Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol backing the core routing

decisions on the Internet. It maintains a table of IP networks or 'prefixes' which


designate network reach-ability among autonomous systems (AS). It is described as
a path vector protocol. BGP does not use traditional Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)
metrics, but makes routing decisions based on path, network policies and/or rule-
sets. For this reason, it is more appropriately termed a reach-ability protocol rather
than routing protocol.

Most Internet service providers must use BGP to establish routing between one
another (especially if they are multihomed). Therefore, even though most Internet
users do not use it directly, BGP is one of the most important protocols of the
Internet.

BGP neighbors, called peers, are established by manual configuration between


routers to create a TCP session on port 179. A BGP speaker will periodically (every
30 seconds) send 19-byte keep-alive messages to maintain the connection.[1]
Among routing protocols, BGP is unique in using TCP as its transport protocol.

. Increasingly, BGP is used as a generalized signaling protocol to carry information


about routes that may not be part of the global Internet, such as VPNs

Idle
State:

Refuse all incoming BGP connections

Start the initialization of event triggers.

Initiates a TCP connection with its configured BGP peer.


Listens for a TCP connection from its peer.

Changes its state to Connect.

If an error occurs at any state of the FSM process, the BGP session is terminated immediately and returned to the Idle
state. Some of the reasons why a router does not progress from the Idle state are:

TCP port 179 is not open.

A random TCP port over 1023 is not open.

Peer address configured incorrectly on either router.

AS number configured incorrectly on either router .

Connect State:

Waits for successful TCP negotiation with peer.

BGP does not spend much time in this state if the TCP session has been successfully established.

Sends Open message to peer and changes state to OpenSent.

If an error occurs, BGP moves to the Active state. Some reasons for the error are:

TCP port 179 is not open.

A random TCP port over 1023 is not open.

Peer address configured incorrectly on either router.

AS number configured incorrectly on either router.

Active State:

If the router was unable to establish a successful TCP session, then it ends up in the Active state.

BGP FSM will try to restart another TCP session with the peer and, if successful, then it will send an Open message to the
peer.

If it is unsuccessful again, the FSM is reset to the Idle state.

Repeated failures may result in a router cycling between the Idle and Active states. Some of the reasons for this include:

TCP port 179 is not open.

A random TCP port over 1023 is not open.

BGP configuration error.

Network congestion.

Flapping network interface.

OpenSent State:

BGP FSM listens for an Open message from its peer.

Once the message has been received, the router checks the validity of the Open message.

If there is an error it is because one of the fields in the Open message doesnt match between the peers, e.g. BGP version
mismatch, MD5 password mismatch, the peering router expects a different My AS. The router will then send a Notification message
to the peer indicating why the error occurred.
If there is no error, a Keepalive message is sent, various timers are set and the state is changed to OpenConfirm.

OpenConfirm State:

The peer is listening for a Keepalive message from its peer.

If a Keepalive message is received and no timer has expired before reception of the Keepalive, BGP transitions to the
Established state.

If a timer expires before a Keepalive message is received, or if an error condition occurs, the router transitions back to the
Idle state.

Established State:

In this state, the peers send Update messages to exchange information about each route being advertised to the BGP
peer.

If there is any error in the Update message then a Notification message is sent to the peer, and BGP transitions back to
the Idle state.

If a timer expires before a Keepalive message is received, or if an error condition occurs, the router transitions back to the
Idle state.

IP Hijacking

IP hijacking (sometimes referred to as BGP hijacking, prefix hijacking or route


hijacking) is the illegitimate take over of groups of IP addresses by corrupting
Internet routing tables. This can be caused both by programming errors, attacks on
a network or attempts at censorship. This will cause internet sites to go out of
service, as routers will no longer find them.

CIDR

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a method for allocating IP addresses and


routing Internet Protocol packets. The Internet Engineering Task Force introduced
CIDR in 1993 to replace the previous addressing architecture of classful network
design in the Internet. Their goal was to slow the growth of routing tables on routers
across the Internet, and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.

An IP address is interpreted as composed of two parts: a network-identifying prefix


followed by a host identifier within that network. In the previous classful network
architecture of Internet Protocol Version 4, IP address allocations were based on the
bit boundaries of the four octets of an IP address. An address was considered to be
the combination of an 8, 16, or 24-bit network prefix along with a 24, 16, or 8-bit
individual or node address. Thus, the smallest allocation and routing block
contained only 256 addressestoo small for most enterprises, and the next larger
block contained 65536 addressestoo large to be used efficiently by even large
organizations. This led to inefficiencies in address use as well as routing because
the large number of allocated small (class-C) networks with individual route
announcements, being geographically dispersed with little opportunity for route
aggregation, created heavy demand on routing equipment.

As the initial TCP/IP network grew to become the Internet during the 1980s, the
need for more flexible addressing schemes became increasingly apparent. This led
to the successive development of subnetting and CIDR. The network class
distinctions were removed, and the new system was described as being classless,
with respect to the old system, which became known as classful.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing is based on variable-length subnet masking (VLSM),


which allows a network to be divided into variously-sized subnets, providing the
opportunity to size a network more appropriately for local needs.