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Cylindrical Plate Small Carbon Steel Typical

Arrangement Tank
Specification Standard Tanks Plate Small Supply.
Site erect & install by others.

CONSTRUCTION Vertical cylindrical, flat base,fixed cone roof

DESIGN CODE Generally to BSEN14015

CAPACITY RANGE 50 11700 tonne (50000 11.75 million litres)

TEMPERATURE RANGE -10 degC +150 degC

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.0 Maximum

PRESSURE RATING 10 millibar pressure/5 millibar vacuum

ROOF DESIGN Fixed cone, 1 in 5 slope. Self supporting. Roof plates welded topside only

BASE DESIGN Lap welded top side only. Tanks above 12.5M diam have annular plate ring

SHELL DESIGN Butt welded, internal and external, with top curb ring

WIND GIRDERS RSA, as required by code.

STEEL GRADE BSEN 10025 S275JR


INSPECTION All tank components inspected at works for dimensional and material
conformity, surface preparation and treatment, packed to specification agreed.

FINISH Base plates Heavy bitumen on underside


External Self colour / Intemal Self colour

DRAWINGS/DOCUMENTS Full drawings and assembly instructions for site erection by


others.

PACKING FOR SHIPMENT Rolled shell plates packed in purpose made non returnable transit
cradles, securely strapped. Max 10000 Kg.

Tank base and roof plates,structural sections with welded straps.


Max 6000 Kg. Loose fittings, electrodes, etc. close board cased.

DIMENSIONS NOMINAL
DIAM HEIGHT CAPACITY
M M M3
4 4 50
6 75
8 100
10 125
5 6 117
8 157
10 196
6 6 169
8 226
10 282
8 6 301
8 402
10 502
12 602
10 8 628
10 785
12 942
14 1099
12.5 10 1227
12 1472
14 1718
16 1963
15 12 2120
14 2474
16 2828
17.5 14 3365
16 3846
18 4325
20 16 5026
18 5654
20 6282
22.5 18 7156
20 7951
22 8746
25 20 9816
22 10707
24 11799

Horizontal Cylindrical Shop Welded - Carbon Steel Tanks

1. Pressure Vessels Horizontal-Carbon Steel Typical


Arrangement Tank
2. Underground Twinskin Tank Carbon Steel- Typical
Arrangement Tank
Specification Standard Tanks.

CONSTRUCTION Horizontal cylindrical, dished ends, of twin skin design

DESIGN CODE BS EN 12285-1

CAPACITY RANGE As per Client requirements, for a rough guide of sizes please refer to table
below.

STEEL GRADE BS EN 10025 S275JR

STEEL THICKNESS
Inner tank shell 6mm shell, dished ends 6/8mm
Outer tank 4 mm shell, 5 mm dished ends

TESTING As per design code

STANDARD FITTINGS-(Guide Only) 1 600 dia shell manway, cover and gasket

1 100 BSP fill socket

1 50 BSP vent socket

1 80 BSP gauge/dip socket

3 50 NB suction/spare flanges

CAVITY MEDIUM Glycol/water mixture filled at works

FINISH -Internal Self colour, cleaned out

FINISH-External As per Client requirements

OPTIONAL EXTRAS
H.D. Straps, graduated diprods, access shaft, contents gauge, suction and sludge pipes, leak
detection system, overfill prevention alarm, special internal/external paint finishes.

CAPACITY DIMENSIONS
NOMINAL ACTUAL I/DIAM O/DIAM O/AL
Litres M3 M3 MM MM MM
2300 2.3 2.2 1372 1400 2175
4500 4.5 4.5 1372 1400 3395
6900 6.9 7.3 1525 1533 4405
9100 9.1 9.4 2000 2028 3440
13600 13.6 14.1 2000 2028 4945
19000 19.0 18.8 2000 2028 6445
23200 23.2 22.8 2440 2468 5455
27700 27.7 28.1 2440 2468 6565
31800 31.8 32.2 2745 2773 6085
36500 36.5 36.1 2745 2773 6745
40500 40.5 41.7 2745 2773 7690
45400 45.4 45.1 2745 2773 8270
55100 55.1 54.1 2745 2773 9795

Below Ground Single Skin Carbon Steel Typical


Arrangement Tank

pecification Standard Tanks.

CONSTRUCTION Horizontal cylindrical, dished ends, of twin skin design

DESIGN CODE BS EN 12285-1


CAPACITY RANGE As per Client requirements, for a rough guide of sizes please refer to table
below.

STEEL GRADE BS EN 10025 S275JR

STEEL THICKNESS Inner tank shell 6mm shell, dished ends 6/8mm
Outer tank 4 mm shell, 5 mm dished ends

TESTING As per design code

STANDARD FITTINGS-(Guide Only) 1 600 dia shell manway, cover and gasket

1 100 BSP fill socket

1 50 BSP vent socket

1 80 BSP gauge/dip socket

3 50 NB suction/spare flanges

CAVITY MEDIUM Glycol/water mixture filled at works

FINISH -Internal Self colour, cleaned out

FINISH-External As per Client requirements

OPTIONAL EXTRAS
H.D. Straps, graduated diprods, access shaft, contents gauge, suction and sludge pipes, leak
detection system, overfill prevention alarm, special internal/external paint finishes.
CAPACITY DIMENSIONS
NOMINAL ACTUAL DIAM SHELL O/AL
Litres M3 M3 MM MM MM
2300 2.3 2.2 1372 1500 1740
4500 4.5 4.5 1372 3050 3290
6900 6.9 7.3 1525 3660 3940
9100 9.1 9.4 1830 3355 3695
13600 13.6 14.1 2135 3680 4060
19000 19.0 18.8 2287 4375 4680
23200 23.2 22.8 2287 5520 5900
27700 27.7 28.1 2440 5795 6255
31800 31.8 32.2 2745 5205 5745
36500 36.5 36.1 2745 6000 6540
40500 40.5 41.7 2745 6730 7270
45400 45.4 45.1 2745 7500 8040
55100 55.1 54.1 2745 9150 9690

Above Ground Twin Skin Carbon Steel Typical


Arrangement Tank
Specification Standard Tanks.
CONSTRUCTION Horizontal cylindrical, dished ends, of twin skin design

DESIGN CODE BS EN 12285-2

CAPACITY RANGE As per Clients requirements for a rough guide of sizes please refer to table
below.

STEEL GRADE BS EN 10025 S275JR

STEEL THICKNESS Inner tank shell 6, 8, 10mm. Ends 6, 8mm


Outer tank shell 4mm. Ends 5mm.

TESTING As per design code

STANDARD FITTINGS-(Guide Only) 1 600 dia shell manway, cover and gasket

2 50 NB sockets for fill and vent

2 40 NB sockets for outlet and drain

1 Combined tank and bund vent with cowl


1 300 dia leak detection sump with switch pad

2 Lifting lugs

FINISH Internal Self colour, cleaned out

FINISH External

OPTIONAL EXTRAS
Graduated diprod, contents gauge, level switch, leak detection system, overfill
alarm, access ladder and platform, special internal/external paint finishes

APACITY DIMENSIONS(OUTER)
ACTUAL DIAM SHELL OALL
M3 M3 MM MM MM
4.5 (4500 ltrs) 4.51 1400 3350 3762
6.9 (6900 ltrs) 7.31 1553 4400 4818
9.1 (9100 ltrs) 9.42 2028 3300 3812
13.6 (13600 ltrs) 14.14 2028 4900 5467
18.1 (18100 ltrs) 18.71 2468 4400 5049
23.2 (23200 ltrs) 22.87 2468 5379 6028
27.7 (27700 ltrs) 28.06 2468 6600 7249
31.8 (31800 ltrs) 32.67 2773 6072 6809
36.5 (36500 ltrs) 37.52 2773 6974 7711
40.5 (40500 ltrs) 41.70 2773 7755 8486
45.4 (45400 ltrs) 45.47 2773 8393 9124
55.1 (55100 ltrs) 54.60 2773 10065 10802
69.6 (69600 ltrs) 70.80 3028 11102 12045
81.8 (81800 ltrs) 84.00 3028 13200 14223
90.6 (90600 ltrs) 90.70 3028 14113 15136

Above Ground Single Skin Carbon Steel-Typical


Arrangement Tank

Specification Standard Tanks.


CONSTRUCTION Horizontal cylindrical with dished ends
DESIGN CODE BS EN 12285-2

CAPACITY RANGE 2300-136000 litres

STEEL GRADE BS EN 10025 S275JR

COMPARTMENTS Single, double, triple or multi-compartment

TESTING As per design code.

STANDARD FITTINGS ( Guide Only) 1 600 dia raised manhole with bolted cover & gasket

2 50 NB sockets for fill and vent

2 40 NB sockets for outlet and drain

2 Lifting lugs

FINISH Internal Clean, self colour

FINISH External As per Client requirements.

CAPACITY DIMENSIONS
NOMINAL ACTUAL DIAM SHELL OALL
M3 M3 MM MM MM
2.3 (2300 ltrs) 2.33 1372 1500 1740
2.8 (2800 ltrs) 2.82 1372 1830 2070
4.5 (4500 ltrs) 4.62 1372 3050 3290
5.7 (5700 ltrs) 5.74 1525 3050 3330
6.9 (6900 ltrs) 6.91 1525 3660 3940
9.1 (9100 ltrs) 9.10 1830 3355 3695
13.6 (13600 ltrs) 13.61 2135 3680 4060
19.0 (19000 ltrs) 19.30 2287 4375 4680
23.2 (23200 ltrs) 23.20 2287 5520 5900
27.7 (27700 ltrs) 27.74 2440 5795 6255
31.8 (31800 ltrs) 31.80 2745 5205 5745
36.5 (36500 ltrs) 36.50 2745 6000 6540
40.5 (40500 ltrs) 40.82 2745 6730 7270
45.4 (45400 ltrs) 45.40 2745 7500 8040
55.1 (55100 ltrs) 55.15 2745 9150 9690
69.5 (69500 ltrs) 69.50 3000 9525 10505
90.6 (90600 ltrs) 90.62 3000 12515 13495
113.6 (113600 ltrs) 114.30 3660 10675 11675
136.3 (136300 ltrs) 136.79 3660 12180 13180

Volume and Wetted Area of Partially Filled Horizontal Vessels

Summary
The calculation of a horizontal vessels wetted area and volume is required for engineering tasks
such fire studies and the determination of level alarms and control set points. However the
calculation of these parameters is complicated by the geometry of the vessel, particularly the
heads. This article details formulae for calculating the wetted area and volume of these vessels
for various types of curved ends including: hemispherical, torispherical, semi-ellipsoidal and
bumped ends.

Definitions
A

: Wetted Area

Di

: Inside Diameter of Vessel

Do

: Outside Diameter of Vessel

h
: Liquid level above vessel bottom

: Length of vessel, tan-line to tan-line

Lf

: Straight Flange

: Inside Vessel Radius

Rc

: Inside crown radius

Rk

: Inside knuckle radius

: Vessel Wall Thickness

Vp

: Partially Filled Liquid Volume

Vt

: Total Volume of head or vessel

: Inside Dish Depth

: Eccentricity of elliptical heads

Introduction
The calculation of the liquid volume or wetted area of a partially filled horizontal vessel is best
performed in parts, by calculating the value for the cylindrical section of the vessel and the heads
of the vessel and then adding the areas or volumes together. Below we present the wetted area
and partially filled volume for each type of head and the cylindrical section.

The partially filled volume is primarily used for the calculation of tank filling times and the
setting of control set points, alarm levels and system trip points.

The wetted area is the area of contact between the liquid and the wall of the tank. This is primary
used in fire studies of process and storage vessels to determine the emergency venting capacity
required to protect the vessel.

The volume and wetted area of partially filled vertical vessels is covered separately.

Hemispherical Heads - Horizontal Vessel


Hemispherical heads have a depth which is half their diameter. They have the highest design
pressures out of all the head types and as such are typically the most expensive head type. The
formula for calculating the wetted area and volume of one head are presented as follows.
Wetted Area

A=hDi2

Volume

Vp=16h2(3Rh)

Vp=D3i12(3(hDi)22(hDi)3)

Semi-ellipsoidal or Elliptical Heads - Horizontal Vessel


The semi-ellipsoidal heads are shallower than the hemispherical heads and deeper than the
torispherical heads and therefore have design pressures and expense lying between these two
designs.

The most common variant of semi-ellipsoidal head is the 2:1 elliptical head which has a depth
equal to 1/4 of the vessel diameter. The formula for calculating the wetted area and volume for
one 2:1 semi-elliptical head are presented as follows.
Wetted Area

For a 2:1 semi-ellipsoidal head is equal to 0.866, for other geometries the formula below may
be used to calculate .

AwB=D2i8(hDi0.5)B+1+14ln4(hDi0.5)+B23

=1+12(hDi0.5)2=14z2D2i

The wetted area calculated using this method does not include the straight flange of the head.
The length of the straight flange must be included in the calculation of the wetted area of the
cylindrical section.

Volume

Vp=D3iC12(3(hDi)22(hDi)3)

Where,
for ASME 2:1 Elliptical heads:

C=1/2

for DIN 28013 Semi ellipsoidal heads:

C=0.49951+0.10462tDo+2.3227(tDo)2

The volume calculated does not include the straight flange of the head, only the curved section.
The straight flange length must be included in the calculation of the volume of the cylindrical
section.

Torispherical Heads - Horizontal Vessel


Torispherical heads are the most economical and therefore is the most common head type used
for process vessels. Torispherical heads are shallower and typically have lower design pressures
than semi-elliptical heads. The formula for the calculation of the wetted area and volume of one
partially filled torispherical head is presented as follows.

Wetted Area
We can approximate the partially filled surface area of the torispherical head using the formula
for elliptical heads. This approximation will over estimate the surface area because a
torispherical head is flatter than a ellipsoidal head. This assumption is conservative for pool fire
relieving calculations.

AwB=D2i8(hDi0.5)B+1+14ln4(hDi0.5)+B23

=1+12(hDi0.5)2=14z2D2i

The wetted area calculated using this method does not include the straight flange of the head.
The length of the straight flange must be included in the calculation of the wetted area of the
cylindrical section.

Volume

Vp=D3iC12(3(hDi)22(hDi)3)

Where,

for ASME Torispherical heads:

C=0.30939+1.7197Rk0.06DoDi0.16116tDo+0.98997(tDo)2

for DIN 28011 Torispherical heads:

C=0.37802+0.05073tDo+1.3762(tDo)2

The volume calculated does not include the straight flange of the head, only the curved section.
The straight flange length must be included in the calculation of the volume of the cylindrical
section.
top

Bumped Heads - Horizontal Vessel


Bumped heads have the lowest cost but also the lowest design pressures, unlike torispherical or
ellipsoidal heads they have no knuckle. They are typically used in atmospheric tanks, such as
horizontal liquid fuel storage tanks or road tankers.

Here we present formulae for calculated the wetted area and volume for an arbitrary liquid level
height in a single Bumped head.

Wetted Area

We can approximate the partially filled surface area of the bumped head using the formula for
elliptical heads. This approximation will over estimate the surface area, which is conservative for
pool fire relieving calculations.

AwB=D2i8(hDi0.5)B+1+14ln4(hDi0.5)+B23

=1+12(hDi0.5)2=14z2D2i

Volume

Vt=13z2(3Rcz)

Vp=3Vt4(hR)2(1h3R)

The partially filled volume equation is an approximation, but will give a reasonable accuracy for
vessel volume calculations.

Cylindrical Section - Horizontal Vessel


Here we present formulae for calculated the wetted area and volume for an arbitrary liquid level
height in the cylindrical section of a horizontal drum.

Wetted Area

Ap=2LRcos1(RhR)

Ap=LDicos1(12hDi)
Volume

Vp=L(R2cos1(RhR)(RH)2Rhh2)

Vp=LD2i(14cos1(12hDi)(12hDi)hDi(hDi)2)

Where the vessel has torispherical or ellipsoidal heads the straight flange length of the head
should be included in the cylindrical section length when calculating the volume or surface area.