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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 04, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM)


Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather
Conditions Using Different Modulation Formats
Salwinder Singh1 Shivinder Devra2 Karamdeep Singh3
1,2,3
Department of Electronics Technology
1,2,3
Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Abstract In this paper, simulative analysis of 10Gbps DWDM separate the combined optical signals and passes to
DWDM system link with FSO channel using different an optical receiver and only one of optical fiber or FSO
modulation format under different weather condition has channel used between DWDM devices [12].Transmission
been performed. A 1610 DWDM system has been capacity C of a DWDM fiber optic communication system is
analyzed with 1nm channel spacing and the effect of given by[13]
variation in input power and transmission distance is C=B*K*D (1)
observed in terms of Q-factor values of received channels. Where B is the bit rate, K is the optical signal
From the study of variation in input power in the scenario of bandwidth and D is the channel density which is reciprocal
different weather condition (clear, haze, rain and fog) the of channel spacing. Capacity of system increased if
best modulation format has been identified. It has been increasing the bit rate in individual wavelength, expanding
observed that DBNRZ modulation format is best result than the optical signal bandwidth and decreasing the channel
other modulation formats. Similarly in the case of while spacing. DWDM system is a transparent system. It is a bit-
varying link distance under different weather conditions, the rate and modulation format independent scheme. It increases
best modulation format has been recognized. It has been the capacity of existing networks by transmitting many
observed that CSNRZ modulation format is better result channels with minimum optical power per channel
than the other modulation formats. The BER performance of simultaneously on a single fiber [13].
all received signals is also discussed. An effective DWDM system should have the
Key words: DWDM, CSNRZ, CSRZ, DBNRZ, MDBNRZ, following characteristics-[14]:
MDBRZ, Weather Conditions a) Large capacity.
b) System upgrade can maximize existing investment
I. INTRODUCTION\ protection.
Free space optics is a wireless communication technology c) High reliability and flexibility of networking.
which utilizes light for transmission of data through the air d) Compatible all optical exchange.
in the similar manner as the fiber optics uses a fiber cable. An effective DWDM system should have the following
Free space optics is having the same capabilities as that of Merits [15]:
fiber optics, but at a very lower cost and very fast a) Less fiber core to transmit and receive high capacity
deployment speed [1]. It has advantages high speed, low data.
cost, high bandwidth, quick installation high security and b) A Single core fiber cable could divide into multiple
also license-free longer range spectrum [2]. But in fiber case channels.
have problem that is dispersion, nonlinear impacts in a c) Easy network expansion, especially for limited fiber
transmission line but not in the FSO channel [3-5-6] and resource no need extra fiber but adds wavelength Low
FSO system is also severely limited by the four wav mixing cost for expansion because of no need to replace many
effect [4, 28]. Free space optics work on the principal of components such as optical amplifiers.
laser driven technology which use light source and detectors An effective DWDM system should have the following
to transmit and receive information, through the atmosphere Limitations [15]:
same as the Fiber Optic communication cable [2]. The a) Not cost effective for low channels, low channel
rapidly growing volumes of data network traffic driven by recommend CWDM.
the growth of the internet, service providers are always b) Complicated transmitter and receivers.
increase the fiber capacity and wavelength spectral c) The frequency domain involved in the network design
efficiency in their networks [7]. In wavelength division and management, increase the difficulty for
multiplexed network, the fiber bandwidth is divided into implementation.
multiple bands called wave lengths [8]. The WDM enables In the section 2, literature survey is discussed. In
us to multiplex more than one wavelength channels on a the section 3, different modulation formats along with their
single stand of fiber. So it is preferred for transmission over optical spectrum are described. In section 4, explains
long distance transport network. So amount of traffic different weather condition. In section 5, explains simulation
network is increases [9]. Due to traffic of signals Dense setup and parameters. In section 6, results have been
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology is reported for various formats, case -1 power variation from
developed to support tremendous bandwidth [10].Typical 11dbm to 20dbm, case -2 length variations in different
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) weather condition, Case-3 performance Of BER. In section
networks of today employ 50GHz channel spacing, as per 7 conclusions are made.
the international standard [11]. DWDM device combine the
output from several optical transmitters for transmission
across a single optical fiber. At the receiving end, another

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

II. LITERATURE SURVEY III. DIFFERENT MODULATION FORMATS


Ajay K. Sharma et al. (2009) studied robustness of various A. Carrier Suppressed Non return to Zero (CSNRZ)
modulation formats at 40Gbps. The performance is Format: -
categorized using Q-factor. They investigated non linearity
CSNRZ format has high tolerance to the mixed effect of the
and noise show robustness up to 450 km at 40Gbos. At high self-phase modulation and group velocity dispersion (GVD)
rate, CRZ show better results than NRZ, RZ and CSRZ [16]. and has narrower shape of the optical spectrum than the
Farukh Nadeem et al., (2009) investigate the
conventional RZ format. Fig-(1a) shows the schematic
weather effects on Hybrid FSO/RF Communication Link.
diagram of CSNRZ transmitter. In it the NRZ signal after
FSO is the most prefer among different communication
MZ modulator goes through the phase modulator driven by
technologies when a high data rate link is required but
analog sine wave generator at the frequency equal to half the
suffers from different weather effects like fog, rain, snow bit rate. That will introduce zero phase shifts between the
and clouds in the earth atmosphere. Hybrid network, a two adjacent bits and the spectrum will be modified such
combination of FSO main link and radio frequency back up
that the central peak at the carrier frequency is suppressed as
link, is a used to overcome the atmospheric attenuations.
shown in the Fig-(1b).
The simulation results show that for frequencies greater than
40 GHz have the rain attenuations are higher for GHz B. Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero (CSRZ) Format: -
frequency links as compared to the prime FSO link. The CSRZ format has high tolerance to the mixed effect of the
combination of FSO with 40 GHz backup link would self-phase modulation and group velocity dispersion (GVD).
provide good backup data rates though availability achieved Fig-(2a) shows the schematic diagram of CSRZ transmitter.
would be under heavy rain [17]. In it the RZ signal after MZ modulator goes through the
E. Ciaramella et al., (2009) described the novel phase modulator driven by analog sine wave generator at the
idea of 1.28 Terabit/s (32 x 40Gbit/s) WDM transmission frequency equal to half the bit rate and That will introduce
systems for free space optical communications. In this paper 180o phase shift between the two adjacent bits and the
investigates the improvement in the signal power spectrum will be modified such that the central peak at the
stabilization is achieved by saturated EDFAs. The results carrier frequency is suppressed as shown in the Fig-(1b)
show that when the terminals are fed by common WDM [22].
signals they allow enough power budget and margins to
support a record high capacity transmission (3240Gbit/s), C. Duo-Binary Non return to Zero (DBNRZ) Format: -
with an enormous improvement of stability means six hours Fig-(3a) shows the diagram of DBNRZ transmitter. The Duo
with no error burst [18]. binary was generated by first creating NRZ duo binary
Jagjit Singh Malhotra et al., (2010) investigate the signal using a duo binary precoder, NRZ generator and a
Performance analysis of NRZ, RZ, CRZ and CSRZ data duo binary pulse generator. The generator drives the first
formats in 10Gbps. In this paper investigate the performance MZM and then the cascades this modulator with a second
of NRZ, RZ, CRZ and CSRZ data formats analyzed on the modulator that is driven by a sinusoidal electrical signal
basis of bit error rate (BER), Q2 (dB), OSNR, eye opening with the frequency on bit rate and phase = -90o. The duo
performance metrics. The results show that CRZ and CSRZ binary precoder used here is composed of an exclusive-or
modulation format is perform better as compared to NRZ gate with a delayed feedback path and frequency spectrum
and RZ. The CSRZ has optimal performance according to shown in Fig-(3b) [22].
performance metrics [19].
D. Modified Duo Binary Non return to Zero (MDBNRZ)
T. Sabapathi et al., (2011) described the analysis of
Format: -
bottlenecks in DWDM fiber optic communication system.
The author described the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Fig-(4a) shows the schematic diagram of MDBNRZ
(SBS), Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) and Four Wave transmitter are called carrier suppressed duo binary format.
Mixing (FWM) in DWDM. In this paper analyze the effect MDBNRZ was generated by first creating an NRZ duo
of SBS, phase mismatching and wavelength spacing [20]. binary signal using a delay and subtract circuit that drives
Ross Saunders et al., (2011) studied the concept of the first MZM and then concentrating this modulator with a
Coherent DWDM (CDWDM) technology for high speed second modulator that driven by a sinusoidal electrical
optical communications. In this paper studied that an initial signal with the frequency equal to the bit rate and phase
implementation of 40 Gb/s coherent systems using dual equal to -90o. The generation of MDBNRZ signal is same as
polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) after the DBNRZ signal except the delay-and-add circuit is
that development in the new systems running at 100Gb/s replaced by a delay-and-subtract circuit. In the duo binary
DP-QPSK data rate. In the CDWDM poses some significant signal used earlier where the phase of bits 1 are modified
challenges in terms such as electro-optic, DSP, ADC/DAC only after a bit 0 appear where as in the modified duo
design and fiber nonlinearity [21]. binary signal the phase is alternated 0 and 180 for the bits
It has been observed from the study of available 1. Also optical signal spectrum shown in Fig-(4b) that
literature that most of researchers have contributed towards carrier of the duo binary signal has been suppressed [27].
enhancement of fiber optic communication links by different E. Modified Duo Binary Return to Zero (MDBRZ) Format:
modulation formats, whereas none of the precision
researchers have investigated the performance of free space Fig-(5a) shows the schematic diagram of MDBRZ
optical communication link by employing different transmitter format. MDBRZ was generated by first creating
an RZ duo binary signal using a delay and subtract circuit
modulation formats.

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

that drives the first MZM and then concentrating this


modulator with a second modulator that driven by a
sinusoidal electrical signal with the frequency equal to the
bit rate and phase equal to -90. The generation of MDBRZ
signal is same as the DBNRZ signal except the delay-and-
add circuit is replaced by a delay-and-subtract circuit. In the
duo binary signal used earlier where the phase of bits 1 are
modified only after a bit 0 appear where as in the modified
duo binary signal the phase is alternated 0 and 180 for the
bits 1 frequency spectrum shown in Fig-(5b) [29].

2b)
1a)

3a)

1b)

2a) 3b)

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

4a)
5b)
Fig.1. (1a) schematic of CSNRZ transmitter, (1b) frequency
spectrum of CSNRZ transmitter, (2a) schematic of CSRZ
transmitter, (2b) frequency spectrum of CSRZ transmitter,
(3a) schematic of DBNRZ transmitter, (3b) frequency
spectrum of DBNRZ transmitter, (4a) schematic of
MDBNRZ transmitter, (4b) frequency spectrum of
MDBNRZ transmitter, (5a) schematic of MDBRZ
transmitter, (5b) frequency spectrum MDBRZ transmitter.

IV. DIFFERENT WEATHER CONDITIONS


FSO channel performance is affected by different weather
conditions. There are four different weather conditions like
clear, rain, haze and fog etc. and these conditions are
explained below and show in table-1.
A. Clear weather condition:
4b) In clear weather has very less attenuation or its amount is
negligible. The amount of attenuation in the clear weather is
from 0.23dB/km.
B. Rain condition:
Rain has a distance-reducing impact on FSO, although its
impact is significantly less than that of weather conditions.
This is because the radius of raindrops (200-2000m) is
significantly larger than the wavelength of typical FSO light
source. Typical rain attenuation values re-moderate in
nature. The amount of attenuation in the rain condition is
19.28dB/km.
C. Fog condition:
Fog is the most detrimental weather phenomenon to FSO
because it is composed of small water droplets with radii
about the size of near infrared wavelengths. The particle size
distribution varies for different degree of fog. The amount of
attenuation in the fog condition is 84.91dB/km.
D. Haze condition:
Haze weather condition also has a distance-decreasing effect
5a)
on FSO system performance even though its impact is less
as compared to fog and snow. The haze particles are very
small and stay longer in the atmosphere, but the rain
particles are very large and stay shorter in the atmosphere.
This is the primary reason that attenuation via rain is less

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

than haze. The amount of attenuation in the fog condition is V. SIMULATION SETUP
2.37dB/km. Fig-2 shows the schematic of simulation setup of a 16
S.no Weather condition Attenuation(dB/km) channel DWDM optical communication system links with
1 Clear 0.23 FSO channel at 10Gbps with central frequency of first
2 Haze 2.37 channel is 1550nm. The simulation setup is composed of
3 Rain 19.28 transmitter, FSO channel and receiver. The WDM
4 Fog 84.91 transmitter consists of a CW laser, data modulator, PRBS
Table-1 Different weather condition generator and optical multiplexer.

Fig. 2: Schematic of simulation setup of DWDM


The WDM receiver consists of optical DEMUX, DWDM is passed through PIN diode, reference frequency
filter and PIN diode. FSO channel connected between the range 1550nm to 1565nm for respective PIN photodiode and
optical Transmitter and optical Receiver and at the output then signals fed to filter and regenerator and signal
side BER analyzer also be connected. The simulation connected to BER analyzer which is used as a visualizer to
parameters of FSO channel used in the system model is generate graphs and results such as eye diagrams, BER, Q
given in table-2. value, eye opening etc.
Parameter Value
Depends upon VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Attenuation
weather condition The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
Bit rate(Gbps) 10Gbps taken out in two cases. In the first case the transmitter power
Sequence length (bits) 128bits can be varies from 11dbm to 20dbm with different weather
Samples/bit 64 condition and in the second case length is varies different in
Central Frequency of first channel different weather condition. Different Power and Length can
1550nm to1565nm
to16 channels(nm) be varies and result discussed below.
Range
Depends upon CASE 1:- POWER VARIATION FROM 11dbm
weather condition TO 20dbm
Transmitter Aperture Diameter(cm) 5cm
Receiver Aperture Diameter(cm) 45cm A. Clear weather condition:
Beam Divergence(mrad) 0.5mrad The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
Line width 10MHz taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1. In
Extinction Ratio 10dB this case attenuation value is 0.23dB/km, power is varies
Table -2 Simulation parameters of FSO from 11 to 20dBm, length is set to11km (Kilometer) and
In optical transmitter WDM MUX have 16 input bitrate is set to 10Gbps. Clear weather condition can be
ports, so these ports connected with the output of 16 apply on the FSO channel link with different transmitter
transmitters where the emission frequencies are equally modulation (CSNRZ DBNRZ MDBNRZ CSRZ MDBRZ).
spaced and the emission frequency range is 1550nm to In this case we have used 16 channels but in result discuss
1565nm with frequency spacing of 1nm between adjacent takes only three channels that is channel-1, channel-7,
channels. Optical signals from 16 transmitters are fed to the channel-16 and these channel show in the fig-3a, fig-3b and
16 input ports of the optical multiplexer (WDM MUX) fig-3c respectively. In the fig-3a channel-1, shows that
bandwidth is 50GHz.The tight channel spacing include inter DBNRZ system has better performance than the other
channel interference due to channel spectra overlap. So each systems. In CSNRZ system also give better result than the
channel is optically filtered with narrow transmission optical other system but not better result than the DBNRZ system.
filter. Here a second order Bessel filter is used. The In the fig-3b channel-7, shows that DBNRZ system has
transmission link is FSO channel at 10Gbps is used between better performance than the other systems. CSNRZ system
the transmitter and receiver of DWDM system. In the also similar result but not better than the DBNRZ system. So
receiver the signal is de-multiplexed, detected by PIN DBNRZ system is better performance than the other
detector, passed through the filter and 3R regenerator. systems. In the fig-3c channel-16, shows that DBNRZ
Optical de-multiplexer have 16 output ports having system has better result than the other systems. CSNRZ
bandwidth 50GHz.The signal from each output port from system also better performance than the other system but not

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

better than the DBNRZ system. In CSRZ MDBNRZ is 11dBm, 11dBm and 12dBm respectively for MDBNRZ
MDBRZ systems value of Q factor first decrease and then system. So DBNRZ system is also better performance in fog
constant vale of Q factor as show in fig-3. So at last we have weather condition.
discuss that in three channels DBNRZ system is better
performance than the other systems. So in case of 16
channels DBNRZ system is better result than the other
systems.
B. Haze weather condition:
The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1.In
this case attenuation value is 2.37dB/km, length is set to
4km (Kilometer), power is varies from 11 to 20dBm, and
bitrate is set to 10Gbps. Haze weather condition can be
apply on the FSO channel link with different transmitter
modulation. In this case we have used 16 channels but
discuss in result takes three channels that is channel-1,
channel-7, channel-16 and these channel show in the fig-4a,
fig-4b and fig-4c respectively. In it case DBNRZ system
better result than other systems at channel-1, channel-7,
channel-16 shows in fig-4 and other case that is CSNRZ
CSRZ MDBNRZ and MDBRZ value of Q factor increase or
decrease when channel change, the result of systems also
change when move from one channel to other channel. So at
last we have discuss that when move from one channel to
other channels as we seen that DBNRZ system have similar
result in all channel but other system have vary the result.
So DBNRZ system is better performance than the other
systems.
C. Rain weather condition:
The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1.In
this case attenuation value is 19.28dB/km, power is changes
from 11 to 20dBm, bitrate is set to 10Gbps and length is set
to 1100m (meter). Rain weather condition is applied on the
FSO channel link with different transmitter modulation. In
this case also used 16 channels but in result we have taken
three channels that is channel-1, channel-7, channel-16 and
these channel show in the fig-5a, fig-5b and fig-5c
respectively. In its DBNRZ system is also better result than
the other systems. In this case channel-1 and channel-7 for
MDBRZ system have different result in the channel-1 the
value of Q factor is zero at transmitter power 11 to 13dBm
but in channel-7 value of Q factor is zero at transmitter
power 11dBm. In DBNRZ system value of Q factor is 5 at
the transmitter power is 11dBm. So DBNRZ is better result
than the other systems.
D. Fog weather condition:
The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1.In
this case power is varies from 11 to 20dbm, attenuation
value is 84.90 dB/km, length is set to 345m (meter) and
bitrate is set to 10Gbps. Fog weather condition apply on the
DWDM link FSO channel with different transmitter
modulation. In the result we have taken three channels that
Fig. 3:a) Clear weather condition channel-1 3b) Clear
is channel-1, channel-7, channel-16 and these channel show
weather condition channel-73c) Clear weather condition
in the fig-6a, fig-6b and fig-6c respectively. From the graph
channel-16
it is clear that DBNRZ system is better result than the other
systems. In the graph show that the value of Q factor is zero
at channel-1, channel-7 and channel-16 at transmitter power

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

Fig. 5:a) Rain weather condition channel-1 5b) Rain


weather condition channel-7 5c) Rain weather condition
Fig. 4: a) Haze weather condition channel-1 4b) Haze channel-16
weather condition channel-7 4c) Haze weather condition
channel-16

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

E. Clear weather condition:


The result of given FSO system can be taken out by using
the above parameters given in table-1. In it attenuation value
is 0.23dB/km, power is set to 20dBm, length is varies from
0 to 38.5km and bitrate is set to 10Gbps. Clear weather
condition applied on the DWDM link FSO system with
different transmitter modulation (CSNRZ DBNRZ
MDBNRZ CSRZ MDBRZ). In the result we have taken
three channels that are channel-1, channel-7 and channel-16
as shown in fig-7a, fig-7b and fig-7c respectively. From the
graphs, as we seen that CSRZ and MDBRZ systems have
better result. In CSNRZ system for channel-1 the value of Q
factor reduce from 241.50 to 0 in the transmission range 0
to 35(KM) and in CSRZ system value of Q factor reduce
from 293.14 to 0 in the transmission range 0 to 31.5(KM)
and similar result come for channel-7 and channel-16.
MDBNRZ system has very bad performance in all channels.
So CSNRZ and CSRZ systems have better result in clear
weather condition.

F. Haze weather condition:


The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1. In
the result we have taken three channels that are channel-1,
channel-7 and channel-16 as shown in fig-8a, fig-78 and fig-
8c respectively. In this case attenuation value is 2.37dB/km,
power is set to 20dbm , length is varies from 0 to 8800m
(Meter) and bitrate is set to 10Gbps. Haze weather condition
applied on the FSO system link with different transmitter
modulation. In result we have seen from the graph for
channel-1 CSNRZ reduced Q factor from 851.24 to 0 in
transmission range 0 to 8800m (meter) and in CSRZ system
Q factor reduce form 289.27 to 0 in transmission range 0 to
7920m but in DBNRZ system the value of Q factor reduce
from 109.22 to 0 in transmission range from 0 to 8800m and
similar result come in channel-7 and channel-13. So CSNRZ
system is better result than the other systems.

Fig. 6: a) Fog weather condition channel-1 6b) Fog weather


condition channel-7 6c) Fog weather condition channel-16
Figure show different weather conditions on
different modulation format with transmitter power change
from 11 to 20dBm.
Case 2:- Length Variation In Different Weather
Condition

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

Fig-7a) Clear weather condition channel-1 7b) Clear


weather condition channel-77c) Clear weather condition
channel-16

Fig. 8:a) Haze weather condition channel-1 8b) Haze


weather condition channel-7 8c) Haze weather condition
channel-16

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

G. Rain weather condition:


The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1. In
the result we have taken three channels that are channel-1,
channel-7 and channel-16 as shown in fig-9a, fig-9b and fig-
9c respectively. In this case power is set to 20dbm,
attenuation value is 19.28dB/km, length is varies from 0 to
1800m (Meter) and bitrate is set to 10Gbps. From the
graphs, as we seen that CSRZ and MDBRZ systems have
better result. In CSNRZ system for channel-1 the value of Q
factor decrease from 243.21 to 0 in the transmission range 0
to 1800m (Meter) and in CSRZ system value of Q factor
decreases from 291.91 to 0 in the transmission range 0 to
1800m and similar result come for channel-7 and channel-
16. So CSNRZ and CSRZ systems have better result in clear
weather condition.
H. Fog weather condition:
The result of given DWDM link with FSO system can be
taken out by using the above parameters given in table-1. In
the result we have taken three channels that are channel-1,
channel-7 and channel-16 as shown in fig-10a, fig-10b and
fig-10c respectively. In this case attenuation value is
84.90dB/km, power is set to 20dbm, length is varies from 0
to 600m (Meter) and bitrate is set to 10Gbps. From the
graph, as we seen in CSRZ system for channel-1 the value
of Q factor first increase from 261.24 to 302.90 and then
continuously decrease from 302.90 to 0 in the transmission
range 0 to 500m. In CSNRZ system the value of Q factor
first increase from 234.87 to 235.61 and then continuously
decreases from 235.61 to 0 in the transmission range 0 to
500m and similar result come for channel-7 and channel-16.
But in DBNRZ value of Q factor reduce from 109.22 to 0 in
the transmission range 0 to 600m.

Fig-9a) Rain weather condition channel-1 9b) Rain


weather condition channel-79c) Rain weather condition
channel-16

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

Case 3: - performance of ber


The performance evaluation of BER is carried out using the
attenuation value of clear, haze, rain and fog weather
condition. The performance of BER v/s optical received
power of DWDM link with FSO channel using the DBNRZ
(different) modulation is shown in figure-11 and described
following below. When transmitted power increased from
11 to 20dBm the performance power of BER factor
decreased continuously and received power is measured
using the power meter, the performance of BER and optical
received power is shown in graph.

Fig-11a) BER v/s Receive power performance in


clear weather Fig-11b) BER v/s Receive power performance
in haze weather

Fig-10a) Fog weather condition channel-1 10b) Fog


weather condition channel-7 10c) Fog weather condition
channel-16

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

and channel-13 received power is -12.78dBm at BER -


24.44, so channel-12 is more sensitivity because received
optical power is lower than the other channels optical
received power. In CSNRZ system channel-12 is more
sensitivity than the other channels. In the CSRZ system, we
can also see that channel-12 have received power is -13.40
at BER -14.39 and channel-13 received power is -13.40dBm
at BER -8.34, so channel-12 is more sensitivity because
received optical power is less than the other channels
optical received power. In CSRZ system channel-12 is more
sensitivity than the other channels. In the MDBNRZ system,
we can also see that channel-12 have received power is -
20.64 at BER -8.66 and channel-11 received power is almost
near to -19.56dBm at BER -8.66, so channel-12 is more
sensitivity because received optical power is less than the
other channels optical received power. In MDBNRZ system
channel-12 is more sensitivity than the other channels. In the
MDBRZ system, we can also see that channel-12 have
received power is -22.10 at BER -9.87 and channel-13
received power is almost near to -22.07dBm at BER -9.87,
so channel-12 is more sensitivity because received optical
power is less than the other channels optical received power.
In MDBRZ system channel-12 is more sensitivity than the
other channels.
J. Haze weather condition:
The performance of BER v/s optical received power for
DBNRZ system result shown in above figure-11, as we seen
that when transmitter power increases the resulted BER
decreases. In Haze weather condition we can say that
channel-15 receiver can detect power at lower values up to -
16.05dBm at BER -73.65 whereas channel-13 value of
received power is almost near to -15.60dBm at BER -73.65.
So in two channels, channel-15 have more sensitivity
because received power is low as compare to channel-13.In
the fig-11b show all channels have received power is more
than the channel-15, so channel-15 is more sensitivity than
other channels. In the CSNRZ system, we can also see that
channel-12 have received power is -13.17 at BER -32.79
and channel-13 received power is -12.55dBm at BER -
32.79, so channel-12 is more sensitivity because received
optical power is less than the other channels optical received
Fig-11c) BER v/s Receive power performance in rain
power. So in CSNRZ system channel-12 is more sensitivity
weather Fig-11d) BER v/s Receive power performance in
than the other channels. In the CSRZ system, we can also
fog weather
see that channel-12 have received power is -14.82 at BER -
I. Clear weather condition: 11.84 and channel-13 received power is near to -13.69dBm
In power variation from 11 to 20dBm as we seen DBNRZ at BER -11.84, so channel-12 is more sensitivity because
system is better result than the other modulation systems. So received optical power is lower than the other channels
performance of BER v/s optical received power for DBNRZ received power. In CSRZ system channel-12 is more
system result shown in above figure, as we seen that when sensitivity than the other channels. In the MDBNRZ system,
transmitter power increases the resulted BER constant channel-12 have received power is -22.12 at BER -5.63 and
decreases. In clear weather condition we can see that channel-11 received power is almost near to -20.90dBm at
channel-15 receiver can detect power at lower values up to - BER -5.63, so channel-12 is more sensitivity because
16.62dBm at BER -59.79 whereas channel-14 value of received optical power is lower than the other channels
received power is almost -16dBm at BER -59.79. So in two optical received power. In MDBNRZ system channel-12 is
channels, channel-15 have more sensitivity because received more sensitivity than the other channels. In the MDBRZ
power is low as compare to channel-14.In the fig-11a show system, we can also see that channel-6 have received power
that all channels have received power is more as compare to is -22.52 at BER -7.63 and channel-13 received power is
the channel-15, so channel-15 is more sensitivity than other almost near to -21.95dBm at BER -7.63, so channel-6 is
channels. In the CSNRZ system, we can also see that more sensitivity because received optical power is less than
channel-12 have received power is -16.70 at BER -24.44 the other channels optical received power. In MDBRZ
system channel-6 is more sensitivity than the other channels.

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
Different Modulation Formats
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

Rain weather condition: In Rain weather condition we can MDBRZ system, we can also see that channel-12 has
say that channel-15 receiver can detect power at lower received power is -22.47 at BER -8.31 and channel-13
values up to -17.04dBm at BER -51.12 whereas channel-2 received power is almost near to -21.23dBm at BER -8.31
value of received power is almost near to -16.60dBm at so channel-12 is high sensitivity because received optical
BER -51.12. So in two channels, channel-15 have more power is less than the other channels optical received power.
sensitivity because received power is less as compare to In MDBRZ system channel-12 is more sensitivity than the
channel-2.In the fig-11c show all channels have received other channels.
power is higher than the channel-15, so channel-15 is more
sensitivity than other channels. In the CSNRZ system, we VII. CONCLUSIONS
can also see that channel-15 have received power is -14.16 We have simulated 16 channel 10Gbps DWDM link with
at BER -20.76 and channel-13 received power is -13.20dBm FSO channel under different weather condition at 1nm
at BER -20.76, so channel-15 is more sensitivity because channel spacing over a transmission distance using different
received optical power is low than the other channels modulation (CSNRZ CSRZ DBNRZ MDBNRZ and
optical received power. So in CSNRZ system channel-15 is MDBRZ) format with changing power and distance. From
high sensitivity than the other channels. . In the CSRZ the results it is clear that transmission range decrease when
system, we can also see that channel-12 have received power is varied from 11 to 20dBm under different weather
power is -14.82 at BER -12.16 and channel-13 received condition changing from clear to fog.
power is -13.70dBm at BER -12.16, so channel-12 is more In first case when power is varied for different
sensitivity because received optical power is less than the weather conditions (clear, haze, rain and fog) it is observed
other channels optical received power. In CSRZ system that DBNRZ system gives better result than the other
channel-12 is high sensitivity than the other channels. In the systems in all the cases because in 16 channels result is
MDBNRZ system, channel-12 have received power is - similar. In the second case when length is varied in different
21.08at BER -6.94 and channel-13 received power is almost weather conditions then it is observed that CSNRZ gives
near to -20.65dBm at BER -6.94, so channel-12 is more better results in almost all the cases with CSRZ in certain
sensitivity because received optical power is lower than the cases because in 16 channels result is similar. Also, the
other channels optical received power. In MDBNRZ system performance of BER from all received signal in DBNRZ
channel-12 is more sensitivity than the other channels. In the under clear weather condition, channel-15 received signal
MDBRZ system, we can also see that channel-12 have can detect at lower received power value up to -16.62dBm at
received power is -22.52 at BER -7.88 and channel-5 BER -59.79 whereas channel-14 value of received signal
received power is almost near to -21.85dBm at BER -7.88, detect with received power almost -16dBm at BER -59.79,
so channel-12 is more sensitivity because received power is so channel-15 has more sensitivity. In the CSNRZ system
less than the other channels optical received power. In channel-12 has lower optical received power is -16.70 at
MDBRZ system channel-12 is more sensitivity than the BER -24.44 and in CSRZ system signal is detect lower
other channels. received power is -13.40 at BER -14.39 and in MDBNRZ
K. Fog weather condition: system channel-12 signal is detect with received power is -
In Fog weather condition we can say that channel-15 20.64dBm at BER -8.66. In MDBRZ system channel-12
receiver can detect power at lower values up to -16.99dBm detects with received power is lower-22.10 at BER -9.87. So
at BER -51.56 whereas channel-2 value of received power is channel-12 is more sensitivity than the other channels
almost near to -16.45dBm at BER -51.56. So in two because have received power is lowest.
channels, channel-15 has more sensitivity because received The performance of BER from all received signal
power is less as compare to channel-13.In the fig-11d show in DBNRZ under haze weather condition, channel-15
all channels have received power is higher than the channel- received signal can detect at lower received power value up
15, so channel-15 is more sensitivity than other channels. In to -16.05dBm at BER -73.65, so channel-15 have more
the CSNRZ system, that channel-12 has received power is - sensitivity. In the CSNRZ and CSRZ and MDBNRZ system
14.17 at BER -21.36 and channel-13 received power is - channel-12 signal detect have lower received power is -
13.25dBm at BER -21.36, so channel-12 is high sensitivity 13.17 at BER -32.79 and -14.82 at BER -11.84 and -22.12 at
because received power is less than the other channels BER -5.63 respectively, so in CSNRZ, CSRZ and
optical received power. So in CSNRZ system channel-12 is MDBNRZ systems channel-12 is more sensitivity than the
more sensitivity than the other channels. In the CSRZ other channels but in MDBRZ system channel-6 is more
system, channel-12 have received power is -14.75 at BER - sensitivity than the other channels because channel-6 has
12.12 and channel-11 received power is almost near to - received power is -22.52 at BER -7.63.
13.64dBm at BER -12.12, so channel-12 is more sensitivity The performance of BER from all received signal
because received optical power is less than the other in DBNRZ and CSNRZ under haze weather condition,
channels optical received power. In CSRZ system channel- channel-15 received signal can detect at lower received
12 is more sensitivity than the other channels. In the power value up to -17.04dBm at BER -51.12, so channel-15
MDBNRZ system, channel-12 has received power is -21.05 have more sensitivity. In CSRZ and MDBNRZ system
at BER -6.91 and channel-11 received power is almost near channel-12 is high sensitivity but in MDBRZ system
to -20.78dBm at BER -6.91, so channel-12 is more channel-6 is more sensitivity than the other channels.
sensitivity because received optical power is lower than the performance of BER from all received signal in
other channels optical received power. In MDBNRZ system DBNRZ and CSNRZ under haze weather condition,
channel-12 is more sensitivity than the other channels. In channel-15 received signal can detect at lower received

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
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(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/093)

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Performance Evaluation of a Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) Free Space Optical Communication Link Under Diverse Weather Conditions Using
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