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Aviation College
Training Manual
Jet
Aircraft
Maintenance
Fundamentals
Gas Turbine
Fundamentals
JAR-66
Book No:
JAMF ATA 01 ALL
Lufthansa
Technical Training GmbH
Lufthansa Base Hamburg
Issue: June 2000
For Training Purposes Only
Lufthansa 2000
For training purposes and internal use only.
Copyright by Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH.
All rights reserved. No parts of this training
manual may be sold or reproduced in any form
without permission of:
Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH
Lufthansa Base Frankfurt
D-60546 Frankfurt/Main
Tel. +49 69 / 696 41 78
Fax +49 69 / 696 63 84
Lufthansa Base Hamburg
Weg beim Jger 193
D-22335 Hamburg
Tel. +49 40 / 5070 24 13
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Beijing
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ATA
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTELS
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 1
JET ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT
INTRODUCTION TO AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Controlled flight over long distances is only possible with a suitable aircraft
engine.
From the aerodynamics lesson, you remember that the lift force which keeps
an aircraft in the air, is only created when the aircraft moves through the
atmosphere fast enough.
It is clear, that the main function of an aircraft engine is to create the neces
sary
movement of the aircraft.
In addition, the aircraft engine also supplies hydraulic power, electric power a
nd
bleed air for the pneumatic system.
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Lesson 1
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JET ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT
Figure 1
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Main Tasks of Jet Engines
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Lesson 1
introduction to aircraft engines cont.
There are two different types of aircraft engines, the piston type engines and
gas turbine engines.
The first airplanes were powered by piston type engines that turned a propeller.
These engines are simple in design and more fuel efficient than gas turbine
engines but, piston type engines have some big disadvantages compared with
gas turbine engines.
The performance of piston engines decreases at higher altitudes. Therefore,
piston type engines are only used on very small aircraft.
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Figure 2
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Advantages/Disadvantages of Piston Type Engines
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GAS TURBINE ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT
Gas turbine engines however, can operate at very high altitudes.
They easily provide thrust, torque and bleed air and they let aircraft fly at hi
gh
speeds.
There are different types of gas turbine engines on aircraft.
These are:
: turbojet engines
: turbofan engines
: turboprop engines
: and auxiliary power units
The turbofan engine is usually used on modern aircraft. This engine is better
because it makes high aircraft speeds possible with good engine efficiency.
The turbofan engine was developed from the turbojet engine.
Turbojet engines were the first type of gas turbine engines used on aircraft.
These engines gives very high aircraft speeds but these engines are very loud
because of the extremely high exhaust gas speeds. They also need too much
fuel.
Another type of engine which was developed from the turbojet is the turboprop
engine.
Turboprop engines are specially designed to produce shaft horsepower only,
which is used to drive a propeller. This engine type is usually installed on sma
ll
commuter aircraft. It is a good compromise between achievable aircraft speed
and fuel efficiency.
Another type of gas turbine engine that you will find on modern aircraft is the
auxiliary power unit. This small gas turbine engine is usually called APU. It is
used to supply the aircraft with electric and pneumatic power if engines are not
available. With the APU, the aircraft is independent of airport equipment.
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Turbo Jet
Lesson 1
Turbo Fan
Auxiliary Power Unit
Turbo Prop
Figure 3
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FUNDAMENTALS
Types of Gas Turbine Engines
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Lesson 1
PRINCIPLES OF JET PROPULSION
All aircraft engines work in the same way.
They create a propulsion force which moves the aircraft.
If you hold a water hose which is spraying water, you can feel that the hose
pushes in the opposite direction of the water which is spraying out of it.
Jet propulsion, is the propelling force which is generated in the opposite
direction to the flow of mass through the jet nozzle.
An engine which uses jet propulsion, is called a reaction engine. These engines
use Newtons laws of motion which state that for every force which acts on a
body there is an opposite and equal reaction.
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Lesson 1
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JET ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT
Figure 4
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Jet Propulsion Principle
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Lesson 1
THE THRUST FORCE
A force is always created, when a body of mass is accelerated.
This body can be any kind of matter such as fluids and gasses or, it can be a
solid mass.
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Lesson 1
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Figure 5
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Force Equation
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the thrust force cont.
To accelerate air, the air pressure must be increased.
This can be done mechanically with a compressor or thermally by increasing
the volume of air when a fuel / air mixture is burned or heated. However, the
combination of both methods guarantees acceptable thrust for aircraft engines.
In 1913 the French engineer Rene Lorin patented a jet propulsion engine. This
engine uses compressed air coming from a piston engine and burns it in a
combustion chamber and then accelerates it through a jet nozzle.
You see that the idea of using jet propulsion to move an aircraft is simple but
the application was difficult.
Until the late 1930s, there was no compressor which could supply a continuous
and large enough airflow to produce a suitable thrust.
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Lesson 1
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Figure 6
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Air Acceleration Methods
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the thrust force cont.
Centrifugal flow compressors driven by turbines finally made propulsion
engines for aircraft possible.
In 1937, Hans--Joachim von Ohain built a gas turbine engine with a centrifugal
flow compressor driven by a radial turbine and in 1941, Frank Whittle built his
first engine which had a centrifugal flow compressor driven by an axial turbine.
Whittless and von Ohains engines became the base for all gas turbine
engines.
Note that these engines were only possible after the development of materials
that were heat resistant enough for continuous combustion.
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Lesson 1
CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSOR
Figure 7
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The first Gas Turbine Engines
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the thrust force cont.
Thrust force is generated by the acceleration of ambient air which is forced
through the engine.
This means that the thrust is determined by two parameters. One is the mass
of ambient air which is accelerated and the other parameter is the quantity of
acceleration itself.
The definition of mass is the quantity of matter in a body. In this example it i
s
the airflow through the engine in a given time and the acceleration of the airfl
ow
is the difference between the outlet velocity of the air at the jet nozzle
compared with the inlet velocity of the air entering the engine.
The letter F is the thrust force. Today this force is measured in NEWTONs or
KILO NEWTONs. 10 kN for example are equal to a force of 1020 kg or 2249
pounds pushing down because of the gravity of earth.
m is the mass of air. The dot above the letter m shows that this is a flow rate
in kg/s.
V 1 is the velocity of the air at the engine inlet.
V2 is the outlet velocity of the air the engine jet nozzle.
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 1
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Figure 8
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The Thrust Force
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WHAT IS THRUST
On this test model we will now explore what thrust is.
You can see a small jet engine model which is free to move forward and
backwards.
The engine model is supplied with air by an external compressor. The quantity
of airflow to the engine can be changed by a control valve.
A pointer on the engine shows the generated thrust on a scale below. If the
airflow is constant, and you change the diameter of the jet nozzle the outlet
velocity changes.
If you install different jet nozzles on the engine model, you see what happens
to the thrust if the outlet velocity changes.
The nozzle with a small diameter creates a high outlet velocity and therefore a
high thrust.
A nozzle with a medium diameter creates a medium outlet velocity and therefore a
medium thrust.
The nozzle with a large diameter creates a low outlet velocity resulting in a lo
w
thrust.
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HIGH THRUST
Lesson 1
LOW THRUST
Figure 9
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FUNDAMENTALS
Thrust Test Model
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what is thrust cont.
You can see here, that if you put a deflector plate into the outlet airflow the
thrust of the jet nozzle does not change.
This shows, that the thrust is generated by acceleration of airflow and not by
pushing against the atmosphere or some other object
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Figure 10
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Deflector Plate in Outlet Airflow
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Lesson 1
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THRUST
There are four main environmental parameters that cause a change in the
thrust of a jet engine like:
: the ambient air pressure
: the air temperature
: the operating altitude
: and finally the air speed of the aircraft.
The most important factors that cause a change of the mass airflow are air
temperature and air pressure, because these factors determine the density of
air.
The density is the mass per unit of volume. In other words it is the number of
molecules in a given volume.
Generally the density is measured in kg per m3 or pounds per cubic foot.
When the density of a gas increases, there are more molecules in a given
volume and vice versa.
A lower air density creates lower thrust because the airflow contains less mass
than a high density airflow.
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AIR SPEED
Figure 11
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Environmental Effects on Thrust
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environmental effects on thrust cont.
The air temperature changes the density.
The thrust of a jet engine decreases when the temperatures of the air increase.
Pressure changes of the ambient air also change its density and therefore the
thrust of an engine.
The higher the air pressure gets, the higher the resulting thrust is.
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JET ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT
Figure 12
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Relation Thrust vs. Air Pressure and Air Temperature
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environmental effects on thrust cont.
A much bigger effect on air pressure changes can be seen when the altitude
changes.
With increasing altitudes, the ambient pressure decreases and the temperature
decreases continuously until 36000 feet is reached.
From 36000 feet up to 65000 feet, the air temperature stays constant at
approximately -705 F.
The colder air temperatures at higher altitudes give a small increase in thrust
but the decrease in thrust is much bigger because of the decreasing air
pressure.
The thrust which results from the two opposite conditions is shown by the
highlighted curve on the diagram.
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JET ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT
Figure 13
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Relation Thrust vs. Altitude
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environmental effects on thrust cont.
One factor that changes the thrust, is the quantity of the acceleration of the
airflow because of the speed of the aircraft.
When the speed of the aircraft increases, the thrust decreases. You can see
this in the downward slope of the thrust curve. This happens, because the
difference between the outlet velocity and the inlet velocity of the airflow
decreases when the speed of the aircraft increases.
Another factor of the airspeed causes an opposite change on the generated
thrust.
When the aircraft moves through the air, the airflow that is rammed into the
engine inlets increases the airflow through the engine. This increases the thrus
t
of the engine as shown on the upward sloping curve.
Therefore, the net effect of the airspeed on the thrust is a combination of thru
st
decrease from acceleration effect and thrust increase from the ram effect.
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Figure 14
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Relation Thrust vs. Aircraft Speed
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Lesson 1
THRUST ON TYPICAL AIRCRAFT ENGINES
All aircraft engines which you see here produce thrust by accelerating ambient
air.
However, the difference between them is how they do it.
A turbojet engine is designed for one purpose and this is to produce high
velocity gases. On these engines, all the gas energy which is not used to drive
the compressor and the accessories is converted into thrust.
The high outlet velocity of these engines gives high aircraft speeds, but turboj
et
engines are extremely loud.
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TURBO JET ENGINE
Figure 15
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Thrust of a Turbojet Engine
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thrust on typical aircraft engines cont.
All other engines shown here have been based on the turbojet engine with the
primary reason to improve efficiency.
Turboprop engines produce their thrust by a small acceleration of a large
quantity of air with a propeller. The propeller can be driven directly from the
compressor shaft or by a free turbine and a long center drive shaft.
Note, that a reduction gear is always required to reduce the high gas turbine
engine rotation to speeds that can be managed by the propeller.
Turboprop engines convert all the gas energy into torque. They are very
efficient, but the propeller does not permit high aircraft speeds.
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TURBOPROP ENGINE
Figure 16
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Thrust of a Turboprop Engine
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thrust on typical aircraft engines cont.
The turbofan engine combines the best advantages of turbojet and turboprop
engines.
The turbofan engine is very much like a turboprop engine, but instead of the
propeller, this engine has a fan which is enclosed in a casing. Turbofan engines
are usually twin or triple spool engines. The fan is always driven by a turbine
via a drive shaft. Normally these engines do not have a reduction gear to
reduce the speed of the fan.
Turbofan engines convert a large part of the gas energy into torque to drive the
fan and the engine compressors. The remaining hot gas energy from the
airflow which discharges from the so called core engine is directly converted
into thrust.
The total thrust of the turbofan engine is the sum of the thrust developed by th
e
core engine and by the fan.
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TURBOFAN ENGINE
Figure 17
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Thrust of a Turbofan Engine
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thrust on typical aircraft engines cont.
On the turbofan engine the fan accelerates a high airflow to a relatively low
outlet velocity at the same time, the core engine accelerates a small quantity o
f
air to a high outlet velocity.
Because of the high fan airflow, the fan can produce more than 80% of the total
thrust. This is primarily dependent on the bypass ratio.
The bypass ratio is the ratio of air that passes through the fan duct compared
with the air that passes through the core engine.
On modern turbofan engines the bypass ratio is between 4:1 and 9:1.
In future this ratio will increase further.
Older turbofan engines like the Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines have a bypass
ratio of about 1:1.
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Figure 18
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Bypass Ratio
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thrust on typical aircraft engines cont.
Turbofan engines can be either short ducted, which is correct for most of the
high bypass engines or long ducted with combined or separate exhausts.
In conclusion, you can say that the turbofan engine combines the good
efficiency and high thrust capability of the turboprop with the high speed and
high altitude capability of a turbojet.
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Figure 19
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Exhaust Nozzles on Turbofan Engines
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Lesson 1
thrust on typical aircraft engines cont.
Latest engine research activities are about open rotor engines, or so called
propfans.
The gas turbine engine powers either a single fan or a set of counter--rotating
fans via a gearbox. Because of the number and shape of the fan blades, these
engines have good speed and altitude capabilities. They also have the
advantage of using up to 20% less fuel than high bypass engines. This is
because they have bypass ratios of up to 90:1.
Because of mounting difficulties, these engines are not very common on
modern jet aircraft.
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Figure 20
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Propfan
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OPERATION OF A GAS TURBINE ENGINE
THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES
All changes of air in an engine from the inlet to the exhaust are in accordance
with thermodynamic laws.
These laws describe how energy is converted from heat to mechanical energy
and vice versa.
The condition of a gas like air is shown by its pressure, its temperature and it
s
volume. These three parameters are always in a fixed relationship to each
other. If you change one value the other two values will also change.
If you increase the energy by heating the air in the cylinder the pressure will
increase if the piston is fixed or the volume will increases if the piston is
allowed to move so that the pressure in the cylinder stays constant.
You can see the same result if you apply mechanical energy to the piston.
Note that the thermodynamic laws always apply independently of the chemical
composition of a gas.
In other words, air does the same as any other gas like nitrogen or even
exhaust gases.
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Figure 21
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Thermodynamic Principles
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 2
PRESSURE AND FLOW IN DUCTS
The pressure in a gas turbine engine changes, if heat is added or removed.
The pressure also changes if the quantity or the volume of the air is changed.
The flow velocity in a gas turbine changes if the flow area is changed to a
diffuser or to a nozzle.
Bernoullis principle describes pressure and velocity changes in moving liquids
or gases.
In a constant air flow, the velocity changes with the shape of the flow area.
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Figure 22
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Pressure and Flow in Ducts
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 2
GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS
The main components of a typical gas turbine engine are:
: - the engine air inlet
: the compressor
: the combustion chamber
: the turbine
: the exhaust duct
: the jet nozzle.
The engine air inlet directs the outside air to the inlet of the compressor. It
must
supply a sufficient quantity of air in all flight conditions, make sure that its
own
air resistance is as small as possible and it must also increase the static
pressure of the inlet airflow as much as possible.
The engine compressor is the next major component of the gas turbine engine.
The compressor is simply a rotating assembly which increases the pressure of
the incoming air. It must supply a sufficiently high airflow to for continuous
combustion and it must also supply a large quantity of bleed air for other
aircraft consumers like the pneumatic system or for engine cooling and
anti--icing.
The air is compressed with one of two basic types of compressors.
The combustion chamber burns large quantities of fuel with large quantities of
air in a very limited space.
The following factors are important for the combustion process:
: minimum decrease in pressure
: maximum increase of energy
: no damage is caused to the combustion chamber materials.
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Figure 23
HAM US sw July 1997
Main Components of a Gas Turbine Engine
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Lesson 2
gas turbine components cont.
The primary function of the turbine is to supply the torque which is necessary t
o
drive the compressor via the connected shaft.
It also drives the engine accessory gearbox via bevel gears and shafts. So it
powers the engine fuel pump, the oil pump, the hydraulic pumps, the generators o
r other accessories.
Separate turbines are used on high bypass engines to drive the fan and a low
pressure compressor or on a turboprop engine these turbines are specially
designed to drive the propeller.
When the hot gas is leaves the turbine, the exhaust system moves it into the
atmosphere.
Exhaust ducts are used on some aircraft to make sure that the hot gas does
not come out from the engine directly under the wing.
The jet nozzle which is also named the propelling nozzle, increases the velocity
of the exhaust gas. It then sends the exhaust gas in the correct direction.
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Figure 24
HAM US sw July 1997
Turbines on a Gas Turbine Engine
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Lesson 2
gas turbine components cont.
When the air passes through an operating gas turbine engine, the air pressure,
the temperature and the volume change but after the air has passed through
the engine, the air pressure, the temperature and the volume go back to their
original condition.
This full process, where the end condition of the air is equal to the start
condition, is called the working cycle of an engine.
The best way to understand the working cycle of a gas turbine is to compare it
with the process in a four stroke piston engine.
In both engines, the air passes through four different working steps beginning
with the induction, then compression, combustion and exhaust.
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Figure 25
HAM US sw July 1997
Working Cycle on a Turbojet and Piston Engine
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gas turbine components cont.
The diagram below the engine shows the effect on air temperature, pressure
and velocity and on the pressure volume diagram you can follow the working
cycle.
The air which enters the inlet duct of an engine is for our example at ambient
condition. This means it is be a temperature of 15 C and a pressure of
14,7 psi.
On the pressure volume diagram you can see this condition in the position A.
In the engine compressor, the pressure and temperature of the air increases
while the volume decreases.
At take--off power a modern gas turbine engine has pressures of over 580 psi
with temperatures of approximately 600 C at the compressor discharge.
You can also see that the air velocity in the compressor decreases.
When the fuel air mixture is burned in the combustion chamber, the
temperature and the volume of the air increases. However, the air pressure
stays almost constant.
Combustion chamber discharge temperatures of modern engines are
approximately 1300 C.
Note, that the gas velocity decreases to almost 0.
The air that leaves the combustion chamber then passes through the turbine.
Here, its pressure and temperature decrease, and the volume of the air
increases again.
Note that the velocity of the air changes in the rotor and stator assemblies.
After the air leaves the turbine, it passes through the exhaust duct and nozzle
back into the atmosphere. During this process the air pressure and the air
temperature continue to decrease and as you remember, the velocity increases
in the exhaust nozzle.
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Figure 26
HAM US sw July 1997
Airflow and Working Cycle of a Turbojet Engine
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Lesson 2
AIRFLOW STATION DESIGNATIONS
The individual engine sections are divided by planes for easy and identification
and orientation.
The engine station designation varies with different engine types and
manufacturers. There is a system of station designations for aircraft gas
turbines of all types. Generally, you will find numerical designations from the
front to the rear of the engine. Each section between two whole numbers
represents a major engine component.
For example the engine inlet is between the numbers 1 and 2 or the
combustion chamber is between the numbers 3 and 4. Decimals are used to
divide the major sections if necessary, for example to divide low and high
pressure compressors or even between compressor or turbine stages.
In the engine exhaust duct and nozzle area, you will find numbers from 5,
which stands for the turbine exit up to 8 or 9 at the exhaust nozzle exit.
The engine station numbers 6 and 7 however are usually used on military
aircraft engines with diffusers, tailpipes and afterburners as you can see on th
e
lower picture.
For designation of the secondary airflow, numbers between 10 and 19 are
used.
The station numbers are usually used to designate temperatures and
pressures at the related positions of the engine airflow.
T2 for example stands for the air temperature at the fan inlet or P3 stands for
the air pressure at the compressor outlet.
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Figure 27
HAM US sw July 1997
Airflow Station Designations
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Lesson 2
airflow station designations cont.
The letters s or t are used with the station numbers to show if static or total
pressure or temperature is measured at that point.
Pt5 for example shows the total pressure at the turbine outlet of a typical
engine.
You will find that on some engines other letters are used to designate engine
components like 2C for the HP compressor inlet.
Keep in mind that the engine station numbers are not completely standardized.
Always refer to the applicable manual from the manufacturer.
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Figure 28
HAM US sw July 1997
Letters on Station Numbers
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OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
ENGINE EFFICIENCIES
On a gas turbine engine the thrust is not the only important parameter.
It is also very important how efficiently the fuel energy can be converted of to
jet velocity and how efficiently this velocity can be used to push the aircraft
forward. This flow diagram shows the typical energy flow of a gas turbine
engine.
The thickness of the arrows shows the percentage of the energy flow.
You can see that the fuel energy that is put into the engine is used mainly for
compression. Another small part is used in the engine intake to make the ram
pressure.
The two energy flows are returned into the energy cycle.
The remaining energy is the part that can be converted into aircraft movement.
Unfortunately, not all of the energy from the working cycle can be converted
into aircraft movement.
A lot of of energy is lost because of the high temperature of the exhaust gas.
This heat can not be converted into kinetic energy. This energy is lost because
of the difference between aircraft speed and exhaust gas velocity. This arrow
shows the energy that is converted into aircraft movement.
You will understand the most important efficiencies of a jet engine if you
compare these energy arrows. For example, the internal efficiency describes
how much of the fuel energy is converted into exhaust gas velocity. In other
words internal efficiency is the kinetic energy divided by the fuel energy.
You can see that the kinetic energy splits into two parts. One part is the
propulsive energy. The other part is the energy loss which is the result of the
difference in aircraft speed and exhaust gas velocities. If you compare these
two energy parts you get the external efficiency.
The external efficiency is also named propulsive efficiency. It shows how much
of the kinetic energy is converted into aircraft movement.
The external efficiency mainly depends on the aircraft speed and the exhaust
gas velocity.
The total efficiency of a gas turbine engine is the product of its internal and
its
external efficiency. It shows how much of the fuel energy is converted into
aircraft movement.
HAM US sw July 1997
Or you can also say that the total efficiency is the propulsive energy divided b
y
the fuel energy.
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Figure 29
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Energy Flow on a Turbojet Engine
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PRESSURE RATIOS
The internal efficiency depends on the combustion temperature and on the
pressure ratio of the working cycle.
The pressure ratio is the pressure relationship between two different areas in
an engine.
The term pressure ratio is usually used to describe the factor by which the
engine compressor increases the incoming air pressure.
The compressor pressure ratio mainly depends on the size and type of the
engine compressor.
On modern aircraft engines compressor pressure ratios of up to 40 to 1 are
possible. This means that the compressor discharge pressure is 40 times
higher than the compressor inlet pressure.
You can see that the compressor pressure ratio can be increased if you add
compressor stages.
The term overall pressure ratio is used on engines with more than one
compressor. It shows the pressure increase over all the compressors.
A high pressure ratio gives the engine more energy at the turbine and jet
nozzle. Therefore high pressure ratios are necessary on aircraft engines.
You can say that the higher the pressure ratio, the better the engine can use
the fuel energy. This is because gases do work more efficiently if they expand
over a high pressure ratio.
High pressure ratios have two main disadvantages.
One disadvantage is that you need a large compressor to make the high
pressure ratios. This results in a high engine weight.
The other disadvantage is the high compressor discharge temperature which
results from the compression. To understand why high compressor discharge
temperatures are not wanted let us first look at an example.
With a pressure ratio of 12 to 1 the compressor discharge temperature on this
engine would be approximately 2505 C.
We now add 3000 kg of fuel per hour to get the maximum power from this
engine.
The turbine inlet temperature is sufficiently low for safe engine operation. If
you
now add more fuel, the gas temperature in the turbine goes above its critical
point and the turbine will be destroyed.
HAM US sw July 1997
The turbine inlet temperature must always be below the limit of the turbine
materials. If the turbine inlet temperature is near to this limit, you have a go
od
compromise between maximum efficiency and safe engine operation.
High pressure ratios limit the quantity of fuel that can be added for
combustion.
Therefore, high pressure ratios make sense only if the turbine inlet temperature
can also be increased.
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Figure 30
HAM US sw July 1997
Pressure Ratio
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Lesson 3
THRUST SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION
The term thrust specific fuel consumption or TSFC is used to compare
different jet engines.
It shows the amount of fuel which an engine needs to make 1 kN of thrust for
one hour.
Usually the simplified term SFC is used for the same reason.
For example, this high bypass engine needs approximately 38 kg of fuel per
hour for each kN of thrust that it makes.
If you now look at a turbojet engine or at a low bypass turbofan engine you can
see the difference.
Turbojet engines need much more fuel for 1 kN of thrust than modern turbofan
engines.
If you want to compare engines, make sure that the units for fuel mass, thrust
and time are equal for the engines.
This example shows the thrust specific fuel consumption of a turbofan in three
different measurement systems.
In the international measurement system, it is 38 kg of fuel per hour for each
kN of thrust or 0.38 kg of fuel per hour for each kp of thrust given in the old
metric system or 0.38 pounds of fuel per hour for each pound of thrust given in
the English and American measurement system.
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Figure 31
HAM US sw July 1997
Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption
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thrust specific fuel consumption cont.
Usually the specific fuel consumption is given for the take--off thrust setting
at
standard day conditions.
It can also be given for other operating conditions like cruise power setting or
maximum continuous thrust setting.
You can only compare different engines if the specific fuel consumption is given
in the same measurement system and for the same power setting.
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Figure 32
HAM US sw July 1997
TSFC of a Turbojet vs. a Turbofan
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ENGINE RATINGS
The turbine gas temperatures that are indicated in the cockpit are named
Exhaust Gas Temperatures or just EGT.
These temperatures are closely monitored by the pilots because
overtemperatures can quickly destroy the turbine components.
If overtemperatures happen, they must be recorded in the technical log book
so that corrective maintenance actions can be done.
The service life of an engine can be increased, if the exhaust gas temperatures
are always kept as low as possible.
Therefore the engine manufacturers try to limit high exhaust gas temperatures.
These limitations for the engine operation are known as engine ratings.
The flight crew selects these ratings by the throttle levers.
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Figure 33
HAM US sw July 1997
Reasons for Engine Ratings
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THRUST RATINGS
There are five major thrust ratings used on modern aircraft, these are:
: maximum take--off thrust,
: maximum go--around thrust
: maximum continuous thrust,
: maximum climb thrust,
: maximum cruise thrust
Maximum take--off thrust rating is the highest thrust that an engine is permitte
d
to supply for take--off. This setting is only permitted for a few minutes, becau
se
of the high stress to the engine.
Maximum go--around thrust rating is the highest thrust that an engine is
permitted to supply for an aircraft go--around. It has the same rating as
maximum take--off thrust and it is also limited for a few minutes.
Maximum continuous thrust rating is the highest thrust that an engine is
permitted to supply without time limitations. This thrust setting is only used i
n
an emergency.
Maximum climb thrust rating is lower than the take--off thrust. This thrust
setting is only used for the climb until the cruising speed is reached.
Maximum cruise thrust rating is the highest thrust limit for normal cruise fligh
t.
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Figure 34
HAM US sw July 1997
Thrust Ratings
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FLAT RATING
Another rating on civil aircraft is the so named flat rating.
It is used to increase the service life of an engine.
The flat rating is a fixed limitation for the maximum thrust of an engine. To
understand this term, let us first look at the normal operation of a jet engine.
This thrust temperature diagram shows how the thrust changes when the
ambient temperature changes.
With the engine throttle lever in a given position, the engine gives more thrust
on a cold day and less thrust on a warm day.
An engine that gives maximum take--off thrust at 0 C, cannot make sufficient
thrust at higher temperatures. On the other hand, an engine which gives
maximum take--off thrust at 50 C is bigger than necessary for most other
operating conditions.
Because of this, most modern engines can make the maximum take--off thrust
at temperatures of up to 30 C to 40 C.
This upper temperature limit is named the flat rate temperature. A flat rated
engine gives a constant thrust at all ambient conditions below this flat rate
temperature.
Flat rating stops the pilot using the maximum possible thrust on cold days. It
makes sure that the necessary thrust for safe take--off and climb is available.
This increases the service life on the engine.
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Figure 35
HAM US sw July 1997
Flat Rated Engine
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THRUST MEASURING METHODS
The thrust force of an engine can only be measured exactly on a test bench on
the ground.
Here the engine is mounted on a floating stand. The stand pushes against
thrust measuring load cells. The load cells transmit electrical signals about th
e
thrust force to the control room.
On an aircraft this type of measurement is not possible. Here the thrust can
only be measured indirectly.
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Figure 36
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Engines on a Test Bench
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thrust measuring methods cont.
On an aircraft, we measure the thrust using engine operating parameters which
are proportional to the thrust.
Some engine manufacturers like Pratt and Whittney or Rolls Royce use the
engine pressure ratio method.
Other manufacturers like General Electric or CFM international use the RPM
method.
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Figure 37
HAM US sw July 1997
Thrust Measuring Methods
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thrust measuring methods cont.
The engine pressure ratio which is also named EPR is proportional to the
acceleration of the air which passes through the engine.
The engine pressure ratio is the total pressure behind the turbine divided by th
e
total pressure at the engine inlet. This ratio is the thrust value for the pilot
. It is
shown on the EPR--Indicator in the cockpit.
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Figure 38
HAM US sw July 1997
Thrust Measuring by EPR
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thrust measuring methods cont.
On high bypass engines the thrust is usually measured by RPM.
RPM is the number of revolutions per minute of the engine rotor shaft.
The speed of the fan is proportional to the mass flow through the fan duct.
Remember that this secondary airflow through the fan duct gives approximately
75 to 80% of the total thrust of the engine.
Thrust setting by RPM is usually indicated in percent of the design speed. This
speed is indicated in the cockpit as N1 because the letter N is used for the
speed of a rotor in a gas turbine engine.
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Figure 39
HAM US sw July 1997
Thrust Measuring by N 1
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Lesson 3
THRUST VERSUS HORSEPOWER
Often people like to compare jet engines with car engines to get an idea of the
power of jet engines.
As you know, the power of a car engine is given in horsepower.
The thrust of an aircraft engine is given in kN or pounds.
These different dimensions cannot be compared directly because thrust is a
force and horsepower is the result of force times distance and divided by time.
You can see this on the power equation.
You can only get horsepower from a jet engine if distance and time is also
taken into account.
The term thrust horsepower is used if we look at a jet engine at a given speed.
This equation shows that one pound of thrust equals one thrust horsepower at
a speed of 375 mph.
If we look at an Airbus A340 engine with 30,800 pounds of thrust at a speed of
130 mph we can say that the engine gives 10,677 THP.
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THRUST IN LBS = FORCE
Figure 40
HAM US sw July 1997
Thrust versus Horsepower
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Lesson 4
AIR INTAKES & COMPRESSORS
ENGINE AIR INTAKES
Air enters the engine via the engine air intake.
The air intake has an intake nose and an inlet duct.
The air inlet duct gets wider. This shape is named divergent.
You probably remember from the Bernoulli Principle that this shape increases
the static pressure of air that is moving through the duct. This is an advantage
for the engine as we are going to see later in this lesson.
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Figure 41
HAM US sw July 1997
Engine Air Intakes
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engine air intakes cont.
The intake nose also helps to smooth the airflow.
This stops air disturbances from entering the inlet duct which would reduce
engine efficiency.
However, air disturbances can be caused by damage to the intake nose by
ice--build up or even by crosswinds during low speed aircraft operations.
As the aircraft moves through the air, all air enters the engine from the front.
This is because of the ram air effect at high airspeeds.
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Air Disturbance
Figure 42
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Airflow Changes at the Engine Air Intake
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engine air intakes cont.
If the engine is running but the aircraft is not moving, there is no ram air eff
ect.
In this situation, air is also sucked in from the side of the engine.
To reduce this danger, limit maintenance to a minimum on an engine that is
running.
If you must work near an engine that is running move carefully and wear a
safety lanyard.
A red stripe on the engine cowling and a warning placard tells you not to get
into the danger zone.
You may not stand anywhere in front of this red stripe or you may start to fly a
ll
by yourself.
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Figure 43
HAM US sw July 1997
Danger Zone at Engine Air Intake
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COMPRESSOR COMPONENTS
There are two ways to compress air in engines.
You can decrease the volume in a cylinder by a piston or you can make use of
Bernoullis Principle again to get compressed air. This is the method which is
used in the compressors of gas turbine engines.
The compressor of a gas turbine engine supplies a continuous flow of air to the
engine combustor.
The compressor has two main components. The compressor rotor and the
compressor stator. Each rotor has rotor blades mounted on it.
As it rotates around the axis of the compressor the rotor blades suck in air and
then push it to the outlet side of the rotor. This action increases the energy o
f
the airflow.
The compressor stator is a fixed component. The stator also has blades
attached to it, which are named stator vanes. The stator vanes guide and slow
the airflow to cause an increase in pressure.
The combination of a rotor and stator is named a compressor stage.
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Figure 44
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Axial Compressor Stage
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compressor components cont.
If there is a set of stator vanes in front of a compressor stage they are always
named inlet guide vanes or just IGVs.
These inlet guide vanes improve the airflow into the first compressor stage.
They are either fixed or movable.
The stator vanes in the fan duct are usually named outlet guide vanes or
OGVs. They improve the airflow into the fan nozzle.
Other compressor parts are the compressor inlet case and the compressor
outlet case. These cases give support for the compressor rotor bearings.
The cases also improve and straighten the airflow into and out of the
compressor.
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Figure 45
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LP Compressor Outlet Case
Compressor Components
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Lesson 4
CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSORS
There are 2 types of compressor -- the axial flow compressor which is like the
one we have just seen and the centrifugal flow compressor which is shown
here.
Centrifugal flow compressors are usually found on small gas turbine engines
like APUs.
The main components of a centrifugal flow compressor are the impeller, the
diffuser and the compressor manifold.
The impeller and the diffuser have the same function as the rotor and stator on
the axial flow compressors.
The operation of this compressor is as follows: As the impeller rotates, air is
sucked in horizontally near to the center of the impeller. The rotation pushes
the air outwards by centrifugal force. This increases the air velocity and,
therefore, the energy of the air.
As the air flows through divergent ducts which are formed by the impeller
vanes some of the velocity increase is converted into static pressure.
The air then passes through the diffuser where the airflow velocity is decreased
and the pressure is further increased.
Centrifugal flow compressors can give pressure ratios of about 5 to 1.
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Figure 46
HAM US sw July 1997
Centrifugal Flow Compressors
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Lesson 4
centrifugal flow compressors cont.
Some engines use multiple stages to give higher pressures.
The airflow enters the engine in the normal way and then passes through the
first stage.
The output from the first stage then moves via a manifold to the second stage
where the pressure is again increased.
It has been found that only 2 stages are efficient. This is because of the
pressure decrease that occurs when the airflow changes direction between the
stages.
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Figure 47
HAM US sw July 1997
Multiple Stage Centrifugal Compressor
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Lesson 4
centrifugal flow compressors cont.
Another option is the double entry type impeller.
Here 2 impellers are mounted face to face. This is why this type is also named
the double face compressor.
It does not give higher pressures but it has a higher airflow at a given diamete
r,
because the air can enter from the two sides. This saves weight and gives the
engine a smaller frontal area.
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Figure 48
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Double Face Compressor
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AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS
Airflow in an axial flow compressor is along the horizontal axis of the
compressor.
You will remember that this airflow is made by the rotor blades.
If we look at a compressor stage from above, it would look something like this:
You can see that the rotor blades and stator vanes are aerodynamically
shaped. This aerodynamic shape smoothes the airflow through the compressor
stages Similar to the centrifugal compressor, the pressure increase is the resul
t
of two actions.
Firstly the rotor increases the velocity and, therefore, the energy of the air f
low
and then this energy increase is changed into static pressure. This is caused
by the diffuser--like shape of the channels between the stator vanes.
You can see that the channels between the rotor blades are also diffusers. This
means that the rotors not only increase the velocity of the airflow but also slo
w
it down a little to increase the static pressure.
Each stage of an axial flow compressor has a pressure ratio of about 1.3 to 1.
This means that if the air pressure enters the first stage with 10 psi then the
air
pressure is increased to 13 psi on the output side of that compressor stage.
This pressure now becomes the input pressure to the next stage.
To get the output pressure of the second stage, we multiply by the pressure
ratio of 1.3 and get an answer of 16.9 psi. This is the input pressure for the 3
rd
stage and so on through the remaining compressor stages.
You can see that the pressure increase at each stage is very small. Therefore,
many stages are needed to raise the pressure to the high values necessary for
efficient combustion.
As the air pressure increases, its density also increases. This means that the
air needs less volume.
For this reason, the compressor cross section is gradually decreased. This
keeps a constant velocity of the airflow through the compressor.
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Figure 49
HAM US sw July 1997
Axial Compressor Operation
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COMPARISON OF COMPRESSOR TYPES
Axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors have their own specific advantages
and disadvantages.
This makes each type applicable for different functions.
Some engines, like this one, combine the two types.
Here is a list of advantages and disadvantages.
At optimum compressor speed axial flow compressors are more efficient than
centrifugal flow compressors. Centrifugal flow compressors have a good
efficiency over a wide speed range.
Engines with axial flow compressors cause less drag than engines with
centrifugal flow compressors. This is because they have smaller frontal areas.
Engines with axial flow compressors can reach high total pressures by the
addition of many compressor stages.
Centrifugal flow compressors have a very high pressure rise per stage.
Centrifugal flow compressors are simpler to manufacture and lower in costs
compared to axial flow compressors. Centrifugal flow compressors have a
lower weight than axial flow compressors. Centrifugal flow compressors need
less power for engine start than axial flow compressors.
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Figure 50
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Comparison of Compressor Types
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OPERATION OF AXIAL COMPRESSORS
NORMAL FLOW IN AXIAL COMPRESSORS
In the last lesson you learned the difference between centrifugal flow and axial
flow compressors.
The two compressor types have one thing in common; they are very sensitive
to changes in the airflow which passes through the compressor. This is because t
he engine compressors have only one optimum operating condition for
a given pressure ratio, rotational speed and airflow. This condition is usually
named the design point.
At the design point the airflow in the compressor is perfectly matched.
On the graphic you can see the first stage of an axial compressor.
The airflow from the engine air inlet duct enters the rotor as shown.
The arrows show the direction of the airflow before it enters the rotor.
The length of the arrows represent the value of the inlet velocity.
The rotor speed gives us a second parameter for the inlet airflow.
The arrow for the rotor speed points in the direction of rotation.
The length of this arrow represents the speed of the rotor blades.
For a smooth airflow into the rotor we need the correct relationship between
the inlet velocity and the rotor speed. This direction of the airflow is named t
he
resultant rotor inlet velocity.
You can see that the resultant rotor inlet velocity is a result of the air inlet
velocity and the rotor speed.
We can say that the airflow into the rotor is smooth as long as the angle of
attack to the rotor blades is small.
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Figure 51
HAM US sw July 1997
Airflow Changes at Compressor Toror Blades
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normal flow in axial compressors cont.
We now follow the airflow through the rotor.
The shape of the rotor blades give the direction for the airflow.
The rotor speed arrow at the outlet is the same as at the inlet but the resultan
t
outlet direction is different.
The rotor speed strongly deflects the outlet airflow. This outlet airflow is now
going in the correct direction for the inlet to the stator vanes.
The stator vanes decelerate the airflow and guide it to the next rotor stage of
the compressor.
The stator outlet velocity and the rotor speed again give the direction for the
next rotor blades. This airflow sequence continues through all the compressor
stages.
Remember that this condition is only optimum at one compressor speed.
The airflow in the axial compressor is smooth as long as the angle of attack on
the rotor blades and stator vanes is small.
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Figure 52
HAM US sw July 1997
Airflow Changes at Compressor Stator Vanes
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COMPRESSOR STALL
The angle of attack changes if the rotor speed or the inlet velocity changes.
At a given rotor speed the angle of attack increases when the inlet air velocity
decreases. If this occurs, the airflow separates from the compressor airfoils
and causes a turbulent vortex.
This airflow separation is named compressor stall. Compressor stall changes
the proper airflow in the compressor. It causes the airflow to slow down, stop o
r
even reverse its direction. Stall can occur at some airfoils only. It is then we
ak
and almost unnoticeable. It can also occur at one or more compressor stages.
The engine then runs roughly and the rotor speed decreases slightly.
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Figure 53
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Compressor Stall
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COMPRESSOR SURGE
If the stall becomes stronger it can affect all compressor stages.
This condition, named compressor surge, will be shown in more detail in the
next segment.
Compressor surge is a very severe form of a compressor stall.
It is generated as follows:
: A rapid decrease of airflow causes stall on some blades or stages.
The stall causes a blockage in the airflow which leads to a stronger stall in th
e
subsequent stages. This causes low pressure zones in which the airflow comes
to a stop and reverses its direction.
Surge can happen on all engine compressors. It can occur in the forward or in
the aft compressor stages.
Surge in the forward stages usually affects only a part of the compressor
blades. This is because of the bigger dimensions of the blades.
The effect on the compressor operation is not very dangerous.
Surge in the aft stages develops very rapidly over a large part of the
compressor. This behavior is supported by the high pressure in the aft stages
and by the short compressor blades.
At a compressor surge in the aft stages the airflow decreases rapidly and
causes a strong reverse flow. In the extreme, this reverse flow could be from
the combustion chamber back to the engine inlet.
The reverse flow removes the low pressure zones and stops the stall on the
compressor blades.
The correct airflow can now build up again but if the reason for the compressor
surge is still there, the surge process starts again.
During compressor surge the airflow collapses and builds up again at very
short intervals. It is usually very strong and comes with heavy vibrations and
loud bang noises.
The thrust decreases, the engine speed fluctuates and the exhaust gas
temperature increases.
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Figure 54
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Compressor Surge
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REASONS FOR STALL AND SURGE
Compressor stall and surge is caused by problems in engine operation or by
damaged engine components.
All primary engine components can cause compressor stall if they are
damaged.
Dents or ice on the engine inlet cause turbulent or disrupted airflow which
decrease the inlet velocity.
Damaged rotor blades or stator vanes disturb the correct airflow and cause
stall. Even dirty compressor blades or stator vanes can cause stall.
Damaged or broken combustor components can cause a blockage in the
airflow and decrease the velocity in the compressor.
Damaged turbine components will decrease the airflow and dents in the jet
nozzle or broken objects in the exhaust system can also cause a blockage to
the airflow.
There are two operational reasons for compressor stall and surge.
The compressor can stall if the speed of the engine is too far below the design
speed and it can stall at incorrect acceleration or deceleration.
Remember that the efficiency of the compressor stages decrease if the
compressor operates below the design speed.
On a large axial compressor it is very difficult to match all the stages.
At very low speeds the efficiency of the forward compressor stages is much
better than at the aft stages. This means that the forward stages supply too
much air to the aft stages.
The air piles up in the aft stages then slows down, comes to a stop and
reverses its direction.
Fast deceleration causes a similar problem on dual and triple spool engines.
This is because the rotor speed of the high pressure compressor decreases
faster than that of the low pressure compressor.
The low pressure compressor supplies too much airflow which cannot pass
through the high pressure compressor.
Fast acceleration leads to too much fuel in the combustion chamber. This
increases the backpressure in the combustion chamber for a while.
The airflow through the compressor decreases and the compressor stalls.
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Figure 55
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Reasons for Stall and Surge
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METHODS TO AVOID STALL AND SURGE
You will find three different design methods on aircraft engines to prevent
compressor stall and surge.
One method uses compressor bleed valves. Another method is the use of dual
or triple spool rotors instead of single spool rotors and the most modern
method uses variable compressor stator vanes.
Each of these methods can prevent stall on its own, but on most modern
engines you will find a combination of two or three methods.
The use of compressor bleed valves is a simple and very effective method to
avoid compressor stall and surge.
They are open at low engine speeds so that the excessive airflow from the
forward stages can escape overboard.
You will find the bleed valves in the mid section and sometimes in the aft
section of the engine compressor. This prevents an airflow blockage in the aft
compressor stages but they have one big disadvantage.
All the airflow which is compressed first and then blown overboard causes a big
loss in efficiency.
On large multistage axial compressors it is very difficult to match all stages f
or
all speeds of the engine. Bleed valves would be necessary at several positions
to guarantee safe operation.
A better method for these engines is to split the compressor rotor.
On the dual spool engine the forward part is named the low pressure
compressor or N1 compressor and the aft part is named the high pressure
compressor or N2 compressor.
You can see that each compressor rotor is driven by a separate turbine.
Another advantage of this multiple spool engine design is its excellent
acceleration capability. This is because of the smaller rotor mass of the split
rotors.
These advantages of a dual spool engine are even better on a triple spool
engines.
Variable stator vanes in the compressor are the most effective method to
prevent stall. They are moveable along the vertical axis.
You will find these variable stator vanes and variable inlet guide vanes in the
forward stages of the high pressure compressor.
The advantage of the variable stator vanes is that an optimum angle of attack
on the following rotor blades can be reached for every engine speed.
HAM US sw July 1997
The compressor does not stall and it always operates at an optimum efficiency.
The disadvantage is that it needs a very complicated control mechanism.
The operation of the variable stator vane system will be explained in detail in
the power plant course.
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Figure 56
HAM US sw July 1997
Methods to avoid Stall and Surge
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Lesson 6
COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
PURPOSE AND REQUIREMENTS
The function of the combustion chamber is to produce a hot stream of gas for
the turbines and for the jet nozzle.
It produces this stream of hot gas by the continuous combustion of a fuel--air
mixture.
Combustion is a very difficult process on aircraft engines because of many oppos
ing factors and requirements.
For a safe and efficient operation of the engine the combustion chamber must
fulfill the following requirements. It must permit safe ignition of the fuel air
mixture on ground and in flight and give stable combustion in all operating con
ditions of the engine.
The combustion must also be complete. This means, that no unburned fuel
should leave the combustion chamber.
Other combustion chamber requirements are to give equal temperature
distribution at the combustion chamber outlet. This is important for the first
turbine stage.
Combustion should happen with a minimum of pressure loss in the combustion
chamber to increase the engine efficiency.
The combustion chamber must be as small and light as possible to save weight
and it must have a dependable cooling system for all materials which get in
contact with the hot gas flow.
Finally it should have a high operating lifetime because the replacement of
these engine components is very time consuming.
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Figure 57
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Combustion Requirements
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COMBUSTION CHAMBER COMPONENTS
Several types of combustion chambers are used on jet engines.
However, some basic parts are similar on all types.
Each combustion chamber has two main components:
: the combustion chamber casing
: and the flame tube.
Note that the casing can be split into an inner and an outer casing.
The combustion chamber casing is the outer shield of the combustion section.
It takes the air pressure loads and protects the internal and external engine
parts from the hot combustion gases.
The housing also gives support to the flame tube and other combustion
chamber components like fuel nozzles and igniter plugs.
The flame tube controls and guides the flame.
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Figure 58
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Combustion Chamber Components
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COMBUSTION PROCESS
Compressed air enters the combustion chamber. Fuel nozzles spray the fuel
into the center of this airflow.
The fuel vaporizes and mixes with the airflow.
The fuel air mixture is then electrically ignited by an igniter plug.
After the combustion has been started, the ignition will be switched off. The
combustion continues because fuel and air is continuously supplied to the
combustion chamber.
There is stable combustion as long as fuel and air are supplied to the
combustion chamber.
Two primary conditions are necessary for correct and safe combustion.
First, the ratio of air and fuel must be correct and second the air velocity mus
t
be slow enough to make sure that the combustion is completed inside the
combustion chamber.
For complete combustion of a kerosene / air mixture we need a ratio of 15
parts of air for 1 part of fuel.
For this reason the airflow which comes from the compressor is split into two
parts:
: the primary airflow
: the secondary airflow.
The primary airflow is used for the combustion process. This is approximately
20 to 30 % of the airflow from the compressor.
The rest of the airflow bypasses the primary combustion zone and mixes with
the hot gas in the dilution zone of the combustion chamber. The primary zone
is where the flame stabilizes.
In this area some of the secondary air is used to keep the flame away from the
flame tube walls. This is necessary because the temperature in the center of
the flame reaches approximately 2000 degrees Celsius.
The secondary air is mainly used for cooling because combustion chamber
material would melt at these high temperatures.
Most of the secondary airflow enters the dilution zone of the flame tube via
dilution air holes.
HAM US sw July 1997
The forward part of the combustion chamber and at the duct between the
compressor outlet and the combustion chamber inlet are shaped like a diffuser.
For correct combustion, we must have low velocity airflow in the flame tube.
This is needed to stabilize the flame. It also makes sure that the combustion
process finishes in the primary zone and not in secondary zone or in the
turbine.
The airflow that comes from the compressor has a velocity of approximately
150 m/s. This velocity is much too high for the combustion process, because it
would blow the flame out of the combustion chamber.
The diffuser decreases the velocity down to approximately 25 m/s. Even a
velocity of 25 m/s is too high for the combustion process.
The velocity for the combustion of a kerosene--air mixture should be in the
range of 2 to 15 m/s.
The velocity in the forward part of the combustion chamber is further
decreased by restrictors and by swirl vanes.
These components cause a vortex in the airflow which also helps to mix the
fuel and air.
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T
Low
Airflow
Velocity
~ 2--15 m/s
~ 25 m/s
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~ 150 m/s
Figure 59
HAM US sw July 1997
Combustion Process
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COMBUSTION CHAMBER TYPES
Three different types of combustion chambers are used on gas turbine
engines:
: the can--type combustion chamber
: the can--annular combustion chamber
: the annular combustion chamber
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Annular Combustor
Can - Annular
Can - Type
Figure 60
HAM US sw July 1997
Combustion Chamber Type
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THE CAN-TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
You find can--type combustion chambers on old gas turbine engines with
centrifugal compressors.
Each combustion chamber has its own air supply duct, fuel nozzle, flame tube
and casing.
Can--type combustion chambers can be single chambers for very small gas
turbine engines like APU or they can be multiple--can chambers.
Multiple--can combustion chambers are installed around the engine combustor
section. They are connected to each other by inter--connector tubes. These
inter--connector tubes permit the ignition from one chamber to the other. They
are necessary because only two combustion chambers have igniter plugs on
these engines. The inter--connector tubes also equalize the pressure in all the
combustion chambers.
The advantage of can--type combustion chambers is that they are simple in
design, they have very good structural strength and they can be removed and
replaced individually.
However the disadvantage of these combustion chambers is, that they are
heavy and need much space, they also need complicated air supply ducts from
the compressor. These ducts lead to very high aerodynamic losses.
Another disadvantage of multiple can--type combustion chambers is the difficult
ignition from one chamber to the other.
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Figure 61
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Can Type Combustion Chamber
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CAN-ANNULAR TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER
The can--annular type combustion chamber is much simpler in design.
It has a set of flame tubes installed around the combustor section.
All the flame tubes have a common outer casing and inner casing.
The advantage of the can--annular combustion chamber is that it is smaller and
lighter than a similar multiple can--type combustion chamber. It does not need
complicated air supply ducts from the compressor and it still has good
structural strength.
The disadvantage of this type is that the aerodynamic losses are quite high and
the ignition from one flame tube to the other is very difficult.
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Figure 62
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Can- Annular Type Combustion Chamber
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ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER
The annular combustion chamber is most commonly used on modern gas
turbine engines.
This combustion chamber has only one annular flame tube. This flame tube is
supported by an inner and an outer combustion chamber casing.
The combustion chamber casings are part of the load carrying engine
structure. Together with the flame tube, they also make the air channel for the
secondary air.
In the maintenance documentation these casings are often called diffuser case
or compressor rear frame.
Very often the flame tubes of annular combustors are called the combustion
chambers. They have three major parts; the dome, the inner and the outer
liner. The dome has openings for the fuel nozzles which are surrounded by the
swirl vanes.
You will find a special design for an annular combustion chamber on small gas
turbine engines and APUs. It is called a reserve flow combustion chamber,
because of the airflow direction in the flame tube.
The annular type combustion chamber has many advantages compared with
the other types. They are smaller and lighter at the same airflow.
The large combustion area means that they have better efficiency, that the
combustion is complete and smokeless, and that the flame can spread easily
over the circumference of the flame tube. They also have a better thermal load
distribution for the turbine
The disadvantages of annular combustion chambers are that they are
expensive to make. Removal is very difficult and time consuming.
These disadvantages however are compensated by a very high service life.
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Figure 63
HAM US sw July 1997
Annular Combustion Chamber
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Lesson 6
METHODS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS
One of the most important requirements on modern gas turbine engines is to
decrease the pollution in the exhaust gas.
Pollutants in the exhaust gas are mainly unburned fuel and hydrocarbons
carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
You will get some of these pollutants if the combustion is incomplete because
of an incorrect fuel to air ratio.
An air fuel mixture burns best at a ratio of 15 to 1.
It is called a rich mixture if there is too much fuel for the primary air in the
combustion chamber. In this condition some of the fuel cannot be burned and
is released into the exhaust.
The excessive fuel also supports the build--up of carbon monoxide.
We will get a lean mixture if not sufficient fuel is available in the combustion
chamber. This causes less pollution, but the flame can go out.
An air fuel mixture can burn safely if the ratio is between 7.5 to 1 and 24 to 1
.
Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions can be decreased by optimum
air fuel ratios.
Nitrogen oxide emissions are decreased if the gas has less contact time in the
hot zone or if we have low combustion temperatures.
Low combustion temperatures however strongly increases the carbon
monoxide emissions.
An increase in the combustion temperature will decrease the carbon monoxide
and the hydro carbon emissions, but it will automatically increase the nitrogen
oxide emissions and vice versa.
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Figure 64
HAM US sw July 1997
Methods to reduce Emissions
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Lesson 6
methods to reduce emissions cont.
One method to decrease this opposing effect is to use dual dome combustion
chambers.
Here the annular combustion chamber has an outer and an inner set of
combustion areas.
One combustion area, which is called the pilot stage, always operates. The
other stage, which is called the main stage, operates only in high power
conditions.
For each of these stages the air fuel ratio is controlled much better than on
standard combustion chambers. This reduces carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbon emissions.
You can see that the combustion chamber is much shorter than standard
combustion chambers. This reduces the time that the exhaust gas is in the hot
area and therefore the build--up of nitrogen oxides.
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COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
Figure 65
HAM US sw July 1997
Dual Dome Combustion Chamber
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Lesson 7
TURBINES
TURBINE TYPES AND COMPONENTS
The turbine provides power which is necessary to drive the engine compressor
and the accessory gear box.
The turbine extracts energy from the hot gases which comes from the
combustion chamber.
There are two different types of turbines on gas turbine engines.
One is the radial flow turbine and the other one is the axial flow turbine.
The two types of turbine have the same main components.
The first main component of a turbine is always a set of stationary vanes.
These vanes are named the turbine nozzle guide vanes.
The next component is a set of moving rotor blades on the turbine disc.
You can find turbines with one or more stages. Like the stages of a
compressor, a turbine stage is made up of a stator and of a rotor.
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TURBINES
Figure 66
HAM US sw July 1997
Turbine Types and Components
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Lesson 7
RADIAL FLOW TURBINE
Radial flow turbines are always single stage turbines.
They are only used on small gas turbine engines like this APU. Their advantage i
s that they have a simple design and are easy to manufacture.
Radial turbines have many disadvantages compared with axial flow turbines.
They only allow small airflows and are also less efficient. This is because of
high aerodynamic losses and because the airflow must pass through the
turbine against the opposing centrifugal forces.
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TURBINES
Figure 67
HAM US sw July 1997
Radial Flow Turbine
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Lesson 7
AXIAL FLOW TURBINE
Axial flow turbines are mainly used on modern gas turbine engines.
They can be built up with any number of turbine stages as necessary to
operate the engine compressor, the accessories and the large fan of these high
bypass turbofan engines.
Another advantage of axial turbines is that they allow the very high airflow
which is needed to create the high thrust of modern engines.
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Figure 68
HAM US sw July 1997
Axial Flow Turbine
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Lesson 7
THE OPERATION OF A TURBINE
The turbine converts the gas energy from the combustion chamber into torque.
The gas flow which comes from the combustion chamber must first pass
through the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes.
The gas flow is accelerated because of the convergent shape of the ducts between
the nozzles guide vanes and deflected towards the direction of rotation
of the turbine blades.
The impact of the gas flow on the turbine rotor blades causes the turbine to
rotate. This makes the torque to drive the turbine shaft.
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Figure 69
HAM US sw July 1997
Turbine Operation
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the operation of a turbine cont.
A turbine which makes the rotation only by the impact of the gas flow on the
rotor blades, is named impulse turbine.
You can recognize this turbine type by the special shape of the rotor blades.
If you also compare the inlet area between the rotor blades with the outlet area
you can see that they are the same size. This means that the gas flow in an
impulse turbine only pushes the rotor blades and then leaves the rotor.
You usually only find impulse turbines on very old gas turbine engines.
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Figure 70
HAM US sw July 1997
Impulse Turbine
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the operation of a turbine cont.
The turbine rotor blades of modern gas turbine engines look like this one.
You can see here that the inlet of the rotor looks the same as an impulse type,
but the outlet of the rotor is shaped like a nozzle.
The gas flow from the nozzle guide vanes impacts on the rotor blades and at
the same time it accelerates as it passes through the nozzle shaped turbine
rotor channels.
The acceleration of the gas flow in the rotor creates a thrust force at the roto
r
outlet.
The force at the turbine rotor outlet acts in the opposite direction to the disc
harging gas flow. It is created as a reaction to the accelerated gas flow.
This reaction force can be divided into a vector that acts in an axial
directionand into a vector that acts in the direction of rotation.
This type of turbine is named the impulse--reaction turbine, because the force
which operates the turbine is the sum of the force caused by the impulse of the
gas flow on the rotor blades and of the force caused by the reaction of the gas
flow which leaves the rotor stage.
The impulse--reaction turbine is often just called a reaction turbine.
A purely reaction turbine creates the rotational force only by the acceleration
of
the gas flow in the turbine rotor without any impulse.
In such a turbine the nozzle guide vanes deflect the gas flow from the combustio
n chamber, but they do not accelerate it towards the rotor blades. This is not
very efficient so you usually find a combination of an impulse and reaction turb
ine on modern gas turbine engines.
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TURBINES
Figure 71
HAM US sw July 1997
Reaction Turbine
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Lesson 7
TURBINE OPERATING ENVIRONMENT
Turbines must operate in a very extreme environment.
The loads carried by the turbine components determine how long they can
remain in service. Turbine materials must withstand extremely high
temperatures and very high centrifugal forces due to high rotational speeds.
Two more factors which reduce the service life of a turbine.
The first one is material fatigue which is caused by many power cycles. It can
only be reduced by correct engine operation.
The other factor is corrosion which is caused by sulphuric acid. This mainly
occurs because of the sulphur in fuel and high gas temperatures. It is only
prevented by using the correct kind of jet fuel.
At take--off power each turbine blade must withstand high centrifugal forces of
several tons. Through these forces the blades become longer. This kind of
deformation is increased by the heat in the turbine.
However during normal engine operation this deformation remains elastic. This
means, that the rotor blades return to their original shape if the loads are gon
e.
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Figure 72
HAM US sw July 1997
Turbine Operating Environment
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Lesson 7
turbine operating environment cont.
Material deformation known as creep occurs when centrifugal loads are applied
over a long period of time and especially with high material temperatures.
This kind of deformation does not return to the original shape when the loads
are removed.
At normal engine operation very little or no creep occurs but if the engine is
operated at maximum power, the creep starts.
The combined effect of high engine speed and high temperatures results in a
large increase in the rate of creep.
Because of this danger, the pilot must keep the maximum power setting for
short amounts of time only.
As a result we can say that creep is a function of centrifugal force, material
temperature and time.
There are two opposing factors that make it hard to prevent material
deformation.
For example, we need high turbine inlet temperatures for optimum internal
efficiency, but we also need low turbine material temperatures to prevent
plastic deformation.
Because of these factors plastic deformation can only be limited by efficient
cooling of the turbine materials.
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Figure 73
HAM US sw July 1997
Creep
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 7
TURBINE COOLING METHODS
There are two main reasons why turbines are cooled on modern engines.
Firstly they are cooled to increase their service life. This is done by cooling
of
the internal turbine components like nozzle guide vanes and rotor blades.
The second reason for cooling is to get a better turbine efficiency. This is don
e
by cooling the outer turbine casings.
The cooling of the inner turbine materials is necessary where the gas
temperatures are too high.
The high pressure turbine nozzle guide vanes and rotor blades are cooled with
air from the engine high pressure compressor.
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TURBINES
Figure 74
HAM US sw July 1997
Turbine Cooling Methods
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Lesson 7
CONVECTION COOLING
Different cooling methods are used in high pressure turbines.
Convection cooling is the easiest method.
Here the cooling airflow passes through the hollow turbine nozzles vanes and
rotor blades.
Convection cooling takes away the heat from the turbine materials while the air
passes along the inner walls of the turbine airfoils.
This cooling method is used at the turbine nozzle guide vanes and also at the
turbine rotor blades.
The cooling air enters through holes at the bottom of the rotor blades and flows
through the many internal channels.
The air finally escapes at the trailing edges and at the blade tips and mixes wi
th
the hot gas flow.
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Figure 75
HAM US sw July 1997
Convection Cooling
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Lesson 7
IMPINGEMENT COOLING
Impingement cooling is a better cooling method for turbine nozzle guide vanes
and rotor blades.
Here the cooling air first flows into an insert which is fixed inside the hollow
turbine airfoils.
The insert has many small holes which serve as jet nozzles.
The cooling air that is forced through these jet nozzles impacts on the inner
walls of the airfoils. This improves the contact between cooling air and turbine
materials and therefore the heat transfer.
The cooling airflow finally escapes at the trailing edges of the nozzles guide
vanes and mixes with the hot gas flow.
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Figure 76
HAM US sw July 1997
Impingement Cooling
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Lesson 7
FILM COOLING
The film cooling method is a further cooling improvement.
This method is used at the turbine nozzle guide vanes and at the rotor blades.
Cooling air is blown into the hot gas flow via small drill holes in the turbine
airfoils.
The gas stream deflects the cooling air and forms a thin air film on the outer
walls of the turbine blades and vanes. This cooling film prevents the direct
contact of hot gas flow with turbine materials.
Film cooling is the most effective method, because it reaches a maximum
cooling effect but with a minimum of cooling air. This means that more air is
available to drive the turbine.
The disadvantage of this cooling method is that these small drill holes are very
difficult to make and therefore very expensive.
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Figure 77
HAM US sw July 1997
Film Cooling
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Lesson 7
film cooling cont.
On most modern gas turbine engines you will normally find a combination of all
three cooling methods.
But keep in mind that this kind of turbine cooling is only necessary for high
pressure turbines which operate in high gas temperatures.
The first stage nozzle guide vanes are cooled by convection, impingement and
by film cooling because of the very high gas temperatures from the combustion
chamber.
The first stage rotor blades are cooled by convection, impingement and by film
cooling because of the very high gas temperatures.
Impingement cooling is not always used by all engine manufacturers.
The second stage nozzle guide vanes are normally cooled by convection and
impingement. This is possible because the gas temperatures at this stage are
much lower than at the turbine inlet.
The second stage rotor blades are normally cooled by convection only,
because of the lower gas temperatures.
The combination of these cooling methods gives a good balance between
manufacturing costs, turbine efficiency and service life.
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Figure 78
HAM US sw July 1997
HPT Cooling
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Lesson 7
TURBINE CLEARANCE CONTROL
Modern gas turbine engines have active clearance control systems.
These systems keep the tip clearance as small as possible in all operating
conditions.
The tip clearance is the gap between the tip of a rotor blade and the casing of
the respective compressor or turbine.
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Figure 79
HAM US sw July 1997
Tip Clearance
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turbine clearance control cont.
Tip clearances change with the operational condition of the engine.
If during operation this tip clearance becomes too small, the rotor blades can
make contact with the turbine casing. This causes wear on the turbine
materials or it can completely damage the turbine.
A large tip clearance decreases the efficiency of a turbine stage because a
large amount of gas passes through the gap between the rotor blades and
turbine casing. This part of the gas flow does not drive the turbine. This means
additional fuel is necessary to keep the desired turbine rotor speed.
For example, at the high pressure turbine of the CFM 56--5 engine with a
clearance control system.
Tests have shown that if the tip clearance gets bigger by 0.25 mm or 0.01 inch
then the specific fuel consumption increases by 1%.
An increase of 1% in fuel consumption can result in approximately 30,000 kgs
of extra fuel per year for one engine.
Note that without clearance control system the increase in fuel consumption on
this engine becomes 4 times higher.
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Figure 80
HAM US sw July 1997
Effects of Tip Clearance Changes
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turbine clearance control cont.
You know that all materials expand if they become warmer.
The amount that a material expands depends mainly on the temperature
differences by which it is heated and it depends on the size of the material.
This is because the expansion is always a percentage of the original size.
The time taken for the material to expand depends mainly on the thickness of
the material.
Thin materials are heated up much faster. This means that thin materials
expand much faster than thick materials.
At engine start high gas temperatures act on the turbine materials.
The turbine casing expands faster than the turbine rotor because of three
reasons. It is thinner than the rotor. It is in contact with higher temperatures
and it is also bigger in diameter than the rotor.
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Figure 81
HAM US sw July 1997
Material Expansion
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turbine clearance control cont.
However, when rotor speeds get faster the centrifugal forces on the rotor
increase.
These centrifugal forces reduce the tip clearance because the rotor disk and
blades expand further.
Note that the expansion of a material by centrifugal force is much bigger than
expansion caused by heat. This means that the tip clearance is much bigger on
low engine speeds than high engine speeds.
The same kind of expansion also happens when the engine accelerates from
low speeds to high speeds.
If the engine is shut down the diameters of the turbine rotor and of the casing
decreases.
At engine deceleration or shut down the tip clearance changes as follows.
First the rotor shrinks faster than the turbine casing because of the decreasing
centrifugal forces.
Afterwards the turbine casing shrinks faster because of the thinner casing
materials.
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Figure 82
HAM US sw July 1997
Relation between Engine Speed and Tip Clearance
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turbine clearance control cont.
Modern gas turbine engines have so called active clearance control systems.
These systems keep the tip clearance as small as possible in all operating
conditions.
Cold fan air is normally used to cool the turbine casings. On other engines
compressor bleed air is used instead of fan air.
On some engines like the CFM56--5A the compressor rotor also has an active
clearance control system to improve its efficiency.
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FAN AIR
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COMPRESSOR
BLEED AIR
Figure 83
HAM US sw July 1997
Air for Active Clearance Control
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Lesson 8
EXHAUST
INTRODUCTION
In this segment you will look at the function of a gas turbine engine exhaust
system.
The exhaust system guides the exhaust gases from the rear of the turbine into
the atmosphere but the main task of the exhaust system depends on the type
of gas turbine engine.
On a jet engine the main task of the exhaust system is to accelerate the airflow
which comes from the turbine to efficiently make thrust.
In the turboprop engine the main task of the exhaust system is to safely guide
the exhaust gases overboard.
The exhaust system does not make thrust, because most of the gas energy
has been absorbed by the turbine for driving the propeller.
On the APU the exhaust system guides the exhaust gases overboard because
all the gas energy will be absorbed by the turbine.
The APU exhaust system also reduces the noise of the exhaust gases by use
of mufflers in the exhaust duct.
So in a jet engine, the exhaust system releases the gases to the atmosphere.
The exhaust gas flow leaves the engine in the necessary direction and with the
optimum velocity to make efficient thrust.
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EXHAUST
Figure 84
HAM US sw July 1997
Gas Turbine Engine Exhausts
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Lesson 8
ENGINE EXHAUST COMPONENTS
On some jet engines the exhaust system has a tube named the exhaust duct
or tail pipe.
This is a conical tube which is supported at its forward end by the turbine
exhaust case.
The exhaust nozzle at the aft end of the exhaust duct accelerates the exhaust
gases which leave the engine.
The exhaust cone guides the discharge flow and prevents excessive
turbulence of the gases.
The cone also prevents reverse flow of the exhaust gases into the hub of the
turbine rear stage.
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EXHAUST
Figure 85
HAM US sw July 1997
Exhaust System Components
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engine exhaust components cont.
On modern high--bypass turbofan engines the two exhaust streams are usually
exhausted separately.
The hot gas flow exhausts via the primary nozzle and the cold fan airflow
exhausts via the secondary nozzle.
On modern long range aircraft the high--bypass engines sometimes have a
combined exhaust nozzle. This system mixes hot and cold gas flow to reduce
the velocity of the exhaust gases.
The common exhaust nozzles advantage is that it reduces the very high
exhaust gas velocities of the hot gas flow by mixing of the two gas flows. This
gives a higher propulsion efficiency but the disadvantage of the common
exhaust nozzle is that it increases the weight of the engine.
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Lesson 8
Primary
Exhaust
Nozzle
For Training Purposes Only
Secondary
Nozzle
FUNDAMENTALS
Figure 86
HAM US sw July 1997
Exhaust Nozzles
Page 173
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
engine exhaust components cont.
Some engines have an additional special exhaust gas mixer.
This mixer improves the mixing of the hot and cold gas flow to get higher
propulsion efficiency.
But, as you would expect, these mixers also add weight to the engine.
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GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
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Page 174
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
For Training Purposes Only
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
Figure 87
HAM US sw July 1997
Exhaust Mixer
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Ameco
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Aviation College
FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
AIRFLOW IN THE EXHAUST NOZZLE
To achieve optimum thrust from a given mass the exhaust gases must expand
completely in the exhaust nozzle.
This guarantees a laminar vortex--free and axially orientated exhaust gas flow.
The exhaust airflow is caused by the pressure ratio between the turbine
discharge and the ambient pressure.
The pressure ratio changes with the engine speed, so, increasing the engine
speed increases the pressure ratio. This results in a higher airflow through the
exhaust nozzle. Unfortunately, there is a limitation on this airflow behavior.
Increasing the pressure ratio eventually leads to a point where it is impossible
to get more air through the smallest area of the nozzle.
Convergent exhaust nozzles reach maximum airflow at pressure ratios of
approximately 2:1.
With higher pressure ratios you do not get higher airflow because the nozzle
will become choked. This choked condition means that in the smallest area of
the nozzle the exhaust gas velocity equals the speed of sound.
For Training Purposes Only
Lufthansa Technical Training
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
HAM US sw July 1997
Page 176
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
For Training Purposes Only
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
Figure 88
HAM US sw July 1997
Airflow in Exhaust Nozzle
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Aviation College
FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
airflow in the exhaust nozzle cont.
If we further increase the pressure ratio, the airflow would discharge at the
exhaust nozzle with a static pressure which is greater than the ambient
pressure.
This causes the exhaust jet to rapidly burst in all directions. This burst of th
e
exhaust jet is very inefficient because the remaining exhaust gas pressure
cannot be converted to thrust.
Convergent divergent nozzles are used for pressure ratios of more than 2:1.
These nozzles are also named C--D nozzles. They permit a further increase in
the exhaust gas velocity and therefore result in a higher thrust. C--D nozzles
are only necessary for aircraft that fly faster than the speed of sound. They ar
e
very sensitive to RPM changes of the engine therefore they must be of a
variable design.
For Training Purposes Only
Lufthansa Technical Training
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
HAM US sw July 1997
Page 178
Lufthansa Technical Training
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
For Training Purposes Only
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
Figure 89
HAM US sw July 1997
Exhaust Nozzles for Supersonic Speed
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Aviation College
FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
airflow in the exhaust nozzle cont.
On civil aircraft high exhaust gas velocities which reached the speed of sound
were only found on turbojet engines or on old turbofan engines with low bypass
ratios.
High exhaust gas velocities must be avoided because they decrease the
propulsion efficiency, they cause great turbulences with the ambient airflow and
therefore make loud exhaust noise.
So modern turbofan engines have convergent exhaust nozzles with sufficiently
wide exhaust areas that will not choke.
For Training Purposes Only
Lufthansa Technical Training
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
HAM US sw July 1997
Page 180
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
For Training Purposes Only
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
EXHAUST
Figure 90
HAM US sw July 1997
Exhaust Nozzles for Subsonic Speed
Page 181
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FUNDAMENTALS
Lesson 8
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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Page 182
Ameco
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ATA
Beijing
Aviation College
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTELS . . . . . .
1
REASONS FOR STALL AND SURGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
METHODS TO AVOID STALL AND SURGE . . . . . . . . . . .
110
112
JET ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
INTRODUCTION TO AIRCRAFT ENGINES . . . . . . . . . . .
GAS TURBINE ENGINES FOR AIRCRAFT . . . . . . . . . . .
PRINCIPLES OF JET PROPULSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE THRUST FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WHAT IS THRUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THRUST . . . . . . . . . .
THRUST ON TYPICAL AIRCRAFT ENGINES . . . . . . . . .
2
2
6
8
10
18
22
30
OPERATION OF A GAS TURBINE ENGINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRESSURE AND FLOW IN DUCTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRFLOW STATION DESIGNATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
42
44
46
54
COMBUSTION CHAMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
PURPOSE AND REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMBUSTION CHAMBER COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . .
COMBUSTION PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMBUSTION CHAMBER TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE CAN-TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER . . . . . . . . . .
CAN-ANNULAR TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER . . . . .
ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
METHODS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
114
114
116
118
120
122
124
126
128
OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE EFFICIENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRESSURE RATIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THRUST SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE RATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THRUST RATINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FLAT RATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
THRUST MEASURING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THRUST VERSUS HORSEPOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
58
60
62
66
68
70
72
80
TURBINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TURBINE TYPES AND COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADIAL FLOW TURBINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AXIAL FLOW TURBINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE OPERATION OF A TURBINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TURBINE OPERATING ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TURBINE COOLING METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONVECTION COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IMPINGEMENT COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FILM COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
TURBINE CLEARANCE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
132
132
134
136
138
144
148
150
152
154
158
AIR INTAKES & COMPRESSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
ENGINE AIR INTAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPRESSOR COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CENTRIFUGAL FLOW COMPRESSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPARISON OF COMPRESSOR TYPES . . . . . . . . . .
82
82
88
92
98
100
EXHAUST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE EXHAUST COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRFLOW IN THE EXHAUST NOZZLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
168
168
170
176
OPERATION OF AXIAL COMPRESSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NORMAL FLOW IN AXIAL COMPRESSORS . . . . . . . . .
COMPRESSOR STALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPRESSOR SURGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
102
102
106
108
Page i
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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
Figure 27
Figure 28
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 35
Main Tasks of Jet Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advantages/Disadvantages of Piston Type Engines . . . .
Types of Gas Turbine Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet Propulsion Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Force Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Air Acceleration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The first Gas Turbine Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Thrust Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Thrust Test Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Deflector Plate in Outlet Airflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Effects on Thrust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation Thrust vs. Air Pressure and Air Temperature .
Relation Thrust vs. Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation Thrust vs. Aircraft Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust of a Turbojet Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust of a Turboprop Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust of a Turbofan Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bypass Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Exhaust Nozzles on Turbofan Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propfan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Thermodynamic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure and Flow in Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Components of a Gas Turbine Engine . . . . . . . . . .
Turbines on a Gas Turbine Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working Cycle on a Turbojet and Piston Engine . . . . . .
Airflow and Working Cycle of a Turbojet Engine . . . . . .
Airflow Station Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Letters on Station Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy Flow on a Turbojet Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TSFC of a Turbojet vs. a Turbofan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reasons for Engine Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Flat Rated Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
Figure 36
Figure 37
Figure 38
Figure 39
Figure 40
Figure 41
Figure 42
Figure 43
Figure 44
Figure 45
Figure 46
Figure 47
Figure 48
Figure 49
Figure 50
Figure 51
Figure 52
Figure 53
Figure 54
Figure 55
Figure 56
Figure 57
Figure 58
Figure 59
Figure 60
Figure 61
Figure 62
Figure 63
Figure 64
Figure 65
Figure 66
Figure 67
Figure 68
Figure 69
Figure 70
Engines on a Test Bench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust Measuring Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust Measuring by EPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust Measuring by N 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thrust versus Horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Air Intakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Airflow Changes at the Engine Air Intake . . . . . . . . . . . .
Danger Zone at Engine Air Intake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial Compressor Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compressor Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal Flow Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Stage Centrifugal Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Double Face Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial Compressor Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of Compressor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Airflow Changes at Compressor Toror Blades . . . . . . . .
Airflow Changes at Compressor Stator Vanes . . . . . . . .
Compressor Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Compressor Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reasons for Stall and Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods to avoid Stall and Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combustion Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combustion Chamber Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combustion Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combustion Chamber Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Can Type Combustion Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Can- Annular Type Combustion Chamber . . . . . . . . . . .
Annular Combustion Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods to reduce Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual Dome Combustion Chamber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbine Types and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radial Flow Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial Flow Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Turbine Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Impulse Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
115
117
119
121
123
125
127
129
131
133
135
137
139
141
Page: clxxxiv
Ameco
Beijing
Aviation College
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 71
Figure 72
Figure 73
Figure 74
Figure 75
Figure 76
Figure 77
Figure 78
Figure 79
Figure 80
Figure 81
Figure 82
Figure 83
Figure 84
Figure 85
Figure 86
Figure 87
Figure 88
Figure 89
Figure 90
Reaction Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Turbine Operating Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Turbine Cooling Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convection Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impingement Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
HPT Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
Tip Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
Effects of Tip Clearance Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation between Engine Speed and Tip Clearance . . .
Air for Active Clearance Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas Turbine Engine Exhausts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Exhaust Mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Airflow in Exhaust Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust Nozzles for Supersonic Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exhaust Nozzles for Subsonic Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
143
145
147
149
151
153
155
157
159
161
163
165
167
169
171
173
175
177
179
181
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