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Functions with several variables

z = f(x, y) = x2 + xy

w = f(x, y, z) = x + 2y 3z

(f g) (x,y,z) = f(x,y,z) g(x,y,z)

(fg)(x,y,z) = f(x,y,z)g(x,y,z)

(f/g)(x,y,z) = f(x,y,z)/g(x,y,z) g(x,y,z) 0

(g f)(x,y,z) = g(f(x,y,z))

Level Curves

Scalar fields

Contour Lines

Topographical Maps

Level Surfaces

Pages 887 891

Limits

lim f ( x , y ) =L
( x, y ) (x 0 , y0 )

Find the following limits.

5 x2 y
lim 2 2
=2
( x, y ) (1,2) x +y
5 x2 y
lim =0
( x, y ) (0,0) x 2+ y 2

See graph

2 2 2
lim
( x, y ) (0,0) ( x y
2
x +y
2 )
=does not exist

Continuity

See figures 13.24; 13.25; 13.26; 13.27

Partial Derivatives

First partial derivatives for z = f(x,y), the partial derivative with respect to x is:

z
f ( x , y )=f ( x , y )=z x =
x x x

the partial derivative with respect to y is:

z
f ( x , y )=f ( x , y )=z y =
y y y

Find fx of f(x,y) = 3x x2y2 + 2x3y Find fy of f(x,y) = 3x x2y2 +


2x3y

fx(x,y) = 3 2xy2 + 6x2y fy(x,y) = -2x2y + 2x3

The first partial derivatives evaluated at the point (a,b) is:


z z
=f (a ,b) or
=f (a ,b)
x (a ,b ) x y (a , b) y

f ( x , y ) =x e x y
Evaluate fx and fy at the point (1,ln2) of .

fx(1,ln2) = 4ln2 + 2

fy(1,ln2) = 2

Find the slopes in the x-direction and the y-direction of the surface f(x,y) = -x 2/2 y2
+ 25/8 at the point (1/2, 1,2).

Higher-order partial derivatives

Let z = f(x,y) then the second partial derivatives are:

f 2 f
( )
= 2 =f xx
x x x

2
f f
( )
= 2 =f yy
y y y

f 2 f
( )= =f
y x y x xy

f 2 f
( )
=
x y x y
=f yx
Find the second partial derivatives of f(x,y) = 3xy 2 2y + 5x2y2.

fxx(x,y) = 10y2 fyy(x,y) = 6x + 10x2

fxy(x,y) = 6y + 20xy fyx(x,y) = 6y + 20xy

Note:

If f is a function of x and y such that f xy and fyx are continuous on an open disk R,
then, for every (x,y) in R, fxy(x,y) = fyx(x,y).

Find fzz(x,y,z) and fzxz(x,y,z) for f(x,y,z) = yex + xlnz.

fzz(x,y,z) = -x/z2 and fzxz(x,y) = -1/z2.

Definition of Total Differential

If z = f(x,y) and x and y are increments of x and y, then the differentials of the
independent variables x and y are:

dx = x and dy = y

and the total differential of the independent variable z is


z z
dz= dx + dy=f x ( x , y ) dx+ f y ( x , y ) dy
x y

Find the total differential for each function.

z = 2x siny 3x2y2

dz = (2sin y 6xy2)dx + (2xcos y 6x2y)dy


w = x 2 + y 2 + z2

dw = 2xdx + 2ydy + 2zdz

Definition of Differentiability

A function f is given by z = f(x,y) is differentiable at (x 0,y0) if z can be written in the


form

z = fx(x0,y0)x + fy(x0,y0)y + 1x + 2y where both 1 and 2 0 as (x,y)


(0,0). The function f is differentiable in a region R if it is differentiable at each point
in R.

Sufficient Conditions for Differentiability

If f is a function of x and y, where f x and fy are continuous in an open region R, then f


is differentiable on R.

Use the differential dz to approximate the change in z= 4x 2 y 2 as (x,y) moves


from the point (1,1) to the point (1.01, 0.97). Compare this approximation with the
exact change in z.

1 1
z ( .01 ) (.03 ) .0141
2 2

z= 4(1.01)2(.97)2 411 .0137

The possible error involved in measuring each dimension of a rectangular box is


0.1 mm. The dimensions of the box are x = 50 cm, y = 20 cm, and z = 15 cm. Use
dV to estimate the propagated error and the relative error in the calculated volume
of the box.

V = xyz

V V V
dV = dx+ dy + dz
x y z

dV= yz dx + xz dy + xy dz

The propagated error

dV = (20)(15)(0.01) + (50)(15)(0.01) + (50)(20)(0.01)

20.5 cm3

The relative error

20.5/15,000 .14%

Differentiability Implies Continuity

If a function of x and y is differentiable at (x 0,y0), then it is continuous at (x0,y0).

Example #5

Chain Rule

Let w = x2y y2, where x = sin t and y = et. Find dw/dt when t = 0.

dw/dt = -2

Example 2, 3, 4, 5

Implicit Differentiation
If the equation F(x,y) = 0 defines y implicitly as a differentiable function of x, then
dy F x (x , y )
=
dx F y ( x , y) , Fy 0.

If the equation F(x,y,z) = 0 defines z implicitly as a differentiable function of x and y,


z F x ( x , y , z) z F y (x , y , z)
then = and =
x F z ( x , y , z) y F z (x , y , z ) , FZ(x,y,z) 0.

Examples 6 & 7

Directional Derivatives

Let f be a function of two variables x and y and let u = cos i + sin j be a unit
vector. Then the directional derivative of f in the direction of u, denoted by
f ( x+tcos , y +tsin ) f (x , y)
D u f ( x , y )=lim provided the limit exists.
t 0 t

If f is a differentiable function of x and y , then the directional derivative of f in the


direction of the unit vector u = = cos i + sin j is
D u f ( x , y )=f x ( x , y ) cos + f y ( x , y ) sin .

Find the directional derivative of f(x,y) = 4 x 2 y2 at (1,2) in the direction of u =


cos /3 i + sin /3 j.

Duf(x,y) = -2x cos + y sin = -1 - 3/2

Find the directional derivative of f(x,y) = x2 sin 2y at (1,/2) in the direction of v = 3i


4j.

8/5
The gradient of a function

Let z = f(x,y) be a function of x and y such that f x and fy exist, Then the gradient of f,

denoted by f (x , y ) , is the vector f ( x , y )=f x ( x , y ) i+ f y ( x , y ) j . Note: The

vector is in the plane not in space.

Find the gradient of f(x,y) = ylnx + xy 2 at the point (1,2).

f ( x , y )= ( yx + y ) i+( lnx+2 xy ) j
2

f ( 1,2 )=6 i+ 4 j

If f is a differential function of x and y, then the directional derivative of f in the

direction of the unit vector u is Du f ( x , y )= f ( x , y) u

Find the directional derivative of f(x,y) = 3x2 2y2 at (- ,0) in the direction from P(-
,0) to Q(0,1).

3
PQ= i+ j
4


PQ 3 4
u= = i+ j
5 5
PQ

f ( x , y )=6 xi4 yj
f ( 34 , 0)= 92 i
Du f ( 34 , 0)= f ( 34 ,0) u= 27
10

Properties of the gradient

Let f be differentiable at the point (x,y).

1. If f ( x , y )=0, then Du f (x , y ) for all u.

2. The direction of maximum increase of f is given by f ( x , y ). The maximum

value of D u f ( x , y ) is f ( x , y ).

3. The direction of minimum increase of f is given by f ( x , y ) . The

minimum value of D u f ( x , y ) is f ( x , y ) .

The temperature in degrees Celsius on the surface of a metal plate is T(x,y) = 20


4x2 y2 where x and y are measured in centimeters. In what direction from (2,-3)
does the temperature increase most rapidly? What is the rate of increase?

T ( 2,3 )=16 i+6 j

T (2,3)= 292 degrees per centimeter

A heat-seeking particle is located at the point (2,-3) on a metal plate whose


temperature at (x,y) is

T(x,y) = 20 4x2 y2. Find the path of the particle as it continuously moves in the
direction of maximum temperature increase.

Let the path be r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j


then r(t) = x(t) i + y(t)j T ( x , y )=8 xi2 yj

dx dy
and
8 x=k 2 y=k
dt dt

dx dy
or
=
8 x 2 y

1 1 1 1
or
x dx= y dy x-1 dx = 4y-1 dy
8 2

x1 dx = 4 y 1 dy

ln |x|=4 ln| y|+ C

e ln|x|=e ln|y| +C

4
|x|=k| y|

x = ky4

2 = k(-3)4

2/81 = k so x = 2/81y4

Gradient is normal to level curves

If f is differentiable at (x0,y0) and


f ( x 0 , y 0 ) 0,then f ( x 0 , y 0 ) is normal to the level
curve through (x0,y0).

Sketch the level curve corresponding to c = 0 for the function f(x,y) = y sin x and
find a normal vector at several points on the curve.

0 = y sin x or y = sin x
so f ( x , y )=cosx i+ j

f ( , 0 )=i+ j

f ( 23 , 23 )= 12 i+ j
f ( 2 ,1)= j .

see the bottom of page 938

Functions of three variables

Table on pg 939

Tangent Plane and Normal Lines

Let F be differentiable at the point P(x 0, y0, z0) on the surface S given by F(x,y,z) = 0

such that F ( x 0 , y 0 , z0 )0 .

1. The plane through P that is normal to F (x 0 , y 0 , z0 ) is called the tangent


plane to S at P.
2. The line through P having the direction of F ( x 0 , y 0 , z0 ) is called the
normal line to S at P.

Equation of the Tangent plane

If F is differentiable at (x 0 , y 0 , z0 ) , then an equation of the tangent plane to the


surface given by
F(x,y,z) = 0 at ( x 0 , y 0 , z0 ) is:

F x ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) ( xx 0 ) + F y ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )( y y 0 ) + F z ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )( z z 0) =0

Find the tangent plane to the hyperboloid z 2 2x2 2y2 = 12 at the point (1,-1,4).

x y 2z + 6 = 0

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the paraboloid z = 1 1/10(x 2 + 4y2) at
the point (1,1, ).

-1/5x 4/5y z + 3/2 = 0

Find the set of symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface given by xyz
= 12 at the point

(2,-2, -3).

x2 y +2 z+ 3
= =
6 6 4

Describe the tangent line to the curve of intersection of the surfaces x 2 + 2y2 + 2z2
= 20 and x2 + y2 + z = 4 at the point (0,1,3).

-20i

The angle of inclination of a plane


|n k| |n k|
cos= =
nk n

Find the angle of inclination of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid given by
x2 y 2 z2
+ + =1 at the point (2,2,1).
12 12 3

F (2,2,1) is normal to the tangent plane k

1 1 2

, , 0,0,1
3 3 3

35.3

Extrema of functions of two variables

Maximums and Minimums

Extreme Value Theorem

Let f be a continuous function of two variables x and y defined on a closed bounded


region R in the xy-plane.

1. There is at least one point in R where f takes on a minimum value.


2. There is at least one point in R where f takes on a maximum value.

Definition of Relative Extrema

Let f be a function defined on a region R containing (x 0,y0).

1. The function has a relative minimum at (x0,y0) if f(x,y) f(x0,y0) for all (x,y) in
an open disk containing (x0,y0).
2. The function has a relative minimum at (x0,y0) if f(x,y) f(x0,y0) for all (x,y) in
an open disk containing (x0,y0).

Definition of Critical Point

Let f be defined on an open region R containing (x 0,y0). The point (x0,y0) is a critical
point of f if one of the following is true.

1. fx(x0,y0) = 0 and fy(x0,y0) = 0


2. fx(x0,y0) and fy(x0,y0) does not exist.

Determine the relative extrema of f(x,y) = 2x 2 + y2 + 8x 6y + 20.

fx(x,y) = 4x + 8 fy(x,y) = 2y 6

(-2,3)

(-2,3) is a relative minimum.

Determine the relative extrema of f(x,y) = 1 (x2 + y2)1/3.

F has a relative maximum at (0,0).

The Second Partial Test

Let f have continuous second partial derivatives on an open region containing a


point (a,b) for which fx(a,b) = 0 and fy(a,b) = 0.

To test for relative extrema of f, consider the quantity d = f xx(a,b)fyy(a,b) [fxy(a,b)]2.

1. If d > 0 and fxx(a,b) > 0, then f has a relative minimum at (a,b).


2. If d > 0 and fxx(a,b) < 0, then f has a relative maximum at (a,b).
3. If d < 0, then (a,b,f(a,b)) is a saddle point.
4. If d = 0, then the test is inconclusive.

Find the relative extrema of f(x,y) = -x3 + 4xy 2y2 + 1.

Critical points (0,0) and (4/3, 4/3)

(0,0,1) is a saddle point and (4/3,4/3,59/27) is a relative maximum.

Find the relative extrema of f(x,y) = x2y2.

d = 0, the second partial test fails. Look at figure 13.70. The x and y axiss are
absolute minimum.

Find the absolute extrema of f(x,y) = sin xy on the closed region 0 x and 0
y 1.

Pg 957

Optimization

A rectangular box is resting on the xy-plane with one vertex at the origin. The
opposite vertex lies in the plane 6x + 4y + 3z = 24. Find the maximum volume of
the box.
64/9 cubic units

An electronics manufacturer determines that the profit P (in dollars) obtained by


producing x units of a DVD player and y units of a DVD recorder is approximated by
P(x,y) = 8x + 10y .001(x2 + xy + y2) 10,000. Find the production level that
produces a maximum profit. What is the maximum profit?

(2000, 4000); $18,000

The least squares regression line for {(x1,y1), (x2,y2), (x3,y3), .(xn,yn)} is given by
f(x) = ax + b, where
n n n
n x i y i x i y i n n
a= i=1
n
i=1
n
i=1
2 and b=
1
n ( y ia x i ) .
n x
i=1
2
i ( )
xi
i=1
i=1 i=1

Lagrange Therorem

Let f and g have continuous first partial derivatives such that f has an extremum at

a point (x0,y0) on the smooth constraint curve g(x,y) = c. If


g ( x 0 , y 0 ) 0 , then

there is a real number such that


f ( x 0 , y 0 ) = g ( x 0 , y 0 ) .

Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Let f and g satisfy the hypothesis of Lagranges Theorem, and let f have a minimum
or maximum subject to the constraint g(x,y) = c. To find the minimum or maximum
of f, use the following:
1. Simultaneously solve the equations
f ( x 0 , y 0 ) = g ( x 0 , y 0 ) and g(x,y) = c
by solving the following system of equations.

f x ( x , y )= g x (x , y)

f y ( x , y ) = g y (x , y )

g ( x , y )=c

2. Evaluate f at each solution point obtained in the first step. The largest value
yields the maximum of f subject to the constraint g(x,y) = c, and the smallest
value yields the minimum of f subject to the constraint g(x,y) = c.

Find the rectangle with the maximum area possible inscribed in the ellipse
2 2
x y
+ =1 .
9 16

So f(x,y) = 4xy and f ( x , y )= 4 y , 4 x

g ( x , y)= 2x y
,
9 8 and
g ( x , y )= 2 x y
9 8
,

x2 y2
The constraint is + =1 .
9 16

y2 = 8

the maximum value occurs at the point (32/2,22) or


f(32/2,22) = 24

The production function for a software company is f(x,y) = 100x 4/3y1/4 where x
represents the units of labor ($150/unit) and y represents the units of capital
($250/unit). The total cost of labor and capital is limited to $50,000. Find the
maximum production level.

f ( x , y )= 75 x 1
4
1 3
y 4 , 25 x 4 y
3
4

g(x,y) = 150x + 250y = 50,000 will be the constraint.

g ( x , y ) = 150 , 250

1 1 3 3
4 4 4 4
75 x y =150 and 25 x y =250

1 1 1 1
4 3 3
x y4 4 4 x 4
y4
= and substitute 25 x y =250
2 2

25x = 125y or x = 5y

Substitute into the constraint 150(5y) + 250y = 50,000

y = 50 and x = 250

so f(250,50) = 16,719

and = .334
Find the minimum value of f(x,y,z) = 2x2 + y2 + 3z2 with a constraint of 2x 3y 4z
= 49.

f ( x , y , z )= 4 x , 2 y , 6 z and g(x,y,z) = 2x 3y 4z = 49

g ( x , y , z )= 2 ,3 ,4 .

f(3,-9,-4) = 147

Find the extreme values of f(x,y) = x2 + 2y2 2x + 3 with the constraint x2 + y2


10.

F has a maximum of 24 at (-1,3) and (-1,-3) and a minimum of 2 at (1,0).

Lagrange Multipliers with two constraints

f = g+ h

Let T(x,y,z) = 20 + 2x + 2y + z2 represent the temperature at each point on the


sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 11.

Find the extreme temperatures on the curve formed by the intersection of the plane
x + y + z = 3 and the sphere.

T ( x , y , z )= 2,2.2 z with constraints g(x,y,z) = x2 + y2 + z2 = 11 and h(x,y,z) =


x + y + z = 3.

g ( x , y , z )= 2 x ,2 y , 2 z and h ( x , y , z )= , ,
2 = 2x +

2 = 2y +

2z = 2z +

or (x y) = 0

2z(1 ) = 0

(3, -1, 1) and (-1,3,1) are critical points and T(3,-1,1) = T(-1,3,1) = 25

T ( 323 3 , 323 3 , 3+ 43 3 )=T ( 3+23 3 , 3+ 23 3 , 343 3 )= 913


So T = 25 is the maximum temperature and T = 91/3 is the maximum temperature
on the curve.

Iterated Integrals

b g2(x) d h2( y)

f ( x , y ) dy dx f ( x , y ) dx dy
a g1(x) c h1( y)

( 2 x 2 y 2 +2 y ) dy
1

3x2 2x 1

2 x

( 2 x 2 y 2 +2 y ) dy dx
1 1
3

Area of a Region in the Plane

1. If R is defined by a x b and g1(x) y g2(x), where g1 and g2 are


continuous on [a,b], then the area of R is given by

b g2( x)

A= f ( x , y ) dy dx
a g1( x)

2. If R is defined by c y d and h1(x) x h2(x), where h1 and h2 are


continuous on [c,d], then the area of R is given by

d h2 ( y)

A= f ( x , y ) dx dy
c h1 ( y)

See figure 14.4


b d

dy dx=(dc)(ba)
a c

See figure 14.5


5 / 4 sin x

dy dx=2 2
/ 4 cos x

See figure 14.6


2 4 4 x
dx dy dy dx= 16
3
0 y2 0 0

Find the area of the region R that lies below the parabola y = 4x x 2 above the x-
axis, and above the line y = -3x + 6.

2 2
2 4 xx 4 4 x x
15
dy dx + dy dx=
2
1 3 x +6 2 0

Definition of Double Integral

I f is defined on a closed, bounded region R in the xy-plane, then the double integral
n

of f over R is given by f ( x , y ) dA= lim f ( xi , y i ) A i


0 i=1 provided the limit exists.
R

If the limit exists, then f is integrable over R.

Volume of a Solid Region

If f is integrable over the plane region R and f(x,y) 0 for all (x,y) in R, then the
volume of the solid region that lies above R and below the graph of f is defined as

V = f ( x , y ) dA .
R

Properties of Double Integrals


Let f and g be continuous over a closed, bounded plane region R, and let c be a
constant.

1. cf ( x , y ) dA=c f ( x , y ) dA
R R

2. [ f ( x , y ) g ( x , y ) ]dA= f ( x , y ) dA g ( x , y ) dA
R R R

3. f ( x , y ) dA 0, if f ( x , y ) 0
R

4. f ( x , y ) dA g ( x , y ) dA , if f ( x , y ) g( x , y )
R R

5. f ( x , y ) dA= f ( x , y ) dA+ f ( x , y ) dA , where R is the union of two


R R1 R2

nonoverlapping subregions R1 and R2.

Fubinis Theorem

Let f be continuous on a plane region R.

1. If R is defined by a x b and g1(x) y g2(x), where g1 and g2 are


continuous on [a,b], then

b g2(x)

f ( x , y ) dA= f ( x , y ) dy dx
R a g1(x)

2. If R is defined by c y d and h1(x) x h2(x), where h1 and h2 are


continuous on [c,d], then

d h2 ( y)

f ( x , y ) dA= f ( x , y ) dx dy
R c h1 ( y)

Evaluate ( 1 12 x 2 12 y 2) dA where R is the region given by 0 x 1, 0 y


R

1.

2/3

Find the volume of the solid region bounded by the paraboloid z = 4 x 2 2y2 and
the xy-plane.


( 4x 2 )
2
y
( 4x 2 )
2 and -2 x 2

2 ( 4 x 2)
2

V = ( 4x 22 y 2 ) dy dx

2 ( 4x 2)

2

42

Find the volume of the solid region R bounded by the surface f ( x , y ) =ex and the
planes z = 0, y = 0, and x = 1.

0 y x and 0 x 1
1 x

ex dy dx= e1
2

0 0 2e

Find the volume of the region R bounded above by the paraboloid z = 1 x 2 y2 and
below by the plane z = 1 y.

y y 2 y y y 2 and 0 x 1

1 y y2 1 y y 2

V = ( 1x y ) dx dy
2 2
( 1 y ) dx dy=
0 y y 2 0 y y 2
32

Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

R= {( r , ) :r 1 r r 2 , 1 2 }

Change of Variables to Polar Form

Let R be a plane region consisting of all points (x,y) = (r cos , r sin ) satisfying the
conditions
0 g1() r g2(), , 0 ( ) 2. If g 1 and g2 are continuous on [,
g2()

] and f is continuous on R, then f ( x , y ) dA= f ( rcos ,rsin ) r dr d .


R g1()

Let R be the annular region lying between the two circles x 2 + y2 = 1 and x2 + y2 =

5. Evaluate the integral ( x 2 + y ) dA .


R

2 5

( r 2 cos2 +rsin ) r dr d=6


0 1

Use polar coordinates to find the volume of the solid region bounded above by the

hemisphere z= 16x 2 y2 and below by the circular region R given by x 2 + y2


4.

2 2

16r 2 r dr d= 163 (83 3)


0 0

Use a double integral to find the area enclosed by the graph r = 3cos 3.
/ 6 3cos 3
3
r dr d=
4
/6 0


Find the area of the region bounded above by the spiral
r= and below by the
3

polar axis, between

r = 1 and r = 2.

2 /(3 r )

r d dr =
3
1 0

Center of Mass and Moments of Inertia

The center of mass is defined as the point at which the fulcrum could be to attain
equilibrium. (can be one or more dimensions)

The moment m about a point P is Moment = mx, where m is the mass concentrated
at a point and x id the distance between the point mass and another point (length
of the moment arm).

Inertia is a property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or


uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force.

A thin flat plate of material of constant density is called a planar lamina (i.e. a sheet
of paper). For planar laminas, the density is considered to be a measure of mass per
unit of area, (Rho). The mass of an irregularly shaped planar lamina of uniform
density is equal to the density times the area (m = A).

Moments and Center of Mass of a Planar Lamina


Let f and g be continuous functions such that f(x) g(x) on [a,b], and consider the
planar lamina of uniform density bounded by the graphs of y = f(x), and y = g(x),
and a x b.
b

1. The moments about the x- and y-axes are M x =


a
[ f ( x ) + g(x)
2 ][ f ( x )g( x )] dx

and M y = x [ f ( x )g ( x)] dx .
a

My M
2. The center of mass ( x , y ) is given by x = y = x , where
m m

b
m= [ f ( x )g( x ) ] dx is the mass of the limina.
a

Definition of Mass of a Planar Lamina of Variable Density

If is a continuous density function on the lamina corresponding to a plane region



m= ( x , y ) dA
R, then the mass m of the lamina is given by R

Moments and Center of Mass of a Variable Density Planar Lamina

Let be a continuous density function on the planar lamina R. The moments of


mass with respect to the x- and y-axes are

M x = y ( x , y ) dAM y = x ( x , y ) dA .
R R
If m is the mass of the lamina, then the

center of mass is ( x , y )= ( Mm , Mm ) .
y x
If R represents a simple plane region rather

than a lamina, the point ( x , y ) is called the centroid of the region.


Surface Area

Definition of Surface Area

If f and its first partial derivatives are continuous on the closed region R in the xy-
plane, then the area of the surface S given by z = f(x,y) over R is given by

2 2
Surface Area= 1+ [ f x ( x , y) ] + [ f y ( x , y )] dA .
R

Find the surface area of the portion of the plane z = 2 x y that lies above the
circle x2 + y2 1 in the first octant.

3
4

Find the area of the portion of the surface f(x,y) = 1 x 2 + y that lies above the
triangular region with vertices (1,0,0), (0,-1,0) and (0,1,0).

1 1x

2+4 x 2 dy dx 1.618
0 x1

Find the surface area of the paraboloid z = 1 + x 2 + y2 that lies above the unit circle.
2 1
( 5 51 )
1+ 4 r 2 r dr d= 6
0 0

Find the surface area S of the portion of the hemisphere f ( x , y ) =25x 2 y 2 that
lies above the region R bounded by the circle x 2 + y2 9.
2 3
5
r dr d=10
0 0 25r 2

Triple Integrals

Definition of Triple Integrals

If f is continuous over a bounded solid region Q, then the triple integral of f over Q is
defined as
n
f ( x , y , z ) dV = lim f ( xi , yi , zi ) V i
0 i=1

provided the limit exists. The volume of the solid region Q is given by
Volume of Q=dV .

Properties of Triple Integrals


1. cf ( x , y , z ) dV =c f ( x , y , z ) dV
Q Q

f ( x , y , z ) dV




2.

[f ( x , y , z ) g ( x , y , z ) ]dV =
Q
f ( x , y , z ) dV



f ( x , y , z )d V



, where Q is the union of two nonoverlapping subregions Q 1 and


3.

Q2.

Evaluation by Iterated Integrals

Let f be continuous on a solid region Q defined by a x b, h 1(x) y h2(x),


g1(x,y) z g2(x,y) where h1, h2, g1 and g2 are continuous functions. Then,

b h2( x) g2 (x , y)

f ( x , y , z ) dV = f ( x , y , z ) dz dy dx .
Q a h1( x) g1 (x , y)

2 x x+ y

Evaluate the triple iterated integral e x ( y+ 2 z ) dz dy dx .


0 0 0

19(e2/3 +1)

Find the volume of the ellipsoid given by 4x 2 + 4y2 + z2 = 16.

2 4 x2 2 4 x 2 y2
64
8 dz dy dx=
0 0 0
3

2

2 3
Evaluate sin ( y 2) dz dy dx .
0 x 1

Example 4

Finding Volume by Cylindrical Coordinates

x = r cos

y = r sin

z=z

r2 = x 2 + y 2

2 g2 () h2(rcos , rsin )

f ( x , y , z ) dV = f ( rcos ,rsin , z ) r dz dr d
Q 1 g1 () h1(rcos , rsin )

Find the volume of the solid region Q cut from the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 by the
cylinder r = 2sin.

Find the volume V = dV


Q

2 sin 4r 2
16
r dz dr d=
9
(3 4)
0 0 4r
2
Find the volume in Spherical Coordinates

x = sin cos

y = sin sin

z = cos

2 = x2 + y2 + z 2

2 2 2

f ( x , y , z ) dV = f ( sin cos , sin sin , cos ) 2 sin d d d


Q 1 1 1

Find the volume of the solid region Q bounded below by the upper nappe of the
cone z2 = x2 + y2 and above by the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 9.

Find the volume V = dV


Q


2 4 3

2 sin d d d=9 (2 2)
0 0 0

Jacobians

Definition of the Jacobian

If x = g(u,v) and y = h(u,v), then the Jacobian of x and y with respect to u and v,
denoted by
| |
x x
(x , y ) u v =x y y x
=
(u , v ) y y u v u v .
u v

Find the Jacobian for the change of variables defined by x = rcos and y = rsin .

(x , y ) cos rsin
|
=
( r ,) sin rcos |
=r

Let R be the region bounded by the lines x 2y = 0, x 2y = -4, x + y = 4 and x + y


= 1. Find the transformation T from the region S to R such that S is a rectangular
region.

1 1
Let u = x + y and v = x 2y, then
x= ( 2 u+v ) y= (uv) .
3 3

So the boundaries are u = 1, u = 4, v = 0 and v = -4.

And T(1, 0) = (2/3, 1/3)

T(4, 0) = (8/3, 4/3)

T(4, -4) = (4/3, 8/3)

T(1, -4) = (-2/3, 5/3)

Change of variables for double integrals

Let R and S be regions in the xy-planes that are related by the equations x = g(u,v)
and y = h(u,v) such that each point in R is the image of a unique point in S. If f is
(x , y )
continuous on R, g and h have continuous partial derivates on S, and (u , v ) is

| |

(x , y )
nonzero on S, then f ( x , y ) dx dy= f (g ( u , v ) , h ( u , v )) (u , v )
du dv .
R S

Let R be the region bounded by the lines x 2y = 0, x 2y = -4, x + y = 4 and x + y


= 1. Evaluate the double integral 3 xy dA .


R

1 1
Let u = x + y and v = x 2y, then
x= ( 2 u+v ) y= (uv) .
3 3

The partial derivatives are:

| |
2 1
x 2 x 1 y 1 , y 1 ( x , y ) 3 3 = 1
= , = , = = and the Jacobian is =
u 3 v 3 u 3 v 3 (u , v ) 1 1 3 .
3 3

]| |

3 xy dA= 3
R S
[ 1
3
1
( 2u+ v ) (uv )
3
( x , y )
(u , v )
dv du

4 0

19 ( 2 u2uvv 2 ) dv du= 164


9
1 4

Let R be the region bounded by the square with vertices (0,1), (1,2),(2,1), and (1,0).

Evaluate the integral ( x + y )2 sin 2 ( x y ) dA .


R
1 1
Let u = x + y and v = x y, then
x= ( u+v ) y= (uv) .
2 2

The partial derivatives are:

| |
1 1
x 1 x 1 y 1 , y 1 (x , y ) 2 2 =1
= , = , = = and the Jacobian is =
u 2 v 2 u 2 v 2 (u , v ) 1 1 2 .
2 2

1 3

u2 sin 2 v ( 12 ) dv du= 13
6
(2sin 2)
1 1