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# EXPERIMENT 2: COMPLEXOMETRIC TITRATION

1.0 Objectives

## 2. Describe the reaction between a metal cation and EDTA.

3. Calculate the concentration the unknown solution given the titration data.

2.0 Introduction:

Many metal ions react with electron pair donors to form coordination compounds or complex
ions. The formation of a particular class of coordination compounds, called chelates, are
especially well-suited for quantitative methods. A chelate is formed when a metal ion
coordinates with two (or more) donor groups of a single ligand. Tertiary amine compounds
such as ethylenadiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are widely used for the formation of
chelates.

EDTA solution is not only stable - it can be stored for months - but it can be also prepared
without a need of standardization. First, EDTA can be obtained in the form pure enough.
Second, after thorough drying its crystallic from has pretty well defined amount of water of
crystallization. Most commonly used solutions are 0.01M (that is 0.01N - regardless of the
fact that EDTA has four protons it always reacts with metal cations on a 1:1 base). However,
depending on the needs (concentration of metal to be determined) it is possible to prepare and
use EDTA solutions of concentrations ranging from 0.1M to 0.001M. Crystallic EDTA - in
the form of either disodium EDTA dehydrate or anhydrous disodium EDTA salt - has to be
thoroughly dried out before solutions preparation. Also note, that solution preparation is time
consuming - EDTA dissolves in water very slowly.

Complexometric titrations with EDTA have been reported for the analysis of nearly all metal
ions. Because EDTA has four acidic protons, the formation of metal-ion/EDTA complexes is
dependent upon the pH. For the titration of Zn2+, one must buffer the solution to a pH of 10
so that complex formation will be quantitative. The reaction of Zn2+ with EDTA may be
expressed as: Zn2+ + (EDTA)4- [Zn(EDTA)]2-
This reaction can be used to determine the concentration of zinc ion by using an EDTA
standard solution and an indicator which can form a coloured complex with Zn 2+. The
following two factors are important for determination of the concentration:

i) The indicator used must form a complex with zinc (much more slowly) compared to the
EDTA. Zn2+ indicator complex should only form after all the EDTA has reacted with the
Zn2+ cation.

ii) Zn2+ indicator complex must have a different colour from the indicator. Eriochrome
Black T (EBT) indicator, fulfil all the requirements mentioned earlier and can be used for
this purpose. This method of determination is the simplest way to determine the concentration
of the metal because 1 mol of EDTA usually reacts with 1 mol of metal.

Apparatus

Analytical balance
Weighing bottle
25 cm3 pipette
Burrete
Electric heater

Materials

## EDTA Salt (disodium hydrate)

Eriochrome Black T (EBT) indicator
Buffer solution (ammonium chloride in ammonia)
Magnesium Complex Solution
Zn2+ Solution
2M Hydrochloric Acid
Standard calcium carbonate solution prepared from dried calcium carbonate

3.0 Procedure

## (A) Preparation of EDTA 0.1M solution.

1. 9.5g of disodium EDTA (dehydrate) salt was weighed approximately and it was

## transferred into a 250cm3 beaker.

2. It was dissolved with distilled water and diluted until the mark. It was stirred until

homogenous.

(B)

## Standardization of EDTA solution.

1. The burette was rinsed with small amount of the dilute EDTA solution it was drained,

## then the burette was filled to the mark.

2. 25.00cm3 of the calcium carbonate solution given was pipette into 250cm3

3. It was diluted to about 100cm3 with distilled water.
4. 2cm3 of magnesium complex solution, 5cm3 of buffer solution and 1-2 drops of

5. It was titrated with EDTA solution until the dark colour turned blue.
6. The titration was repeated three times and the average concentration of the EDTA

(C) The

## determination of Zn solution concentration.

1. 25cm3 of Zn2+ solution given was pipette into a 250cm3 Erlenmeyer flask.
2. It was diluted with distilled water to approximately 100cm3.
3. 10cm3 of buffer solution and 1 drop of indicator was added.
4. It was titrated slowly and carefully with standard EDTA until the end point (dark red

## colour turned blue).

5. The titration was repeated two or three times. The concentration of Zn2+ in g/dm3 was

calculated.