50
Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved. Copyright O 1987 Pergamon Journals Ltd.
R. VISKANTA* a n d M . P. M E N G O q t
*School oJ Mechanical Engineering, Pttrdue University, West LaJ~tyette, IN 47907, U.S.A.
tDepartment q/Mechanical Engineeriny, University of Kentucky, Lexington, K Y40506, U.S.A.
Abstract An adequate treatment of thermal radiation heat transfer is essential to a mathematical model
of the combustion process or to a design of a combustion system. This paper reviews the fundamentals of
radiation heat transfer and some recent progress in its modeling in combustion systems. Topics covered
include radiative properties of combustion products and their modeling and methods of solving the
radiative transfer equations. Examples of sample combustion systems in which radiation has been
accounted for in the analysis are presented. In several technologically important, practical combustion
systems coupling of radiation to other modes of heat transfer is discussed. Research needs are identified
and potentially promising research topics are also suggested.
CONTENTS
Nomenclature 98
1. Introduction 98
2. Radiative Transfer 100
2.1. Radiative transfer equation 100
2.2. Conservati_on of radiant energy equation 104
2.3. Turbulence/radiative interaction 104
3. Radiative Properties of Combustion Products 106
3.1. Radiative properties of combustion gases 107
3.1.1. Narrowband models 107
3.1.2. Wideband models 107
3.1.3. Total absorptivity emissivity models 109
3.1.4. Absorption and emission coefficients 109
3.l.5. Effect of absorption coefficient on the radiative heat flux predictions 111
3.2. Radiative properties of polydispersions 113
3.2.1. Types and shapes of polydispersions 114
3.2.2. Prediction methods of the particle radiative properties 115
3.2.3. Simplified approaches 116
3.2.4. Scattering phase function 119
3.3. Total properties 121
4. Solution Methods 122
4.1. Exact models 122
4.2. Statistical methods 123
4.3. Zonal method 123
4.4. Flux methods 124
4.4.1. Multiflux models 125
4.4.2. Moment methods 126
4.4.3. Spherical harmonics approximation 127
4.4.4. Discrete ordinates approximation 128
4.4.5. Hybrid and other methods 129
4.5. Comparison of methods 130
5. Applications to Simple Combustion Systems 133
5.1. Singledroplet and solidparticle combustion 133
5.2. Contribution of radiation to flame wallquenching of condensed fuels 133
5.3. Effect of radiation on onedimensional char flames 134
5.4. Radiation in a combusting boundary layer along a vertical wall 135
5.5. Interaction of convectionradiation in a laminar diffusion flame 136
5.6. Effect of radiation on a planar, twodimensional turbulentjet diffusion flame 138
5.7. Radiation from flames 139
5.8. Combustion and radiation heat transfer in a porous medium 140
6. Applications to Combustion Systems 141
6.1. Industrial furnaces 142
6.1.1. Stirred vessel model 143
6.1.2. Plug flow model 145
6.1.3. Multidimensional models 145
6.2. Coalfired furnaces 146
6.3. Gas turbine combustors 149
6.4. Internal combustion engines 151
6.5. Fires as combustion systems 151
7. Concluding Remarks 153
Acknowledgements 154
References 154
apses 1 3 : z  x 97
98 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGf3t~
It follows from the definition of the spectral Since in this case the sum of probability over all
intensity I, that radiant energy incident normally on directions must equal unity, we must have
the infinitesimally small crosssection dA during time
interval dr, in frequency range dv and within the 1 1
elementary solid angle dD about the direction of the 4rt n'=4, a=4,
unit vector ~ is
1
l ,dAdfldvdt. = J" ~,(W)dfl= 1. (2.5)
4n n=4,
The emerging radiant energy at the other face of the
This implies that for coherent scattering the spectral
cylinder in the same direction equals
phase function is normalized to unity. The scattering
angle W, i.e. the angle between g' and g can be
(1 ~+ dl ,)dAdDdvdt.
expressed as
The net gain of radiant energy, i.e. the difference
cos W = cos0cos0' + sin0sin0'cos(~  ~b') (2.6)
between energy crossing the two faces of the cylinder,
is then given by
or
,(s ~ s ; v ~ v )
&v' fl' ='lx
Dividing this equation by dAdsdf~dvdt and recalling
that the distance ds traversed by the pencil of rays is
cdt, where c is the velocity of light in the medium,
x l(~')dD'dv']dAd~dvdt. yields the equation of transfer in a Lagrangian
coordinate system
In this expression the phase function 1 dlv
t~,(g',g;v'~v)df~'dv'/4n represents the probability . . . . (x, +tr,)lv + q ,
that radiation of frequency v' propagating in the c dt
direction g' and confined within the solid angle dfg
O" v
is scattered through the angle (g,g) into the solid @,(s" *s;v*v)l,,(s )dD' dv.' (2.10)
+U.I I ~' "'
angle dD and the frequency interval dr. This proba Av" 11" = 4 x
bility is determined by the scattering mechanism.
For coherent scattering the phase function is inde Clearly, the lefthand side of this integrodifferential
pendent of frequency v' and reduces to ~v(~"*g). equation represents the net change in Iv per unit
102 R. V1SKANTAand M. P. MENGOt;
1 dl, 1 01,
~(V.~)I,=fl,(S,I,) (2.11)
c dt c 0t
sv = (,lv//L) + (a,//LX1/4~)
linear differential equation, which is much easier to The concept of the beam transmittance can be made
solve than the linear integrodifferential equation. clearer by the following interpretation. If lov repre
A formal solution of the quasisteady state RTE, sents the intensity of radiation in some direction g at
Eq. (2.11), can readily be written. Consider a pencil of some initial point So and Iv(s) is the intensity of the
radiation in the direction g (Fig. 3). If the coordinate transmitted radiation at point s in the same direction
s is laid in the direction g, the quasisteady RTE is over the path from the initial to the terminal points,
given by then the two intensities are related by
where the direction of the pencil of rays is under Thus, the beam transmittance represents the fraction
stood to be g. The intensity, however, may be a of the initial intensity which is transmitted without
104 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGO~3
emission or scattering contributions to the intensity energy from an element of matter per unit of volume
along the path length. Equation (2.17) gives the and per unit of frequency. The term 4nqv(= 4nxJb,)
spectral intensity of radiation at a point and in a represents the local rate of emission, and x,ff,
given direction. Its physical meaning can be more represents the local rate of absorption of radiation
readily interpreted by referring to Fig. 3. It shows per unit of volume. The meaning of the terms can be
that Iv(s) is a sum of two contributions: (1) the further clarified when we note that 4nlbv is the
transmitted intensity, and (2) the path intensity. The product of the spectral radiant energy density of a
first term on the right hand side of Eq. (2.17) is the black body at the local temperature, times the local
contribution to Iv due to the initial intensity at point velocity of light c, while c~v is related to the local
So in the direction of propagation of the radiation g, radiant energy density of space as defined by Eq.
attenuated by the factor Tv(s,s0) to account for (2.21b). In deriving Eq. (2.20) the scattering terms
absorption, scattering and induced emission in the have canceled out. This just confirms the physical
intervening matter. The second term results from fact that scattered energy is not stored and should
both emission and scattering from elements of the not appear in the conservation of radiant energy
matter at all interior points, each elementary contri equation. Integration of Eq. (2.20) over the entire
bution being attenuated by the factor Tv(s,s') while spectrum results in the conservation equation of total
the rest is absorbed and scattered along the path. radiant energy
These elementary contributions are integrated over
oo
all the elements between the boundary of the body s o
and the point s. 0d + V . , ~ = f 1%[4nlbv(T)f~v]dv. (2.22)
~t ~o
We note that the integral form, Eq. (2.17), of the
radiative transfer equation is referred to as "'formal For reasons that were explained in a previous
solution" in the sense that I v is expressed in terms of subsection, the time rate of change of radiant energy
integrals that can be evaluated only if the state of the density q/ can be neglected. Note that there is no
matter and the radiation field, i.e. Sv is known. This convective term in Eq. (2.22), since radiation propa
does not mean that the equation of transfer in a gates inependently of the local material velocity. The
participating medium has been solved. It is clear that equation describing the local change of radiant
if the source function depends on the intensity Iv in energy density must be modified in the relativistic
some specified way, then one can convert Eq. (2.17) treatment of electromagnetic radiation.l'23 How
into an integral equation for Iv. ~5 However, before ever, the additional terms which arise in the
we do this it is desirable to derive the conservation of conservation of radiant energy equation can gener
radiant energy equation. ally be ignored in engineering applications.
It is worth noting that the spectral dependence of
radiative properties is denoted either by subscript v
2.2. Conservation of Radiant Energy Equation (frequency) or ~. (wavelength). If the matter through
Integration of the RTE, Eq. (2.11), over all which radiation is propagating is not homogeneous
directions results in and uniform, then the index of refraction, and, as a
result of this, the wavelength and speed of light
would be different at different locations in the
t3ail* + V',~rv=x,[4nlbv(T)f~v] (2.20) medium, whereas the frequency remains constant
dt
everywhere. Therefore, the frequency is a more
fundamental measure than the wavelength of radi
where the spectral radiant energy density q/v, the
ation, and because of this, here, the spectral depend
irradiance aJv and the radiation flux vector "~'v are
ence is denoted by v. It is also useful to remember the
defined as
identity, lvdv = lad2, between frequency and wave
length based definitions of radiation intensity.
q/=lf l,df2 (2.21a)
C JQ=4~
2.3. Turbulence~Radiation Interaction
c~v= S lvdfl=cq/v (2.21b) Interaction of convection and radiation has been
12=4~ recognized for some time, but the fact that turbulence
can influence radiative transfer and vice versa has
~,= S 1,~dn (2.21c) been recognized more recently. The first attempt at
D=4x combined analysis of the equations for the mean
square fluctuations of the velocity and temperature
respectively. The physical meaning of Eq. (2.20) is fields with the radiation field is due to Townsend. 24
clear. It is the conservation equation of spectral Applications in which radiation/turbulence inter
radiant energy. The righthandside of Eq. (2.20) action may affect flow and heat transfer include
represents the net rate of loss or gain of radiant industrial furnaces, gas combustors, flames and
Radiation heat transfer 105
fires.25 3o Most studies concerned with modeling of Turbulence can influence radiative transfer through
radiative transfer in combustion chambers and fluctuations in temperature and radiating species
furnaces have ignored the turbulence/radiation inter concentrations which, in turn, influence Planck's
action. 3's An uptodate discussion of the interaction function lba(T) and the special absorption and
in flames is available 3~ and need not be repeated scattering coefficients. The fluctuations of the Planck
here. Suffice it to mention that the interactions and function and the spectral absorption and scattering
coupled effects are more important for luminous than coefficients can be given in terms of the temperature
for nonluminous flames. Little is known concerning and species fluctuations by means of Taylor series
temporal aspects of radiative transfer in turbulent expansions about the values evaluated at the mean
flames as these effects have not been studied properties. Evaluation of the instantaneous intensity
extensively. of radiation in terms of the mean and fluctuating
Space Direction
Geometry wmables cosincs (V. ~)1
FI ?1 ?1
Rectangular .\.y.: ~..q ,u ,~ + llE + p  
.\" ( y ,r 
?1 ;I
\'.Y ~,q ~  + 'I S 
~.\ ~y
;I
 It P5
(E
F(rl) tl FI ;1 1 ?UII)
Cylindrical r,dp~.: ~..q.fl   ~   + p,
r ;r r?#), ~ r ?oh
;trl) ;/ I ?(ql)
r. ;~.q,ll  + It
r ?r ;z r ;(~
?(rl) ~1 ?l 1 ?Off)
r.4~, ~.ll  +
r ;r ri'q~, r ;b
;~ ?(rl) 1 ?[ql)
r ~,l I
r ?r r ,"~
It 70"21) g. ?(sinOfl)
Sphcrical r.O,.q'), '.q.p  +
r 2 Fr rsinO~ i'O,
q 21 I ?[{Ip2)l]
rsin0, ;q~, r ?/I
cotO ?(ql )
r ;q~
p ~(r21) ~ ;.(sin(lfl)
  _ _ q  _ _
r.O, ~dl.l I
r 2 ~r rsin0, ;0,
p ?(r21) I ;[(I/~2)I]
  b
r2 2r r ?I~
106 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGf3~:
properties and the timeaveraging is straightforward thin. a We further assume that the properties of the
but tedious. 27 If the absorption coefficient can be fluctuating eddies are statistically independent, and
expressed as this implies that there is no correlation between the
temperature and concentration within each eddy.
xa(s,t) = ~,kai Ci(s,t) (2.23) Under these conditions radiation is transmitted
i through an eddy with little change so that the
radiance at a local point is affected little by the local
the turbulent fluctuations in the absorption coef fluctuation of xx. Hence, the timeaverage RTE can
ficient can be related to those in the concentrations be approximated as a
Ci of the radiating species. The precise evaluation of
the timeaverage would utilize the joint probability (V' g)la =  xala + qa. (2.26)
density function P(T,Ci,s) of the temperature and
species concentrations for all points s along the line Following a similar argument, the spectral radiant
of sight g in Eq. (2.17). Unfortunately, that infor energy Eq. (2.20) can be expressed as
mation is not available. Those properties of the flow
field that are available are the mean temperature T,, V" "#'a =  xa~a + 4r~Oa. (2.27)
species concentrations C , and the second order
correlations, T '2, C~T'. To illustrate the nature of the Information necessary to solve Eq. (2.25) for the
problem we restrict ourselves to a single radiating timeaveraged spectral radiance I~ is not available,
species and neglect scattering. Applying Reynolds' and the integration of Eq. (2.24) along the lineof
averaging techniques to Eq. (2.17) but omitting the sight is too time consuming. Some clever way of
details, one can obtain 30 ensemble averaging the radiance or developing
correlation coefficients for timeaveraged quantities
s s
will be required to enable solution of the integral or
ia(s) = loaexp[  kaIC(s')ds']exp[  kaSC'(s')ds']
differential forms of the RTE in turbulently fluctu
0 0
ating media. The significance of the turbulence/
s s s radiation interaction will be assessed later.
+ I~(s')exp[  k~ICds"] {exp[  kaIC'ds"]
0 s' s'
of the mixture of combustion products. Note that charged particles, then the Stark profile yields a more
usually the level of simplification for the properties is accurate representation of the spectral line radi
to be determined by the user, and it should be ation. 33 Note that it is also possible to superpose
consistent with the level of sophistication of the these line profiles to incorporate the effects of
radiative transfer and total heat transfer models. different physical conditions on the line radi
Also, the relations for the radiative properties of ation.33. 3'*
individual constituents should be compatible with There are basically two ~different line arrangements
each other as well as with the radiative transfer for narrow band models used extensively in the
models. literature. The Elsasser or regular model assumes that
the lines are of uniform intensity and are equally
spaced. The Goody or statistical model postulates a
3.1. Radiative Properties o f Combustion Gases
random exponential line intensity distribution and a
Every combustion process produces combustion random line position selected from a uniform
gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon probability distribution. For practical engineering
monoxide, and others. The partial pressures of these calculations both of these models yield reasonably
gases in the combustion products are determined by accurate results. Usually there is less than 8~o
the type of the fuel used and the conditions of the discrepancy between the predictions of these two
combustion environment, such as fuelair ratio, total models. 35 A detailed discussion of the narrow band
pressure and ambient temperature. These gases do models has been given by Ludwig et al. 34 and in the
not scatter radiation significantly, but they are strong review articles by Tien 33 and Edwards. 3S
selective absorbers and emitters of radiant energy. Narrowband model predictions generally require
Consequently, the variation of the radiative proper an extensive and detailed library of input data, and
ties with the electromagnetic spectrum must be the calculations cannot be performed with reason
accounted for. Spectral calculations are performed by able computational effort. On the other hand, as long
dividing the entire wavelength (or frequency) spec as the concentration distributions of gaseous species
trum into several bands and assuming that the are not accurately known the high accuracy obtained
absorption/emission characteristics of each species for the spectral radiative gas properties from narrow
remain either uniform or change smoothly in a given band models would not necessarily increase the
functional form over these bands. As one might accuracy of radiation heat transfer predictions. Also,
expect, the accuracy of the predictions increases as it is not always convenient to use detailed, complex
the width of these bands becomes narrower. Exact models for the spectral radiative gas properties.
results, however, can be obtained only with lineby
line calculations which require the analysis of each
discrete absorptionemission line produced as a
result of the transitions between quantized energy
3.1.2. Wideband models
levels of gas molecules. Linebyline calculations are
not practical for most engineering purposes but are Since gaseous radiation is not continuous but is
usually required for the study of radiative transfer in concentrated in spectral bands, it is possible to define
the atmosphere. Therefore, detailed linebyline calcu wideband absorptivity and/or emissivity models.
lations will not be discussed here. The radiation absorption characteristics for each
band of any gas can be obtained from experiments
and then empirical relations can be fitted to those
3.1.1. Narrowband models data. The profile of the band absorption may be box
Narrowband models are constructed from spec or triangular shaped or an exponentially decaying
tral absorptionemission lines of molecular gases by function can be used by curve fitting. These types
postulating a line shape and an arrangement of lines. of empirical models are known as wideband models,
The shape (profile) of spectral lines is quite important and among them the exponential wideband model
as it yields information for the effect of pressure, of Edwards and Menard 36 is commonly used. For an
temperature, optical path length, and intrinsic prop isothermal medium, several approximate expressions
erties of radiating gas on the absorption and for the total band absorptivity and emissivity (see
emission characteristics. The Lorentz profile 32 is the Refs 3740) as well as the reviews of the wideband
most commonly used line shape to describe gases as models are available in the literature. 35.41 43
moderate temperatures under the conditions of the Recently, Yu et al. 44 have devised a new "'super
local thermodynamic equilibrium, and it is also band" model to correlate total emissivity and Planck
known as a collisionbroadened line profile. 33 If the mean absorption coefficient data of infrared radi
temperature is high and the pressure is low, the ating gases. In this model, the Edwards exponential
Doppler line profile would be more appropriate to band model has been used to approximate the
use. 33 If there are ionized gases and plasmas in the emissivities. The spectral lines of the various infrared
medium and they are influenced by interactions absorption bands of a radiating gas are rearranged
between the radiating particles and surrounding and combined into a single, combined band.
108 R. VISKANTAand M. P. M~GO~
In Figs 4 and 5, the spectral band absorptivity medium. It is clear that the relative importance of
distributions from a narrow band model a'* are short wavelength band radiation (i.e. from 1.38 pm
compared with those from a wideband model 35 for (oJ~7000 cm  t ) and 1.89/zm (ta~5300 cm  t ) H 2 0
two isothermal media. 45 In general, the wide band bands) becomes larger as the temperature of the
model is in good agreement with the narrow band medium increases (see Fig. 5 for T = 2 0 0 0 K). The
model, especially for2.7 /~m H 2 0 and CO2 bands error introduced by approximating the short wave
(co=3700 cmZ), 4.3 pm CO2 band (to~2300 cm1), length band absorption by wideband models is
and 6.3/~m H 2 0 band ( t a ~ 1 6 0 0 c m  ' ) ~ In these marginal, since the temperature of a typical combus
figures, the normalized Planck blackbody function tion chamber is usually not as high as 2000 K, and
corresponding to the temperature of the medium is the other gas bands absorb radiation more strongly
also plotted to show the relative contribution of each than short wavelength bands.
gas band to the total radiation absorbed by the It should be mentioned that some of the detailed
too,o ,, '[I ~ ~    r I
~.0 [i tS
WB
2S.O "~"*"
0.0
o 2000 qooo 6o00 8000 t~>.~
w (cm')
FIG. 4. Spectral absorptivities of H20CO2air mixture calculated from the narrow band (NB) and the
wide band (WB) models, spectral soot absorptivities (],,A = 1.0 x 10 7 ma/m 3 and j~,.2= 1.0 x 10  (' m3/m 3)
and normalized Planck's function (Iba/lha.m.): T = 1000 K, P( = 1 atm.,/M20 = Pco2= 0.1 atm., L = I m.
100.0 
.0 /// I
a m.o I /l /
~ , ~ d~' ~ ~ ~'
H.I " Y
%, , t...: nN rl
kq: t ,,., ,:
o qooo200o ~ ~ l(XXX)
o~ ( c m " )
FIG. 5. Spectral absorptivities of H20CO2air mixtures as calculated from the narrow band (NB) and
wide band (WB) models, spectral soot absorptivities I]i,.t = 1.0 x 10  7 m3/m "*and J,,.., = 1.0 x 10 ~' m "~m "~)
and normalized Phmck's function (lh,t/lha.=**): T=2000 K, P,= 1 atm., ptt2o=Pco2=O.1atm.. L=0.5 m.
Radiation heat transfer 109
suppressed when they are combined with those of the ~= ~, as.i [ I  e  ~ , P L ] . (3.1)
i~0
particles. Because of this, use of very accurate
spectral properties of gases may not increase the The weighting factor ae,~ may be interpreted as the
accuracy of radiative transfer predictions. In Figs 4 fractional amount of black body energy in the
and 5 the soot absorptivities are plotted for two spectral regions where "gray gas absorption coef
different sootvolume fractions. 4s Note that if ficient" xi exists, and they are functions of temper
Iv =Jv.~ = 1.0 x 107, then the gas and soot absorptiv ature. Usually the absorption coefficient for i = 0 is
ities are of the same order of magnitude, especially assigned a value of zero to account for the trans
for longer wavelengths. However, asJ~ increases (see parent windows in the spectrum. The expressions for
the curves for J~.2=l.0 x 106), the soot absorption the total emissivity and absorptivity of a gas in terms
becomes dominant. The soot absorptivity also in of the weighted sum of gray gases are useful
creases with increasing wave number, i.e. decreasing especially for the zonal method of analysis of
wavelength, since soot absorption coefficient is radiative transfer.
almost inversely proportional to the wavelength of There are several curvefitted expressions available
radiation; we will return to this topic later. in the literature for use in computer codes. Some of
them are given in terms of polynomials 4s 50 and the
others are expressed in terms of the weighted sumof
3.1.3. Total absorptivityemissivity models gray gases. 5~54 In only two of these expressions
soot contribution is accounted for along with the gas
A detailed modeling of the radiative properties of
contribution. 49's All of these models are restricted
combustion gases may not be warranted for the
to the total pressure of one atmosphere, except that
accuracy of total heat transfer predictions in combus
of Leckner, 48 and all of them are for the gas
tion chambers, but definitely increase the compu
radiation along a homogeneous path, i.e. uniform
tational effort. An indepth review of the world
temperature and/or uniform pressure.
literature on the thermal radiation properties of
If the path is inhomogeneous then the equivalent
gaseous combustion products (H20, CO2, CO, SO2,
line model 39 or the total transmittance non
N O and N 2 0 ) has recently been prepared,'* and
homogeneous method s5 can be used to predict
therefore the discussion will not be repeated. For
radiation transmitted along the path. However, in
engineering calculations it is always desirable to have
multidimensional geometries or if scattering par
some reliable yet simple models for predicting the
ticles are present in the system, the use of these
radiative properties of the gases. Here, we review
models for practical calculations becomes prohibi
some of the available models.
tive as the equations are much more complicated.
One way of obtaining radiative properties easily is
to use Hottel's charts which are presented as
functions of temperature, pressure and concentration 3.1.4. Absorption and emission coeJflcients
of a gas. '.6 Some scaling rules for the total absorp
tivity and emissivity of combustion gases can be used The total absorptivities and emissivities are useful
to extend the range of applicability of Hottel's charts. for zero or onedimensional radiative transfer ana
For example, the scaling rules given by Edwards and lyses as well as zonal methods for radiative transfer.
Matavosian 47 can be employed to predict gas However, for differential models of radiative transfer
emissivity at different pressures as well as gas the absorption and emission coefficients are required
absorptivity for different wall temperatures and at rather than the total absorptivities and emissivities.
gas pressures different than one atmosphere. Of Since scattering is not important for combustion
course, in order to use these charts in computer gases (and soot particles), the gray absorption/
models, curvefitted correlations are desirable. Other emission coefficient can be obtained from the
sources for continuous expressions are the narrow Bouguer's or BeerLambert's law. For a given mean
and wide band models. The spectral or band beam length Lm one can write
absorptivities from these models are first integrated ~= (  1/L,,,) In (1 e). (3.2)
over the entire spectrum for a given temperature and
pressure to obtain total absorptivity and emissivity The mean absorption coefficients obtained from
curves. Afterwards, appropriate polynomials are spectral calculations as well as curvefitted contin
curvefitted to these families of curves at different uous correlations were compared with measurements
temperatures and pressures using regression tech from a smoky ceiling layer formed in a room fire and
niques. Sometimes, these curvefitted expressions can very good agreement was found. 4a It is possible to
be so arranged that the resulting expressions would determine the so called "gray" absorption and
be presented as the sum of total emissivity or emission coefficients for each temperature, pressure,
absorptivity of clear and gray gases. These are known and pathlength, which yield approximately the same
as the "weighted sumofgraygases" models and are total absorptivity or emissivity of the C O 2  H 2 0
given as '.6 mixture.
110 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENG0~:
It is worth noting that instead of using only the decreases the gas becomes thinner, and eventually in
absorption coefficient, absorption as well as emission the limit of optically thin gas the mean absorption
coefficients should be employed. Since the total gas coefficient becomes identical to the Planck's mean
emissivity differs from total gas absorptivity, it is absorption coefficient. With an increasing size of the
quite logical to define and use two separate coeffi enclosure, the gas becomes optically thicker and the
cients. The importance of this fact has been first mean absorption coefficient approaches Rosseland's
discussed by Viskanta# 6 He has shown that the mean absorption coefficient.
arbitrariness associated with an absorption coeffi Planck's and Rosseland's mean coefficients are
cient can be eliminated by the introduction of a independent of the beam length and are valid only in
mean emission coefficient and a mean absorption the thin and thick gas limits, respectively. They are
coefficient, which can be related to the spectral defined as
absorption coefficient by the following definitions:
oo oo
be assumed uniform. If the soot volume fraction is ~(L) = Slbagzexp( r2,L)d2/~lb~,exp( gaL)d2. (3.8)
high in the medium, the use of the mean absorption 0 o
o
_  .... ~..~,~.. ~ ~P.~ 
.,~:.,,i ,~ ,q
_ T=,OOOK Ke
K 2 ..~.~\ (E) Kl,n 
(~,) "'..'.% ~,,..
I  '''%'%_%~ 
T= 2 0 0 0 K " . "..N,~
 .
, , I l i i i  i I t 'tvr~q=~~
104 I0s I0"2 IOI I I0I
L (m)
F]~J. 6. Comparison of different gas aborption coefficients as a function of pathlength: P,= 1.0 alto.,
Pn,o=Pco. =0.I atm. "~
FelskeTien 6 wideband model, is in good agree z0 = 3.0 m, which gives Lm= 1.08 m. The solution of
ment with the absorption coefficient calculated from the radiative transfer equation is obtained using the
the narrowband model (Kt.,) or Patch's effective P3approximation,61 which will be discussed in the
mean absorption coefficient (~). In this figure, xe., is next chapter. Radiative transfer calculations are
Planck's mean absorption coefficient based on the performed on the spectral basis using the wideband
narrowband model, 34 xe.w and ri are Planck's mean model of Edwards and Balakrishnan (see Edwards; 3s
and internal mean absorption coefficients, respec Table X). The thirteen spectral bands used for the
tively, based on the wideband model. 35 The mean absorption coefficient are shown in Figs 4 and 5 by
absorption coefficient xt.we is a function of path dotted lines.
length and is calculated using Edwards' wideband In Fig. 7 the radiation heat flux distributions
model parameters. on the cylindrical walls of the small enclosure
(L,~=0.5 m) are given for two different medium
temperatures. It is clear from these figures that the
3.1.5. Effect of absorption coefficient on the radiative
use of the Pianck mean absorption coefficient yields
heat flux predictions
about six times higher radiative fluxes compared to
In preceding sections, we have compared absorp the detailed spectral calculations. On the other hand,
tion coefficients calculated from spectral narrow the mean absorption coefficients calculated from the
band models with those obtained from total emissiv total emissivity model of Modak 49 yield only a small
ity models as well as with the Planck mean and overprediction of radiative fluxes in comparison to
internal mean absorption coefficients. It is also the spectral results, and the use of Planck's internal
desirable to examine the effect of different definitions mean absorption coefficients slightly underpredicts
of absorption coefficients on radiative transfer pre the radiative flux distribution along the wall. In Fig.
dictions. For this reason, an axisymmetric cylindrical 8 the same kind of comparisons are given for the
enclosure is considered. It is assumed that the second enclosure, which has Lm= 1.08 m. Basically,
medium is a homogeneous, uniform gas ( H 2 0  C O 2 the trends are the same as those shown in Fig. 7,
air) mixture at atmospheric pressure. The partial however, the agreement between spectral and total
pressures of water vapor and carbon dioxide are the calculations is better in this case.
same and equal to 0.1 atm., and the medium Indeed, the trends in the results predicted using
temperature is either 1000 K or 2000 K. The en different absorption coefficients, as illustrated in
closure walls are assumed to be at a temperature of these figures, can be also deduced from the compar
600 K and diffusely emitting, with emissivity ew=0.8. isons of the absorption coefficients given in Fig. 6.
Two different sets of dimensions for the cylindrical For example, for Lm=0.5 m, at T = 1000 K, xt.,., is
enclosure are examined. The first one has a mean somewhat larger than the x~ but it is about six times
beam length (Lm = 3.6 V/A) of 0.5 m, where ro = 0.4 m, smaller than the re. This is also evident from Figs 7
and Zo=0.9m. For the second one, ro=0.9m, and 8. From Fig. 6 we can conclude that the use of
112 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGOq
50 I I I I I I i
0) T= IO00K b ) T = 2000 K
250
A
40
200
x 30 / KP,w
/ \
L~. / \
\  150
o
"1" 20
o
I00
........ ..........
"0
o KsplctroI
n~ ~ ' ~ \Kspsctre I
lO
50
0 I I I I t , t i 0
0 I 2 0 I 2
Z/ o
FI6. 7. Comparison of radiative flux distributions on the cylidrical walls calculated spectrally and using
different mean absorption coefficients,L=0.5 m (see text for the delinitions).
50 ! I I I I I 500
a) T = I 0 0 0 K b) T = 2 0 0 0 K
A 4O 400
/
\
x 30 300
1 20 200
zo ,~~KItWm
spsctrel I00
spectre
S
Ki
0 I I I I I I 0
0 I 2 3 0 I 2 3 4
Z/4o
FIG. 8. Comparison of radiative flux distributions on the cylindrical walls as calculated spectrally and
using three different mean absorption coefficients,L= 1.08 m (see text for the definitions}~
Planck's mean absorption coefficient would be predictions obtained from the spectral and gray
acceptable only if the physical dimension or the total analyses. In some earlier parametric studies it has also
pressure of the system under consideration was very been shown that the change of the center and width of
small. the spectral absorption bands may yield large vari
The spectral radiative fluxes depicted in Figs 7 and ations of the total radiative flux predictions. 57,62
8 do not always yield identical results with those Since the temperature and characteristic length of the
calculated from other mean absorption coefficients gas volume have a strong effect on both the center and
such as r,,w, or r~, and the difference between them the width of the bands, in practical systems the gas
may be as much as 100 %. Clearly it is difficult to have radiative properties are expected to show large
a simple correlation between the radiative transfer differences from location to location. Use of a single,
Radiation heat transfer 113
Their results show that there is approximately one real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index
order of magnitude difference between the impinging on composition were also examined. A semiempirical
part of the complex index of refraction measured mixture rule was developed to allow prediction of the
with these two techniques. In brief, there are large real part of the refractive index from 1 #m to 8 #m in
differences between the reported spectral data for terms of the weight percents of the major oxide
the complex index of refraction of coal particles components SiO2, Al2Oa, CaO, MgO, TiO2, and
reported by different investigators, 4'69'7'~76 and, Fe203. The mixture rule is based on the refractive
therefore, more research attention is needed in this indices of the pure oxide components, with two small
area. It is also bdieved 64 that the radiative proper modifications to improve the agreement with the
ties of char particles do not show distinctive measured refractive index data.
differences from those of other pulverizedcoal Shape of a particle is another important indepen
particles. Unfortunately, to the authors' knowledge, dent parameter that should be considered in pre
there is no fundamental study which supports this dicting the radiative properties. For the particles in
conclusion for various coals and at different wave combustion chambers, it is difficult to imagine a
lengths of radiation. single, unique shape. Usually shapes of pulverized
The contribution of flyash particles to radiation coal particles or soot agglomerates are irregular and
heat transfer in pulverizedcoal flames exceeds that of random; yet, sometimes, surprisingly uniform and
combustion gases or soot substantially; 4 therefore, simple shapes are observed. For example, flyash
special attention must be given to the radiative particles from coalfired boilers show fairly smooth,
properties of these particles. Although limited, some spherical shapes, a4"8~ The soot, on the other hand,
data for radiative properties of flyash particles have may agglomerate to form relatively long tails of radii
been reported in the literature. 4"77 s3 on the order of the coal particle radius due to the slip
The refractive index of flyash is sensitive to its velocity between the coal particle and surrounding
chemical composition, and this is attributed primarily gases. 86's7 These tails can be considered as infinitely
to the varying amounts of oxides of silicon, alumin long cylinders. The simple shapes are most desirable
ium, iron and calcium (i.e. SiO2, A1203, Fe203 and for the simplicity of calculations as the computational
CaO) in the ash. The experimental studies have effort is reduced significantly for uniform, symmetric
shown that the index of refraction of different flyash shapes. However, a large fraction of particles sus
samples from the same flame may be drastically pended in combustion products have totally irregular
different, probably indicative of the microscopic shapes. Experimental measurements show that there
conditions for their formation. 77 According to Wall are some differences in the scattering properties of
et al. 78 the complex refractive index of flyash is in these particles in comparison to Mie theory calcu
the range from ha= 1.43 0.307i to ha= 1.500.005i. lations, as where for irregular shape particles: (a)
These numerical values of the imaginary part of the oscillations of efficiency factors vs angle and vs size
complex index of refraction correspond approxi parameter are damped; (b) more side scattering
mately to the values measured by Blokh, 4 whereas (60120 ) is observed; (c) less backscattering is
the values of the real part of the complex index of observed and; (d) the agreement with Mie theory
:refraction are somewhat lower than those reported. becomes worse for other radiative properties as the
The imaginary part of the refractive index of flyash size parameter increases past x = 3 or 5. sa For a cloud
particles formed during combustion of pulverized of irregular shape particles, however, the observed
coal in a fluidizedbed furnace was of the order of differences in comparison to those for spherical
0.01. 76 This clearly indicates the uncertainty in the particles are less significant. 66'a8
complex index of refraction of flyash particles
formed in pulverizedcoal combustion systems.
3.2.2. Prediction methods of the particle radiative
Recently, Goodwin 83 has reported extensive results
properties
of an experimental study of the bulk optical con
stants of coal slags. The effects of chemical compos When radiative properties of particles are needed,
ition, wavelength, and temperature were examined. the following quantities, arranged in order of
Both synthetic slags, prepared from oxide power increasing complexity are to be considered: 8s (i)
mixtures, and "natural" slags, prepared by remdting extinction crosssection, (ii) scattering crosssection,
flyash or gasifier slag, were used. Transmittance and (iii) absorption crosssection, (iv) singlescattering
nearnormal reflectance measurements were made on albedo, (v) radiation pressure crosssection, (vi)
their polished wafers cut from the slags, from which asymmetry factor, (vii) unpolarized phase function,
optical constants were determined. The imaginary (viii) Legendre coefficients of unpolarized phase
part of the refractive index was shown to depend function, (ix) parallel and perpendicularly polarized
primarily on iron, silica and OH content of the slag. scattered intensities, (x) Stokes parameters, (xi)
Iron is primarily responsible for absorption in the Mudler matrix, and (xii) Legendre coefficients of
shortwavdength infrared region (1 #m<3.<4/Jm), Mueller matrix dements. The last four quantities in
and silica is responsible for absorption at longer this list may not be critical for studying radiative
(.k> 4/~m) wavelengths. The dependences of both the transfer in combustion systems. However, the other
116 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENG0~
quantities are definitely needed for radiation heat with the complexity (or asymmetry) of the shape of
transfer calculations. the particles. Recently, Wiscombe and Mugnai as.l i l
One of the most extensively used models to predict developed a vector algorithm for the EBCM code of
the radiative properties of particles is the Mie Barber t4 and obtained the scattering properties for
theory. 65'~6 Although it is widely known by this various axisymmetric particles whose shapes are
name after Mie's exact solution of Maxweil's equa determined from Chebyshev polynomials. Their
tions for the scattering of an incident plane wave on results show that there are significant differences
a sphere, s9 the solution was also obtained independ between the radiative properties of spheres and
ently by Lorenz and Debye (see Kerker 66 for detailed arbitrary shaped particles depending on the irreg
historical discussion). The exact solution for a right ularity of the surface characteristics. The compu
circular cylinder with radiation incident normal to tational time required for these calculations is too
the cylinder axis was given by Rayleigh. Basically, in formidable as to justify the extensive use of the T
the Mie theory the vector Heimholtz equation is matrix method for practical problems.
solved exactly by expanding the electric field in an
infinite series of eigenfunctions. In general, these
series are double series, and they are not easy to
3.2.3. Simplified approaches
evaluate; however, for spheres and infinitelylong
circular cylinders they can be reduced to single series, One of the simplifications usually made in calcu
and exact solutions can be obtained. The Mie lating the radiative properties of particles is related
theory for spheres has been treated extensively in to their shape. If it is possible to assume that the
the literature, 65'66'9 and some formulations for particles are spherical, then exact solutions from Mie
cylinders,99'* for elliptic cylinders 95 and for theory can be obtained effectively and with much less
spheroids 96 have been given. There is no need to computational effort in comparison, for example, to
repeat the details of Mie theory here; the interested the Tmatrix method. The properties of irregular
reader is referred to one of the classical refer shaped particles can be obtained by assuming them
e n c e s 6 5 ' 6 6 ' 9 0 o n the subject. as equalvolume spheres if the size parameter
The Mie theory has been used extensively, es (x = riD~A) is small or equalprojectedarea spheres if
pecially during the last two decades, with the help of the size parameter is large, as The nonsphericity of
the computer algorithms which have been devel particles can be traded off against inhomogeneity by
oped 9 0 ' 9 7  9 9 a s well as widespread use of digital assuming that the index of refraction varies from the
computers. Its restriction to simple, smooth particles core to the periphery. 66 By picking a functional form
has led researchers to investigate some other possi for this variation that allows a reasonably simple
bilities to model the scattering of radiation by radial solution with one or two adjustable para
irregular shaped particles. Several new approaches to meters, it may be possible to match nonspherical
the solution of the problem have been proposed over scattering properties. Then, the solution for an
the years, including exact differential equation inhomogeneous sphere can be obtained rather than
approaches ~oo.lot as well as exact integral equation for an irregularshaped particle, and this is signifi
methods. 12~* In addition to these, there are cantly simpler. It is also worth noting that the effect
several approximate techniques available, including of shape becomes less critical if there is a size
the geometrical theory of diffraction ~s for pre distribution of particles, as sizeaveraging in ob
dicting the scattering by sharpedged particles; the taining the radiative properties "washes out" the fine
method of moment for scattering by a perfectly details of nonspherical scattering. 66.as
conducting body; 16 as well as perturbation17 and The Mie calculations for the efficiency factors of
point matching methods ls for nearly spherical spheres are relatively less timeconsuming and easier
particles. Some empirical models have also been to use than the other exact models. However, the size
proposed and shown to be very accurate provided of the particles in combustion chambers are func
that some experimental data are available, t9 The tions of time and space, and the properties must be
details of these methods and others can be found in calculated for each new set of size distributions. In
the literature, ss'9A t o multidimensional and spectral radiative transfer
Among these models, the integral equation method analyses use of Mie codes for this purpose is
or as more widely known, Tmatrix or extended impractical. Because of this, it is desirable to have
boundary condition method (EBCM), 1oz ~o, seems simple approximations for the efficiency factors. One
to be the most promising as it is capable of solving such approximation has been given by Mengii~ and
the scattering of radiation by any irregular shape Viskanta, lt2 where the efficiency factors for poly
particle. In the EBCM, the incident and scattered dispersions are obtained starting from the anomal
electric fields are expanded in vector spherical ous diffraction theory ~5 and are expressed in conven
harmonics, and then by making use of analytic ient, closed form. In Fig. 10 the Mie theory
continuation techniques the integral representation predictions for the normalized extinction and scat
of the fields is reduced to a set of linear algebraic tering coefficients are compared with those of the
equations. The complexity of these equations increase simplified model, and in Fig. 11 the predictions of
Radiation heat transfer 117
x F(~)
I0 ~ tOt I0 0 tO i I0 e IO : I0 q tO 6
107 ........ I ........ i ' ' ' ..... I ........ I ' ' ..... I ........ I
...... 107
10.8 lOa
CP,RBON
a P,NTHRRCI TE
[n~q + BITUMINOU$ [m"]
10e x BITUMINOUBK i09
LIGNITE
FLYfiSH
loiO i0I0
lOt lO o 10 I 10 ! lO 3 10 ,I lO 5 10 e
xF(~)
FIG. 10. Comparison of Mie theory results (points) for the normalized extinction and the scattering
coefficients with those calculated from tin approximate analysis (lines).tj 2
1.000
c) CRRBON
0.800
A P,NTHRRCITE
+ BITUMINOUS
COx
X BITUMINOUSI(
0.600
,i.~ ,..OOO& LIGNITE
+ FLYfiSH
........ I
I0 "2 I 0 i IO o 10 i I0 ~ I0 : IO N
x F('~)
FIG. 1I. Comparison of Mie theory results (points) for the single scattering albedo with those calculated
using approximate analysis (lines).~t 2
the scattering albedo from the Mie theory and the in the volume fraction of polydispersions and the
simple model are given.l~ 2 In these figures, flz and aa complex index of refraction data, the agreement
are normalized spectral extinction and scattering between the model and exact calculations appears to
coefficients, respectively. The normalization factor is be remarkably good, and, because of this, these
NxF(ha), with N being the number of particles per simplified models would be useful for radiation heat
unit volume, x is the size parameter, and F(h,t) is a transfer calculations in combustion chambers. Note
function of the complex index of refraction. Note that the single scattering albedo 09 is related to
that absorption, extinction and scattering coefficients by
102 , , ,
i0"s I0"2
10"4 ~ i0"3
i04
I0x I02 I03 i04
r,zT [/.t.m K]
FIG. 12. Phmck and Rossehmd mean coefficients for coal. The shaded area represents results for w~riations
in temperature between 750 and 250 K and three coals. ~ 3
empirical correlations for the radiative properties of worth noting that the anomalous diffraction theory
coal particles which could be readily used for used for spheres also yielded accurate and simple
predicting radiation heat transfer in coalfired com relations (see Ref. 112). Most recently, Mackowski et
bustion systems. Also, they plotted the normalized a/. 117 derived the same kind of relations for the
Planck and Rosseland mean absorption and extinc spectral radiative properties of cylindrical soot
tion coefficients as functions of the mean radius agglomerates. They showed that small size cylin
temperature product (Fig. 12) and obtained some drical particles extincted radiation two to five times
empirical relations for these coefficients. As seen more than spheres. At large radii, on the other hand,
from this figure, for small radii particles, extinction the ratio of cylindrical extinction and absorption
and absorption coefficients are identical; however, coefficients to those for spherical particles approach
with increasing radius the scattering of radiation constant values regardless of the wavelength of
also becomes important, and fl and x diverge from radiation} 17 Also, some empirical relations similar
each other. Viskanta et al. 1~4 aIso obtained similar to those obtained for spherical particles are pre
results and discussed the effects of several indepen sented. It is also possible to extend the relations to
dent parameters, such as size distribution, coal type mixtures of different types and shapes of particles
and wavelength of radiation on the radiative proper using the Tmatrix method. For a specific (coal)
ties of polydispersions. It is worth noting that combustion problem, a library of empirical relations
although different definitions of mean radius are can be constructed. The use of these relations will
used in these studies, i.e. rio [see Eq. (3.13a)] 112 and speed up the calculations significantly, since there
r32 [see Eq. (3.13b)], 11a'1~4 still similar results will be no need for lengthy and time consuming Mie
independent of size distribution are obtained. This or Tmatrix method calculations.
indicates that a polydispersion can be often des When the size parameter ( x = n D / 2 ) becomes
cribed by a weighted particle radiusJ 15 vanishingly small (x*0) the size of the particle
All of the studies discussed above used the becomes less important. In this limiting case, the
spherical particle assumption in obtaining the re absorption efficiency factor is a function ofx [see Eq.
lations for radiative properties of particles. Perfect (3.14)], whereas the scattering efficiency factor varies
spheres are not encountered in nature, and, therefore, with x 4, such as
it is desirable to obtain similar relations for other
than spherical shape particles. Stephens ]~6 has r~I 4
shown that the anomalous diffraction theory devel 0s = 3 ~ X . (3.16a)
oped by van de Hulst 65 can be extended to infinite
length cylinders. The absorption and extinction
efficiency factors calculated from this simplified The extinction efficiency factor is written as
theory are in good agreement with those obtained
from a rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations. It is Q,. = Q,, + Qs. (3.16b)
Radiation heat transfer 119
These expressions are obtained from the Rayleigh 3.2.4. Scattering phase function
limit of the Mie theory. 6s Here, ha=naika is the
complex index of refraction. It is worth noting that In modeling radiation heat transfer in a partici
with decreasing x (or D), the scattering efficiency pating medium, the scattering of radiation by
factor becomes negligible in comparison to the particles must be properly accounted for. This
absorption efficiency factor. Indeed, these expres requires the use of the scattering phase function
sions yield the extensively used soot absorption (scattering diagram), which represents the probability
coefficient, such as that radiation propagating in a given direction is
scattered into another direction because of the
inhomogeneities and/or particles along the path of
xa = 7f J2 (3.17) radiation. In combustion chambers, the scattering of
radiation takes place mainly because of the particles.
wherefv is the volume fraction of soot particles and The phase function, along with other radiative
the value of "7" was suggested by Hottel and properties, such as absorption, extinction and scat
Sarofim 46 for typical soot particles observed in tering coefficients, can be obtained either exactly
combustion chambers. After studying the available from the solution of Maxweli's equations for spher
experimental data for several flames Siegel l~s has ical or infinitelength cylindrical particles 65,66'9 or
shown that the coefficient in Eq. (3.17) is between 3.7 from some approximations such as the extended
and 7.5 for coal flames; 6.3 for oil flames, and 4.9 and boundary element method (EBCM) for arbitrary
4.0 for propane and acetylene soot, respectively. A shaped particles ~2 lo4 as functions of wavelength,
detailed discussion of the spectral and total absorp characteristic particle dimension and complex index
tion characteristics of uniformdiameter, spherical of refraction. The phase function is written as
soot particles covering a very wide range of sizes
(0.001 <D<10/~m) is given by BlokE'* Oa(g',g) = 4la(g)/x2Qs (3.19)
Equations (3.14) and (3.16) were obtained for
spherical particles; therefore, the approximation
where la(g) is the incident radiation intensity and x
given by Eq. (3.17) may not yield accurate results
is the size parameter with the effective diameter D
for arbitrary shaped small particles. 1~ For non
and radiation of wavelength 2. Note that the
spherical particles, an expression for the average
radiative properties are not only functions of the size
absorption efficiency factor was derived by inte
grating over a distribution of shape parameters in of the particle or the wavelength of radiation, but
the Rayleighellipsoid approximation, 119 such as they are functions of the size parameter x, which can
be considered as a scaling factor. In Eq. (3.19) Qs is
the scattering efficiency factor, which is defined as 9
2ha
Q,=xF(ha)=x Im [hA 1 (log naika)] (3.18) Qs = CJA = (Ws/I,)/A (3.20)
where x depends on the effective diameter D( V/A). where A is the particle crosssectional area projected
This relation yielded very good agreement with the onto a plane perpendicular to the incident beam li
experimental data for quartz particles.119 (e.g. A = nD2/4 for a sphere of diameter D); Ws is the
In Table 2 a comparison is given of spectral F(ha) energy scattering rate by the particle, and C s is the
functions for spheres [see Eq. (3.14)1, infinitelength scattering crosssection. Similar expressions can be
cylinders 117 and ellipsoids [see (Eq. 3.18),1 at four written for extinction and absorption efficiency
different wavelengths. It is important to note that the factors by replacing the subscripts "s" in Eq. (3.20) by
results for ellipsoids are between those for spheres "e" for extinction and "a" for absorption. These
and cylinders. The spectral complex indices of quantities are obtained from the Mie theory or
refraction used in this comparison are from the approximate models. 9
dispersion relations developed by Lee and Tien 71 for Use of the phase function in the form of Eq. (3.19)
acetylene and propane soot at 1700 K. would be a very time consuming procedure, A more
convenient form of the phase function is obtained by
expanding it in a series of Legendre polynomials) 20
TABL[2. Comparisons of spectral F(ha)functions for N
different shape small soot particles a(W) = ~ a,.~P,(~P) (3.21a)
rl=O
/(/am) na ka F,~,,, F~,n~r Fomt,,ola
0.50 1.92 0.55 0.754 1.871 1.700 where
1.50 1.88 0.73 1.007 2.450 2.134
2.50 2.10 1.09 1.140 3.683 2.888 1
5.00 2.69 1.57 0.863 6.073 3.888 an,a2n+l J" ~a(W)P,(~)dD (3.21b)
O=4f
120 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENO0q
~a(W) = 2f~6(1  cos W) + (1 faX1 + 39acos W) (3.24) which can be directly obtained from the Mie theory.
Although it approximates the Mie phase function
where fz and 0a are related to the expansion quite accurately, the application of the Henyey
coefficients defined by Eq. (3.21b) as 59 Greenstein phase function approximation to multi
dimensional geometries may be quite tedious.
fa = {i:al i f_ ~ 2)12 i i : : ,~ 1)/2 (3.25a) Several different approximations for the scattering
phase function, such as linearly anisotropic scattering,
deltaM, deltaEddington, transport or Henyey
and Greenstein approximations, have been reviewed in
detail by McKellar and Box)21 They have concluded
a l ,,a  f a that for highly forward scattering particles the
9a = (3.25b) deltaEddington approximation ~22 is the most
1fa
accurate and the simplest of all the approximations
provided that al,a>a2,a. A detailed account of mentioned. In modeling radiative transfer in coal
Diracdeita phase approximations has recently been fired furnaces the deltaEddington approximation
given by Crosbie and Davidson? 23 for the scattering phase function is desirable for two
In the heat transfer literature, another phase reasons: (1) it represents the highly forwarddirected
function approximation has found wide application. scattering of radiation by the pulverized coal and fly
The phase function is expressed in terms of the ash particles; and (2) it is compatible with differential
forward (fa) and backward (ba) scattering coefficients, approximations such as the spherical harmonics
and they are written in terms of a.'s of Eq. (3.21b) for approximation used to model the radiative transfer
an azimuthally symmetric medium such as 124 equation.
Radiation heat transfer 121
The scattering phase function of particles is the concept may be of limited utility for predicting
directly related to the size (or diameter) of the radiation heat transfer in multidimensional combus
particles. Therefore, for polydispersions there should tion systems which contain particles, If the emissivity
be as many scattering phase functions as the number (or absorptivity) of a particle laden flame is known
of size intervals considered. For the sake of simplicity, then the extinction coefficient of the medium can be
it is desirable to have a single, mean scattering phase written as
function over the entire particle size range. Then, the
mean scattering phase function can be written as
fla.tot=  L~ In (3.36)
1 N
~a = :  ~ a~,i Pa.~, (3.30)
0"2 i provided that the meanbeamlength L,, is known.
However, fla,tot and toa are interrelated properties
where N is the number of the intervals. If the [see Eq. (3.34)]. If the mean coefficients are to be
deltaEddington phase function approximation is used, the equations given above should be rewritten
used for the scattering phase function, the corres by dropping the subscript 2, and appending the
ponding mean parameters are defined similarly, appropriate mean coefficient subscript.
These definitions require the mean beam length of
1 N 1 N
radiation Lm, which is a vague concept. 59 It is
.'/~ ~ ~O'2.,if]i, "g~~ ~ EU2..iOa.i. (3.31)
G~ i G'l i
defined 2 as a radius of a gas hemisphere which
radiates a flux to the center of its base equal to the
average flux radiated to the area of interest by the
actual volume of gas. Although the concept yields
3.3. Total Properties accurate results for simple systems, for complicated
geometries it needs additional research attention.
Once the absorption, scattering and extinction
Recently, Scholand and Schenkel ~27 have calculated
coefficients of polydispersions, such as pulverized
coal, char, flyash, and those of soot and combustion the mean beam length of radiation between a volume
element and the surfaces of rectangular paral
gases are known, the total radiative properties are
lelepiped enclosures. Cartigny ~28 has extended the
written as
definition of the mean beam length to an optically
thin scattering medium, which can be used for
ra.tot = ~xa.~lyi + xa.,,**,+ ~xa.,,,,,_.i, (3.32) calculation of radiative transfer in sooty flames.
i j The empirical relations for the total mean extinc
tion and absorption coefficients for flyash, pulver
ized coal and char particle polydispersions have also
fla,to,= xa.tot+ ~aa.vo,yi, (3.33)
i been reported. 4 It has been found, for example, that
the mean extinction coefficient fl of flyash can be
and expressed by an empirical equation of the form,
empirically and was found to depend on the type of 4.1. Exact Models
coal burned. 4
The total effective absorptivity of a flyash layer of The most desirable solution of any equation is its
thickness L calculated from the expression exact closed form solution. The exact solution of the
integrodifferential radiative transfer equation can
cZfe= 1  exp(  ~L) (3.39) only be obtained after some simplifying assumptions,
such as uniform radiative properties of the medium
has been found to agree well with the experimental and homogeneous boundary conditions. For one
data.'* It was determined from the data that the dimensional, planeparallel media, exact solution of
optical thickness zL(= ~L) of the layer varies linearly the RTE has received much attention in the atmos
with CL only for moderate values of CL(<20 g/m2). pheric sciences, 12a 5,t 6 neutron transport 13~ ~33 and
At higher values of CL the mean extinction coef heat transfer ~9'2'~34 literature. A detailed review of
ficient ~ starts to depend on CL, because the onedimensional exact solution methods is avail
radiative properties of flyash particles depend on able? 35 However, there have only been a few
wavelength. This leads to the departure of the attempts to formulate and solve the RTE for
function zL(CL) from linearity. multidimensional geometries.
The Hottel charts for the emissivity and absorptiv One of the earliest accounts to formulate the
ity of combustion gases are very convenient for radiative transfer equation in a threedimensional
practical calculations. Skocypec and Buckius ~29 space with anisotropic scattering was that of
and Skocypec et a/. 13 extended these charts to Hunt? 36 He considered a phase function comprised
include isotropically scattering particles. In their of three terms in Legendre polynomials and reduced
calculations, they obtained the gas properties from the integrodifferential radiative transfer equation to
the Edwards wideband model 35 and presented an integral equation. Cheng ~37 used a rigorous
hemispherical emissivities in graphical form and approach to solve the RTE for an absorbing
discussed the effects of optical thickness, pressure, emitting medium in rectangular enclosures, and Dua
temperature and single scattering albedo. These and Cheng ~38 extended this method to cylindrical
charts yield accurate radiative properties without geometries. For an absorbing, emitting, and scat
any additional calculations; however, they cannot be tering medium Crosbie and his coworkers presented
used directly for predicting the local radiation heat exact formulations of the RTE for threedimensional
flux in a combustion system. rectangular ~39 as well as threedimensional cylin
dricaia4 enclosures. The solution of these equations
for cylindrical geometry was obtained by the method
4. SOLUTION M E T H O D S of subtracting the singularity? 4a The exact solutions
of RTE for an absorbing and emitting medium were
The radiative transfer equation is an integro
also solved by Selcuk ~42 in a threedimensional
differential equation, and its solution even for a one
rectangular enclosure employing a numerical scheme.
dimensional, planar, gray medium is quite difficult.
In a cylindrical geometry, the radiative transfer
Most engineering systems, on the other hand, are
equation is obtained from Eq. (2.11). Then, the
multidimensional. In addition, spectral variation of
integral form of the source function, for an absorbing,
the radiative properties must be accounted for in the
emitting and isotropically scattering medium with
solution of the RTE for accurate prediction of
incident diffuse radiation source on one of the end
radiation heat transfer. These considerations make
surfaces of the cylinder can be written as 14
the problem even more complicated. Therefore, it is
almost necessary to introduce some simplifying
S2(r,z,q~)= (1  0)a)/ba[ T(r,z,q~)]
assumptions for each application before attempting
to solve the RTE in its general form. It is not possible
0) 2 r 2x
to develop a single general solution method for the +   J S l d,~(r',d?')eP~"z'~)X; (x~ )  3zr'dq~'dr'
equation which would be equally applicable to 4no o
different systems. Consequently, several different
solution methods have been developed over the
+m2 z~ r~ ~Sa(r,,z,,(a,)flae_Pa%x~ 2r,dda,dr,dz ' (4.1)
years. According to the nature of the physical system, 4nooo
characteristics of the medium, the degree of accuracy
required, and the available computer facilities, one of where
several different methods can be adopted for the
solution of the problem considered. Before choosing x ; = [r 2 + (r') 2  2rr'cos(q~  qS')+ z2] 1/2 (4.2a)
one solution method over another one, it is import
ant to know the advantages and disadvantages of Xp = [r 2 + (r')2  2rr'cos(cb  ~b')+ (z z')2] I/2. (4.2b)
each method. In this section, several radiative
transfer models of interest to combustion systems are Here, the primes are used to denote the dummy
discussed, and their features are highlighted. variables, and l~,a is the spectral diffuse radiation
Radiation heat transfer 123
source on the end of the cylinder at z=O. Note that Monte Carlo method can be used for any complex
ld. a can also be interpreted as the diffuse emission geometry, and spectral effects can be accounted for
and reflection from the walls. Some additional without much difficulty. Mainly for this reason, the
integral terms are to be added to these expressions to method has been used extensively in atmos
account for the other surface effects` After some pheric 143'144 and neutron transport 133 studies. It
lengthy and tedious algebra, the implicit expressions has also been successfully employed to solve some
for the radiative fluxes in the r, z, and ~b directions general radiation heat transfer problems 14~,z46 as
can be derived: 14 well as radiative transfer problems in multi
dimensional enclosures ~,17 and furnaces. ~4s,1,,9
F,.a(r,z,ck) = ,[ 2[ld,,t(~,~b')P'~;(x;) ~
There is no single Monte Carlo method. Rather,
there are many different statistical approaches. In its
00
simplest form, the method consists of simulating a
z r 2z finite number of photon (energy packet) histories
x J r  r'cos(~b  ~b')]zr'dc~'dr'+ [ [ I Sa(r',z',c~') through the use of a random number generator. 133
0 0 0
For each photon, random numbers are generated and
used to sample appropriate probability distributions
x flaeP~%(xp) air  r'cos(~b  t~')] r'dq~'dr'dz' (4.3)
for scattering angles and pathlengths between col
r 21~ lisions. If it is assumed that the problem is time
~,~(,,z,~)= [ I l d,a(r' ,c~' )e  p ~x +~(xp+ )  , dependent, each photon history is started by
00 assigning a set of values to the photon, its initial
energy, position and direction. Following this, the
g o r o 21
number of mean free paths that the photon propa
x z2r'ddp'dr'+ ~ ~ I Sa(r',z',ck')
0 0 0
gates is determined stochastically. Then, the cross
section (or absorption and scattering coefficients)
x flaePa~r~xp)  a(zz')r'dc~'dr'dz' (4.4) data are sampled, and it is determined whether the
collided photon is absorbed or scattered by the gas
r 2x
molecules or particles in the medium. If it is
Fo,,(r,z,)= [ ~ ld,a(r',')e~,~;(x;) " absorbed, the history is terminated. If it is scattered,
00
the distribution of scattering angles is sampled and a
z o r o 21t new direction is assigned to the photon. In the case
x r'sin(~b ~')zr'ddp'dr'+ ~ J ~ Sa(r',z',q~') of elastic scattering, a new energy is determined by
0 0 0 conservation of energy and momentum. With the
new set of assigned energy, position, and direction
x flzeP*%(x~) ar'sin(q~dp')]r'dO'dr'dz '. (4.5)
the procedure is repeated for successive collisions
until the photon is absorbed or escapes from the
When ld,a is interpreted as the wall function which
system.
includes the diffuse emission and reflection from the
Monte Carlo calculations yield answers that
walls, the additional integral terms will appear on the
fluctuate around the "'real" answer. As the number of
righthandside of these equations. It should be noted
photons initiated from each surface and/or volume
that in deriving these expressions, the medium is
element increases this method is expected to con
assumed to be homogeneous. The evaluation of the
verge to the exact solution of the problem. Since the
integrals in these equations yields exact results for
directions of the photons are obtained from a
the radiative flux distributions in the medium. These
random number generator, the method is always
equations can be integrated numerically, as closed
subject to statistical errors and the lack of guaranteed
form solutions are not possible unless further simpli
convergence. ~46 However, as next generation com
fications are introduced. Considering that in most
puters become more readily available, Monte Carlo
engineering systems the medium is inhomogeneous
methods are expected to become more attractive for
and radiative properties are spectral in nature, it can
engineering applications. It has already been shown
be concluded that the exact solutions for RTE are not
that vectorization of the Monte Carlo computer code
practical for engineering applications. Nevertheless,
yields significant improvements in efficiency using
exact solutions for simple geometries and systems are
supercomputers such as CYBER205 and more
needed, as they can serve as benchmarks against
precise results are obtained. 1s o
which the accuracy of other approximate solutions
are checked.
surface and the volume of the enclosure is divided As originally formulated TM the zonal method has
into a number of zones, each assumed to have a some inherent limitations, such as the treatment of
uniform distribution of temperature and radiative nongray, temperature dependent radiative proper
properties. Then, the direct exchange areas (factors) ties of combustion gases. The effects of temperature,
between the surface and volume dements are pressure and different species on gas properties can
evaluated and the total exchange areas are deter be accounted for by weighted sumofgraygases
mined using matrix inversion techniques. For an m o d d g 5~'5z In addition, it is usually difficult to
absorbing and emitting medium, the calculation of couple the zonal method with the flow field and
direct exchange areas becomes complicated as the energy equations which are usually solved using
attenuation of radiation along the path connecting finite difference or finite element techniques. This is
two area (areavolume and volumevolume) elements mainly because of the different size of the control
must be taken into account. volumes required; the zonal method can be comp
The zonal method reduces the radiative transfer utationally prohibitive if the same grid scheme used
problem to the solution of a set of nonlinear by the finite difference equations is adopted Steward
algebraic equations. The set of energy balances for and Tennankore ~57 have coupled the zonal method
the zones in a closed radiaton system is written as with finite difference equations in modeling a
combustor by adapting two different grid schemes;
SE = Q (4.6) one for the radiation part and the other for the flow
and temperature fields. Recently, Smith et al. ~54 have
where combined the zone method with momentum and
energy equations to predict heat transfer in an
Xs, S2St ... S,,Sl absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium flowing
J in a cylindrical duct.
The zonal method can not be readily adopted for
Sj S2 S2S2  ~ S 2 S j .. S,,S2 problems having complicated geometries, since
J
numerous exchange factors between the zones must
S= S~ S3 S2S 3 ... SnS 3 be evaluated and stored in the computer memory.
However, this difficulty can be overcome by adapting
a hybrid solution scheme which employs both zonal
and Monte Carlo methods. This will be discussed in
SLS,, s,s ... s,s,Es,,s Subsection 4.5.5 Note that the directexchange areas
J for rectangular enclosures have been recently calcu
lated by Siddal115a who employed a new approach
12hl I Qt [ for the evaluation of the multiple integrals With this
I.~h2 ] Q~ I technique, it is possible to obtain these factors with
E= Eh3 and Q= Q3I any degree of accuracy desired It is worth noting
that the computer time required by the zonal method
in predicting radiative transfer in enclosures is
usually smaller than the time required by its
.Elm. .Q.J alternatives, and therefore the method is attractive
for practical engineering caiculations.l 56
is assumed constant, one can obtain different flux an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium are
methods, such as twoflux, fourflux or sixflux comprised of six coupled partial differential equ
methods. Intuitively, one can deduce that as the ations. 165 The equations are quite complex and
number of fluxes increases the accuracy of the lengthy; therefore, they are not given here.
method would increase. Indeed, if the number of In general, the accuracy of the flux approximation
solid angles and corresponding directions are deter depends on the choice of solidangle subdivisions. If
mined from basic mathematical principles (see, e.g. there is no intersection between two adjacent sub
Whitney 159) more accurate and efficient flux divisions, more accurate results are expected. 165 This
methods can be warranted. It is also possible to use has also been observed by Selcuk and Siddall a66 for
nonuniform solid angle divisions in the spherical rectangular enclosures. If the distribution of radi
space. For example, if the direction and size of the ation intensity is assumed for each subdivision, the
solid angles are determined from the Gaussian or general equations given by Abramzon and Lisin t65
Lobatto quadratures, a nonuniform flux approxi can be simplified and solved simultaneously. If the
mation is developed and the resulting expressions are fluxes in each subdivision are assumed constant, a
called the discrete ordinates approximation to the simpler sixflux model can be obtained from the
RTE. 15 general flux equations. For an absorbing, emitting
Another way of avoiding complicated expressions and scattering medium, Spalding ~67 suggested a
of the RTE due to the angular dependence of the similar six flux model for cylindrical geometry, which
intensity is to integrate the radiative transfer is written as
equation over the space after first multiplying it by
certain directional cosines. The resulting expressions ld
are called moment approximations. The spherical + r drr [rJ~a] = (xa + crx)~a + xaEoa(T)
harmonics approximation is developed similarly, but
a more elegant and mathematically sound method of (4.7)
r
integration of RTE is employed. If the integrations
are performed over hemispheres or quarterspheres,
then double or quadruple spherical harmonics  d~ (K~) =  (xa + o'a)K:~ + xj.Eba(T)
approximations are obtained, respectively. The first
order moment, spherical harmonics, and firstorder
+ 6 ( J ~ " +J~ +K~" +K~ +L~" +Lj) (4.8)
discrete ordinate methods are identical for the one
dimensional, planar geometry; 16 however, they
differ from each other slightly for multidimensional 1 d
geometries. + r cl~ (L~) =  (xa + (ra)L~ + xaEba(T)
Due to the simplicity of the governing equations,
several flux methods have been developed for one + ~ ( J ~ +J~ + K ~ + K j + L ~ + L j ) (4.9)
dimensional planeparallel media. They are reviewed 0
elsewhere, T M and those which can be extended to
multidimensional geometries are compared against where J~, J j are spectral fluxes in positive and
experiments ~62 as well as against exact solu negative radial (r) directions; K~, K j in positive and
tions. T M In this discussion, the focus is on negative axial (z) directions; L~, L~ in positive and
multidimensional models. negative angular (4)) directions. These equations can
be manipulated to obtain three second order differ
ential equations:
4.4.1. Multiflux models
Ever since the publication of the pioneering works 1 dfl r Id + }
of Schuster (in 1905) and Sehwarzchild (in 1906) on
the twoflux approximation, as flux models have been
one of the most used methods for radiative heat = tCa[J~" + J f  2 Eba(T)]
transfer calculations. With the advances in com
puters, the extensions of flux models for the appli
cation to multidimensional systems have become + ~ra [2(J~ + J ; )  K ~  K ~  L~  L ~ ] (4.10)
r
possible, and consequently several different versions
have been proposed over the years. Recently, 1 d
Abramzon and Lisin 165 have presented a general
analysis for flux models in a threedimensional
rectangular enclosure and have shown that most
other models reported in the literature can be = xaEK~ + K ~  2Eba(T)]
obtained from this general formulation. The gover
ning equations for the general flux approximation in +3[J~ J~ +2(K~" + K ~ )  L ]  L ; ] (4.11)
a threedimensional cylindrical enclosure containing
126 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MLmG09
ldfl 1 Id + } where, J,~, J~', K~ and K~ have the same meanings
as defined before.
The four unknown fluxes in Eqs (4.13)(4.16) are
= x~[ L I + L~  2 E ~ ( r ) ] determined from the four equations, and then the
radiative fluxes and the divergence of the radiative
O% flux vector are obtained readily. This method was
+3 [ JI  J ~   K ~  K ~  +2(L + +L~)]. (4.12) used to predict nongray radiation heat transfer in an
axisymmetric furnace and good accuracy was ob
These are the simplest forms of the flux equations tained) 72 Note that, although scattering in the
and can be easily written for axisymmetric enclosures medium was neglected in deriving these expressions,
as a fourflux approximation. The derivation of these it can be accounted for in the formulation. Also,
expressions is based on the SchusterHamaker these equations can be modified to relax the
method ~63'~64 which is the crudest and the least axisymmetry assumption to obtain a more general
accurate flux approximation for onedimensional formulation.
systems. Whitacre and McCann~6S showed that the One of the oldest multiflux methods is the sixflux
fourflux version of this model t69 predicted the method of Chu and Churchill. 173 Although it was
temperature field accurately, whereas the radiation developed for a onedimensional, planeparalld
fluxes were usually underestimated in comparison to medium, it is possible to modify this method for
Hottel's zonal method. A close examination of Eqs multidimensional enclosures. Varma ~4 obtained a
(4.7) to (4.9) reveals that the fluxes for one direction fourflux model for axisymmetric cylindrical enclos
are not coupled with those of the other directions if ures starting from this sixflux method. However, the
the medium is nonscattering. A similar type, un comparisons with more accurate models show that
coupled fourflux model was also developed by this version of the four flux method is not very
Richter and Quack IT and applied to a pulverized reliable. 17s Note that both the four and sixflux
coalfired furnace. methods account for the scattering of radiation.
In onedimensional systems, the Schuster Another sixflux model was proposed for three
Schwarzchild twoflux approximation or its modified dimensional enclosures containing absorbing and
form ~@*'17~ yields more accurate results. Lowes et emitting gases. ~e6 A comparison of the predictions
al) 72 extended this method to axisymmetric en based on this model with the Monte Carlo results
closures and derived an alternative fourflux model. showed that the maximum error in the radiation heat
The corresponding equations can also be obtained flux was not more than 23 % and could be reduced to
from the general relations by assuming axial sym about 1% if the subdivisions of the solid angles were
metry and defining the boundaries for the sub adjusted according to the geometry of the furnace.
divisions, t65 Then the governing equations* be There are mainly three objections to the multiflux
come 1 7 2 approximations of the radiative transfer equation
developed and used by some investigators for
d + (JI  practical problems (see Smoot and Smith 3 and
2 drr [J~  J~ ] 4 r Khalil 5 for extensive lists of references and appli
cations). First, there may be no coupling between the
axial and radial fluxes, which makes the equations
= Ttxa(J~ +J~)+2xaEba(T ) (4.13)
physically unrealistic. Second, the approximation of
the intensity distribution from which the flux
~/~~ d + ~ / ~ (J~ J~  r ~ K~) equations are obtained is arbitrary. Third, the model
2 dr [ J z + J ~  ] 4 4 r equations cannot approximate highly anisotropic
scattering correctly, although it is theoretically
possible.
= nxz(J~" + J~') (4.14)
d I(x0,,z,0,+)
N
2 dz[K~+Kf]=nxa(K~K;) (4.16) (4.17)
= A o + ~ [~'A,.~+q"A,.,+II'A..j
n=l
*Note that these equations are modified slightly to follow where A's are functions of location only; ~,~/, and g
a consistent nomenclature. are direction cosines in x, y, and zdirections,
Radiation heat transfer 127
respectively [see Eq. (2.8)1. Although this equation is mation, is one of the most tedious and cumbersome
written in Cartesian coordinates, it can be given for of the radiative transfer approximations; however, it
any orthogonal system. As the upper limit of the may be the most elegant one because of its sound
series N approaches infinity, this expression con mathematical foundation. The method was originally
verges to the exact solution for the radiation developed, as most other approximations, for study of
intensity. Note that Eq. (4.17) can be considered as radiative transfer in the atmosphere, 17s later modified
the Taylor series expansion of the intensity in terms for the solution of neutron transport problems, T M
of direction cosines. and extensively used for onedimensional radiative
The simplest moment expression for the intensity transfer problems. 1517Ag"2'za2'179 Although the
can be obtained by taking N = 1. This is called the formulation of the spherical harmonics approxi
firstorder moment method. The AI.~, A~.y and A~,.. mation for multidimensional geometries was dis
coefficients can be obtained by integrating the cussed some time ago, m3t only during the last decade
intensity over the entire space. DeMarco and has the method been extended to two and three
Lockwood 176 have suggested some modifications of dimensional systems. For nonscattering Cartesian,
the moment method using the flux definitions of the cylindrical and spherical media the firstorder (P~)
SchusterSchwarzchild model, and defined the coef and thirdorder (P3) spherical harmonics approxi
ficients as mations,~ ao.~81 for an isotropically scattering cylin
drical medium the PI approximation, 182.184 and for
Ao=0 an isotropicaily scattering twodimensional rect
angular medium Pt and P3approximations ~ss
A~ ..,.=(J; J;)/2, have been formulated and solved. Meanwhile, the
A~.,=(I<;K;)/2, A~.:=(L~L;)/2 (4.18) firstorder spherical harmonics approximation has
A2.x=(J~ + J~)/2, also been formulated to study the effect of cuboidal
A2.r=(K~ +K~)/2, A2.:=(L~" +L~)/2 clouds on radiative transfer in the atmosphere. 144't s6
Most recently, Menguc and Viskanta 61'187 reported
where A's are implicit functions of the wavelengths of the general formulations of the PI and P3
radiation 2, and J**, K,a , La + are integrated approximations for absorbing, emitting, and aniso
spectral radiation intensities over appropriate solid tropically scattering medium in twodimensional,
angles in the _+x, +y, +zdirections, respectively. finite cylindrical as well as threedimensional rect
These equations were solved by dividing the total angular enclosures.
solid angle 4n into six equal angles of 4n/6, each one In the spherical harmonics approximation, the
having the coordinate directions as its symmetry radiation intensity is expressed by a series of
axis. Another solution scheme was also adopted by spherical harmonics instead of a Taylor series and is
choosing a magnitude of 2n for each solid angle. .76 written as t a2
Although the latter assumption produces overlapping
of the solid angles, the predictions based on it yielded
better agreement with the Monte Carlo results for a t~(x,y,z,O,) = F~ A~Ax,y,z)r~(O,)(4.20)
n~O m = n
threedimensional rectangular enclosure. ~76 A further
improvement of this method was recommended by with
allowing some flexibility in the magnitude of solid
angle corresponding to each direction. 177 For a r.~(O,O)= (  1 ~" I,.j~/2
medium with a minimum optical thickness (ab
sorption coefficientcharacteristic length product) of r2.+ 1 (.Iml)!I
x _ ,~..,./
'/=.j.j, ..
r , ~cosvle
,.,,
(4.21)
2 this modified method yielded more accurate results L 4= ~,,+lml)!j
in comparison to the earlier versions. In neither of
these models ~76.177 was scattering of radiation in the where Y~ are the spherical harmonics, and P~ are the
medium accounted for. It is interesting to note that if associated Legendre polynomials which are related
the Acoefficients of this formulation are approxi to the Legendre polynomials.
mated as In Eq. (4.20} the upper limit N for the index n is
known as the order of the approximation. Exact
A2.x = A2..v= As,". (4.19) solution of the RTE is obtained if N is taken as
infinity; however, for practical calculations a finite N
then the firstorder moment method will be obtained value is assigned. N = I results in P1 and N=3
(as ~2+r/2+/t2= 1), which is equivalent to the first results in P3approximations. Usually, the odd
order spherical harmonics P~approximation. 19 orders of spherical harmonics approximation are
employed, although there are occasionally some
others which use even order approximations, lsa The
4.4.3. Spherical harmonics approximation
reason for using the oddorder approximation is
The spherical harmonics (Ps) approximation, simply to avoid the mathematical singularity of the
which is also known as the differential approxi intensity at directions parallel to the boundaries. The
128 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGOt;
radiation intensity is usually discontinuous at the radiation fields, but at the expense of additional
interfaces; therefore, it is not possible to have a single computational effort. It is shown 61 that the accuracy
value of intensity at the boundary. Consequently, it is of P3 as well as Plapproximations can be sub
not desirable to have an angular grid point just on stantially improved by using "exact" boundary
the interface. The roots of Legendre polynomials conditions, rather than somewhat arbitrarily defined
used in sphericalharmonics approximation yield Mark's or Marshak's boundary conditions (see Refs
Gaussian quadrature points, where the Nth order 19, 20, 131 and 132 for definitions and 61, 185 and
polynomial gives the Nth order Gaussian quad 187 for implementations of the Marshak's boundary
rature scheme. If N is even, one of the quadrature conditions).
points will have a value of zero, which corresponds It is also possible to improve the accuracy of the
to an angular grid point on the boundary, whereas, if spherical harmonics approximation by obtaining the
N is odd there will be no quadrature point on the moments of radiation intensity in half or quarter
boundary. Therefore, an oddorder spherical har spheres, xsg19a Since the angular variation of
monics approximation yields a more stable solution. moments is allowed for in this method, the aniso
The above discussion can be easily followed for a tropy of the radiation field can be modeled more
planeparallel geometry. accurately than by the Ptapproximation. On the
The Ptapproximation is comprised of a single other hand, the governing equations are simpler than
elliptic partial differential equation ~a7 those for the Paapproximation.
where w, is the weight of the Gaussian quadrature Here, we discuss only those which are applicable to
points. Integrating Eq. (4.24) over an arbitrary combustion problems.
control volume and rearranging yields, The basic flaw of the zonal method is the
computational effort required to calculate the ex
change factors between various volume and surface
{ ~.(ANI a,.,N  Asla,.,s) + 14,(ArJ a..,v.  Awl~,~,w) elements in complex geometries. This difficulty can
be overcome using the Monte Carlo method to
1 calculate the direct exchange areas. Is2 If the radi
 (As  As) (~. + 1/2I~.~ + 1/2,c
Wn ative properties of the medium are known and do not
depend on temperature, it is possible to calculate
~,1/2I~.,  1/2,c)}/Vc these exchange factors only once and store them in
the memory of a host computer for later use in the
zonal method predictions. By doing this, the compu
0",1
=  flalx.n.c + xxlba.c + 7  ~, Wnn' ~,m'lx,,',C (4.25) tational time required by the zonal method to predict
t'l'Tt n'
radiation heat transfer in complex geometries is
decreased substantially. However, the computer stor
where A is the corresponding area of controlvolume age requirements can become prohibitive if the
side for N, S, E or W, i.e. for north, south, east, or number of zones is large.
west side, respectively; V is the volume of the control The Monte Carlo method suffers from statistical
volume, C is for the central node, and orterms are to error as well as the extensive computational time
preserve the conservation of intensity in the curved required for the calculations. If the direction of each
coordinate, which are determined from the radiative ray is given deterministically rather than statistically
equilibrium condition.~ 99 These governing equations and if all the directions constitute an orthogonal set,
are solved numerically, for example, using a finite then the solution would be less timeconsuming and
difference scheme. 175'199 A finite element solution the accuracy would increase with the increase in the
scheme was also developed to solve the discrete number of directions. With this in mind, Lockwood
ordinates approximation equations in twodimensional a n d S h a h 23'24 proposed a "'discrete transfer"
Cartesian geometry for radiative transfer in the model which combines the virtues of the zonal,
atmosphere. 2 Monte Carlo, and discrete ordinates methods. They
If the resulting equations of the discrete ordinates showed that very accurate results could be obtained
approximation are carefully coded, they can result in with this method in one and twodimensional
computer algorithms that combine minimum com geometries by increasing the number of directions.
puter memory requirements with few arithmetic
Although this method is claimed to be capable of
operations per spaceangle grid point. 133 However,
accounting for scattering in the medium, no results
this approximation is not flawless, but suffers from have been reported or compared against other
the so called "ray effects" which yield anomalies in benchmark methods for scattering media in multi
the scalar flux distributiori. T M .202 The ray effects are dimensional enclosures. The results for a one
especially pronounced if there are localized radiation
dimensional scattering medium did not show the
sources in the medium and scattering is less im same level of agreement with the benchmark results
portant in comparison to absorption. As the single as did the nonscattering medium predictions. 23
scattering albedo increases, the radiation field be This method is also likely to yield erroneous results
comes more isotropic and the ray effects become less
due to the "ray effects" discussed in Subsection 4.4.4.
noticeable. However, with increasing single scat
A similar approach to the solution of the RTE for
tering albedo and/or optical thickness of the
multidimensional enclosures has also been presented
medium, the convergence rate may become very by Taniguchi et al. 2s for absorbingemitting media.
slow. 133 Considering the flame in combustion cham
This so called "'radiant heat ray method" is based on
bers as a localized radiation source, it is natural to
the BeerLambert's or Bouguer's law and yields the
anticipate the ray effects in the solution of the RTE
radiant energy absorption distribution in noniso
in combustion chambers, if the discreteordinates thermal enclosures containing combustion gases.
approximation is used. If the combustion chamber is
Comparisons of the predictions based on this
a pulverizedcoal fired furnace in which there are
method with other results show that the method is
scattering particles present, the results are expected
more accurate and less time consuming than both
to be more reliable. 199
zonal and MonteCarlo techniques if the radiative
properties such as the absorption coefficient and wall
4.4.5. Hybrid and other methods emissivities are constant. 2os
Another hybrid model based on the Monte Carlo
Almost all methods discussed have some flaws. In method and generalized radiosityirradiation ap
order to take advantage of the desirable features of proach has been suggested by Edwards. 26 This
the different models, various hybrid radiative trans method accounts for the volumetric scattering, yields
fer models have been developed in the literature. accurate results for optical dimensions as small as
JPBCS 1 3 : 2  e
130 R. VISKANTAand M. P. M~,~GOt;
0.5, and is computationally faster than the Monte accuracy and computational costs. In order to decide
Carlo method. whether a model is appropriate for a given problem,
The main reason why the discrete ordinate one has to compare its predictions against the
approximation suffers from ray effects is because of benchmark results obtained from either experiments
the inability of the loworder Snquadrature to or exact solutions. Zonal and Monte Carlo methods
integrate accurately over the angular flux. 133 If are extensively used as the benchmark for compar
piecewise continuous approximations of the angular isons as they generally yield accurate predictions of
flux are given in terms of directional variables, and radiation heat transfer.
approximate spatial equations are obtained by In onedimensional systems, comparisons of differ
integrating over appropriate solid angles, these ray ent radiation models have been
effects can be avoided. The resulting expressions can given. 125']62164"197']98 However, the accuracy of a
be considered as hybrid models which combine method in predicting radiative transfer in a simple
discrete ordinates or multiflux approximations with system may not always warrant its use in more
the sphericalharmonics approximation. Indeed, the complicated systems. Therefore, it is important to
double or quadruple sphericalharmonics approxi evaluate radiative transfer models for multidimen
mations described in Subsection 4.4.3 can be con sional geometries, preferably for practical situations.
sidered as this kind of hybrid model. In neutron
transport literature there were several accounts
which discussed the possibility of combining the Sn
method with the Pn_~method to improve the 1.0
accuracy and reliability of the predictions as well as FiniteElement
to decrease the computational effort, t 32.133
0.8~ L / H ,m o Zonal
Flux models can also be coupled with the moment
or spherical harmonics approximation to improve
the accuracy of the radiation heat transfer pre 0 . 6 ~
dictions. A model which combines the Ptapproxi
mation with a twoflux method was proposed by
O.4
Selcuk and Siddall 27 and applied to a two ~o
dimensional axisymmetric cylindrical furnace. The
comparisons of the temperature and heat flux distri i5
O.2
butions in the medium with those obtained with the
zonal method showed very good agreement. Since O  I I ~ I I
this model was developed for a gasfired furnace, 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
scattering of radiation was not taken into account. DimensionlessPosition,x/L
Another similar hybrid method was derived by FiG. 13. Dimensionless centerline temperature profiles in
Harshvardhan et a/. 28 who combined the modified rectangular enclosures of different aspect ratio with black
twoflux method]7~ with the P~approximation. In walls; bottom wall at dimensionless temperature 0= 1.0,
this method, the linearly anisotropic scattering other walls at 0=0. 2~2
medium assumption was made, and the method was
used to predict radiative transfer through three ~" ILlH .O.t
dimensional cuboidal clouds. Comparisons of the
predictions with the Monte Carlo results showed
..'
reasonably good agreement. ,'7" 0.8 ~  .... ~"*"*
Recently, a new threedimensional radiative trans
fer model was proposed 2o9.2~o by extending the one
dimensional addingdoubling technique (see, e.g. van .o 0.6
de Hulst 2It). The predictions for the radiative flux "0
"" 2.4 . ~
.o
'Ps

Zonal
~
decreases with decreasing optical thickness. Similar
conclusions have also been reported by different
researchers.6~'l s5.1 s7
2.0 In Figs 15 and 16, comparisons between zonal,
,5 spherical harmonics (P3), and discrete ordinates (SN)
(J
 1.6
approximations are presented for a purely scattering
o
medium with different wall emissivities. 199 The P3
and S6results for the centerline irradiance distri
.~_ 1.2 :'"i" ~. . . . . . . . bution are in very good agreement with the zonal
method (see Fig. 15). The Psapproximation, how
,,, 0.8
e, ever, overestimates the radiation heat flux at the
.=_o walls for large wall emissivities, although both S4
a4 and S6approximations yield accurate results (Fig.
E 16).
0 The lowerorder spherical harmonics approxi
0 o', & & ,o mations generally yield more accurate predictions if
Dimensionless Position, y/H
the radiation field in the medium is almost isotropic,
FIG. 15. Comparison of irradiances in a twodimensional which is the case if the optical thickness is large,
square crosssection enclosure with a gray scattering
medium (ic=0), Ehl = 1 and El,_,= EI,.~= El,4=0.199
the medium is predominantly scattering or the
surfaces are diffusely reflecting. If the radiation field
is highly anisotropic, the P3 and especially P t "
approximations become less reliable. Because of this,
Zonal the Pi and P3approximations are to be used for
1.0 ~',,,   '   Ps media having optical thicknesses of 1.0 and 0.5
,~ S,, Ss
or larger, respectively, ls'lsSas7 The main reason
for this inaccuracy for anisotropic radiation fields
~ 08
h is use of arbitrarily defined boundary conditions,
like Marshak's condition) 9 In Fig. 17, the P3
:I: approximation results are compared against those of
O.6
o an exact model 139 for a cylindrical enclosure, 61
where both Marshak's (m) and "exact" analytical (a)
~ O.4 .,,.::.~;~~ ........ boundary conditions are used. Here, it is assumed
that there is a uniform, diffuse radiation source
incident on one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical
(,0.1
0.8
0 I I I I
0 (11 0.2 03 0.4 05
Dimensionless Position, x//L O.6
i I , i i
0 Meosured Values
P,C A p p r o x i m a t i o n
I I I I i I a I i
IO 2.0 3,0 40 50
z (ml
FIG. 18. Comparison of local radiation fluxes at the wall based on P.~approximation results for a
combustion chamber with experimental data and discrete ordinates method: r. =0.45 m, :, = 5.1 m."~
~
.o
using different boundary condition models. 61 It is Lt. O.Im "l
clear from the figure that the use of Marshak's
boundary condition yields substantially higher local ,,.~,li~d~ ~ '1 cleat 2 q t a y
quenching phenomena have been proposed. 225.226 function of various thermophysical and radiative
Among those proposed are the stretching effect of the parameters such as the conductionradiation ratio,
combustion zone, preferential diffusion, buoyancy optical thickness and heat generation intensity by
and heat losses. The effect of heat loss on quenching chemical reactions. A new dimensionless group, the
can be more pronounced in the presence of relatively modified Damk6hler number (ratio of dimensionless
cold boundaries, due to steep temperature gradients. heat source intensity to the conductionradiation
The pyrolizing surface of condensed fuels is a parameter), which characterizes the relative strength
representative example of cold boundaries in a of heat generation to radiation transport, emerges
combustion situation of practical interest. In this as from the analysis. The quenchinglayer thickness is
well as in many other studies on heat transfer in fires, determined primarily by the conduction effect near
the significance of thermal radiation has become the relatively cold surface. However, thermal radi
increasingly recognized as radiation accounts for a ation is still the dominant mode of heat transfer
significant portion of heat losses. Its effect has been there. Numerical calculations have shown that the
shown to be considerable not only in largescale and fraction of radiative heat flux at the fuel surface is
smallscale fires 227'229 but also in small diesel over 85 ~o of the total heat flux. Optical thicknesses
engines. 2a less than 0.5 show little influence on the quenching
Radiation blockage by soot layers between the distance, and more opaque systems yield shorter
flame and the fuel is considered to be an important quenching distances.
characteristic of fires. The radiation blockage effect Radiation blockage may also be desired in other
has been investigated and found to depend on the physical situations to avoid excessive temperatures at
type of fuel and size of fires. 227 Using experimentally the system boundaries. Siegel ~ls has systematically
obtained data, it is shown that for polymer fuels studied a onedimensional system at high temper
of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polypropylene ature, with and without flow, to determine the
(PP), and polyoxymethylene (POM) no significant governing parameters needed to keep the walls at a
radiation blockage is present in moderatescale fires; prescribed temperature range. Using an analytical
however, for sootier fuels such as polystyrene (PS), approach, he concluded that a dimensionless para
radiation blockage has a considerable effect even in meter ME= TJ~CLxL/C2) and the ratio of suspension
smallscale fires. In Fig. 21, the effects of gas layer temperature to source temperature, TraIT,, were the
thickness and soot volume fraction on the blockage two important parameters. Here, fv is the soot
of radiation are shown graphically. volume fraction, CL is the ratio of mean beam length
The effect of thermal radiation and conduction on to layer thickness, x is the constant absorption
the coldwall flamequenching distance in the com coefficient, and C2 is Planck's second radiation
bustion of condensed fuels has been studied using a constant. When M ~ 2 the soot (or suspension) layer
simple physical model. 227 In the analysis a steady absorbs practically all the radiation incident on it,
state, noflow condition, onedimensional energy and when M ~ 0 . 2 half of the radiation is absorbed.
equation for the optically thin quenching layer is Although at the beginning the soot layer blocks the
solved employing the singular perturbation tech radiation, the energy trapped in the layer raises its
nique. The quenching distance is obtained as a temperature. After a while, the layer begins to radiate
energy. This can be avoided using perforated walls
and introducing the cool seeded gas from many holes
1.0 along the surface at frequent intervals)~S A similar
'7/' / /
~ 0.4 Flames
fr ~ In onedimensional pulverizedchar or coal flames,
two different flame types are recognized as "small" or
0., / _
"long". T M The "small" type flames can be modeled
qualitatively using a conductiondiffusion approxi
mation, whereas for the "'long" type flames, radiation
102 10"1 heat transfer is also an important mechanism. Earlier
GAS LAYER THICKNESS ( m ) attempts to model these types of flames without
FIG. 21. Radiation blockage as a function of gas layer including radiation have not been very successful;
thickness for a plane flame layer model, Lj./Lo=0.4. 227 however, a model based primarily on radiation
Radiation heat transfer 135
predicted the flame temperatures and burnout pro the density of coal, and Q is the correction factor
files very accurately. TM In this model it is assumed which is near 1.5 for practical flames. Equation (5.2)
that reaction is controlled by combined diffusion and is applicable if a particle size distribution is given. It
surface chemical reaction for either shrinking, con can be used also if a single mean value for "r" can be
stant density particles or constant diameter, de defined. Two different mean values, one from the
creasing density particles. Also, the size distribution Sautermean diameter definition (i.e. volumeto
of the spherical particles in the flame is accounted surface ratio, D32 ) and the other from the Rosin
for; however, the particle temperature is assumed to Rammler index were also used in the analysis. The
be equal to that of the surrounding gases. This predictions for coal burnout are compared against
approximation can not be justified in physical experimental data in Fig. 22 for polysize as well as
systems where particles burn in dilute suspensions two mean diameter models. The polysize model is in
with a large excess of oxygen, yet it is a reasonable exceptionally good agreement with the data, sug
approximation for concentrated suspensions in prac gesting that the accuracy of properties used in a
tical flames (see comments of I. W. Smith to Xieu et radiation model are as critical or, maybe, even more
al.231). The radiation heat flux was obtained by so than the accuracy of the model itself (see also
modeling the RTE between two vertical infinite Section 4.5).
parallelplates, and the flux divergence is given by 23~ Another model, based on the onedimensional
Eddington (P1) approximation for predicting the
c3q, contribution of radiation in "long" flames was given
.... 4xtr T4( z ) + 2x[ a T41E2( z )
dz by Krezinski et al. 233 They obtained the radiative
properties of coal particles using the complex
tL
refractive index data of Foster and Howarth; v5
+trT4.2E2('rl,z) +tr S Ta(t)El(lztl) dt] (5.1)
o however, they did not compare model predictions
with experimental data.
where x is the absorption coefficient for the mixture,
T is the optical distance, tr is the StefanBoitzmann 5.4. Radiation in a Combusting Boundary Layer Along
constant, El and E 2 are the first and secondorder a Vertical Wall
exponential integral functions, respectively. The key
parameter in this model is the absorption coefficient, Classical studies of boundary layer diffusion
which, in general, is a function of location. The flames have neglected radiation, a.234.235 To isolate
assumption of a constant value for 1( did not yield the effects of radiation in flames from the complex
accurate predictions for the temperature and burnout ities of fluid motion and to gain better understanding
profiles. 232 Recognizing that the absorption coef of radiation heat transfer in fires, analyses have been
ficient is varying with the projected crosssection of made of a laminar, combusting boundary layer along
the particles (see Section 3.2), Xieu et al. TM used a a vertical wall. 23623s The rate of upward flame
new expression spread over a vertical combustible surface is an
important parameter in the ranking of the fire hazard
~, = 3QD,/4pr (5.2) offered by different materials. Typically, when the
flame height reaches about 2 m, the flow becomes
where D, is the dust cloud concentration for the size turbulent and radiation heat transfer starts to play an
interval corresponding to mean particle radius r, p is important role in the overall energy balance. Free,
mixed and forced convection boundary layers along
a vertical, burning wall have been studied analytic
ally. Previous work on thermal radiation from flames
'1 I i
has been reviewed 23924~ and related experimental
work has also been reported. 242 Here, we discuss the
J[ / Rosin Rommter monosize results of numerical solutions obtained for a steady,
laminar, radiating, combusting, boundary layer over
ca 60 "1 ~ C a vertical pyrolizing fuel slab.
An analysis has been developed for steady free and
401 ~ ~ % forced laminar combusting boundary layers in which
I \ I ' ~ Polysize
a pyrolysis zone separates the flame from the fuel
surface 23s as shown in Fig. 23. The soot layer is on
~ I monosize (D~l~" ~.....___.~ the fuel side of the flame zone. Through the
transparent gas the combusting layer exchanges
I I I I I I I radiation with a distant black wall, which is
0 20 40 60 80 ioo J20
Distance from tube bonk (cm) maintained at a specified temperature. The chemical
FIG. 22. Comparison of prediction and experiment for coal energy lost to the system in the formation of soot is
burnout, using the given polysize and two alternative, neglected. The effects of radiation on the local fields,
mort osi ze models. 231 and excess pyrolyzate escaping downstream at the
136 R. V1SKANTAand M. P. MENO0~
Rodiotin9
 Non.r(idiolin9 t
o.s ~
o.s N
0 0
I.O IO
DIMENSIONLESS HEATOFCOMBUSTION,Oc
FIG. 25. Pyrolysis rate and unburned pyrolyzate vs dimensionless heat of combustion for axisymmetric
flow with B= 1.0, r=0.22, 0,,.=2.0, N~ = 0.05, N 2 = 5 0 . 0 , and e = 1.0. 248
eight parameters and is not predetermined. The butions of soot volume fractions and CO 2 and H 2 0
pyrolysis rate with radiation is lower due to the net concentrations. The utility of the analysis will then
efflux of radiation at the surface. In general, the come from both the proper quantification of radi
influx of gaseous radiation is insufficient to cancel ative effects in opposedflow diffusion flame experi
the efflux of surface emission, hence a lower pyrolysis ments and from the use of such systems to refine
rate results in comparison to non radiative combus techniques for incorporating radiation in combus
tion. Lower pyrolysis rates may result even when a tion modeling.
net influx of radiation prevails because of the
decrease in conduction caused by the lower flame
5.6. EJJect oJ Radiation on a Planar, TwoDimensional
temperature due to radiant loss from the combustion
TurbulentJet DiJJusion Flame
zone. At low Dc, the reaction releases little energy to
counter surface emission losses, giving low pyrolysis A simple combustion situation has been modeled
rates, whereas at large Dc much energy is released to assess the importance of thermal radiation in
which easily overcomes surface losses and yields establishing temperature distribution in a turbulent
large pyrolysis rates. 2as The net effect of radiation on diffusion flame. 25 Although, turbulent diffusion
pyrolysis appears to be low for several reasons. The flames have been extensively studied by Bilger and
properties of real opposed diffusion flames are not his coworkers) 51 253 they have not considered the
yet sufficiently well known to give accurate para effects of radiation. However, radiation heat transfer
meter values. Those chosen for the calculations (see modifies the temperature distribution which, in turn,
caption of Fig. 25 and others in Ref. 248) may not be affects the combustion process. Small changes in
sufficiently realistic as they all tend to underestimate peak temperatures have a large influence upon nitric
the differences between nonradiating and radiating oxide production for a given residence time. It is of
systems. interest to determine how the various control
As data on radiative properties of stagnation strategies such as lowering combustion air preheat or
point flames become available, the approximation of recirculating exhaust products into the combustion
a constant absorption coefficient should be replaced air affect the unwanted nitric oxide emissions and
with a nonuniform one based on measured distri the desired radiation heat transfer.
BLACKPLANEWALL
!11111111111111111111111111111/6
AIR t
i JET
FUEL ~f MIDPLANE
Am ///7"//////////////////////// ///
BLACK PLANEWALL
FlG. 26. Schematicaldiagram ofaphme, radiatingjetconlinedbetweentwoparallelplates.
Radiation heat transfer 139
Work on luminous flames has been limited. results have been obtained for other laboratory
Similar results to those presented in Fig. 27 have diffusion flames. Excellent agreement has been ob
been reported by Gore and Faeth (cited in Refs 254 tained between measured and predicted radiative
and 255) for a turbulent ethylene/air diffusion flame. heat flux distributiotrs parallel to the axi's of
The spectra are dominated by continuum radiation turbulent carbon monoxide/air diffusion flames. 259
from soot, however, the effects of 1.38, 1.87 and The mean property predictions agree very well with
2.7/~m gas bands of the H 2 0 and the 2.7 and 4.3 #m the measurements because the effects of turbulence
gas bands of CO2 can still be seen. In this case the radiation interaction are small. The analysis correctly
meanproperty method has provided the best quan predicts maximum heat fluxes near the flame tip as
titative agreement with the data, but the agreement is well as the effects of burner flow rate.
considered to be fortuitous in view of poorer Discussion of the effects of turbulence/radiation
extinction predictions obtained using the ap interactions has been given by Faeth et aL 31'255 The
proach. 255 The predictions of continuum radiation available results show that the interactions are very
are very sensitive to local temperature estimates, and significant for hydrogen/air diffusion flames, with
the assumption opticallythin radiative heat losses stochastic predictions being as much as twice the
are quite crude. Differences between mean property mean property predictions. 2sa In contrast, turbulence/
and stochastic predictions suggest significant effects radiation interactions caused less than a 30~o
of turbulence/radiation interactions in luminous increase in spectral radiation intensities for carbon
flames. More exact coupled structure and radiation monoxide/air and methane/air diffusion flames. This
analysis could modify the relative performance of the difference is attributed to the relatively rapid vari
meanproperty and stochastic methods and suggest ation of radiation parameters (water vapor concen
that presently available models must be improved. tration and temperature) near stoichiometric con
Measurements and predictions of total radiative ditions for hydrogen/air diffusion flames. The
heat fluxes to points surrounding the turbulent stochastic methods at.254~255 have many ad hoc
hydrogen/air, 258 carbon monoxide/air, 259 methane/ features and additional fundamental research effort
air, 26 and ethylene/air T M diffusion flames have been is needed to develop more reliable methods not only
made. The discrepancies between the measured and for small laboratory flames but also for scaling large
predicted total radiation heat fluxes along the axis of flames containing soot.
a turbulent methane/air diffusion flame (Fig. 28) are
within the order of 1030 %. Such levels of error are
similar to the differences between prediction and 5.8. Combustion and Radiation Heat TransJer in a
measurement for the spectral intensities. Comparable Porous Medium
FIG. 29. Comparison of measured and predicted temper 6. APPLICATIONS TO COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
ature structures in porous media for different combustion
loads. 2~8 The lower abscissa scale r is optical depth based The advent of more powerful digital computers
on the ~bsorption coefficient of the porous medium, and has provided the means whereby mathematical
PMI, PMI1 and PMIII are the abbreviations for porous
media I, I! ~md II!, respectively. modeling can be applied to combustion system
problems to facilitate the arduous task of their
design. This is now of great interest in view of the
mixture flows through a porous medium and the current demands which system designers are required
combustion reactions take place in the medium. The to meetin particular, efficiency of combustion at a
results of comprehensive calculations show that the wide range of operating conditions and strict control
thermal structure (profiles of temperature, local of pollutant emissions. The latter has become
radiation flux, etc.) in the high porosity medium increasingly stringent in recent years for economic
depends strongly on the absorption coefficient and and political reasons. The present trend is away from
total optical thickness of the medium as well as the the traditional cutandtry methods, which are ex
position of the reaction zone. G o o d agreement pensive and do not necessarily produce the optimum
between predicted and measured temperature distri design, toward fundamental modeling of the physical
butions has been obtained and a drastic temperature and chemical processes occurring within the combus
decrease in the porous medium has been re tion systems. Multidimensional modeling of two
vealed. 266"26s The results have also revealed remark phase combustion is being approached with the aim
able heat transfer and combustion augmentation. of producing algorithms based on fundamental
Gas
Nucleation Particle
Interaction
Heat Transfer
(Convective)
(Radiative)
principles which can correlate all of the details of radiation model, through the radiative properties of
combustion systems. 3,269272 The predictive pro combustion products, to the mathematical transport
cedures for a combustion system model require model to predict the temperature and radiating
theoretical and empirical inputs to describe turbulent species concentration distributions. With the pres
flow, chemical kinetics, thermodynamic and thermo ently available algorithms, 3"5'269271 the latter type
physical properties and other transport processes, problems require an iterative solution procedure
including radiation heat transfer (see Fig. 30). which is rather timeconsuming.
This section of the article discusses application of A validated computer model has been used to
the methodology described in the previous sections construct a detailed energy flow (Sankey) diagram for
to practical combustion systems. The emphasis is on an industrial furnace. 273 The diagram (Fig. 31) shows
the methodology and radiation heat transfer results that more than half of the heat to the load comes
rather than the application of mathematical tech from the refractory wall. Of the balance, part is
niques for design and performance calculations of convection (4~), part is direct radiation from the
practical systems. Even with the advances in main flame (6 ~), and part is flame/wall radiation absorbed
frame computers the difficulty of treating infrared by the gas which has been reradiated by the wall
radiation transfer rigorously in nonhomogeneous (6 9/o). The furnace shows a thermal efficiency of 35 ~o
gases containing particles lies primarily in the with the typical high flue loss and indicates the
enormous complications introduced by selective importance of the walltowall reradiation effect.
gaseous emission and absorption of radiation as well With the exception of different magnitudes, Fig. 31
as scattering by irregularshaped particles. Because of shows a typical pattern for all industrial natural gas
this complexity practical simplifications are necess and oil fired furnaces. As the flame becomes more
ary to keep the calculations at a reasonable level. As opaque and/or the wall temperatures drop there will
a compromise between desired accuracy and compu be obviously more radiation from the flame and less
tational effort, practical methods which are also from the wall. Also, as the wall temperatures drop
compatible with the numerical algorithms for solving there will be smaller radiation exchange between the
the transport equations are stressed, and radiation walls and the load.
heat transfer in several different combustion systems The close examination of Fig. 31 clearly indicates
is discussed. The body of literature concerned with why there has been so little attention given to the
modeling and evaluation of combstion systems is calculation of convective heat transfer inside fur
very large, and it is not practical in an article of naces. In industrial furnaces convective heat transfer
limited scope to discuss even the more recent works. usually accounts for a very small fraction of the total
Most of the work reported has stressed modeling and heat transfer to the load. Local convective heat
evaluation of chemically reacting turbulent flows and transfer coefficients have been measured at a surface
combustion and much less radiation heat transfer. heated by gases 274 and empirical correlations for the
The emphasis in this review is on the latter. average Nusselt number have been reported for
differentlydirected gas streams incident on the
load. 274276 An interesting finding of the experi
6.1. Industrial Furnaces mental study 274 was that in the absence of combus
One of the important parameters in assessing the tion the average heat transfer coefficient at the load
performance of an industrial furnace is the heat flux surface was about 35 W/m2K, while in the presence
distribution to its thermal load (sink). Methods of combustion the values were from 80 to 120 W/m2K,
based on fundamental principles are now available suggesting almost a threefold enhancement of con
using numerical techniques and digital computers, vective heat transfer by combustion.
that permit determinations to be made for both gas Radiation in furnaces predominates over con
and oilfired industrial furnaces. In such furnaces vection; therefore, more emphasis has been given to
heat transfer to the load is predominantly by thermal radiation over the years and the radiative transfer
radiation. The problems associated with prediction theory has been much more fully developed,45 2 7 7  2 8 1
of radiation heat transfer within the combustion and presently capability exists to predict simultaneous
chamber can be divided in two main types: threedimensional flow, heat transfer and reaction
rates inside furnaces. 269'27! However, the theory has
(a) Evaluation of radiation heat transfer at all outstripped experimental validation, which is in a
locations in the enclosure if the temperature much more primitive state, but even in this area a
distribution and radiative properties of the number of papers describing direct comparisons
combustion products are known; and between predictions and experimental data have
(b) Evaluation of radiation heat transfer as well as appeared, t 6 9 , 2 8 2  2 8 8
temperature and radiating species concentration The results obtained for a model furnace using
distributions. the phenomenological furnaceperformance equations
Problems of type (a) are more straightforward and have been used to determine the relative importance
require development of radiation heat transfer models~ of the model parameters. 2s Analysis of the results
Problems of type (b) require the coupling of the led to the conclusion that the flame emissivity was of
Radiation heat transfer 143
FItJ. 31. Energy flow (Sankey) diagram for one operating point of un industrial furnace, illustrating the
four different contributions to output .'rod the effect of walltowall radi~,tion exchange, z3
,0,, Qs
F s 
Y,,'/,// ,/////'///////// A~_,,a T~
Waste Gases
~aml~stloa ==~.
~,.r=.~ = [ 0 ~  O] + ( S t ' K o X O m  0,)]. (6.5)
Products
o., T,
Fuel fit AIr For the special case when convective heat transfer to
/~> ~o. e/r,,A ' the load is negligible in comparison to radiation
//I Lo,, (St=0), Eq. (6.4) simplifies to
/
7111111111111111~
Ko(1  0m)= 0~ 0]. (6.6)
FIG. 33. Schematic diagram of a stirred furnace model.
By eliminating the mean combustionproduct tem
perature, the dimensionless heat transfer rate can be
expressed as
mation for radiation heat exchange, the heat transfer
rate to the load can be expressed as 277'2al
r ~ = Ko[1  ( F, + 0 ~)z/'*]. (6.7)
O~A, [h(T~  T~)+ ,fr _ ,,a(T~  T])] (6.2) Extensive calculations have been reported for the
dimensionless mean gas temperature and heat trans
where h is the average convective heat transfer fer rate and the results can be found in the
coefficient at the load, and " ~ s  m is Hottel's radiation literature. 2aSza7 Experiments have also been per
exchange factor or A ~  ~ _ m is the total radiation formed and compared with model predictions. 2s6'2a7
exchange area. This factor is a rather complicated
Figure 34 shows a comparison between the measured
function of the gas emissivity, wall emissivity and the and the calculated average heat fluxes in an experi
sinktorefractory area ratio, and expressions are mental combustion chamber having a 1.25 m long
available in the literature. 45'287 The heat losses
firing space and two different crosssections (0.4 m x
through the walls of the furnace can be expressed as 0.4 m and 0.4 m x 0.8 m). The results show that the
stirredvessel heat transfer model can be successfully
Qt = UoAo(Tm  T,) (6.3) applied to those furnaces in which there is no
appreciable axial drop of the mean gas temperature.
where U0 and Ao are the overall heat transfer This condition is roughly met in combustion cham
coefficient and area of the refractory walls, respec bers fired with highvelocity burners and in furnaces
tively; and T,, and T, are the mean combustion where the flame length is approximately equal to the
products and ambient air temperatures, respectively. furnace length. Under these conditions, a maximum
Substitution of Eqs (6.2) and (6.3) into Eq. (6.1), and error of _+20% can be expected in calculating the
assumption of negligible wall heat losses allows the absorbed heat flow to the load being heated. In
resultant equation to be written as predicting the energy consumption of the furnace,
this would mean a maximum error of _+10 ~oo.286
+ 0~0,,, = ( 1 / K o ) ( 0 ~  0 ~ ) (6.4)
l + St 1~ l + St
100 F~naee CrogSeellon In mmZ=LOO,t.O0 ~Or,9~
Io, 06 V
where the dimensionless variables and parameters
are defined as
0 =T" 0 T~ ;nCpm
60
" 7,; A ~ . _ ma T 3 .. \
 ~0(0.0~) (6.9)
6.1.3. Multidimensional models
~ dQ,,
The computational methods which have been
developed are able to complement, but not replace,
empirically based design procedures. This is because
H Products IldO~ H U I'T! chemically reacting turbulent flows are not fully
understood, and it is proving particularly difficult
to eliminate the deficiencies of existing turbulence
.... ........ .:'H models. In the absence of reliable turbulence models
it is hardly possible to subject any of the ever
FIG. 35. Schematic diagram of a plug flow model. increasing number of combustion and radiative
1800
\\ ' ' {o)' '
i i i
\
,~. Plug Flow %Plug Flow
1600
\
\
ca 2x_~~ .,. Stirred Vessel
1400 , S f i t r e 1 % % ;!.,... / :aecade
Vessel ~ ~.
E \
1200 Zonol ~ Stirred Vessel
O Zonal
it\x)
o i
02
014 i
0.6
i
08 0
1
0.2
i
0.4 0.6
i
0.8 LO
x~
FIG. 36. Comparison of gas temperature distributions along a onezone la) and fivezone (b) furnace
predicted by different models: Ko= 1, K=0.1 m ] i:~j=0.104,~==0.8, h/h=2/l, l/h=20/l, T~= 773 K. 2<j3
J?gCS 13:2D
146 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENG(~(;
.'Wilh
5O
combustion chambers have been developed and a
review is available: The zonal, flux, discrete 0 Tuth/RQa. Inlw.
ordinates and firstorder spherical harmonics ( P : Willloul Turb./Ro4. I n t l r .
approximation) methods have been assessed. For 50 I I I I I I I I I
natural gas and oil fired furnaces only three species 0 0.2 04. 0.6 0.8 1.0
work on the subject has been discussed by Doleza1297 matter deposited onto surfaces of coalfired furnaces
and more recent studies have been reviewed by can greatly affect radiation heat transfer due to the
Blokh. 4 The latter volume in particular contains a alteration of its emissivity. 7s Mineral matter and ash
large body of fundamental radiation property data, deposited on walls of the tubes can also increase
measured spectral and total incident radiation fluxes greatly the thermal resistance to heat conduction
along the height of different capacity furnaces as well across the deposit, and some simple conductance
as empirical correlations for analyzing the thermal models have been developed.'*
performance of coalfired boilers. An uptodate Data for soot, carbon and coal refractive indices
discussion of coal combustion models in which are generally (but not necessarily very accurately)
radiation heat transfer has also been considered is available,'*'64 but significant uncertainty exists in the
available. 3 Despite the considerable progress in the particle concentration and size distributions. In
development of analytical methods of engineering gasifiers and staged combustion systems, which
science and despite an increasing understanding of operate fuelrich for nitrogen oxide pollutant control,
fundamental combustion processes, the design or soot radiation may be particularly important. Unless
performance predictions of coalfired furnaces may the sootvolumefraction distribution in the medium
still be considered as an art based primarily on is known accurately, radiation heat transfer to the
empirical knowledge and the ingenuity of the com chamber walls can not be predicted with confidence.
bustion engineer. This is particularly true for large Flyash particles greatly influence the radiative
boiler furnaces because of their extremely compli properties of the flame and of the combustion
cated geometry and boundary conditions 4'272'29s as products in a pulverizedcoal fired furnace. Data for
well as the lack of confidence in the existing flyash are much less certain. 4'7983 There is signifi
analytical methods. Scaleup and advanced perform cant variation in the refractive indices of pulverized
ance analyses of boiler combustion chambers have coal and flyash with the type of coal, mineral matter
been developed272 using laboratory and/or small in the coal, as well as the combustion process itself.
model furnace data. In spite of major improvements Experiments have revealed that the refractive index
in the analytical methods for predicting the perform of flyash particles formed during the combustion of
ance of coalfired furnaces 3'272 there is still distrust even one coal shows quite large differencesfl 7 Lowe
by practical furnace designers of the analytical et al. 3 have shown that in large boilers flyash
methods because of geometrical restrictions, problems exerts a much greater effect on heat transfer to the
of stability, complexity of the new methods, limited heatabsorbing surfaces in a furnace than the aero
applicability of the models, etc. dynamics and kinetic characteristics of a pulverized
In this section we discuss the use of more recent coal burnout. Radiation from flyash particles
models to predict radiation heat transfer in relatively exceeds substantially the contribution of both tri
simple furnaces, for the purpose of gaining improved atomic combustion gases, as well as char and soot
understanding of radiative transfer and of the particles'* Contribution to radiative transfer by char
relative importance of the model parameters. It is particles is essentially over the length of the flame. At
hoped that this would provide the bridge between the the end of the furnace the concentration of the char
scientific community which is developing compre particles is small, and there they exert very little effect
hensive combustion system models and furnace on the radiation heat flux at the wall.
designers who are attempting to solve practical
problems based on empirical knowledge. Reference is
made to literature which discusses methods for 400
evaluation of thermal performance of large boiler g
furnaces.
Detailed reviews of radiation heat transfer in
300
pulverized coalfired furnaces are available.4"272"299 c+s+g
Radiation heat transfer in furnaces is due to gaseous
and particulate contributions. Emissivity data for the
qr, z,,,
(kW/m 200
major emitting gaseous species CO2 and H 2 0 are
generally adequate. 4.64 Other gaseous species (e.g.
CO, SO2, NO, N 2 0 ) are usually of secondary
importance because of low concentration. Local I00
variations in gas temperature and species composition
are subject to more uncertainty than the emissivity
data. Contributions to particle radiation in pulver 0
0 2 4 6 8 I0
ized coalfired systems usually results from coal z On)
(char), soot andflyash. Information required for
FIG, 38. Effect of combustion products composition on the
predicting radiative transfer includes different particle radiation heat flux distribution along the wall of a
concentrations, size distributions, complex indices of pulverized coalfired furnace; (c=coal, f=flyash, s=soot,
refraction and temperature. 2~'* Finally, the mineral g= combustion gases), for soot J,, = 2 m  1.2,4
148 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGOt;
Radiation heat transfer in a cylindrical, pulverized Current reviews of coalfired combustion models
coalfired combustion furnace has been predicted are available 2'3 there is no need to repeat these
both on a gray 214 and nongray s9 basis. The comprehensive discussions. Recent radiative transfer
calculations were carried out by assuming the modeling for inclusion in comprehensive multi
temperature and radiating species concentration dimensional combustion codes has focused on more
distributions in the furnace. The radiative character efficient differential and flux methods, 31303 but
istics of the coal particles were predicted from the there are exceptions. For example, Truelove 34 used
Mie theory, after first assuming a coal particle size a discreteordinates method, which is more time
distribution. Details of radiation heat transfer and consuming to evaluate; however, to simplify the
sensitivity calculations can be found elsewhere. 214 procedure the gas was considered to be gray and the
The contributions of the different constituents (coal, particles were assumed to be black and nonscat
flyash, soot and combustion gases) on the local tering. The classical Hottel zonal method is compu
radiative flux along the furnace are shown in Fig. 38. tationaUy inefficient for use in multidimensional
It is clear from the figure that neglect of the flyash codes. In addition, there are conceptual and numer
contribution and inclusion of soot absorption yields ical difficulties in adopting the method when aniso
a dramatic change in the radiative transfer in the tropically scattering particles are present in the
medium and at the cylindrical walls (see curves combustion products.
denoted as c + f + g and c + s + g ) . The main reason Available computer models for scaleup and per
for this discrepancy is the replacement of strongly formance predictions of boiler combustion chambers
scattering flyash particles by strongly absorbing have been reviewed. 272 The stateoftheart model for
soot particles. The addition of soot to coal +flyash predicting radiation heat transfer in a complicated
+ gas mixtures (c + f + g) simply decreases the radiat boiler combustion furnace is based on advanced
ive flux on the cylindrical wall since a greater Monte Carlo type techniques. The model is des
fraction of the radiant energy is being absorbed by cribed in more detail elsewhere together with exam
the medium itself. It should be mentioned, however, ples of its practical application. 272 It is shown how
that the effects predicted 6'2~4 in this way may be pilot plantscale results can be scaled up with the
exaggerated since in these calculations the energy help of the model to predict fullscale performance of
equation is not solved. When radiative transfer is particular boiler furnaces. The uncertainties in pre
taken into account in the energy equation, the dicting temperatures and heat fluxes are also dis
temperature would change in a manner that would cussed. It is pointed out that for pulverized coalfired
partially compensate for the effects of changes in boilers major uncertainties are caused by the un
radiative properties. known slagging and fouling patterns in the furnace,
The results of sensitivity studies 214 have shown and an ash deposition model could help to reduce
that accurate knowledge of number density, temper these uncertainties.
ature and particle concentration distributions are Recently, Fiveland and Wesse1298 have developed
more critical than the detailed information about the a very detailed and extensive computer model to
index of refraction of particles and gas concentration predict the performance of threedimensional pulver
distributions. The type of coal used affects radiative ized coalfired furnaces. They have accounted for
transfer relatively little; however, the neglect of fly almost all of the important physical phenomena that
ash outside of the flame zone has been shown to have can be expected in such systems, including turbu
a potential for large errors. Apparently, the accuracy lence, chemical reactions, devolatilization, char oxi
of radiative transfer predictions is not only limited dation as well as radiation heat transfer. Although
by the solution techniques of the radiative transfer they have considered different size particles (e.g.
equation or the prediction of radiative properties, polydispersions) and evaluated the radiative proper
but mostly by the accuracy of particle concentration ties of particles from Mie theory, scattering in the
and combustion product temperature distributions medium has been considered isotropic. The combus
which are more timeconsuming to evaluate in the tion gas properties have been obtained using the
needed detail. Edwards wideband model, a5 and the average
The importance of the spatial distribution of properties of the gasparticle mixture have been
radiative properties of pulverizedcoal and flyash in calculated using the averaging technique proposed
predicting radiation heat transfer accurately was also by Wessel. '26 The radiative transfer equation has
shown by Lowe e t a / . 3 In their analysis they been solved using the discrete transfer method of
employed Hottel's zonal method to solve for radi Lockwood and Shah; 23"24 however, the method
ative transfer in a utility type pulverized, coalfired has been revised first to avoid arbitrary radiative
furnace. They showed that furnace heat transfer was source/sink terms encountered in certain volume
insensitive to the type of coal and coal fineness and elements due to numerical diffusion. Wall emissivity
concluded that combustion data were adequate for and thermal conductance of ash deposits can provide
calculation of radiative heat transfer. Lowe et al. 3 a major resistance to heat transfer from the flame
recommended research on ignition, combustion combustion products to the walls of the furnace, and
stability and radiative properties of flyash. these factors were accounted for in the analysis. Flow
Radiation heat transfer 149
FIG. 39. Heat flux isopleths on furnace walls (in W/m2). 29s
patterns, gas temperature, concentration and heat modifications in the radiation model would definitely
flux distributions have been predicted. In Fig. 39 the improve its reliability.
heat flux distribution on the walls of the furnace is
depicted. Note that this figure shows the furnace as
6.3. Gas Turbine Combustors
unfolded. These types of results can be helpful in
identifying potential slagging/fouling problems on It is well established that in gas turbine combus
membrane walls or convectionpass elements. tors a large fraction of the heat transferred from the
Models of this type are essential to understand the gases to the liner walls is by radiation. The radiation
complex, largescale, pulverized coalfired furnaces is due to two contributions: (1) the nonluminous
and are valuable engineering design tools. The radiation emitted by gases such as CO2, H20, CO
radiation heat transfer model needs to be improved and others, and (2) the luminous radiation emitted by
to make it more realistic. Anisotropic scattering by soot particles in the flame. The luminous contri
particles has been neglected and soot has not been bution from the soot depends on the number and size
taken into account; therefore, the enhancement or of the soot particles. In the primary combustion zone
blockage of radiation by the soot layer is not most of the radiation emanates from the soot
considered. However, as the authors claim, the model particles produced in the fuelrich regions of the
is still in the initial stages of validation, and further flame. At high pressures encountered in modern
150 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENGO~:
in the field, and the special issues of Combustion modeling of fire phenomena. Several studies are
Science and Technology (Vol. 39, Nos. 16 and Vol. mentioned here.
40, Nos. 14, 1984) on Fire Science for Fire Safety, Cooper studied fires in enclosures and described
honoring Professor Howard W. Emmons in which the ceiling jet resulting from the fire,32 the effect of
numerous papers concerned with fires are included. buoyant source in stratified layers, 32~ and the effect
It has now been accepted that radiation is the of side walls in growing fires. 322 However, only in the
dominant mode of heat transfer in fires of large scale, last paper did he consider the effect of radiation
whereas convection (or conductionI is the dominant using simple expressions for radiative transfer to
mode of heat transfer of very small scale fires. estimate the wall temperature. Bagnaro et al. 323
Detailed heat transfer measurements have demon developed a model to predict experimental room fires
strated that radiation heat transfer from fuel surfaces under steady and transient conditions. They used a
typically exceeds free convection heat transfer for moment method ~77 to solve the radiative transfer
characteristic fuel lengths greater than 0.2 m. 239 equation in threedimensional enclosures. To repre
Nonluminous and luminous radiation from turbulent sent the combustion gas contribution they employed
diffusion flames has been recently discussed and a sumofgraygases model. Their results showed
the importance of turbulence/radiation interactions good agreement with experimental data. Also,
has been recently pointed out by Faeth et Markatos and Pericleous 324 studied the effect of
al. 31'254'255 During the last decade there have been radiation on fires in threedimensional enclosures.
numerous contributions to the literature concerned They employed the sixflux model of Spalding (see
with radiation heat transfer in fires, and it is not Subsection 4.4.1) for the solution of RTE. However,
possible to do justice to them in this very short in neither of these studies is the dependence of the
account. radiative properties on the position (i.e. concen
Buoyant enclosure flows have applications to tration and temperature) in the medium considered
furnaces and in such phenomena as fire spread in in detail.
rooms and buildings. Numerical and experimental Tien and Lee 43 have provided a comprehensive
studies of twodimensional and threedimensional summary of the radiative properties of nonhomo
turbulent buoyant, simple and complex enclosures geneous and particulate containing media typical of
have been summarized by Yang and Lloyd. 317 The the flame environment. These data can then be used
results obtained have demonstrated that first in radiationenergy transfer models, which, in turn,
principle numerical finitedifference calculations, determine the characteristics of ignition and fire
together with a simple, yet rational algebraic turbu spread for the condensed fuel. T M 6.325 331 During

lence model, can provide reasonable predictions to a the combustion of condensed fuels, pyrolysis at the
variety of buoyancydriven vented enclosureflow fuel surface produces numerous and varied hydro
phenomena when compared to corresponding experi carbon gases and soot. The fuel vapors diffuse to the
mental data. The geometries considered unvented flame zone where they react exothermically with
and vented enclosures, aircraft cabin compartments oxygen diffusing from the other side of the flame
and others, but the effects of radiation were neglected. zone. Energy released from the flame zone heats the
At higher temperatures thermal radiation gener fuel surface, thus maintaining the existing pyrolysis,
ally plays a significant role in affecting the heat creating new areas of pyrolysis, and spreading the
transfer in enclosures such as rooms and buildings, fire. The pyrolyzed gases absorb energy in the
and interactions between thermal radiation and infrared and attenuate the feedback radiation to the
natural or mixed convection must be accounted for fuel surface. This feedback mechanism becomes
in the description of the pertinent momentum and important when the gases are strongly absorbing and
energy transfer processes. Recent discussions on are sooty or when the pathlength becomes large, as in
numerical modeling of natural convectionradiation largescale fires. For solid and liquid fires, the
interactions in multidimensional enclosures are combustion rate is controlled by the heat transfer
available. 3~a'319 The interactions depend on the from the combustion zone to the fuel surface. In
radiative properties of the absorbing, emitting and largescale fires (L>0.7 m) fire energy is dominated
scattering media filling the enclosure, a method of by radiation,Qnd the combustion rate is controlled
calculating multidimensional radiative transfer and by radiant feedback from the flame to the fuel
the numerical solution of the governing equations surface. Blockage effects by the pyrolized gases and
for buoyant flows. Current knowledge in these sub particulates near the fuel surface (discussed in
areas has been discussed. On the basis of these Section 5.2) can attenuate significantly the incoming
reviews,3~ s.319 it is apparent that natural convection radiation flux. Current analytical models for pre
radiation interactions in buoyant enclosure flows are dicting the radiation heat flux to the fuel surface
still in the developing stage. An efficient overall consistently overpredict the pyrolysis rate because
computational scheme is still lacking, and metho the blockage effect is not accounted for. The
dologies which have been developed for natural assumption of an isothermal and homogeneous flame
convection interaction studies do not appear to have for large scale fires may also lead to significant errors.
been applied to gain improved understanding or The lack of radiative property data for radiation
Radiation heat transfer 153
heat transfer calculations is a major limitation in "'long range" or "action at a distance" transport
improving current fire models. Radiative properties process. In many physical situations radiation can be
of common combustion gases and optical constants modeled without detailed input of complex chemistry,
for soot and simple calculation schemes for deter chemically reacting turbulent flow and knowledge of
mining the emission coefficients of luminous flames the flame and the reaction region.
have been reviewed. 43 The properties for some of the This review has concentrated on radiation heat
hydrocarbon gas species which are evolved by the transfer in combustion systems. It is clear from the
pyrolysis of condensed fuels, such as plastics, have review that radiation from flames and combustion
been published recently. 332 33,, Radiative properties products requires detailed information on the radi
of such gas species as ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H,), ative properties of the combustion gases and partic
propane (C3Hs), methylmethacrylate (C3HsO2), and ulates. Despite the many efforts which have been
others which are major species in pyrolized gases are devoted to the problem, the methods developed for
needed. The wideband 35 and superband 4'~ model radiation heat transfer in multidimensional geo
parameters need to be generated from experimental metries are far from satisfactory, particularly when
data for the radiatively important gases. Total temperatures and gas partial pressures and partic
emissivity charts can be developed for each gas once ulate concentrations are varying along the path
the band parameters have been determined. These length. The calculation of radiation in combustion
charts graphically express the dependence of total systems is quite involved, and most of the techniques,
emissivity on the temperature, pressure, and optical except those which are called flux or differential
pathlength of the emitting gas and greatly simplify approximations, are incompatible with the numer
the calculation of flame radiation problems. How ical algorithms for solving the fluid dynamics
ever, band information becomes necessary when transport equations.
different gases are combined which have overlapping During the course of the review, a number of
bands in order to determine the correction. Pre problem areas have been identified and are discussed
dictions of radiative transfer in largescale fires based in the article. Some specific recommendations for
on data from smallscale flames in laboratory work in modeling radiative transfer in combustion
experiments, however, have been very limited in systems are the following:
accuracy and require much more research attention.
The turbulence/radiation interactions and coupled (1) Radiative property data of less common gases
effects of radiation and flame structure for small such as ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H~,), as well
laboratory flames were discussed in Section 5.7. They as propane (C3Hs) and other more important
were found to be more important for luminous than radicals are needed. Radiative properties of
for nonluminous flames. Since smoke (soot) is particulates encountered in pulverized coal com
generated in open, compartment and building fires bustion such as flyash, char and others need to
which are much larger in scale than small laboratory be predicted and verified experimentally. There
flames, the turbulence/radiation interactions are is a very large uncertainty in the radiative
expected to be even more significant because of the properties of these types of particulates that
large and highly variable local opacities that may be have been reported in the literature. Most of the
encountered in these types of systems. The buoyant properties of particles have been obtained at
smoke plume generated by a large fire also involves conditions much different than those encoun
radiation exchange within itself and with its environ tered in flames; therefore, it is still not clear
ment. The heat and particulates released by a fire whether these data can be used with confidence
create complex flow patterns which are determined for combustion studies.
by a variety of factors. The interactions of radiation, (2) There has been progress in modeling the thermal
turbulence and flow structure as well as the feedback radiation properties of gases and particulates.
between them in large fires are topics which have However, more research effort is needed, es
received practically no research attention and are not pecially on physically and analytically well
understood. founded representations that are simple and
convenient for use in computer codes of com
7. C O N C L U D I N G REMARKS
bustion systems. Considering that a character
istic length is always required for use in the
By highlighting recent developments in modeling models and that such a length can not be
radiative transfer, the present review aims to increase rigorously defined for most practical multi
recognition that very often radiation plays an dimensional systems, it is clear that the concept
important, if not the dominant, role in heat transfer needs additional research attention.
not only in large and intermediate but also in small (3) The nongray effects have been recognized as
combustion systems. Neglect of radiation cannot being very important and it is known that the
be justified in modeling combustion phenomena. gray approximation overpredicts the emission
Modeling of radiative transfer in combustion sys of radiation from flames with low soot content.
tems can be rather "forgiving" because radiation is a The calculations of radiative transfer for non
JPEC8 13 : 2  g
154 R. VISKANTAand M. P. MENG0~
homogeneous, nonisothermai flames on a non (8) Research effort should be devoted to experiment
gray basis would enable accurate predictions of ally validating the radiative transfer model(s) in
flame emission for a wide range of pathlengths~ order to demonstrate the potential usefulness of
The results could then be used to establish the methods to the analysis and design of
scaling relations and to assess the range of practical systems.
validity of the gray analysis.
(4) In combustion systems involving the burning of Acknowledgements Much of the author's recent work
solid fuels such as pulverized coal, the particles reported in this review was supported by CONOCO. Inc.
and gases surrounding them are at different through a grant to the Coal Research Center of Purdue
University. It is a pleasure to acknowledge CONOCO's
temperatures. Analytical models based on interest in fundamental radiation heat transfer research
experiment need to be developed to predict rehlted to combustion systems. The authors wish to express
radiative transfer and temperatures in such their appreciation to Miss Nancy Rowe for her dedicated
systems. The slip between particles and gases help in transforming their notes into a polished manuscript.
The authors are also indebted to the anonymous reviewers
must be considered. This is not only important
for pointing out typographical errors and for suggesting
for predicting accurately the flow and temper improvements in the presentation.
ature fields, but also necessary for the under
standing of soot formation and soot volume
fraction distribution in the medium.
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