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The harmful effects from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can be classified as
acute or chronic. The acute effects of UV-A and UV-B exposure are both short-lived and
reversible. These effects include mainly sunburn (or erythema) and tanning (or pigment
darkening). The chronic effects of UV exposure can be much more serious, even life
(5) threatening, and include premature aging of the skin, suppression of the immune system,
damage to the eyes, and skin cancer.
Sunburn (or erythema) is redness of the skin, which is due to increased blood flow in
the skin caused by dilatation of the superficial blood vessels in the dermis as a result of
exposure to UV radiation. High UV doses may also results in edema, pain, blistering, and
peeling of the skin a few days following exposure. UV-B radiation is believed to be mainly
(10) responsible for sunburn as it is more erythemogenic by a factor of 1,000, however since
there is more UV-A radiation reaching the earths surface, UV-A contributes 15-20% to the
sunburn reaction in the summer months. Risk factors for sunburn include fair skin, red or
blond hair, blue eyes, and freckles. For people with fair skin, it takes only 15-30 minutes in
midday sun to induce erythema. In terms of areas of the body that are more susceptible to
(15) sunburn, the face, neck, and trunk are two to four times more sensitive than the limbs. In
addition, children and the elderly are believed to be more sensitive to UV radiation and may
burn more easily. A sunburn reaches its maximum redness eight to 12 hours after exposure
and fades within one to two days.
One of the chronic effects resulting from repeated exposure to UV radiation is
(20) premature aging of the skin, which encompasses a number of clinical signs that reflect
structural changes in the dermis. These clinical signs include dryness, wrinkles, accentuated
skin furrows, sagging, loss of elasticity, and mottled pigmentation, and are the result of
degenerative changes in elastin and collagen . The degenerative changes accumulate over
time and are largely irreversible. It is believed that as much as 80% of premature aging of
(25) the skin may occur within the first 20 years of life. UV-A radiation has been found to be an
important contributor to premature aging of the skin. Whereas UV-B is 1,000 to 10,000 times
more efficient than UV-A in terms of induction of sunburn and nonmelanoma skin cancer,
respectively, with premature aging of the skin UV-B radiation is only 20-50 times more
efficient than UV-A.

1. The word dermis in line 8 is closest in meaning to
A) skin
B) body
C) face
D) bone
2.The word chronic in line 20 is closest in meaning to
A) Persistent
B) acute
C) short-term
D) curable

3. The word it in line 14 refers to

C) people with fair skin
D) sunburn

4. Which of the following information is NOT mentioned?
A) effect of UV-A
B) effect of UV-B
C) the treatment of symptoms caused by Ultraviolet.
D) the conditions that increase the chance of sunburn
5. According to the passage, premature aging of the skin may occur
A) within the first 20 year of life
B) on the 20th year of life
C) after 20th year of life
D) 20 years before old
6. According to the passage, what can be inferred about UV-A?
A) UV-A contribute 15-20% to the sunburn reaction in the winter month.
B) there is less UV-A reaching to the surface of the Earth than UV-B
C) UV-A isnt considered to be the contributor of premature aging.
D) UV-A is 1000 to 10000 times more effective than UV-B in terms of induction of
7. Who is NOT more at risk to sunburn?
A) Children
B) Elder
C) People with fair skin
D) People with dark hair
8. The third paragraph talks about
A) cause and sign of premature aging.
B) the difference between UV-A and UV-B.
C) prevention of effect from Ultraviolet.
D) cause of being destroyed of elastin and collagen
9. What does the passage mainly talk about?
A) The effect from sunlight exposure.
B) The cause of sunburn.
C) Treatment for skin cancer.
D) How to prevent dangers from ultraviolet.
10. What can be inferred from the passage?
A) Redness from sunlight exposure will show uttermost right after sunburn
B) Woman is more sensitive to the UV radiation
C) UV-A is the main factor of sunburn
D) UV-A reach the surface of the Earth more than UV-B

The Northern Lights are actually the result of collisions between gaseous particles in
the Earth's atmosphere with charged particles released from the sun's atmosphere.
Variations in colour are due to the type of gas particles that are colliding. The most common
auroral color, a pale yellowish-green, is produced by oxygen molecules located about 60
(5) miles above the earth. Rare, all-red auroras are produced by high-altitude oxygen, at heights
of up to 200 miles. Nitrogen produces blue or purplish-red aurora.
The connection between the Northern Lights and sunspot activity has been
suspected since about 1880. Thanks to research conducted since the 1950's, we now know
that electrons and protons from the sun are blown towards the earth on the 'solar wind'.
1957-58 was International Geophysical Year and the atmosphere was studied extensively
(10) with balloons, radar, rockets and satellites. Rocket research is still conducted by scientists at
Poker Flats, a facility under the direction of the University of Alaska at Fairbanks.
The temperature above the surface of the sun is millions of degrees Celsius. At this
temperature, collisions between gas molecules are frequent and explosive. Free electrons
and protons are thrown from the sun's atmosphere by the rotation of the sun and escape
(15) through holes in the magnetic field. Blown towards the earth by the solar wind, the charged
particles are largely deflected by the earth's magnetic field. However, the earth's magnetic
field is weaker at either pole and therefore some particles enter the earth's atmosphere and
collide with gas particles. These collisions emit light that we perceive as the dancing lights of
the north (and the south).

1. The word deflect in line 17 is closest in meaning to
A) change direction
B) change temperature
C) change speed
D) change height

2. The word perceive in line 19 is closest in meaning to

A) regard
B) regain
C) regress
D) regurgitate

3. The word this in line 13 refers to

A) atmosphere
B) aloft the surface of the sun
C) beneath the surface of the sun
D) above the surface of the Earth
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A) A pale yellow-green aurora is made by lower oxygen molecules
B) Red aurora is made by upper oxygen molecules
C) Blue aurora is made by nitrogen molecules
D) Purplish-red is rare colour aurora

5. According to passage, what tool is NOT used for studying The North Light?
A) Satellite
B) Radar
C) Airplane
D) Balloon

6. According to the passage, how is The North Light made?
A) Increasing of temperature on the surface of the sun.
B) Windy climate that blow different charged gas molecules to collide to each others.
C) Emitting of light caused by collision between different charged gas molecules in
the Earth and the one released from the suns atmosphere.
D) The suns magnetic field that pull gaseous molecule from the Earth to collide with
charged gas molecules on the surface of the sun.

7. What does the second paragraph mainly talk about?

A) Who is the founder of forming of The North Light.
B) How long scientists take to study how The North Light is made.
C) How complicated studying of The North Light is.
D) How the scientist study The North Light.

8. What does the passage mainly talk about?

A) How is aurora produced.
B) When will aurora appear on the Earth.
C) Location of aurora
D) Benefit of aurora

9. What can be inferred about location of The North Light that only appear in the north
and south poles of the Earth?
A) It is colder in the poles of the Earth.
B) There are less ozone in the poles of the Earth.
C) It is nearer to the sun than any other parts of the Earth.
D) There are weaker magnetic field in the poles of the Earth.

10. According to the passage, what can be inferred about solar wind?
A) Solar wind blow hot temperature from the sun to the Earth.
B) Free electron and proton on the surface of the sun are thrown to the surface of the
Earth by solar wind.
C) Solar wind melt the glacier in the North and South poles of the Earth.
D) Free electron and proton on the surface of the Earth are thrown to the surface od
the sun by solar wind.