xouv o~ 't'E e:yLcr-rocve:c: IXU't'OU XIXL 't'WV 6x:Awv t lxocvoL
'l'mjpxe: oE: -ro 't'OLOU't'OV xoccr-rpov xe:cpoc:Alj 7tOCcr'l')c; tjc; !::..e::Aoc-r(occ;. 'H&po(-
~ov'to oov ocvoc 7t0CV ~-roe; EX 't'WV AOL7tWV xoccr-rpwv t::..e:J..oc-rlocc; cr-rpoc't'LW't'IXL
~cp~7t7toL, xoct oc7t'e:cr-reA:Aov-ro oc7to ~oc"Awvoc; ifxpL -rwv XL/,(cuv, xocl E:cpo:Aocnov 20
' 't"OV
e:tc; ' ulXVOUr-LV
" ' r.t 7tO't'IXov ' e:ve:xe:v
'' - '
't'(J)V ' O't yocp ' ''; e:xe:L..:rEV
' -n
- ,\ f.l' - \ "' (.t \ > - J! n > > \
't'OU UIXVOUr-LOU 7t0't'IXou 't'IXt:; otoc't'pLr-IXc; E7tOLOUV't'O, t:.V1TIX 1Xp't'twc; e:tcrtv I

ot ToupxoL voocooc ~(ov ~wv-re:c;. ,A7te:px6e:voL oE: ot t::..e:J..oc-rloct:; xoc-r'

e:-roc; "r.t
Et"/\E7t'OV '
7t01'.AIXXLc; -n 't'OU- 7t0't'IXou- 't'IX' 't'E X't'l)V'I')
e:xe:t..:re:v ' XIXL' 't'OUt:; ' ocv..:rpw-
n '

142Be 7tOUc;. ''Eoo~e:v oov octho'i:t:; XIX't'OC 't'LVIX xp6vov OLIX7tEpOCO'IXL XIXL epe:uv~croct, 25 I
82VP 't'L, VEt:; E:LO"LV
, ' Ot' EXELO"E
' - 't'"l)V
..-1 t'IXV EXOV't'Et;.
" I
II E pocO"IXV't'Et;
I OUV.. e:upov
T 't'OCt:;

yuvocLxocc; -rwv - 'Ar.t' \ \ "''
r-ocpwv xocL -roc 7tOCLoLoc ovoc, -rouc; ocvopocc; oe: xocL 't''l')V
I \ ,, "' "'' \ \

, ''!'
ocxoc-,.oucrocv l)ALXLOCV e:v' . I , t:' "''
't'OC<.,LoLCJl. ''A cpvw ouv ... E7tL7te:crocv-re:t:;
, , , '
' , l ' , .1. , ' , , \ ,
ocu-rouc;, XOCt U7t'Ecr't'pe:'!'ocv OC't'OCF,OCLr.wpwc;, OC7tOXotcrocv-re:c; 't'l)V 't'OLOCU' t'"l)V
7tpocLaocv de; 1:ocf..wvoc. 'Qc; oov U7t'fo't'pe:ljJocv ot ''A~ocpe:tt:; E:x -rou -roc~to(ou 30
n_ ~I
XOCL 't"O ye:voe:vov, occp WV
\ \ I ' T, ''
E7tOC..:rov, JI
e:OC' \TOV, e:-rocpocx..:r'n_l'JO"OCV e:v, 'flYVOOUV oe:,
Q._ ' I I ' I

07t0\TEV OCU't'OLt:; 'I') 't'OLOCU't'"I) 7tr.'1JY'l'J 7tpocre:ye:ve:'t'O.

' , (I ' - ' , \ I ''E"'00<.,EV
t:' ... 7tOCpoccpUAOC<.,OCL
ouv , t:'

oco-ro'i:c; -rov xoctpov xocl oc&e:Lv 't'O 7tocv E:~ ocu-rou. 'E7td o6v xoc-roc -ro crov'l')&e:t:;
oc6&tc; ot 't'OC~EW't'OCL OC7tEO"'tOCAl)O"OCV OC7t0 ~oc:Awvoc;, 1j0'1XV oE: oox E:xe:'i:voL,
' , " '', ' I ' "
83rP IX/\/\ e:-re:pot, 't'IXU't'OC e:xe:tvotc; XOCL OU't'Ot XOC't'IX<; ' ' e:..:rEV't'O.
'n ute:7te:poccrocv
A ' 35
oi'.iv xoc-r' ocO-rwv, evwx6v-re:c; oE: ocO-ro'i:c; cruv'l')yevotc; oou, oox, we; -ro 7tp6-
~\ > ) 'ii.. \
-re:pov, e:cncop7tt<Je:votc;, I
OU) ovov I )
ouoe:v oux E7t' OL'I l')<JOCV, OC/\/\<f. XOCL\ 't'IX\ 7tlXV' I
oe:tv6-roc't'OC fooc&ov. ot E:v yiip ocu-r(;)v focpocnmx.v, ot oE: AOL7tol E:xe:tpw-
&rjcrocv ~wv-re:c;, xocl ouoe:tc; E:xdvwv -rwv xe:tpwv E:~tcpuye:v. 'E~e:Tcfoocv-re:c;
,._, ocu-rouc;,
oe: ' '
't'Lve:c; 't'E XOCL' o..:re:v "n ' '
e:tcrtv, XOCL' ocvococ'tTOV't'e:c;,
n' 1
O't't 't:' OCU'
E<., t'(-J)V E7t0C'
" InTOV 40
Tijv dp'l')EV'l')V 7t'Al)yfiv, ~'t'L oE: xocl 7te:pl 't'~c; 7t0LO't''l')'t'Oc;; 't'OU 't'67tOU IXU't'WV
epe:uvficrocv-re:c;, xocl ~crov E~ OCXoYjc; ocpe:cr&ev-re:c;, E:V..p&:'t'"l)O"OCV 't'OUt;; ~WV't'OC<;
oe:crtouc;, xocl eve:Mcrocv-ro TOC t&:-rtoc OCU't'WV' xoc&oc E:xe:Lvot, XIXL o~ 't'ouc;

v 10 'Ia-rp[~ V1 edd.: lcr-rop[ixi; p v II 13 :Ex'AIX~WtXWV v edd.

px 14
I:ixt.wvcx edd.: ~iXAcuvix P /I 15 -roil om. V edd. II 17 I:ix:Awvix (coni. etiam Bury):
klX'Awvocv Ba Be 11 xix-rcJ>xouv V edd. : xix-rolxouv P II -re: om. edd. Ii;
P II lxixxixvol P ll 19 ante 6-e::Aix-rlixi; add,. Tiji; V edd. II 20 post &7to add,.
fore, Dalmatia used to start at the confines of Dyrrachium, or Antibari,
and used to extend as far as the mountains of Istria, and spread out as far
as the river Danube. All this area was under the rule of the Romans, and
this province was the most illustrious of all the provinces of the west;
however, it was taken by the nations of the Slavs in the following manner.
Near Spalato is a city called Salona, built by the emperor Diocletian; Spalato
itself was also built by Diocletian, and his palace was there, but at Salona
dwelt his nobles and large numbers of the common folk. This city was the
head of all Dalmatia. Now, every year a force of cavalry from the other
cities of Dalmatia used to collect at, and be despatched from Salona, to the
number of a thousand, and they would keep guard on the river Danube,
on account of the Avars. For the Avars had their haunts on the far side
of the river Danube, where now are the Turks, and led a nomad life. The
men of Dalmatia who went there every year would often see the beasts
and men on the far side of the river. On one occasion, therefore, they decided
to cross over and investigate who they were that had their abode there.
So they crossed, and found only the women and children of the Avars, the
men and youths being on a military expedition. Falling suddenly upon
them, therefore, they made them prisoner, and returned unmolested, car-
rying off this booty to Salona. Now when the Avars came back from their
military expedition and learnt from their losses what had happened, they
were confounded, but know not from what quarter this blow had come
upon them. They therefore decided to bide their time and in this
way to discover the whole. And so, when according to custom the
garrison was once more dispatched from Salona, not the same men as before
but others, they too decided to do what their predecessors had done. So
they crossed over against them, but finding them massed together, not
scattered abroad as on the previous occasion, not merely did they achieve
nothing but actually suffered the most frightful reverse. For some of them
were slain, and the remainder taken alive, and not one escaped the hand
of the enemy. The latter examined them as to who they were and whence
they came, and having learnt that it was from them that they had suffered
the blow aforesaid, and having moreover found out by enquiry the nature
of their homeland and taken a fancy to it as far as they might from hearsay,
they held the survivors captive and dressed themselves up in their clothes,
just as the others ha<l worn them, and then, mounting the horses and taking

TI]v Me add. njc;