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Oral Revalida SYMPTOMATOLOGY

ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME- a Palpitations


spectrum of clinical presentations Pain, which is usually described
ranging from those for ST-segment as pressure, squeezing, or a
elevation myocardial infarction burning sensation across the
(STEMI) to presentations found in non precordium and may radiate to
ST-segment elevation myocardial the neck, shoulder, jaw, back,
infarction (NSTEMI) or in unstable upper abdomen, or either arm
angina Exertional dyspnea that
resolves with pain or rest
Anatomy and Physiology Diaphoresis from sympathetic
discharge
Cardiovascular system Nausea from vagal stimulation
Decreased exercise tolerance

ETIOLOGY
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of
ACS
Unstable angina
Myocardial infarctions
Rupture and clot formation
*Atherosclerosis is the primary cause
of ACS

The cardiovascular system consists of Risk Factors:


the heart, which is an anatomical
Older age (older than 45 for
pump, with its intricate conduits
men and older than 55 for
(arteries, veins, and capillaries) that
women)
traverse the whole human body
Hypertension
carrying blood. The blood contains
oxygen, nutrients, wastes, and High blood cholesterol
immune and other functional cells that Cigarette smoking
help provide for homeostasis and Sedentary lifestyle
basic functions of human cells and Unhealthy diet
organs. Obesity
Diabetes
Blood is transported through the whole Family history
body by a continuum of blood vessels.
Arteries are blood vessels that MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
transport blood away from the heart,
Diagnosis:
and veins transport the blood back to
the heart. Capillaries carry blood to ECG
tissue cells and are the exchange sites Blood tests
of nutrients, gases, wastes, etc. Coronary angiogram
Medications: syndrome/diagnosis-
treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20202487
Thrombolytics
Nitroglycerin
Antiplatelet drugs
Beta Blockers
ACE inhibitors
Statins

Surgery and other procedures

Angioplasty and stenting


Coronary bypass surgery

NURSING DIAGNOSIS AND


INTERVENTIONS:

Acute pain related to increase in


lactic acid
o Allow patient to have
complete rest
o Administer anti-anginal
meds
o Provide supplemental
oxygen as indicated
o Monitor ECG changes
Activity intolerance related to
imbalance oxygen supply and
needs
o Allow patient to have
complete rest
o Monitor vital signs
Decreased cardiac output
related to changes in the
frequency of heart rhythm
Impaired tissue perfusion
related decrease in cardiac
output
Anxiety related to death

Source
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=yE3Y-ZW60vY
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-
conditions/acute-coronary-
SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
SYNDROME (SEPSIS) - a potentially
life-threatening complication of an
infection. Sepsis occurs when
chemicals released into the
bloodstream to fight the infection
trigger inflammatory responses
throughout the body.
Anatomy and Physiology
CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE- describes Blood from the body enters the
the gradual loss of kidney function kidneys through the renal arteries. The
blood passes through the nephrons,
Staging where waste products and extra water
The different stages of CKD form a are removed. The clean blood is
continuum. The stages of CKD are returned to the body through the renal
classified as follows : veins.
Stage 1: Kidney damage with The waste products filtered from the
normal or increased GFR (>90 blood are then concentrated into
mL/min/1.73 m 2) urine. The urine is collected in the
Stage 2: Mild reduction in GFR renal pelvis. The ureters move the
(60-89 mL/min/1.73 m 2) urine to the bladder, where it is stored.
Stage 3a: Moderate reduction in Urine travels from the bladder and out
GFR (45-59 mL/min/1.73 m 2) of the body through the urethra.
Stage 3b: Moderate reduction in
GFR (30-44 mL/min/1.73 m 2) The kidneys also make certain
Stage 4: Severe reduction in hormones, which are substances that
GFR (15-29 mL/min/1.73 m 2) control certain body functions.
Stage 5: Kidney failure (GFR Hormones made by the kidneys are:
<15 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or dialysis)
Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates
the bone marrow to make red
Anatomy and Physiology blood cells.
Calcitriol, a form of vitamin D,
helps the intestines absorb
calcium from the diet.
Renin helps control blood pressure.

Symptomatology

Nausea

Vomiting

Loss of appetite

Source:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=JjcqY95HR1o