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English Department English 10

Prepared by: Abel M. Cadias, MA-ESL

INTEGRATED TOEFL LESSON # 5


Name:
Class:

I. Listening Comprehension
Video clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hQKJRnPpIxw
Directions: Highlight the correct answer.
1. According to the presenter, the priests stabbed which part of a persons
body in order to remove the heart?
A. ribs
B. chest
C. abdomen
D. shoulder

2. According to the presenter, why does a person lose consciousness when


the heart is compromised?
A. because the person got very scared that he fainted
B. because the blood flow from the heart to the brain stops
C. because the heart keeps on beating even it was taken out
D. because the process of removing the heart is very complicated

3. Why does the heart continue to beat even it is removed from the body?
A. because the brain programs the heart to do so
B. because the heart pumps blood
C. because the heart muscles of the heart can beat on their own
D. because the brain continues to give signal to the heart

II. Vocabulary
A. Word formation: noun verb adjectives
1. Human sacrifice had long been a part of the Toltec religion.
2. They sacrificed both animals and humans.
3. Sacrificial scenes have been depicted in ancient Mayan
ceramics, sculptures and murals.

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English Department English 10
Prepared by: Abel M. Cadias, MA-ESL

B. Determine the noun, verb and/or adjective forms of the following:


1. Historians (N) 3. Mutilation (N)
2. introduced (V) 4. perform (V)

III. Reading Comprehension

Historians believe that the Mayans were first introduced to human sacrifice by the
Toltecs. Human sacrifice had long been a part of the Toltec religion. The sacrifices were
performed by a priest called a nacom. The nacom was in charge of cutting out the hearts
of the victims. He did this while he was entirely dressed in black. The nacom's assistants
were elderly subordinates called chacs. Chacs were named after the god of rain. It was
Line 6 their job to hold the victims down during the sacrifice. It is believed that commoners had
little or no access to the main temples. The general population only participated in
harvest, fertility, and hunting rites that were performed on specific calendar days. At these
times the ceremonial centers were packed with people who were bloodletting, drinking an
intoxicating beverage called balche, and probably using hallucinogenic mushrooms or
peyote.
Line 12 Ritual sacrifices played a vital role in the Mayan realm. They sacrificed both
animals and humans. Animals that were sacrificed in great numbers included crocodiles,
iguanas, dogs, peccaries, jaguars, and turkeys. The supreme sacrifice was the human life.
This took place during elaborate ceremonies. Sacrificial scenes have been depicted in
ancient Mayan ceramics, sculptures and murals. Like the Aztecs, this was all done in an
Line 17 attempt to appease the gods. Slaves, criminals, bastards, orphans and children made up
the bulk of the sacrificial victims. Children were desired because of their innocence, and
they would sometimes be abducted or purchased from neighboring cities. The purchase
price was paid in red beans.
Diego de Landa witnessed human sacrifices. He tells us that the sacrificial victim
Line 22 was painted blue. Next, the victim was led to the summit of the pyramid and laid over a
stone alter. Then with his arms and legs firmly held by the chacs, the nacom cut open the
chest /and tore out his heart. This was usually done with an obsidian or flint knife. Next,
the heart was handed to the high priest, and the body was thrown down the temple stairs.
Other methods of sacrifice included drowning, beating, mutilation, and arrow
Line 27 sacrifices. In the arrow sacrifice the victim was painted blue, and tied to a stake while
dancers took turns trying to pierce the victims heart. During the Toltec-Itza rule of
Chichen Itza pilgrims would travel great distances in order to perform human sacrifices.
The victims who were sometimes laden in gold, silver and precious stones were hurled
into the Sacred Cenote, a deep pool of water where the god Chac was said to live.

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English Department English 10
Prepared by: Abel M. Cadias, MA-ESL

A. Complete the table below:

Human Sacrifice Ritual Sacrifice Other methods of Sacrifice


What was To appease gods, to appease gods To appeas gods, celemony
the for rain
purpose?
Who were Nacom, Chacs, Mayan realm Victim, Chas
involved? victim

How did Stab the abdomen Killed the animal Arrow sacrifice: victim
they go Pulled the heart out Put them painted in blue, tied to a
about it? somewhere else stake / dancers pierce
victims heart
Drowning sacrifice:
victims laid in gold, silver,
precious stones / hurled
into Sacred Cenote

B. Directions: Highlight the correct answer.

1. The word chacs in line 5 refers to


a. subordinates
b. gods
c. victims
d. slaves

2. What does the passage mainly discuss?


a. The history of Mayans
b. Mayans as human sacrifices
c. The types of sacrifices and rituals during Mayan period
d. How Diego de Landa witnessed human sacrificing

3. Which of the following word is NOT closest in meaning to obsidian in line 24?
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English Department English 10
Prepared by: Abel M. Cadias, MA-ESL

a. tool
b. instrument
c. rock
d. victim

4. Why did Mayans use children as sacrifices to their gods?


a. because of their purity
b. because of their happiness
c. because they were expensive
d. because they could easily be caught

5. The word realm in line 12 is closest in meaning to


a. dominion
b. reality
c. belief
d. dogma

6. The word abducted in line 19 is closest meaning to


a. snagged
b. snared
c. snatched
d. snarled

7. Which of the following does the author mention about ritual sacrifice?
a. There are evidences to show how Mayans did the ceremonies
b. Mayans usually used talented and gifted victims to sacrifice
c. Some Mayans sacrificed their own selves
d. The Aztecs preferred doing other methods of sacrifice

8. According to the passage, which of the following was true about nacoms?
a. They were controlled by the citizens
b. They wore feathered clothes while doing the sacrifice
c. They had assistants called chacs
d. They were commoners

9. According to the passage, who was Diego de Landa?


a. a survivor
b. a witness
c. a priest
d. a victim

10. What were the other methods of sacrifice used by Mayans?


a. arrow sacrifices, swimming, harvesting, and farming
b. drowning, farming, mutilation, and arrow sacrifices
c. ceremony, painting, beating, and defending
d. beating, drowning, arrow sacrifices, and mutilation

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English Department English 10
Prepared by: Abel M. Cadias, MA-ESL

IV. Structure
A. Infinitive to
Structure: to + verb (main form)
Purpose: to express purpose (answer why)
Examples:
1. It was their job to hold the victims down during the sacrifice.
2. Like the Aztecs, this was all done in an attempt to appease the
gods.
3. During the Toltec-Itza rule of Chichen Itza pilgrims would travel
great distances in order to perform human sacrifices.

B. LANGUAGE COMPARISON: Phrasal verb: (verb + preposition to)


Examples:
1. Historians believe that the Mayans were first introduced to
human sacrifice by the Toltecs.
2. Next, the victim was led to the summit of the pyramid and laid
over a stone alter.
3. In the arrow sacrifice the victim was painted blue, and tied to a
stake while dancers took turns trying to pierce the victims heart.

C. Give ONE example of a sentence using to + infinitive


_The government wants to give the donation to the people in south
of Thailand.____

D. Give one example of a sentences using (verb + preposition to)


_James car crash into the tree next to the high-
way.__________________________