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NPTEL

PROBLEMS
Basic equations

1. The following are the data given of a change in diameter, effected in laying a water supply pipe line.
The change in diameter is gradual from 200 mm at A to 500 mm at B. Pressure at A and B are 78.5
2 2
kN/m and 58.9 kn/m respectively with the end B being 3 m higher than A. If the glow in the pipe
line is 200 lps, find:

a) direction of flow and

b) the head lost in friction between A and B. (10)
Solution:
2
Q = 0.2 m3/s;D A = 0.2 m; D B = 0.5 m; g = 10 m/s (assumed)

p A = 78.5 kN/m2; p B = 58.9 kN/m2; Z B Z A = Z = 3 m; h f = ?

and
AA = D A2 = 0.0314 m 2 AB = DB2 = 0.1965 m 2
4 4

From discharge continuity equation, we get

Q and
Q
vA = = 6.3662 m/s vB = = 1.0186 m/s
AA AB

From modified Bernoullis equation applied between A and B, we have

pA VA2 p V2
+ + Z A = B + B + Z B + hL
2g 2g

78.5 10 3 6.3662 2 58.9 10 3 1.0186 2

+ = + + 3 + hL
10 10 3 2 10 10 10 3 2 10

h L = 0.9345 m

The flow is always from higher pressure to lower pressure and hence from A to B.

2. Water flows up a conical pipe 450 mm diameter at the lower end and 250 mm diameter at 2.3 m
2
above the lower end. If the pressure and velocity at the lower end are 63 kN/m (gauge) and 4.1 m/s,

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assuming a head loss in the pipe to be 10% of the pressure head at the lower end, calculate the
discharge through the pipe. Also calculate the pressure and velocity at the upper end (8)

Solution

D A = 0.45 m; D B = 0.25 m; Z B Z A = Z = 2.3 m; V A = 4.1 m/s;

2
p A = 63 kN/m (gauge); h L = 10%(p A / ); Q = ?; p B = ?; V B = ?

From modified Bernoullis equation applied between A and B, we have

pA VA2 p V2
+ + Z A = B + B + Z B + hL
2g 2g

AA = D A2 = 0.1590 m 2 and AB = DB2 = 0.0491m 2
4 4

From discharge continuity equation, we have Q = A A V A = A B V B

AB
vB = v A = 13.284 m/s
AB

63 10 3
hL = 0.1 = 0.63 m
10 3 10

Substituting in the modified Bernoullis equation, we get

63 10 3 4.12 pB 13.284 2
+ = + + 2.3 + 0.63
10 10 3 2 10 10 10 3 2 10
2
Simplifying, we get p B = -102.83 kN/m (gauge)

3. A pipe 400 mm diameter carries water at a velocity of 2.5 m/s. The pressure head at pints A and B
are given as 30 m and 23 m respectively, while the datum head at A and B are 28 m and 30 m
respectively. Find the loss of head between A and B.

Solution:

D = 0.4 m; V = 2.5 m/s; p A = h A = 30 m; p B = h B = 23 m; Z A = 28 m;

g g

Z B = 30 m; hL = ?

As the pipe is of uniform diameter V A = V B = 2.5 m/s

Page 2 of 83
Applying modified Bernoullis equation between A and B

pA VA2 p V2
+ + Z A = B + B + Z B + hL
2g 2g

V2 V2
30 + + 28 = 23 + + 30 + hL
2g 2g

hL = 5 m

4. A conical tube of length 2 m is fixed vertically with its smaller end upwards. The velocity of flow at
the smaller end is 5 m/s while at the lower end it is 2 m/s. The pressure head at the smaller end is 2.5

m/s of liquid. The loss of head in the tube is 0.35

(v1 v 2 )2 , where v 1 is the velocity at the smaller end
2g
and v 2 is the velocity at the lower end respectively. Determine the pressure head at the lower end.
Flow takes place in the downward direction.

Solution:

L = 2 m, v 1 = 5 m/s, v 2 = 2 m/s, g = 10 m/s

2 p1 p
= 2.5 m, 2 = ?
g g

Let the smaller end be represented as 1 and lower end as 2 as shown in Fig.

0.35(v1 v 2 ) 0.35(5 2 ) 1
2 2
hL = = = 0.16 m
2g 2g

Applying modified Bernoullis equation between 1 and 2

2
p1 V12 p V2
+ + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + hL
2g 2g
52 p 22
2.5 + +2= 2 + + 0 + 0.16
2g 2g
= 5.39 m
p2
g

A horizontal venturimeter with inlet diameter 200 mm diameter and throat diameter 100 mm is used
to measure the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.8. The discharge of oil through venturimeter is 60 lps.
Find the reading of the oil-mercury differential manometer. Take C d = 0.98. (08)

Solution:
3
d 1 = 0.2 m; d 2 = 0.1 m; Q = 0.06 m /s; C d = 0.98; S m = 13.6 (assumed)

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x=?

2
a1 = d1 = 0.2 2 = 0.03142 m 2
4 4
2

a 2 = d 22 = 0.12 = 0.007854 m 2
4 4 1
a1a2
Q = Cd 2 gh
a12 a22 x

0.03142 0.007854
0.06 = 0.98 2 10 h
0.03142 2 0.007854 2

h = 2.849 m of oil

Sm 13.6
But h = x S 1 2.849 = x 0.8 1
o
x =17.81 mm

6. A venturimeter is to be fit in a 200 mm diameter horizontal pipe line. The inlet pressure is 100 kPa.
If the maximum flow of oil (s=0.85) is 200 Lps, calculate the least diameter of the throat, so that the
pressure does not fall below 250 mm mercury (vacuum). Assume that 3% of the differential head is
lost between the inlet and the throat. (08)

Solution:
3
D 1 = 0.2 m; p 1 = 100 kPa; Q = 0.2 m /s; s = 0.85; p 2 - 0.25 m Hg;
3 2
h L = 3% h;Assume = 1000 kg/m ; g = 10 m/s .
3
Pressure head at inlet = p 1 / g = 100 x 10 /(0.85 x 1000 x 10) =
11.765 m of liquid

Differential head = 11.765 (-4) = 15.765 m of liquid, h L = 3% of 15.765 = 0.473 m of

liquid.
x
h hL 15.765 0.473
Cd = = = 0.985
h 15.765

The discharge through the venturimeter is given by

a1a2
Q = Cd 2 gh
a12 a22

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2
a1 = d1 = 0.2 2 = 0.03142 m 2
4 4

0.03142 a2
0.2 = 0.985 2 10 15.765
0.03142 2 a22

Solving the above equation, we get =d 2 = 12.13 mm.

Note: Due to mistake in DATA, the result is not compatible (may be in discharge).

7. A vertical venturimeter carries a liquid of relative density 0.8 and has inlet and throat diameters of
150 mm and 75 mm respectively. The pressure connection at the throat is 150 mm above that at the
inlet. If the actual rate of flow is 40 Lps and the C d = 0.96, calculate the pressure difference between
2.
the inlet and throat in kN/m

Solution:
-3 3
S o = 0.8; Q = 40 x 10 m /s; d 1 = 0.15 m; d 2 = 0.075 m; Z 2 Z 1 = 0.15 m

C d = 0.96; p 1 p 2 = ?

a1 = d12 = 0.15 2 = 0.01767 m 2
4 4

2
a2 = d 2 = 0.075 2 = 0.004418 m 2
4 4

The discharge through the venturimeter is given by

a1a2 x
Q = Cd 2 gh
a a
2
1
2
2

0.01767 0.004418
0.04 = 0.96 2 10 h
0.01767 2 0.004418 2

h = 4.17 m

p1 p
But for a vertical venturimeter, h =
+ z1 2 + z 2
So g So g

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p p2
h = 1 ( z 2 z1 )
So g
p p2
4.17 = 1 0.15
So g

p1 p 2 = S o g (4.17 + 0.15)

2
p 1 - p 2 = 34.56 kN/m (Ans).

S 13.6
h = x m 1 4.17 = x 1
So 0.8
x = 0.26 m

8. Water flows upward a vertical 300 mm x 500 mm venturimeter with a

C d = 0.98. The deflection of manometer, filled with a liquid of S = 1.25 is 1.18 m. Determine the
discharge if the distance between the two pressure tapings is 457 mm. Work the problem from the
first principles.

Solution:

d 1 = 0.5 m; d 2 = 0.3 m; C d = 0.98;

S m = 1.25; x = 1.18 m;

Z 2 Z 1 = Z = 0.457 m; Q = ?

h hL
Cd = = 0.98
h

Squaring both sides, we get

2
C d h = h h L and
2
h L = h (1 C d ) = 0.0396 h

where

p p2
h = 1 + (Z 1 Z 2 )
g

Also

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S 1.25
h = x m 1 1.18 1
o
S 1.0
h = 0.295 m

From Modified Bernoullis equation between sections 1 and 2, we get

p1 v12 p v2
+ + Z 1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + hL
g 2g g 2g

v 22 v12 p p2
= 1 + (Z 1 Z 2 ) + hL (01)
2g g

But from discharge continuity equation, we have

2 2
Q = a 1 v 1 = a 2 v 2 or d 1 v 1 = d 2 v 2

2 4

Substituting in Eq. 01, we get v 2 1 d 2 = h + 0.0396 h
2g d1

v 22 0.3
4

1 = 1.0396 0.295
2g 0.5 or v 2 = 2.655 m/s

2 3
Q = a 2 v 2 = ( /4)d 2 v 2 = 0.1876 m /s (Ans)
o
A 45 degree bend is connected in a pipe line, the diameters at the inlet and outlet of the bend being
600 mm and 300 mm respectively. Find the force exerted by water on the bend if intensity of pressure
at inlet to bend is 88.29 kPa and rate of flow of water is 600 lps. (Jan/Feb 2006)

Solution:
= 45 0 , D 1 = 0.6 m, D 2 = 0.3 m
p 1 = 88.29 kPa, Q = 0.6 m 3 /s
Assume g = 10 m/s 2 and = 1000 kg/m 3
D12 0.6 2
A1 = = = 0.2827 m
2

4 4
D22 0.3 2
A2 = = = 0.07068 m
2

4 4
From discharge continuity equation, we have Q = A V
Q Q
V1 = = 2.122 m/s and V2 = = 8.488 m/s
A1 A2

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2 V2
p2A2
45o
1

p1A1

Applying Bernoullis equation between Sections 1 and 2, we get

p1 v12 p v2
+ + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2
g 2g g 2g
But Z 1 = Z 2
Substituting and solving for p 2 = 54.5 kPa
F x = Q [V 1 V 2 cos ] + p 1 A 1 p 2 A 2 cos = 19911.4 N Fx
F y = Q [ V 2 sin ] p 2 A 2 sin = - 6322.2 N

F = Fx2 + Fy2 = 19911.42 + 6322.22 = 20891 N
Fy F

Fy 1 6322.2
Acting at = tan 1 = tan = 17.616o with horizontal.

x
F 19911 .4

July/Aug 2005

12.Water flows up a reducing bend of weight 80 kN place in a vertical plane. For the bend, the inlet
o
diameter is 2 m, outlet diameter is 1.3 m, angle of deflection is 120 and vertical height (distance
3
between the inlet and the outlet) is 3 m. If the discharge is 8.5 m /s, pressure at the inlet is 280 kPa
and the head loss is half the kinetic head at the exit, determine the force on the bend. (12)

Solution:

W = Weight of the reducing bend acting downwards = 80 kN (), d 1 = 2 m,

o 3
d 2 = 1.3 m, = 120 , Z = 3 m, Q = 2.5 m /s, p 1 = 280 kPa. h L = 0.5 V2
2

2g

2 3
Assume g = 10 m/s , = 1000 kg/m , F x = ? and F y = ?

d12 2 2 2 d 22 1.32 2
A1 = = = 3.142 m and A2 = = = 1.327 m /s
4 4 4 4

Applying discharge continuity equation we have Q = A 1 V 1 = A 2 V 2

Applying Modified Bernoullis equation between the two sections of the bend shown in Fig. we get

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p1 v12 p v2
+ + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + hL
g 2g g 2g

280 103 0.79582 p2 1.88352 1.88352

+ +0= + + 3 + 0.5
1000 10 2 10 1000 10 2 10 2 10

p 2 = 247.656 kPa

Forces acting on the bend in x and y direction respectively are

F x = Q[V 1 V 2 cos ]+p 1 A 1 p 2 A 2 cos = 1,048,423.63N Fx
F y =W+Q[V 2 sin ] p 2 A 2 sin = 288,688.06+80,000= 368,688.06N

F = F + F = 1048423.63 + 368688.06 = 1,111,360.87 N
x
2
y
2 2 2
Fy F

F
Acting at = tan 1 y = tan 1 288688.06 = 19.375o with horizontal.
1048423.63
Fx

July 2006
o 2 2
In a 45 bend, a rectangular air duct of 1.0 m cross-sectional area is gradually reduced to 0.5 m . Find
the magnitude of the force required to hold the duct in position, if the velocity of flow is 20.0 m/s at 1
2 2 3
m cross-section and the pressure at both sections is 40 kN/m . Specific weight of air is 11.0 N/m .
(10)

Solution:

= 45 0 , A 1 = 1.0 m 2 , A 2 = 0.5m 2 , = 11.0 N/m 3

p 1 = p 2 = 40.0 kPa, v 1 = 20.0 m/s, Assume g = 10 m/s 2

2
p2A2
45o
1
V2

p1A1
V1

= /g = 1.10 kg/m 3
From discharge continuity equation,
we have Q = A 1 V 1 = A 2 V 2
20 = 0.5V 2

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Hence V 2 = 40 m/s and
Q = 20 m 3 /s
Forces acting on the bend in x and y direction respectively are
F x = Q [V 1 V 2 cos ] + p 1 A 1 p 2 A 2 cos = 25,675.61N
F y = Q [ V 2 sin ] p 2 A 2 sin = 14,764.39 N
F = Fx2 + Fy2 = 29617.97 N

Acting at = tan 1 y = 29.9 o with horizontal

F

Fx

) A 25cm diameter, 2km long horizontal pipe is connected to a water tank. The pipe discharges freely
into atmosphere on the downstream side. The head over the centre line of the pipe is 32.5m, f =
0.0046. Considering the discharge through the pipe

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) and (B) with (B) as datum & considering all losses.(Fig.15)

PA VA2 p V2
ZA + + = Z B + B + B + entry loss + friction loss + exit loss
2g 2g

V 2 0.5V 2 fLV 2 V 2
32.5 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + + + +
2g 2g 2 gD 2 g

entry exit

Q
V2 4 0.0046 2000
32.5= 1 + 0.5 + + 1
2g 0.25

V = 2.06 m/s

D 2 0.252
Q= 2.06 =
0.101m3 / s
4 4

Q = 101 lps

2) The discharge through a pipe is 225 lps. Find the loss of head when the pipe is suddenly enlarged
from 150 mm to 250 mm diameter.

Page 10 of 83
3
Solution: D 1 =0.15m, D 2 = 0.25m, Q = 225 lps = 225 m /s

Head loss due to sudden expansion is

2
4Q 4Q 1
hL = 2 2

D
1 D2 2 g

2
16Q 2 1 1
= 2 2
2
2 g D1 D2

2
16 0.2252 1 1
=
2 9.81 0.15
2 2
0.252

hL = 3.385m

3) The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 350lps. The diameter of the pipe suddenly
2
enlarge from 200mm to 500mm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 15N/cm . Determine (i)
loss of head due to sudden enlargement. (ii) pressure intensity in the larger pipe (iii) power lost due
to enlargement.

Solution :

From continuity equation 4Q 4 0.35 4Q 4 0.35

V1 = = = 11.14 m/s and V2 = = = 1.78 m/s
D12 0.2 2 D22 0.52

Page 11 of 83
1 2

flow
P1 P2
V1 V2

1 2

hL =
(V1 V2 ) = (11.14 1.78) 2
= 4.463 m of water
2g 2 9.81

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) (1) and (2) (2) with the central line of the pipe as datum
and considering head loss due to sudden expansion h L only.

Z1 = Z 2 = 0 (pipe horizontal)

150 11.14 2 p 1.782

0+ + = 0+ 2 + + 4.463
9.81 19.62 9.81 19.62

Power lost P = Q hL = 9.81 0.35 4.463

P = 15.32 kW

4) At a sudden enlargement of an horizontal pipe from 100 to 150mm, diameter, the hydraulic grade
line raises by 8mm. Calculate the discharge through the pipe system.

Solution

hL =
(V1 V2 )2 (1)
2g

p p
Given, Z 2 + 2 Z1 + 1 = 8 10 3 m (2)

Page 12 of 83
1
Z1+p1/ Z2+p2/

flow V2
V1

1 2
Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) with the central line of the pipe as datum and
neglecting minor losses (h L ) due to sudden expansion.

p1 V12 p V2 p2 p1 V22 V12

Z1 + + = Z 2 + 2 + 2 + hL Z 2 + Z1 + + + hL = 0
2g 2g 2g

From continuity equation 0.1 V1 = 0.15 V2

2 2

4 4

V1 = 2.25V2

V 2 (2.25V2 )2 (2.25V2 V2 )2
8 10 3 + 2 + =0
2 9.81 2 9.81

1
3 2
8 10 3 0.1274 V22 = 0 or V2 = 8 10 = 0.25 m/s
0.1274

D22 0.152 3
Discharge 0.25 = 4.428 10 m /s or Q = 4.425 lps
3
Q= V2 =
4 4

5) Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe line which is 125 mm diameter for the first 10 m and 200
mm in diameter for the remaining 25 m. The entrance and exit are sharp and the change of section is
sudden. The water surface in the upper reservoir is 7.5 m above that in the lower reservoir. Determine
the rate of flow, assuming f = 0.001 for each of the types.

Solution

From continuity equation 0.125 V1 = 0.2 V2 or V1 = 2.56 V2

2 2

4 4

Applying Bernoullis equation between (1) & (2) in both the reservoirs with the water in the lower
reservoir as datum and considering all losses

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pA V A2 p V 2 entry friction sudden exit
ZA + + =ZB + B + B + + + +
2g 2 g loss loss expansion loss loss

0.5V12 4 f L1V12 L 2V 22 (V1 V 2 )

2 V 2
7.5 + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + 0 + + + + +
2
2g 2g d1 d2 2g 2 g

0.5 ( 2.56 V ) 2
4 0.001 10 ( 2.56 V 2 ) 25 (V 2 ) ( 2.56 V 2 V 2 )
2 2 2
V2
=
7.5
2
+ + + + 2
2g 2g 0.125 0.2 2g 2g

V 22
=
7.5 ( 3.2768 + 2.597 + 2.4336 + 1)
19.62
V 2 = 3.976m/s

0.2
2

=
Q 4.6
= 3
0.125 m /s

4

. The head of water over the centre of an orifice 30mm diameter is 1.5m. If the coefficient of
discharge for the orifice is 0.613, Calculate the actual discharge.

Solution:
-3
d=30mm = 3x10 m, H=1.5m, C d =0.613

Qact
Cd = ;
Qth

Qact = C d Qth

= C d a 2 gH

1
(30 10 3 )
( 2 9.81 1.5 )
2
= 0.613
4

Q=
act 2.35 103 m3 /s

2. Compensation water is to be discharge by two circular orifices under a constant head of 1.0m,
measured from the centre of the orifices. What diameter will be required to give a discharge of
20x10 3 m 3 per day? Assume C d for each notch as 0.615.

3
Solution: d=? H=1m. Q total = 20x10 3 m /day C d =0.615.

= 0.1157 m 3 / s

Page 14 of 83
1 1
Qact = 20 10 3 = 0.1157m 3 /s
2 24 60 60

Qact = C d a 2 gH

d2
0.1157= 0.615 2 9.81 1
4
d = 0.2326m=232.6mm

3. A jet of water issuing from an orifice 25mm diameter under a constant head of 1.5m falls 0.915m
vertically before it strikes the ground at a distance of 2.288m measured horizontally from the Vena
Contracta. The discharge was found to be 102lpm. Determine the hydraulics coefficients of the orifice
and the head due to resistance.
-3
Solution: d=25mm=25x10 H=1.5m, y=0.915m, x=2.288m
-3 3
Q act =102 lpm = 102/60 = 1.7 lps = 1.7x10 m /s, C d =?, C c =?, h L =?

x2 2.288 2
CV = = = 0.976
4 yH 4 0.915 1.5

Qact 1.7 10 3 4
Cd = = = 0.638
( )
Qth 25 10 3 2 9.811.5
2

2
or C = x
V
4 yH

C d 0.638
C d = CC CV CC = = = 0.999
Cv 0.976

hL H 1 C v 2 )
= 1.5(1 0.976 )
2

= =
hL 0.0712 m 71.2 mm

4. The head of water over a 100mm diameter orifice is 5m. The water coming out of the orifice is
collected in a circular tank 2m diameter. The time taken to collect 45cm of water is measured as 30

Page 15 of 83
seconds. Also the coordinates of the jet at a point from Vena Contract are 100cm horizontal and 5.2cm
vertical. Calculate the hydraulic coefficients of the orifice.

Solution:

D=100mm=0.1m, H=5m, x=100cm = 1m, y=5.2cm = 0.052m,

C d =?, C v =?, C c =?

Area of collecting tank height of watercollected

=
Qact
time

Qact 0.0471 4
Cd = = = 0.605
Qth 0.1 2 9.81 5
2

5. The coordinates of a point on the jet issuing from a vertical orifice are 0.4m & 0.003m. Neglecting
air resistance, determine the velocity of the jet and the height of water above the orifice in the tank.

Solution.

x=0.4m, y=0.3m, V=? H=? C v =1 (assume)

We know V =Cv 2 gH =
1 2 9.811.33 =5.115 m/s

x2
CV =
4 yH

4 yH Cv2 = x 2
x2 0.4 2
H = =
2
4 y Cv 4 0.03 1
2

H = 1.33m

x2 12
Cv = = = 0.98
4 yH 4 0.052 5

6. A vertical orifice is fitted 0.2m above the bottom of a tank containing water to a depth of 2m. If
G=0.98. What is the vertical distance from the orifice of a point on the jet 0.6m away from the Vena
Contracta?

Solution

Page 16 of 83
C V =0.98, y=?, x=0.6m

x2
CV =
4 yH
0.62
or, (0.98) 2 =
4 y 1.8
0.62
=y = 2
=
0.052 m 52 mm
4 1.8 0.98

7. A closed tank contains water to a height of 2m above a sharp edged orifice 1.5cm diameter, made in
the bottom of the tank. If the discharge through the orifice is to be 4 lps. Workout the pressure at
which air should be pumped into the tank above water. Take C d =0.6.

Solution

Q=4 lps = 4x10 -3 m 3 /s, D=1.5x10 -2 m, C d =0.6, P A =?

air 11.772 =
= N/m3 11.772 103 kN/m3

p
Total head over the orifice= H = h + A

Qact = Cd a 2 gH

(1.5 10 )
2
2
PA
or PA = 0.83 kN/m (Gauge)
2
=
4 10 3
0.6 2 9.81 2 + 3
4 11.772 x10

8. A closed tank contains 3m depth of water and an air space at 15kpa pressure. A 5cm diameter
orifice at the bottom of the tank discharge water to the tank B containing pressurized air at 25kpa. If
C d = 0.61 for the orifice. Calculate the discharge of water from tank A.

Solution
-2
d=5cm = 5x10 m C d =0.61.

p A p B (15 25 )
Total head over the orifice H =
h + = 3 + =1.9806m
9.81

Page 17 of 83
0.05 2
=
Q act C d a =
2 gH 0.61 2 9.81 1.9806
= 7.47 lps
4

9. A tank has two identical orifices in one of its vertical sides. The upper orifice is 4m below the water
surface and the lower one 6m below the water surface. If the value of C v for each orifice is 0.98, find
the point of intersection of the two jets.

Solution.

x2
CV =
4 yH

Given C v is same for both the orifices

2
x1 x22
=
4 y1 H1 4 y2 H 2

x12 x2
= ( x1 x2 )
4 y1 H1 4 y2 H 2

=
4 y1 6 y 2 =
or y1 1.5 y 2 01

from figure y1 = y 2 + ( 6 4 ) = y 2 + 2 02

1.5 y=
2 y2 + 2
y2 =
4m

Again CV = x22
gives
4 y2 H 2

x22 (points of intersection of the jets from the

0.98 =
4 4 6 Vena contracts)
x2 =
9.6m

10. Two orifices have been provided in the side of the tank, one near the bottom and the other near
the top. Show that the jets from these two orifices will intersect a plane through the base at the same
distance from the tank if the head on the upper orifice is equal to the height of the lower orifice
above the base. Assume C v to be the same for both the orifices.

Page 18 of 83
Solution.

Given V = 2 gH = 2 9.81 2 = 6.264 m/s

4 y1 H 1 = 4 y 2 H 2

y2 + ( H 2 H1 ) H1 =
y2H 2

y 2 H 1 + H 1 H 2 H 12 =
y2H 2

H1 = y2 ;

y 22 H 2 y 2 + y 2 ( H 2 y 2 ) =
0

y2 ( y2 H 2 ) y2 ( y2 H 2 ) =
0

( y2 H 2 ) =
0

y2 = H 2

11. A 40 mm dia orifice in the vertical side of a tank discharges water. The water surface in the tank is
at a constant level of 2 m above the centre of the orifice. If the head loss in the orifice is 0.2 m and
coefficient of contraction can be assumed to be 0.63. Calculate (I) the values of coefficient of velocity
& coefficient of discharge, (ii) Discharge through the orifice and (iii) Location of the point of impact of
the jet on the horizontal plane located 0.5m below the centre of the orifice.

Solution

2

Head loss hL = H Va
2 g

Va 2
= 2
0.2
2 9.81

V= 2 gH = 2 9.81 2 = 6.264 m/s

x2
Coefficient of Velocity Cv = or Va = 5.943m/s
4 yH

Va 5.943
Cv = = = 0.943
V 6.246

Coefficient of discharge

Page 19 of 83
Cd = Cv CC = 0.949 0.63 = 0.598

4 yHCV2 = x 2

x= 4 0.5 2 (0.949) 2 = 1.898m

12. An orifice has to be placed in the side of a tank so that the jet will be at a maximum horizontal
distance at the level of its base. If the depth of the liquid int the tank is D, what is the position of the
orifice? Show that the jets from the two orifices in the side of the tank will intersect at the level of the
base if the head on the on the upper orifice is equal to the height of the orifice above the base.

Solution:

h Orifice

H Jet
y

x
By definition, Velocity V =
t

x = V t

But V = 2 gH

1 2
and y = gt
2

Page 20 of 83
2
1 x
(D H ) = g
2 2 gH

x 2 = 4 H (D H )

or x
= 4H (D H )

For x to be maximum
d
dH
(
4 DH H 2 =

0 )
0 H
4( D 2 H ) = = D/2
1 2
y + H2 = gt
2

X=?

H1=0.6m

2m H2=1.6
Y1

Y2

X1 X2
We know, x=V t, V = 2gH1

2
1 x
= g
2 2 gH1

13. Two tanks with orifices in the same vertical plane are shown in figure. What should be the spacing
x for the jets to intersect in the plane of the base?

Assume C V = 0.98 for each orifices. x = ?

Solution:

x12 x22
= (1)
4 y1 H1 4 y2 H 2

Assuming the coefficient of velocity C V to be the same for both the orifices, we have (C V 1 ) = (C V 2 )

Page 21 of 83
where y1 =2 H1 =2 0.4 =1.6m

y2 =2 H 2 =2 1.6 =0.4 m

= =
H1 0.4m, H 2 1.6m

x12 x22
=
4 1.6 0.4 4 0.4 1.6

x12
CV1 =
4 y1 H1

x2 or
0.98 = 1 = =
x1 1.568m x2
4 1.6 0.4

x = [ x1 + x2 ] = 2 1.568 = 3.136m

14. A large tank has a circular sharp edged orifice 25mm diameter in the vertical side. The water level
in the tank is 0.6m above the centre of the orifice. The diameter of the jet at Vena contracta is
measured as 20mm. The water of the jet is collected in a tank 1.2m long x 0.6m wide and the water
level rised from 0.15 to 0.75 in 7 minutes. Calculate the orifice coefficients.

Depth of water collected in the measuring tank h=(0.75-0.15)=0.6m

2
Depth of water collected in the measuring tank A = 1.2x0.6 = 0.72m Time taken for collecting 0.6m of
water t = 7min = 7x60=420 s

Area of collecting tank height of watercollected

=
Qact
time

Ah 0.72 =
0.6 1.0286 103 m3 /s
i.e.Q=
act =
t 420

( 25 10 )
2
3
3
Qth = a 2 gH = 2 9.81=
0.6 1.684 10 m /s
3

Page 22 of 83
Coefficient of discharge

Qact
Cd =
Qth

1.0286 103
= 3
Cd =
0.61
1.684 10

Coefficient of contraction

Cc =
area of orifice
2
d2 d 20
2
4
= = = = 0.64
d c2 d c 25
CC
4

We know, C d =C c x C V Therefore, Coefficient of velocity C= Cd 0.61

V =
Cc 0.64

CV =
0.953

Coefficient of resistance = 1 1
CC = 1 1 or Cr = 0.1008

2 2
V
C 0.953

15. A jet of water issuing from a vertical orifice in a tank under a constant head of 4m. If the depth
of water in the tank is 12m, at what depth another orifice to be mounted vertically below the former
one, so that both the jets meet at a common point on the horizontal at the bottom of the tank?
Assume C v to be the same for both the orifices = 0.98.

Solution:

Page 23 of 83
x12 x22
=CV1 = , CV2
4 y1 H1 4 y2 H 2

From figure, (y 1 -y 2 )=(H 2 -H 1 )

y1 = ( y H1 ) = (12 4 ) = 8m

y2 =( y H 2 ) =(12 H 2 ) m

Equating the values of C V

H1=4m

H2=?
y=12 m
y1

y2

x1=x2

x12 x22
=
4 y1 H1 4 y2 H 2

4 y1 H1 = 4 y2 H 2

x1 = x2

y1 H1 = y2 H 2

8 x=
4 (12 H 2 ) H 2

H 22 12 H 2 + 32 =
0

H2 = = 8m or 4m
2 x1

Hence, the second orifice should be 4m below the first orifice.

Page 24 of 83
16. Water is to be discharged by two circular orifices under a constant head of 1m above their centres.
What should be the diameter of the orifices to give a discharge of 20Mlpd? Assume a coefficient of
discharge of 0.62.

Solution.

20 106
= = 231.48 lps
24 60 60

Therefore Discharge per orifices 231.48

= = 115.74 lps or Q = 0.11574 m /s
2
Q
2

But, a =

0.11574 = 0.04214 m 2

0.62 2 9.81 1

1
d2 4 0.04214 2 =0.2316m
a= d=
4

Therefore, Diameter of each orifice d = 231.6mm

17. What is the discharge through the 60mm diameter orifice shown in figure, assuming the oil level
remains constant 100 KN/m
2

Solution.

Air

H 2 + 100
= 2m

0.9 9.81

H =
13.326 m of oil
Oil s=0.9
Q = Cd a 2 gH

= 0.65
4
( )
60 103 2 9.8113.326 = 0.02972 m /s = 29.72 lps
3

Page 25 of 83
18. What is the discharge through a sharp edged slot 0.2 long x 10mm wide at the bottom of a tank
0.5m diameter with 3m depth of water constant?

Solution.

C=
V 0.98,=
y ?,=
x 0.6m

x2
CV =
4 yH

0.62
(0.98) 2 =
4 y 1.8

=
y 0.052
= m 52 mm

19. A vertical orifice is fitted 0.2m above the bottom of a tank containing water to a depth of 2m. If
C V = 0.98. What is the vertical distance from the orifice of a point on the jet 0.6m away from the Vena
contracta?

Solution.

10 3
2 9.81=
3 9.36 10 m /s
3
Q = 0.61 0.2
100

Q =
9.36 lps

20. The coordinates of a point on the jet issuing from a vertical orifice are 0.4m & 0.3m. Neglecting
air resistances, determine the velocity of the jet and the height of water above the orifice in the tank.
Assume C V = 0.98.

Solution.

x2 0.42
CV = 0.98 =
4 yH 4 0.3 H

H =
0.1388m

V = 2 gH = 2 9.81 0.1388 =1.65 m/s

Mouth Pieces

Page 26 of 83
A mouth piece is a short tube or pipe connected in extension with an orifice

Vena Contracta

Mouth Piece

Depending on the position with respect to the tank: External, Internal

Depending on shape: Cylindrical, Convergent, Divergent
Nature of flow: Running Full, Running Free
External Cylindrical Mouthpiece

a 1 =Area of mouth piece at outlet.

C c =coefficient of contraction

Applying continuity equation between CC & (1) &(1)

a c c c =a 1 v 1

a
Vc =1 V1
ac

ac
= c=
c coefficient of contraction= 0.62
a1

1
=
Vc V1 (1)
0.62

Page 27 of 83
As the jet flows from CC to (1) (1) there will be loss of head due to sudden enlargement of flow, and
this value can be calculated from the relation.

2
V1
V1
(VC V1 )
2

=hL = 0.62
2g 2g

0.375 2
=hL V1 (2)
2g

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) and (1) (1) with the centre line of the mouth piece as
datum and considering head loss h L due to sudden expansion.

pA VA2 p V2
ZA + + = Z1 + 1 + 1 + hL
2g 2g

pA p1
Z= Z= 0, = H, = 0 (atmospheric pressure)
A 1

VA = 0(Negligible)

V12 0.375V12
0 + H + 0 = 0 + 0 + +
2g 2g

1.375 2
H= V1
2g

or V1 = 2 gH
1.375

0.853 2 gH
i.e, CV =
2 gH

CV =
0.853

At the exit of the mouth piece C C = 1

Cd =Cc Cv =
1 0.853 =0.853

Page 28 of 83
Hence, for an external cylindrical mouth piece C d (=0.853) is more than that of an orifice.

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) & CC with the centre line of the mouth piece as datum &
neglecting losses.

pA VA2 p V2
ZA + + = Z c + c + c + hL
2g 2g

pA Pc
= H , V= 0, Z= Z= 0, h= 0, = ?
A A C L

pc Vc2
0 + H + 0 = 0 + 0 + +
2g

pc Vc 2
=H
2g

But,

V12 V1
= =
H 1.375 , VC
2g 0.62

2 gH

=V1 = 0.853 2 gH
1.375

0.853 2 gH
&VC =
0.62

0.853 2 gH
2
1
pC
=
H
0.62 2 g

pC
= H 1.893H

pC
=
0.893H

Negative sign indicates that the pressure at the Vena contracta is less than atmospheric pressure or
the pressure is negative

Flow measurements

Page 29 of 83
1. Find the discharge from a 80mm diameter external mouthpiece, fitted to a side of a large vessel if
the head over the mouth piece is 6m.

Solution.

(
80 10= )
5.026 103 m 2
2
d = 80 mm a = 3

Q = Cd a 2 gH

= 0.853 5.026 103 2 9.81 6 = 0.04652m3 /s = 46.52 lps

Q

2. An external cylindrical mouthpiece of 100mm diameter is discharging water under a constant head
of 8m. Determine the discharge and absolute pressure head of water at Vena contracta. Take C d =
0.855 and C C for Vena contracta =0.62. Take atmospheric pressure head =10.3m of water

Solution.

H=8m, Q=?, C d =0.855, C c =0.62

0.12
d=
100mm =
0.1m 7.854 103 m 2
=
4

pa
= 10.3m of water

Q= Cd a 2 gH= 0.855 7.854 103 2 9.81 8

= =
Q 0.08413m 3
/s 84.13 lps

We know

pc
=
0.893H (when Cc =
0.62)

pc
=0.893 8 =7.144m of water (Gauge)

p pc pc
c absolute =
gauge

= (10.3 7.144) = 3.156 m(Abs)

Page 30 of 83
3. An external cylindrical mouth piece 60mm diameter fitted in the side of a tank discharges under a
constant head of 3m, for which C V =0.82

Determine i) the discharge in lps, ii) absolute pressure at Vena contracta, iii) Maximum head for
steady flow assuming that separation occurs at 2.5m of water absolute. Local barometer reads 760mm
Hg.

Solution.

(i)Discharge (Q)

At the exit of the mouth piece C C =1

Cd =Cc Cv =
1 0.82

( )
2
60 103
Q = Cd a 2 gH=
0.82 2=
=
9.81 3 0.0178 m3 /s 17.8lps
4

(ii) Absolute Pressure head at Vena contracta

Applying Bernoullis equation between (A) & CC with the centre line of the mouth piece as datum and
neglecting losses h L

pA VA2 p V2
ZA + + =Z1 + C + C + hL
2g 2g

pc VC2
0 + H + 0} = {0 + + +0
2g

pC VC2
=
H + (1)
2g

From Continuity equation Q = aV

Q
V=
a

Q 0.0178
=
VC =
CC a 0.62 60 103
( )
2

4

pc Vc 2
10.154 m/s From Eq (1)
Vc = =H
2g

Page 31 of 83
10.1542 =2.255m of water (Gauge)
= 3
2 9.81

p p p
c = atim c
Gauge

patm
= =
= 760mm of mercury 10.336m of water ( S1 H1 S 2 H 2 )

p
c = (10.336 2.555 ) = 7.781(Absolute)
abs

(iii) H max for steady flow

Applying Bernoullis equation between Vena contracta and exit of the mouth piece with the centre
line of the mouth piece as datum & considering head loss h L due to sudden expansion of flow.

pc VC2 p V2
ZC + + = Z1 + 1 + 1 + hL
2g 2g

V2
=
Assu min =
gCC 0.62, hL 0.375
2g

(V / 0.62 )
2
V 2 0.375V 2
0 7.836 + = 0+0+ +
19 62 2g 2g

V2
7.836 =
1.2265
2g

V 2 7.836
= = 6.389 m of water
2 g 1.226

we know V = CV 2 gH

V2 1
=
H
2 g CV2

1
H max = 6.389 = 9.5 m of water
0.822

Alternatively, p=
c pa
0.82 H

-7.781=0-0.82xH max

Page 32 of 83
H max =9.49m of water

4. Find the discharge through a fully submerged orifice of width 2m if the difference of water levels on
both the sides of the orifice be 800mm. The height of water from the top and bottom of the orifice are
2.5m and 3m respectively. Take C d =0.6

Solution.

For a submerged orifice.

Q Cd b ( H 2 H1 ) 2 gH
=

Q= 0.6 2 ( 3 2.5 ) 2 9.81 0.8 Q = 2.377 m3 /s

5. Find the discharge through a totally drowned orifice 1.5m wide and 1m deep, if the difference of
water levels on both the sides of the orifice is 2.5m, Take C d =0.62.

Solution.

Q = Cd a 2 gH

= 0.62 1.5 1 2 9.81 2.5

Q = 6.513m3 /s

3. Find the discharge through a rectangular orifice 3m wide and 2m deep fitted to a water tank. The
water level in the tank is 4m above the top edge of the orifice. Take C d =0.62.

Solution.

3 3

For a rectangular
= orifice Q 2 Cd b 2 g H 2 2 H1 2
3

where B=3m, C d =0.62, H 2 =(4+2)=6m, H 1 =4m.

2 3 3

Q= 0.62 3 2 9.81 6 2 4 2
3

6. A rectangular orifice 1m wide and 1.5m deep is discharging water from a vessel. The top edge of the
orifice is 0.8m below the water surface in the vessel. Calculate the discharge through the orifice if
C d =0.6. Also calculate the percentage error if the orifice is treated as small.

Page 33 of 83
Solution.

3 3

For a rectangular
= orifice. Q 2 Cd b 2 g H 2 2 H1 2
3

2 3 3

= 0.6 1 2 9.81 2.3 2 0.8 2
3

Ql arg e = 4.912 m3 /s

Qsmall = Cd a 2 gH

1.5 or Q
small = 4.963m /s
3
= 0.6 11.5 2 9.81 0.8 +
2

Qsmall Ql arg e
=
%Error 100
Ql arg e

4.963 4912
= 100
4.912

% error=1.04 %

7. A triangular notch discharges 0.0110m 3 /s under a head of 0.2m. Find the angle of the notch, if
C d =0.626.

= =
Solution. Q 0.0113 m3 / s, H 0.2m
Cd = 0.626

5
8
Q= Cd 2 g H 2 tan
15

15 0.0110

tan= 5
0.626 2 9.81 ( 0.2 ) 2
8

= 22.60

45.20
= 2=
Therefore angle of the notch

8. A right angled triangular notch discharges 0.143m 3 /s. Find the head over the notch if C d =0.6.

Page 34 of 83
= 2 90 =0
, 450
Solution. Q 0.143
= = m3 /s, H ?
Cd = 0.6

5
8
Q= Cd 2 g H 2 tan
15

15 0.143
H = x 0
8 0.6 x 19.62 x tan 45

= = 399.5mm
H 0.3995

9. 150lpm of water is expected to flow down an irrigation furrow. Design the weir, if a minimum head
of 100mm is desired. Assume C d =0.61.

Solution:= 150
= 2.5 x103 m3 /s
= = 2.5lps
Q 150 lpm
60

= =
H 100 =
mm 0.1m, Cd 0.61

5
8
Q= Cd 2 g H 2 tan
15

15 2.5 103

tan= 5
8 0.61 19.62 ( 0.1) 2

= 0.5486
= 28.750

Hence, it is suggested to use a 60 0 V notch.

10 Calculate the top width and depth of a triangular notch capable of discharging 700lps. The weir
discharges 5.7 lps when the head over the crest is 7.5cm. Take C d =0.62.

Solution.
= =
Q 700lps 0.7 m3=
/ s, H ?

=Q1 5.7 x10=

3 3
=
m / s, H1 0.075 m, Cd 0.62

5
8
Q= Cd 2 g H 2 tan
15

5 5
Q 8 15
= Cd 2 g H 2 tan Cd 2 g H 2 tan
Q1 15 8

Page 35 of 83
5
Q H 2
=
Q1 0.075

5
0.7 H 2 H =
0.514m
3
=
5.7 x10 0.075

Also,

5
8
Q= Cd 2 g H 2 tan
15

15
or tan = 0.7
1 5 =2.523
0.62 ( 2 9.81) 2 ( 0.514 ) 2
8

= 68.38
= 0
or 2 136.760

Top width of the notch =

2 0.514 tan 68.380 =
2.594 m

Find the discharge over a rectangular notch of crest length 400mm. When the head of water over the
crest is 50mm. Take C d =0.6.

3
Solution. Q = 2 Cd 2 g LH 2
3

3
2
= 0.6 2 9.81 0.4 ( 0.05 ) 2
3

7.92 103 m3 /s =
Q= 7.92 lps

11. A rectangular weir 9m long is divided into 3 bays by two vertical post each 300mm wide. If the
head of water over the weir is 500mm, Calculate the discharge, given C d =0.62.

3
2
Solution.
= Q Cd 2 g ( L 0.1nH ) H 2
3

L=clear length of weir=9-3x0.3=8.1

3
2
Q = 0.62 2 9.81 ( 8.1 0.1 6 0.5 ) 0.5 2 or Q = 5.05 m /s
3

Page 36 of 83
12. The discharge over a rectangular weir is 0.4m 3 /s when the head of water is 0.20m. What would be
the discharge if the head is increase to 0.3m?

Solution.

Q 1 =0.4m 3 /s H 1 =0.20m

Q 2 =? H 2 =0.3m

3
Q2 H 2 2
=
Q1 H1

3
0.3 2
or, Q2 =
0.4 =0.735 m3 /s
0.20

13. A rectangular channel 6m wide carries a flow of 1.5m 3 /s. A rectangular sharp crested weir is to
be installed near the end of the channel to create a depth of 1m upstream of the weir. Calculate the
necessary height . Assume C d =0.62.

y
Z

Solution:

L=6m, Q=1.5m 3 /s, C d =0.62.

Y=(Z+H)=1m

Velocity of approach

V a = Discharge/area of flow in the channel

1.5
Va = = 0.25 m/s
1x6

Page 37 of 83
2
Head due to velocity of approach Va = ha
2g

0.252
h= = 3.185 103 m
2 9.81
a

12

= ha = 0.05097m
2 9.81
2 3 3

But, Q
= Cd 2 g L ( H + ha ) 2 ( ha ) 2
3

3 3

1.5 =
2
(
0.62 2 9.81 6 H + 3.185 103 ) 2
(
3.185 103 ) 2

3

2 3 3

=Q Cd 2 g L ( H + ha ) (ha ) 2
2
3
0.266 m , And height of the weir Z = 0.734m
H =

2 3 3

2.645 = 0.6 2 x9.81 L (1.2 + 0.05097 ) 2 ( 0.05097 ) 2 = (1 0.266 )
3
14. A rectangular sharp crested weir is required to discharge 2.645 m 3 /s of water under a head of
1.2m. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.6 and the velocity of approach near the weir is 1m/s. Find the
length of the weir.

Solution.

Q=2.645m 3 /s H=1.2m

C d =0.6 V a =1m/s L=?

Va2
Head due to velocity of approach ha =
2g

And height of the weir Z =( y H ) =(1 0.266 )

Z = 0.734 m

Page 38 of 83
15. A rectangular sharp crested weir is required to discharge 2.645m 3 /s of water under a head of
1.2m. If the coefficient of discharge is 0.6 and the velocity of approach near the weir is 1m/s. Find the
length of the weir.

Solution.

Q=2.645m 3 /s H=1.2m

C d =0.6 V a =1m/s L=?

2
Head due to velocity of approach ha = Va
2g

12

= ha = 0.05097 m
2 9.81

2 3 3

=Q Cd 2 g L ( H + ha ) 2 (ha ) 2
3

2 3 3

2.645 = 0.6 2 x9.81 L (1.2 + 0.05097 ) 2 ( 0.05097 ) 2
3

=
L 1.076
= m 107.6 cm

16. Water passing over a rectangular notch flow subsequently over a right angled triangular notch.
The length of the rectangular notch is 600mm and C d =0.62. if the C d value for the V-notch is 0.60,
what will be its washing head, when the head on the rectangular notch is 20cm.

Solution.

Rectangular Notch.

L=600mm=0.6m, C d =0.62, H=0.2m

3
2
Q = Cd 2 g LH 2
3

3
2
= 0.62 2 9.81 0.6 ( 0.2 ) 2 or Q = 0.09825m / s
3

2 90=
= 0
, 450=
, H ?,=
Cd 0.6

Since the same discharge of 0.09825m 3 /s is passing over the V-notch, we have

Page 39 of 83
H1=0.8m
H2=0.25m

1.8m
1m 1.25m

5
8
Q= Cd 2 g H 2 tan
15

5
8
0.09825 = 0.6 2 9.81 ( H ) 2 tan
15

5
H 2 = 0.0693.
H = 0.3438m

17. A submerged weir 1m high spans the entire width of a rectangular channel 7m wide. Estimate the
discharge when the depth of water is 1.8m on the upstream side and 1.25m on the downstream side
of the weir. Assume C d =0.62 for the weir.

Solution.

= Cd1 L 2 g x(H1 H 2 ) + Cd LH 2 2 g (H1 H 2 )

2 3
3 2

2 3
= 0.62 7 19.62 ( 0.8 0.25 ) + 0.62 7 0.25 19.62 ( 0.8 0.25 )
3 2

Q = 6.25m 3 / s

18. The upstream and downstream water surfaces are 150mm and 75m above the crest of a drowned
weir. If the length of the weir is 2.5m, find the discharge, the coefficients of discharge for the free and
drowned portions may be taken as 0.58 and 0.8 respectively. Allow for velocity of approach.

Solution.

H 1 =1500mm=15m, H 2 =75mm=0.075m

L=2.5m, C d 1 =0.58, C d 2 =0.8

2
3

Q = Cd 1 L 2 g ( H1 H 2 ) + Cd 2 LH 2 2 g ( H1 H 2 )
2

2 3

0.58 2.5 19.62 ( 0.15 0.075 ) 2 + 0.8 2.5 0.075 19.62 (0.15 0.075)
3

Page 40 of 83
Q = 0.2698m 3 / s

Velocity of approach Va = Q
area of flow/s of the weir

0.2698
= = 0.719 m/s
2.5x0.15

Va2 0.7192
=
ha = 0.00264 m
2 g 2 9.81

2 3

0.58 2.5 19.62 ( 0.15 0.075 + 0.0264 ) 2
Q = 3
+0.8 2.5 0.075 19.62 (0.15 0.075) + 0.0264

Q = 0.271m 3 / s

19. Calculate the discharge over an ogee weir of 8.5m length, when the head over the crest is 2.15m
and C d =0.61.

Solution.

L=8.5m, H=2.15m, C d 0.61

3
2
Q= Cd 2 g LH 2
3

3
2
= 0.61 2 9.81 8.5 (2.15) 2
3

Q = 48.27 m3 /s

20. Determine the discharge over a broad crested weir 26m long, the upstream level of water is
measured as 0.5m above the crest level. The height of the weir is 0.6m and the width of the approach
channel is 36m. Take C d =0.9.

Solution.

3
For a broad crested weir. (Qact ) = 2 Cd L 2 g H 2
max
3 3

3
2
= 0.9 26 19.62 (0.5) 2
3 3

( Qact ) max = 14.105m 3 /s

Page 41 of 83
Since, the width of the channel, we have to consider the velocity of approach V a

Q
i.e,V a =
Area of flow in the channel

14.105
= 0.356m/s
36 (0.6 + 0.5)

Va2 0.356 2
ha = = = 6.466 x10 3
2 g 2 x9.81

(Qact )max = 2
Cd L 2 g (H + ha )2
3

3 3
3

( )
2
2 3
= 0.9 26 19.62 0.5 + 6.466 10
3 3

( Qact ) max = 14.379m 3 /s

2. A reservoir discharges water at 60,000 m 3 /day over a broad crested weir, the head of length of the
weir, if C d =0.65.

Solution.

Q=60,000m 3 /day=60,000/24x60x60=0.694m 3 /s

H=500mm=0.5m C d =?, L=?

3
(Qact )max = 2
Cd L 2 g H 2
3 3

3 3 x0.694
L = 3
2 x0.65 x 19.62 x(0.5) 2

L = 1.77m

21. A channel of 45m 2 cross sectional area, discharging 50 cumecs of water is to be provided with a
broad crested weir. If the crest of the weir is 1.6m below the upstream water surface, find the length
of the weir, if C d =0.85.

Solution.

(Qact )max 2
Cd L 2 g (H + ha )2
3
=
3 3

Page 42 of 83
2
V a2 Q 1
where = =
2 g A 2 g
ha

2
50 1
= = 0.629m

45 19.62

3
2
0.85 L 19.62 (1.6 + 0.0629 )
2
50
=
3 3

50 = 3.1076 L

or =L 16.089m 16.1m

Water Hammer
22. A hydraulic pipeline 3 km long, 500 mm diameter is used is used to convey water with a velocity of
1.5 m/s. Determine the pressure growth of the valve provided at the outflow end is closed in (i) 20 s
8
(ii) 3.5 s. Consider pipe to be rigid and take bulk modulous of elasticity of water as K water = 20 x 10
2
N/m (10)

Solution:
8 2 3
L = 3000 m; d=0.5m;V=1.5m/s; t 1 = 20 s; t 2 = 3.5 s; K=20x10 N/m ; = 1000 kg/m (Assumed)

2L K 2 109
Critical time T = , where Celerity=
C = = 1414.2m/s
C 1000

2 3000
Hence
= T = 4.24 s
1414.2

Case (i)

LV 1000 3000 1.5

=pi = = 225 kPa (Ans)
t 20

Case (ii)

pi= VC= 1000 1.51414.2= 2.1213 MPa (Ans)

Page 43 of 83
23 Water flowing with a velocity of 1.5 m/s in a rigid pipe of diameter 500 mm is suddenly brought to
rest. Find the instantaneous rise in pressure if bulk modulous of water is 1.962 GPa. (04)

Solution:
3
V = 1.5 m/s; K = 1.962 GPa; = 1000 kg/m (Assumed)

K 1.962 109
Celerity=
C = = 1400.7m/s
1000

pi= VC= 1000 1.51400.7= 2.1 MPa (Ans)

3. A steel penstock of 1000 mm diameter has a thickness of 20 mm. Water is flowing initially with a
velocity of 2.0 m/s. Flow velocity is brought to rest by closing a valve at the end of the pipeline. Bulk
9 2 11 2
modulous of water is 2 x 10 N/m and elastic modulous of pipe material is 2 x 10 N/m . If the length
of the pipe is 2000 m, find the pressure rise in terms of head of water when:

(ii) Water is compressible and pipe is rigid (02)

Solution:

-3 1 1 3
V = 2.0m/s; d=1m; t=20x10 m; K=2.0GPa; E=200GPa; = and = 1000 kg/m (Assumed)
m 4

Case (i) The valve closure is Sudden with pipe Elastic.

1000
=pi V= 2.0 = 2.309 MPa (Ans)
1 D 1 1 1
+ + 9
3
20 10 200 10
K t E 2

Instantaneous rise in Pressure head =

pi 2.309 106
= = 230.9 m of water (Ans)
g 1000 10

Page 44 of 83
K 2 109
Celerity=
C = = 1414.2m/s
1000

Instantaneous rise in Pressure head=H i

p 2.828 106
= i
= = 282.8 m of water (Ans)
g 1000 10

24. What is the maximum pressure rise due to sudden closure of a valve in a pipe of 300 mm diameter
conveying water with a velocity of 1.8 m/s? The pipe wall is 18 mm thick. The E pipe = 210 GPa and
K water = 2.1 GPa. Also find the hoop stress developed. (06)

Solution:
-3
V = 1.8 m/s; d=0.3m; t =18x10 m; K = 2.1 GPa; E = 210 GPa;

1 1 3
= and = 1000 kg/m (Assumed)
m 4

The valve closure is Sudden with pipe Elastic.

1000
=pi V= 1.8 = 2.091 MPa (Ans)
1 D 1 1 1
+ + 9

K t E 2.1 18 10 210 10
3

pi d 2.091 106 0.3

=f1 = = 17.425 MPa (Ans)
2t 2 18 103

Open channel flow Flow meassurements

Establish a relation between Chezys C and Mannings n

Soln: Chezys equation is V = C RS 0

2
1 3 1
Mannings equation is V= R S0 2
n
1 1 1
1
1 3 2
2
1 6
Equating the two equations CR 2 S0 = R S0 C = R
2

n n

Page 45 of 83
1
Mannings n has dimensions. The dimensions of n being TL 3

2. A rectangular channel 1.5 m wide with a bed slope of 0.0001 carries water to a depth of 1.2m. The
channel has Mannings n = 0.025. Calculate the rate of uniform flow in the channel.

2 1
A 3 2
Q= R So
n

A 1.8
R= = = 0.4615 m
P 3.9
2 1

(0.4615) (0.0001) = 0.43 m3 /s

1.8
Q =
3 2

0.025

3. Calculate the uniform depth of flow in a rectangular channel of 3m width designed to carry 10
cumecs of water. Given Chezys C = 65 and channel bed slope= 0.025 %.

Ans. B = 3m, y = ?, Q = 10 cumecs, C = 65, S o = 0.025%

0.5
Chezys eqn is Q = AC(RS o )
2
A = By = 3y m

P = B + 2 y = (3 + 2 y ) m and R = A = 3 y
P 3+ 2y

Substituting all values in Chezys eq

3 y 0.025
10 = 3 y 65
3 + 2 y 100

1
3
y 2
1.8726 (3 + 2 y )2 = y 2
1
1.8726 = y
3 + 2y

Solving by trial and error y = 3.21m

Page 46 of 83
4. Find the rate of flow of water through a triangular channel having the total angle between the sides
as 60. Take the value of n = 0.015 and the slope bed as 1m in 1km. The depth of flow is 1.6m.

1
Q = ?, = 30o , n = 0.015, So = 1m in 1km =
1000
2 1
A
y = 1.6 m Manning' s equation Q = R 3 S0
2

1
A = 2 y tan y = 1.62 tan 30o = 1.478m 2
2

P = 2 y 1 + tan 2 = 2 1.6 1 + tan 2 30o = 3.695m

A 1.478
R= = = 0.40m
P 3.695

1
1 2
3
1.478
Q = 0.4 = 0.789 m /s
2 3

0.015 1000

-3
5. Water flows at a velocity of 1 m/s in a rectangular channel 1m wide. The bed slope is 2x10 and n =
0.015. Find the depth of flow under uniform flow conditions.
-3
Soln: V = 1 m/s, B = 1m, S = 2x10 , n = 0.015, y = ?

2 1

From Mannings equation V = 1 R 3 So

2

n
2
A = By = y m

P = B+2y = 1+2y m

A y
R= = m
P 1+ 2y

2
3 1
1 y
Substituting, we get, 1 = (2 10 )
2
3

0.015 1 + 2 y

2
3

y y
3

2

1+ 2y 1+ 2y

Solving for y we get y = 0.3176 m.

Page 47 of 83
6. In a rectangular channel, the bed width is 2.5 m and the bed slope is 1 in 500. If the depth of flow is
constant at 1.7m calculate (a) the hydraulic mean depth (b) the velocity of flow (c) the volume rate of
flow. Assume that the value of coefficient C in the Chezys formula is 50.

500

P = B + 2 y = (2.5 + 2 1.7 ) = 5.9 m

A 4.25
R= = = 0.72 m
P 5.9

1
V = C RSo = 50 0.72 = 1.9 m/s
500

Q = AV = 4.325 1.9 = 8.066 m3 /s

7. An open channel of trapezoidal section base width 1.5m and side slopes 60 to the horizontal is
used to convey water at a constant depth of 1m. If the channel bed slope is 1: 400. Compute the
discharge in cumecs. The Chezys constant may be evaluated using the relation C = 87 Where
(
1 + 0.2 / R )
R is the hydraulic radius (VTU, Aug 2005)

(By + y 2
) ( )
tan = 1.5 1 + 12 tan 300 = 2.077 m 2

( ) ( )
P = B + 2 y 1 + tan 2 = 1.5 + 2 1 1 + tan 2 300 = 3.81 m

A 2.077
Hyd radius R = = = 0.545 m
P 3.81

1
From chezy's eqn Q = AC RSo = 2.077 68.46 0.545 = 5.25 m3 /s
400

8. A channel 5m wide at the top and 2m deep has sides sloping 2v:1H. Find the volume rate of flow
when the depth of water is constant at 1m. Take C = 53. What would be the depth of water, if the flow
were to be doubled.

Soln: From fig T = B+2yz

Page 48 of 83
1
5 = B + 2 2 B = 3 m
2

Given the depth of flow y = 1m

1
A = By + y 2 z = 3 1 + 12 = 3.5 m 2
2

1
2

P = B + 2 y 1 + z = 3 + 2 1 1 + = 5.24 m
2

A 3.5
R= = = 0.669 m
P 5.24

1000

From Chezy's eqn Q = AC RSo

1 2
3 y1 + y1
1 2 2
9.6 = 3 y1 + y1 53

2
2 1
3 + 2 y1 1 +
2

Solving by trial and error y1 = 1.6m

9. A trapezoidal channel 1.8 m wide at the bottom and having sides of slope 1:1 is laid on a slope of
0.0016. If the depth of the water is 1.5m, find the rate of uniform flow. Assume n = 0.014.

P = ( B + 2 y 1 + z 2 = (1.8 + 2 1.5 1 + 1.52 ) = 7.21m

A 4.95
R= = = 0.687m
P 7.21
2 1
2
A 3 2
1
4.95
R So = (0.687) (0.0016) = 11 m3 /s
3 2
From Manning' s eqn Q =
n 0.014

Page 49 of 83
10. A concrete lined trapezoidal channel with side slope 2H:IV has a base width of 3m and carries 5.5
3
m /s of water on a slope of 1m 10000. Find the depth of flow. Assume n = 0.011

3
Soln: z = 2, B = 3m, Q = 5.5 m /s, y = ?, n = 0.011, S 0 = 1
10000

2 1
A 3 2
Q= R So
n

A = By + zy 2 = 3 y + 2 y 2

P = B + 2 y 1 + z 2 = B + 2 y 1 + 22 = 3 + 4.47 y

A 3y + 2 y2
R= =( )
P 3 + 4.47 y

2 1
3y + 2 y2 3y + 2 y2 3 1 2
5.5 =
0.011 3 + 4.47 y 10,000

Solving by trial and error y = 1.32m

3
11. A trapezoidal channel is designed to convey 1.5 m /s of water at a depth of 1m if the mean
velocity of flow is 0.5 m/s and side slopes are1:1, find the base width and the bed slope. Take C = 60
3
Soln: Q = 1.5 m /s y = 1m, V = 0.5m/s, z = 1, B = ?, C = 60

Q 1.5
From continuity eqn A = = = 3 m2
V 0.5

A = By + y 2 z

3 = B 1 + 1 12 B = 2m

( )
P = B + 2 y 1 + z 2 = 2 + 2 1 1 + 12 = 4.828m

A 3
R= = = 0.621m
P 4.828

Now from chezy's eqn V = C RSo

1
0.5 = 60 0.621 S o or So = 1.118 10 4 =
8947

Page 50 of 83
12. Water flows through a channel of circular section of 600mm diameter at the rate of 200 lps the
slope of the channel is 1m in 2.5 km and the depth of flow is 0.45m. Calculate the mean velocity and
the value of Chezys coefficient
3
Soln: Q = 200lps = 0.20 m /s

AC = y = 0.45m

From triangle OAB

OA 0.15
= cos cos = = 0.5
OB 0.3

= 600 and = (180 ) = 1200 = 1200 = 2.094
180

sin (2 2.094)
A = 0.32 2.094 = 0.2275 m
2

Wetted perimeter P = 2r = 2x0.3x2.094 = 1.2564m

A 0.2275
Hydraulic radius R = = = 0.181m
P 1.2564

From Chery's eqn Q = AC RSo

0.2 = 103.3
C=
0.2275 0.181 1
2500

Q 0. 2
From continuity eqn V = = = 0.88 m/s
A 0.2275

13. An open channel has a cross section semicircular at the bottom with vertical sides and is 1.2m
wide. It is laid at a bed slope of 0.375m per km. Calculate the values of chezys C and Mannings n, if
3
the depth of flow is 1.2m while the discharge is 0.85 m /s

Page 51 of 83
Soln: C = ? n = ? y = 1.2m, Q = 0.85 m /s, So = 0.375
3

1000

Area of flow A = (Area of rectangle A1 + Area of semicircle A2 )

0.62
A = 0.6 1.2 + = 1.2856 m
2

P 3.085

From Chezy's eqn Q = AC RSo

0.85
C = = 52.87
1.2856 0.417 0.375
1000

Relation between Mannings n and Chezys C is C = 1 R 6

n

16
1

R (0.417 )
6

n = = = 0.0163
C 52.9

14. Water is conveyed in a channel of semicircular cross section with a stage of 1 in 2500. The Chezys
coefficient C has a value of 56. If the radius of the channel is 0.55 m, what will be the volume rate of
3
flow in m /s flowing when the depth is equal to the radius?

If the channel had been rectangular of the same width, what would be the discharge for the
same slope and value of C ?.

C = 56, r = 0.55m, Q = ?, y = r = 0.55m i.e the channel is flowing full. S 0 = 1

2500

r2 0.552
A= = = 0.475 m 2
2 2

P = r = 0.55 = 1.728 m

Page 52 of 83
A 0.475
R= = = 0.275 m
P 1.728

1
Q = AC RS o = 0.475 56 0.275 = 0.279 m /s
3

2500

Case (ii) Rectangular channel

1
B = 1.1m, y = 0.55m, C = 56, Q = ? S 0 =
2500
2
A = By = 1.1 x 0.55 = 0.605 m

A 0.605
R= = = 0.275m
P 2.2

Q = AC RSo = 0.605 56 0.275 1 = 0.3553 m3 /s

2500

15. A rectangular channel conveys a discharge of 9.6 cumecs. If the width of channel is 6m, find the
-4
depth of flow. Take C = 55 and bed slope = 2x10

Soln:

Q = AC RSo A = By = 6 y m ; P = B + 2 y = (6 + 2 y ) m
2

A 6 y , C= 55, S = 2 104
R= = o
P 6 + 2y

Substituting all values in Eq. (i),

6y
9.6 = 6 y 55 2 10 4
6 + 2y

y3
= 0.705
6 + 2y

Solving by trial and error y = 1.92m

Page 53 of 83
16. A flow of 100 lps flow down in a rectangular flume of 60cm width and having adjustable bottom
slope if Chezys constant C is 56, find the bottom slope necessary for uniform flow with a depth of
flow of 30cm. Also calculate the conveyance K for the flume.

Soln:
2
Area of flow A = By = 0.6x0.3 = 0.18 m

From Chezys formula Q = AC RSo

Q2 0.12 1
S0 = = 2 = 6.56 10 4 =
2
C RA 2
56 0.15 0.182 1524

Conveyance K = AC R = 0.18 56 0.15 = 3.904 m3 /s

17. A channel of trapezoidal section has a bottom width of 5m, one side is sloping at 400 with the
vertical and the other has a slope of 1V to 2H. If the depth of flow is 1.5m, find the bed slope required
to discharge 35 cumecs. Taking Mannings n = 0.017.

1 1
A = 5 1.5 + 1.26 1.5 + 3 1.5 = 10.69 m
2

2 2

( )
P = 5 + 32 + 1.52 + 1.262 + 1.52 = 10.313 m

2 1
A 10.69 A 3 2
R= = = 1.0365m and Q = R S o
P 10.313 n
2 1

(1.0365) (S0 )
10.69
35 =
3 2

0.017
1
S=
338.6

18. An earthen canal in good condition is 16.8 wide at the bottom and has side slopes of 2H to 1V. One
side slope extends to a height of 2.52m above the bottom level and the other side extends flat to a
distance of 150m and rises vertically. If the slope of the canal is 69cm per 1584m, estimate the
discharge when the depth of water is 2.52m. Assume C = 35

Sol:

Page 54 of 83
Wetted perimeter P = length AB+BC+CD+DE+EF.

Cross section area

A=A 1 +A 2 +A 3 +A 4 = 1 2.52 5.04 + 16.80 2.52 + 1 (2.52 + 0.72 ) 3.6 + 150 0.72 =160.5m
2

2 2

From Chezys equation Q = AC RSo

0.69
= 160.5 35 0.906 = 111.6 m /s
3

15.84

19. A circular sewer of 500mm internal dia, has a slope of 1in 144. Find the depth when the discharge
3
is 0.3 m /s. Take Chezys C = 50.

Soln:

Area of flow A = r 2 1 Sin 2

2

Wetted perimeter P = d
3 1
2 2

Now, Q = AC RSo = CA So
1
P2

2 3
Squaring both the sides Q 2 = C A S 0
P

3
1
502 r 2 Sin 2
Substituting all values; 0.32 = 2 1
d 144

Substituting d = 2r = 0.5m

(2 Sin2 )3 = 85

Solving by trial & error = 2.5 radians = 1430

Page 55 of 83
The corresponding depth of flow

y=
d
(
1 cos1430 =
0.5
)
2
(
1 cos1430 y = 0.45m )
2

20. A trapezoidal channel having a cross sectional area A 1 , wetted perimeter P 1 , Mannings n is laid to
a slope of S, carries a certain discharge Q 1 , at a depth of flow equal to y. To increase the discharge,
the base width of the channel is widened by x, keeping all other parameters same. Prove that

3 5 2
Q2 xy x
= 1 + 1 +
Q1 A1 P1

2
y
1 A 3 2
1

So ln : Q1 = A1 1 S
n P1

In the second case, b b

2
1 A 3
1
Q2 = A2 2 S 2
n P2

2
Q A P 3 A
2 = 2 12 2
Q1 P2 P2 A1

3
Q2 A5 P 2
= 25 12
Q1 A1 P2

Now, P2 = P1 + x and A2 = A1 + x y

Substituting these values & simplifying

5 2
Q2 A1 + x y P1
=
Q1 A1 P1 + x

3 5 2
or Q2 = 1 + x y 1 + x
Q
1 A1 P1

21. Water is flowing through a circular open channel at the rate of 400lps. When the channel is having
a bed slope of 1in 9000, find the diameter of the channel, if the depth of flow is 1.25 times the radius
of the channel. Take n = 0.015.

Page 56 of 83
Solution:

2 1
A 3 2
Q= R So
n

r

Sin 2 2 sin (2 1.8235)

A = r 2 = r 1.8235 = 2.0655 r
2

2 2

P = 2r = 2r 1.8235 = 3.647r

A 2.0655r 2
R= = = 0.566r
P 3.647 r

1
2
2.0655r 2 3 1 2
0.4 = (0.566r )
0.015 9000

8 3

8

0.9936

Diameter of the channel = D = 2r = 1.422m

3
A rectangular channel carries water at the rate of 2.25 m /s when the slope of the channel is 0.025 %
find the most economical dimensions of the channel if the mannings N=0.020

A = By (i)

P = B+2y (ii)

Condition for most economic channel is B = 2y and R = y/2 (iii)

1 2
From Mannings equation Q = A R 3 S0 2
n

2 1

2 y y y 3 0.025 2
=
2.25
0.020 2 100

Q 12
=
or, A = = 6m 2
V 2

Page 57 of 83
But, A = By or 6 = 2y+y or y=1.732m

From chezys equation V = C RS 0

22 4 1
S0= 2 = 9.4264 10 =
70 0.866 1061

2. A rectangular channel is designed for maximum efficiency, if the wetted perimeter is 8m and the
bed slope is 1 in 100 calculate the discharge, given mannings n = 0.025

Soln: for a rectangular channel P = (B+2y) & for it to be most efficient B = 2y & R = y/2

P = (2y+2y) = 4y

i.e, 8 = 4y or y = 2m ; B = 4m and R = 1m

From Mannings equation,

1
A 2 1 8 2
1 2 = 10.12m3 /s
Q = R 3 S0 2 Q= (1) 3
n 0.025 1000

3. A rectangular channel 4.5m wide 1.2 m deep is laid on a slope of 0.0009 and is laid with rubber
masonry n = 0.017, what saving in excavation and lining can be had by using the best hydraulic
dimensions, but at the same time keeping the same shape, discharge and slope.

2
1
Soln: From Mannings equation Q = A R 3 S0 2
n

P = B + 2y = 4.5 + 2x1.2 = 6.9m

A 5.4
R= = = 0.7826m S 0 = 0.0009 Q = 8.09 m /s
3

P 6.9

Now, considering the channel to be most economical or best hydraulic section

B = 2y; R=y/2 and A=2y

Page 58 of 83
Again, from Mannings equation ( 8.09 ) = (
2y ) y
2 2 1

( 0.0009 )
3 2

0.017 2

% Saving in excavation in terms of area=2.5%.

4. Find the maximum discharge for least excavation of a rectangular channel 3m wide, when C = 65
and bed slope 1m in 1.25km

Soln: for a best hydraulic rectangular channel B = 2y; y = B/2 and R = y/2

From Chezys equation Q = AC RS 0

3 3 1
= 7.165 m 3 / s
Q = 3 65
2 2 2 1250

2
5. It is proposed to provide a rectangular channel of best section of area 12.5m , find the breadth and
depth. If the bed slope is 1 in 2000, find the discharge, take C = 45.

Soln: for a best rectangular channel

B = 2y and R = y/2

y = 2.5m (Depth)
2

=
and, B 2=

From Chezys equation Q = AC RS 0

(1.25)
1 = 14.06 m 3 / s
=
Q 12.5 45
2000

6. A triangular channel section 20m, what is the apex angle and depth for the condition of maximum
discharge.

Soln: When the channel carries the maximum discharge it will be most economical or best hydraulic
section. For such a channel R = y
2 2

Page 59 of 83
And side slopes are = 450 with the vertical.

1
=
A ( 2 y tan =
y ) y 2 tan
= y 2 tan 450
2

A= y 2 or y= A= 20= 4.47m

7. An open channel is to be excavated in trapezoidal section with side slopes of 1:1 find the
proportions for minimum excavation.

Soln: for a trapezoidal channel A =

By + zy 2 given z =
1 (side slope)

A = By + y 2 (i)

A (ii)
=
B y
y

B + 2 y 1 + z 2 = B + 2 y 1 + 12 P = B + 2 2 y
P= (iii)

Substituting eq(ii) in eq(iii)

A
y + 2 2y P = + 1.82 y
A (iv)
P=
y y

For minimum excavation the channel has to be most economical ie P = 0 (z the side slope is
y
constant)

y y2

By + y = 1.82y or By = 0.82y or B = 0.82y or B = 0.82

y

8. A discharge of 170 cubic meters per minute of water is to be carried in a trapezoidal channel of best
hydraulic Efficiency. The bed slope is 1 in 5000 and side slopes is 1:1 compute the bottom width and
depth of flow Chezys C = 50

Page 60 of 83
P=
B + 2 y 1+ z2

Substituting eq (ii) in eq(iii)

A
P= yz + 2 y 1 + z 2
y

For best hydraulic efficiency wetted perimeter P should be minimum i.e

P
(n the side slope is constant) =0
y

A 2
zy + 2 y 1 + z =
0
y y

given,
A
y2
z + 2 1+ z2 =0 A
= (2 1+ z z ) y
2 2

Substituting eq (i) in eq(v)

By + y 2=
z 2 y2 1+ z2 y2 z

B + 2 yz = 2 y 1 + z 2

Substituting n=1 B + 2 y = 2 y 1 + 12

=
B (2 2 2 y)
B = 2x0.41y or B = 0.82y

A By + y 2 z y
P B + 2 y 1+ z 2 2

From Chezys equation Q = AC RS 0

170
where,= =
Q 170 m3 / min = 2.83 m3 /s
60

y 1
2.83
= ( 0.82 y + y ) 50
2

2 5000

Solving for y = 1.572m (depth)

Page 61 of 83
And B = 0.82x1.572 = 1.302 m (bottom width)

9. A trapezoidal channel of best section carries a discharge of 13.7 cumecs at velocity of 0.9m/s the
side slopes are2H:IV, find the bed width and depth of flow. Find also the bed slope if the value of
Mannings n = 0.025.

Area of cross section A Q 13.7

= = = 15.22 m 2
V 0.9

=
A By + y 2 z (i)

A (ii)
B= yz
y

P=
B + 2 y 1+ z2 (iii)

Substituting eq(ii) in eq(iii)

A (iv)
P= yz + 2 y 1 + z 2
y

For best section, P = 0 A yz + 2 y 1 + z 2 =

0
y y y

A
2 z + 2 1 + z2 =0
y

A
= (2 1+ z z) y
2 2

Substituting z = 2 the given value of the side slopes. A= ( 2 1 + 2 2) y

2 2

=A 2 ( )
5 1 y 2 or, 15.22
= 2 ( )
5 1 y2

y = 2.48m (Depth of flow)

15.22
and,=B 2 2.48
= 1.174 m (Bottom Width)
2.48

y 2.48
also, R= = = 1.24m
2 2

Page 62 of 83
2 1
From Mannings equation Q = A R 3 S0 2
n
2 1
1
(1.24 ) ( S0 )
3 2
=
0.9
0.025

1
S0 =3.8 104 =
2631.41

11. A trapezoidal channel of best form has a cross sectional area of 37.2m and side slopes of 0.5H:IV,
if the bed slope is 1 in 2000 and Chezys C = 65. Compute the total flow in the channel.

Soln: For a best trapezoidal section A= (2 1+ z z) y

2 2
( )
or 37.2 = 2 1 + .052 .05 y 2

or y = 4.629 m

2 2

From Chezys equation

1
Q = AC RS 0 =37.2 65 2.315 =82.26 m3 /s
2000

12. A power canal of trapezoidal section has to be excavated through hard clay at the least cost.
3
Determine the dimensions of the channel given discharge equal to 14 m /s bed slope 1 in 2500 and
Mannings n = 0.020. Assume side slopes at 60 with the horizontal.

Soln: The cost of the channel will be least when it is economical section.

We know =
A By + y 2 z (i)

A (ii)
B= yz
y

P=
B + 2 y 1+ z2 (iii)

Substituting (ii) in (iii)

A
P= yz + 2 y 1 + z 2
y

Page 63 of 83
P
For most economical channel =0
y

A
y2
z + 2 1+ z2 =0 A= (2 1+ z z) y
2 2 (iv)

Given side slopes as 60 with the horizontal z = 1

3

2
From eq (iv) A = 2 1 + 1 1 y 2 or, A = (1.7321) y 2

3 3

2 1

Now from Mannings equation Q = A R 3 S0 2

n

2 1
(1.732) y 2 y 3 1 2
=14
0.02 2 2500

From Eq(ii ), B = 3.00m (Bed Width)

13. A trapezoidal channel with side slopes of 1:1 has to be designed to carry at a velocity of so that
amount of concrete lining for the bed and sides is minimum. Calculate the area of lining required for
1m length of the canal.

V 2

2 2

Substituting z = 1 (side slope) and A = 5m solving for y we have

5= (2 1 + 12 1) y 2 y =
1.66m (Depth)

A 5
Also, B= = yz 1 (1.66)
= 1.364 m (bed width)
y (1.66 )

Wetted perimeter P =B + 2 y 1 + z 2 =6.06 m

Page 64 of 83
2
Area of lining for 1 m length of the canal Px1 = 6.06m

14. Determine the bed width and discharge of the most economical trapezoidal channel with side
slopes of IV:2H and bed slope of 1m per km and depth of flow equal to 1.25m. Roughness coefficient
of channel is 0.024.

2 2

Substituting z = 2 and y = 1.25m

A= ( 2 1 + 2 2) 1.25
2 2
= 3.863 m 2 (Area of cross section)

A
But, Bed Width B= yz
y

=
B
( 3.863) 2 =
1.25 0.59 m
1.25

y 1.25
Also, Hydraulic radius R= = = 0.625 m
2 2

From Mannings equation Q = A R 3 S0 2 =(

3.863)
2
1 2
2 1
( 06.25 )
3

n 0.024 1000

Q =
3.721 m3 /s (discharge)

15. Find the maximum velocity and maximum discharge through a circular sewer 0.75m radius given n
= 0.016 channel bed slope = 0.1 percent.

= 128
= 0

sin 2 2 sin 2 2.247

Area=A r 2 =0.75 2.247 =1.538 m
2

2 2

2r =
wetted Perimeter P = 2 0.75 2.247 =
3.37m

A 1.538
Hydraulic Radius, R= = = 0.456m
P 3.37

1 2
Now from Mannings equation Q = A R 3 S0 2
n

Page 65 of 83
1
0.1 2 V =
2
1
= (0.456) 1.17 m/s
3

0.016 100

Case (b) Maximum discharge

154
For maximum discharge= = 2.688 radians

= =
A 1.733 =
m 2 , P 4.032 m, R 0.43m

Now from Mannings equation

1
(1.733) 0.43
2
A 23 2 0.1 2 = 1.961m3 /s
1

( )
3
Q= =R S0
n ( 0.016 ) 100

16. Find the depth of flow for maximum velocity in a circular sewer 1.50m diameter

Soln: for maximum velocity = (180 0
) 51015
1280 45=

y = (r + r cos ) = r (1+ cos )

1.50
(
y = 1 + cos 51015 =
2
1.215 m)
17. Find the depth of flow for maximum discharge in a
circular sewer 1.25m diameter. A

y

E F
S-y2
(S/2)-y

B D

S/2

S S

= 1540 and = (180 154 ) = 260 C

Page 66 of 83
( )
The corresponding depth of flow is y = r (1+ cos ) = 1.25 1 + cos 260 , y = 1.1875 m
2

8. The cross section of an open channel is a square with diagonal vertical S is the side of the square
and y is the portion of the water line below the apex, show that for maximum discharge, ratio is 0.127,
while it is 0.414 for maximum velocity.

Soln: From figure BE = S y 2 EF = 2 y

( )
Wetted Perimeter, P =2 S + 2 S y 2 Area of Flow A = S 2 1 2 y y = S 2 y 2
2

A3
For maximum discharge, Q = 0 =0
y y P

1 2 A P A P
2
3A P A3 = 0 or 3P A= 0
P y y y y

S

y y P

Substituting for A & P solving y= 2 1= 0.414 (proved)

S

19. A rectangular channel 5.5 m wide and 1.25m depth has a slope of 1 in 900 determine the discharge
when Mannings n = 0.015 if it is desired to increase the discharge to a maximum. By changing the size
of the channel but keeping the same quantity of lining determine the new dimensions and percentage
increase in discharge.

A 6.875
R= = = 0.859 m
P 8

Now from Mannings equation

2
1
1 2
2 1
A 3 2 6.875
( 0.859 )
3
Q = R S0 = =13.805 m3 /s
n 0.015 900

Page 67 of 83
Let B and y be the new width and depth. In order to have the same amount of lining the wetted
perimeter should be the same or unchanged.

i.e., P = B + 2y = 8.0

For maximum discharge i.e. the channel to be best efficient B = 2y

2y + 2y = 8 or y = 2m (depth)

B = 2x2 = 4m (bed width)

A 8
A = 4 2 = 8m 2 R = = = 1m
P 8
1
1 2
1 2 2
And discharge Q = A R 3 S0 2 = 8
(1) 3 =
17.778 m3 /s
n 0.015 900

Increase in discharge 17.778 13.805

= = 100 28.78%
13.805

3
20. A trapezoidal channel carries a discharge of 28.5 m /s, with a mean velocity of 1.5 m/s when lined
with rubble masonry n = 0.017 one side is vertical and the other has a slope of 2H:IV. Determine the
minimum slope and dimensions of the channel.

Q 28.5
A= = = 19m 2
V 1.5

But from figure = 1 (i)

A By + y 2 z
2

Wetted perimeter P = B + y + z 2 y 2 + y 2 = B + y + y 1 + z 2

(
P =B + y 1 + 1 + z 2 ) (ii)

A 1
(
z + 1+ 1+ z2 =
y2 2
0 )
Substituting A = 19m, z = 2 & solving y = 2.92m (depth)

19 1
=
B 2 2.92
= 3.60 m (Bed width)
2.92 2

Page 68 of 83
A
Hydraulic radius R= = 1.456 m
P
2 1

n

Substituting for V, n & R solving for S

1
S0 3.94 104 or
= (bed slope)
2537.9

Specific Energy
. Establish a relation between the alternate depths for a horizontal rectangular open channel.

Soln: We know that the alternate depths y 1 & y 2 represents the same specific energy E

Q2 (i)
E=
1 y1 + (for super critical flow)
2 gA12

Q2 (ii)
E=
2 y2 + (for sub critical flow)
2 gA2 2

Equating the two equations in order to satisfy the definition of alternate depths we have
Q2 Q2 (iii)
1
y + =
2
y +
2 gA12 2 gA22

Q2 1 1
rewriting, ( y2 =
y1 ) 2 2
2 g A1 A2

Substituting Q q2
= =
A1 By1, A2 =
By 2 , q =
and yc3
B g

2
1 1 Q2 1 1 q 2 y22 y12
( y2 y1 ) = Q 2 2 2 2 = =
2 g B y1 B y2 2 gB 2 y12 y22 2 g y12 y22

yc3 ( y2 y1 )( y2 + y1 )
( y2 y1 ) =
2 y12 y22

2 y2 y2 (iv)
1 2 = yc3
y1 + y2

Page 69 of 83
2. Water flows in a channel at a velocity 2 m/s and at a depth 2.5 m calculate the specific energy.

2
Soln: we know specific energy E = y + V
2g

=
substituting, =
y 2.5 m, V 2=
m/s, g 9.81m/s 2

22
E=
2.5 + =2.71m
2 9.81

3. Water flows at 12.5 cumecs in an horizontal rectangular channel 2 m wide, a velocity of 1.25 m/s.
Calculate the specific energy critical depth, critical velocity and the minimum specific energy.

Soln.

From continuity equation Q = AV A = Q = 12.5 = 10m 2

V 1.25

2
But, A = By y = A = 10 = 5m , specific energy E= y + V
B 2 2g

1.252
E =5 + =5.08m
2 9.81

Discharge per unit width = Q 12.5

q = = 6.25 m3 /s/m width
B 2

1 1

2 3 2 3

g 9.81

Byc =
2 1.585 =
3.17 m 2

Critical velocity V Q 12.5

=c = = 3.943 m/s
Ac 3.17

3
Minimum specific energy E min = yc
2

3
E min = (1.585 ) =
2.3775m
2

Page 70 of 83
3
4. A discharge of 18m /s flow through a horizontal rectangular channel 6m wide at a depth of 1.6m.
Find, (a) the specific energy, (b) the critical depth
(c) minimum specific energy, (d) alternate depth corresponding to the given depth of 1.6m, (e) state
of flow.

A =6 1.6 =9.6m 2

2
182

2gA 2
2 9.81 9.6

(b) Discharge per unit width = Q 18

q = = 3m3 /s
B 6

1 1
q2 3 32 3
Critical depth yc = =
= 0.972 m
g 9.81

3
(c) Minimum Specific energy E min = 3 yc = (0.972) =
1.457m
2 2

(d) Alternate depth y can be calculated from the equation yc3 =

2 y12 y22

y1 + y2

Where,
= =
y1 1.6 m, y c 0.972 m

Substituting these values of y1 and yc

In the above equation we get a quadratic equation in y2 , which has two roots
y2 =
0.45 m y 2 =
0.632 m

Considering only the +ve root we have y2 = 0.632m

(e) Now that y 1 < y c and referring to the specific energy diagram, we can conclude that the flow is in
the sub critical state.

5. 11.32 cumecs of water flows through a rectangular channel 3m wide. At what depth will the
specific energy be 2.25m?. Also calculate the corresponding Froude number

Soln: Discharge per unit width 11.32

= q = 3.773 m3 /s/m
3

Page 71 of 83
1 1

Critical depth q 2 3 3.773 3

= y c = = 1.132 m
g 9.81

11.32
From Continuity equation Q = AV , V = m/s
3 y

2
Substituting these values of V in the specific energy equation E = y + V
2g

2
11.32 1 or y 3 2.25 y 2 + 0.726 =
2.25 =
y+ 0
3 y 2 9.81

Solving by trial and error y = 0.66m

2 2
We know that the relation between alternate depths is given by yc3 = 2 y1 y2
y1 + y2

Considering only the positive value of y 2 we have y 2 = 2.17m (alternate depth)

Froude number F = V
gy

V1 Q 11.32
F
= = = = 2.25
gy1 By1 gy1 3 0.66 9.81 0.66
1

V2 Q 11.32
=
F2 = = = 0.376
gy2 By2 gy2 3 2.17 9.81 2.17

(6) The specific energy in a rectangular channel is 5 N-m/N. Calculate the critical depth if the width of
the channel is 10m. Calculate the maximum discharge.

Soln: We know E min = 3/2 y c

Considering the given value of specific energy of 5 N-m/N as the minimum specific energy, we have:

Critical depth yc = 2 E = 2 5 = 3.33m

3 3

Page 72 of 83
q2
From the relation = yc3
g
1
1

( ) ( )
2

q = y g 2 = 3.33 9.81
3
c
2 2
= 19.032 m3 /s/m

Therefore, total discharge Q= =

q B (19.03) 10 = 190.32 m3 /s

(7) A rectangular channel is to carry a discharge of 25 cumecs at a slope of 0.006. Determine the
width of the channel for the critical flow. Take n = 0.016.

25 Q Q 25
Soln: If B is the bed width of the channel, then by definition Q = V= = =
B A By By
1 1

2 2
4

yc =2
g
g
B 9.81 B 3

2 1

From Mannings equation V = 1 R 3 S0 2

n

2
1 Byc 3
(0.006 )2
25 1
=
Byc 0.016 B + 2 yc

Substituting yc = 4 , in the above equation and simplifying

2
B 3

1
25 1 4B 2 B
= ( 0.0775 ) or , 0.512 =

( )
4B
1
3 0.016 B + 8 5
2

B 3 +8
3
2
B 3

Solving by trial and error B = 3m

Hydraulic jump
Derive an equation for the loss of energy due to a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rectangular open
channel.

Page 73 of 83
Soln: applying Bernoullis equation between 1,1 and 2,2 with the channel bed as datum and
considering head loss due to the jump

V12 V2
Z1 + y1 + = Z 2 + y2 + 2 + E
2g 2g

Since the channel is horizontal Z1 = Z 2

V12 V2 V 2 V22
y1 + = y2 + 2 + E or E =( y2 y1 ) + 1 (1)
2g 2g 2g

Q q q
V1 = = , V2 =
By1 y1 y2

Substituting these values of in eq (1)

q2 1 1 q 2 y22 y12
E = 2 2 =
( y2 y1 ) ( y2 y1 ) (2)
2 g y1 y2 2 g y12 y22

But for a rectangular channel the general equation of hydraulic jump is

2q 2
= y1 y2 ( y1 + y2 )
g

q2 y y
= 1 2 ( y1 + y2 ) (3)
g 2

Substituting eq 3 in eq 2

( y2 y1 ) ( y2 + y1 ) 4 y1 y2
2
y1 y2 y22 y12 ( y2 y1 )( y2 + y1 )
2

=
E ( y1 + y2 ) 2 2 ( y2 y1 ) = ( y2 y1 ) =
2 2 y1 y2 4 y1 y2 4 y1 y2

(y y )
3

E = 2 1 (4)
4 y1 y2

lost. =
P QE (5)

Where P will be in KW, specific weight of the liquid KN/m

Page 74 of 83
3
Q discharge m /s and E the head lost in m

2. A rectangular channel 3m wide carrying 5.65 cumecs of water at a velocity of 6m/s discharges into a
channel where a hydraulic jump is obtained what is the height of the jump? Calculate the critical
depth also

Soln: From the continuity eqn Q = AV

5.65 =3 y1 6 y1 =
0.314m (initial depth)

Q 5.65
=
q = = 1.883 m3 /s/m
B 3

Now from the equation of hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel.

y1 8q 2 0.314 8 1.8832
y= 1 + 1 + 3 = 1 + 1 + = 1.3686 m
3
9.81 0.314
2
2 gy1 2

Height of the jump h j =(1.3686-0.314)=1.0547m

q2
Critical depth y c is calculated from the equation. yc3 =
g
1 1
q 2 3 1.8832 3
=yc = = 0.712 m
g 9.81

3
3. In a rectangular channel 2.4 m wide the discharge is 9.1m /s. If a hydraulic jump occurs and the
depth before the jump is 0.75 m. find the height of the jump energy head loss and power lost by
energy dissipation.

Soln: From the relation q = Q , we have= 9.1

q = 3.792 m 3 /s/m
B 2.4

y1 8q 2
y2 = 1 + 1 +
2 gy13

Substituting all values and solving for y2

Page 75 of 83
0.75 8 3.7922
=
y2 1 + 1 + = 1.637 m
2 9.81 0.753

Height of the jump hj = ( y2 y1 ) = (1.637 0.75) = 0.887 m

( y2=
y1 )
3
0.8873
=
Energy head loss E = 0.1422m
4 y1 y2 4 0.75 1.637

Power lost P = QE = 9.81x9.1x(0.1422) = 12.69 kW

4. Flow over a spill way is 3 cumces/meter width, the supercritical velocity down the spillway is
12.15m/s. What must be the depth of the tail water to cause a hydraulic jump at the apron? What is
the energy lost per unit width? What is the total head of flow before and after the jump.

Soln: from continuity eq Q = AV Q = By1V1

q 3
or q = y1V1 y1 = = = 0.247m
V1 12.15

For a rectangular channel A = By

y 1 is the initial depth of flow from the equation of hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel.

y1
8q 2

y2 = 1 + 1 + 3
2
gy1

Substituting all values and solving

0.247 8 32
=y2 1 + 1 + =3
2.606 m
2 9.81 0.247

y2 is the depth of tail water required for the formation of hydraulic jump

Energy lost E = ( y2 y1 ) = (2.606 0.247 ) =5.10m

3 3

4 y1 y2 4 x0.247 x 2.606

Total head of flow before the jump

V12 12.15 2
H1 = y1 + =(0.247 + ) =7.771 m
2g 2 x9.81

Page 76 of 83
From continuity eq V= =
q 3
= 1.151 m/s
2
y2 2.606

Total head of flow after the jump

V22 1.1512
H 2 =y2 + =2.606 + =2.673m
2g 2 9.81

5. The stream issuing from beneath a vertical sluice gate is 0.3m deep at vena contracta. Its mean
velocity is 6 m/s a standing wave is created on the level bed below the sluice gate. Find the height of
the jump the loss of head and the power dissipated per unit width of sluice.

Soln; from the continuity eq Q = AV = ByV

or,
Q
= q = y1V1 = 0.3 6 = 1.8m3 /s/m or y1 = 0.3 m
B

Conjugate depth or depth after the jump y2 is given by

y1 8q 2 0.3 8 1.82
y= 1 + 1 + 3 = 1 + 1 + =
1.341 m
9.80 0.33
2
2 gy1 2

Height of the jump hj = ( y2 y1 ) = (1.341 0.3) = 1.0414m

( y2=
y1 )
3
1.04143
=
E = 0.702m
4 y1 y2 4 0.3 1.341

Power dissipated / unit width = 9.81x1.8x(0.702) = 12.394 kW/m width

6. If the velocity when the water enters the channel is 4 m/s and Froude number is 1.4 obtain a) The
depth of flow after the jump b) the loss of specific energy due to the formation of the jump.

Soln: From the definition of Froude number we have

V1 4.0
F1= 1.4= = 0.832m
gy1 9.81 y1

The depth of flow after the jump is given by

y2 =
y1
2
{
1 + 1 + 8 F12 =} 2
2
{
, y 0.832 1 + 1 + 8 1.4
= 2
}
1.283m

Loss of specific energy = V2 V 2

E y2 + 2 y1 + 1
2g 2 g

Page 77 of 83
From continuity equation y1V1 = y2V2

y1V1 0.832 4
V 2= = = 2.593 m/s
y 2 1.283

Loss of specific energy

2.593 2 4 2
=
E 1.283 + 0.832 + = 0.0217 m
19.62 19.62

7. In a rectangular channel 0.6m wide a jump occurs where the Froude number is 3. the depth after
the jump is 0.6m estimate the total loss of head and the power dissipated by the jump.

Soln: from the eq of Hydraulic jump y2 = 1 1 + 1 + 8F 2

1
y1 2
{ }
y2 = 0.6m, F1 = 3 0.6 1
{ }
= 1 + 1 + 8 x32 = 0.16
y1 2

Head loss due to the jump E = ( y2 y1 )

3

4 y1 y2

(0.6 0.16) 3
=E = 0.2232 m
4 0.16 0.6

8. The depth and velocity of water downstream of a sluice gate in a horizontal rectangular channel is
0.4m and 6m/s respectively. Examine whether a hydraulic jump can possibly occur in the channel. If so
find the depth after the jump and head loss due to the jump.

Soln: the value of initial Froude number is calculated from the relation

V1 6
=
F1 = = 3.029
gy1 9.81 0.4

Since, F1 (=3.029)>1 i.e, the flow is supercritical, a Hydraulic jump will occur. Now, from the relation.
y2 =
y1
2
{ 1 + 1 + 8 F12 }
Substituting all values

y=
2
0.4
2 { 2
}
1 + 1 + 8 ( 3.029 ) = 1.525 m (Downstream depth)

Loss of head due to the jump

( y y )3 (=
1.525 0.4 )
3

E=
= 2 1 0.584m
4 y1 y2 4 0.4 1.525

Page 78 of 83
9. A rectangular channel 5m wide carries a discharge of 6 cumecs. If the depth on the downstream of
the hydraulic jump is 1.5m, determine the depth upstream of the jump. What is the energy dissipated?

Q
Soln: Discharge per unit width q =
B
6
q = = 1.2 m3 /s/m width, given y2 = 1.5m
5

Therefore depth before or upstream of the jump

y2 8q 2
y1 = 1 + 1 + 3
gy2
2

Substituting y= y2 1 + 1 + 8 1.22

9.814 1.5
1 3
2

y1 =
0.1208m (Depth upstream of the jump)

(y y ) =
(1.5 0.1208) 3 3
Energy dissipated=
E = 2 21 3.62 m
4 y1 y 4 ( 0.1208 ) (1.5 )

10. Determine the flow rate in a horizontal rectangular channel 1.5m wide in which the depths before
and after the hydraulic jumps are 0.25m and 1.0m.

Soln: From the equation of hydraulic jump. y2= 1 1 + 1 + 8q

2

3
y1 2 gy1

2
Substituting y 1 = 0.25m, y 2 = 1m, g = 9.81 m/s and solving for q

1 1 8q 2
= 1 + 1 +
0.25 2 9.81 0.253

Q = q B =(1.238 ) (1.5 ) =1.587 m3 /s

11. Water flows at the rate of 1.25 cumecs in a channel of rectangular section 1.5m wide. Calculate
the critical depth, if a hydraulic jump occurs at a point where the upstream depth is 0.30m, what
would be the rise of water level produced and the power lost in the jump?

Page 79 of 83
Soln: Critical depth yc is given by
1

1.25 1 3
2
q2 Q2
yc = = 2 =
3
yc = 0.414m
1.5 9.81
g B g

From the equation of Hydraulic jump y = y1 1 + 1 + 8 yc

3

2 3
2 y1

0.3 8 (0.414)3
=
y2 1 + 1 + = 0.55 m (Conjugate Depth)
2 0.33

3

4 y1 y2

(0.55 0.3)3
=E = 0.0237 m
4 0.3 0.55

P= Q E= 9.811.25 0.0237= 0.29 kW

12. A sluice spans a channel of rectangular section 15m wide having an opening of 0.6m depth
discharges water at the rate of 40 cumecs. If a hydraulic jump is formed on the downstream side of
the sluice, determine the probable height of crest above the upper edge of the sluice

Soln.

From the equation of hydraulic jump y = y1 1 + 8q

2

2 3
2 gy1

0.6 8 2.67 2
=
y2 1 + = 1.285 m (conjugate depth)
2 9.81 0.63

Loss of energy due to the jump

( y2=
y1 ) (1.285 =
0.6 )
3 3

=
E 0.104m
4 y1 y2 4 x0.6 x1.285

Page 80 of 83
13.In the case of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel, prove that a 3 = (r 1) ,
9

32r (r + 1)
4

E y2
=
where, a = , r
yc y1

3
y
y13 2 1
( )
3
Soln: We know y y 1
y
= E 2
= 1

4 y1 y2 4 y1 y2

Substituting y2 = r , E = y1 (r 1) = y1 (r 1)
3 3 2 3

y1 4 y1 y2 4 y2

Raising both sides to the power 3

y 6 ( r 1)
9

E 3 =1 3 3
4 y2

3
Dividing both the sides by yc

E 3 y1 ( r 1) ( r 1)
9 9 3
y
6

= = 1 y13
yc3 64 y23 yc3 64 yc3 y2

3
E 3 (r 1)9 y1 (1)
=3
yc3 64r yc

y2 1 8 y 3
= r = 1 + 1 + 3c
y1 2 y1

y
3
4r 2 + 12 + 4r 1 yc
3

(2r + 1) 2 = 1 + 8 c or, =
y1 8 y1

y 4r (r + 1) y r ( r + 1)
3 3

c = or, c = (2)
y1 8 y1 2

From Eq (1) and (2)

( r 1)
3 9
E 2
=
yc 64r 3 r ( r + 1)

(r 1)9 (Proved)
a3 =
32r (r + 1)
4

Page 81 of 83
3
14. In a rectangular channel, the discharge per unit width is 2.5 m /s/m, a hydraulic jump occurs and
the loss of energy is 2.68 N.m/N. Determine the depths before and after the jump.

( y2 y1 ) (1) y= y1 1 + 1 + 8q
3
Soln: Equation for energy loss is E =
2

2 3
4 y1 y2 2 gy1

y2 1 8 2.52 1 5.097 (2)

, = 1 + 1 + = 1 + 1 + 3
y1 2 9.81 y23 2 y1

3
y
y13 2 1
From Eq (1) E = 1 y
4 y1 y2

3
1 5.097
y 1 + 1 + 3 1
2
1

2 y1
E = = 2.68
4 y2

3 3
1 5.097 y2 1 5.097 1 5.097 5.097
y1 1 + 3 1.5= 2.68 4 = 2.68 4 1 + 1 + 3 y1 1 + 3 1.5= 5.36 1 + 1 + 3
2 y1 y1 2 y1 2 y1 y1

(3)

Solving Eq (3) by trial and error y 1 =0.2644 m.

0.2644 5.097
=y2 1 + 1 + = 3
2.067 m (Conjugate depth)
2 0.2644

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Page 83 of 83