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Lordino B.

Saligumba V Humanities (Electives)

V- BS Accountancy

1. How did chinese art influence the Philippines?

China's influence over the Philippines extends to its economy, businesses,

politics, culture and relationships with other foreign powers. China also
influences traditions in the Philippines, such as the celebration of Chinese
New Year, and also popular food, such as noodles, pancit, and sweet and
sour dishes.
Chinese traders arrived in the Philippines as early as the ninth century A.D.,
establishing settlements and permanent trade routes, intermarrying, and
introducing aspects of Chinese culture. Many words in the Filipino languages
are Chinese in origin. The influence of Chinese food is prevalent in Filipino
cuisine. Even the Filipino emphasis on family values has strong similarities to
that of Chinese Confucianism

2. Choose a chinese painting and show how it expresses the spirit of Taoism
Taoism has had a strong influence on Chinese art,
especially on landscape painting, as exemplified in the
paintings of Tang Yin (1470-1523). One of his paintings is
the Clearing after Snow on a Mountain Pass which nature
is shown as omnipresent, overshadowing the human
figure. It exemplifies the Taoist idea that Nature pervades
and surrounds us, and that humans are not in control
Nature. In honor of the changefulness and mobility of
Nature, Taoist artists always leave their works
unfinished. This practice also invites the viewer to
become a co-creator of the piece, as if a participant
within Nature. Even the most elaborate pieces of Taoist
art consists merely of brush strokes in varying shades of
watered black on white paper. Empty space is critically
important, because emptiness has its own kind of fullness. The ink used is
watered ink, reiterating the meaning and importance of flowing water.
3. How was the art of the prehistoric period related to society?

Much of the prehistoric art is believed to be stories about real life events or
actual lifestyles routine corresponding to a hunt, a famine or a new star in
the sky. It is believed that this is a historical record of events. Because there

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was no form of written language, people used pictures to show events. In the
prehistoric period, people used to paint or draw in the caves wall for many
reasons such as to show events. It is related to the society in the idea that
these people during the prehistoric period unconsciously formed a society
because of their particular reoccurring activities and purposes.

4. What were some of the Roman architectural inventions?

The Western Roman Empire may have fallen more than 1,500 years ago, but
its rich legacy of innovation and invention can still be seen today. The
Romans were prodigious builders and expert civil engineers, and their
thriving civilization produced advances in technology, culture and
architecture that remained unequaled for centuries. From aqueducts to
newspapers, find out more about 10 innovations that built ancient Rome.

Newspapers Roads and Highways

Concrete Roman Arches

Aqueducts The Julian Calendar

Welfare The Twelve Tables and the

Corpus Juris Civilis
Bound Books
Battlefield Surgery

5. What qualities relate the Renaissance to modern period?

Renaissance art did, after all, develop many of the basic ideas of modern art,
such as perspective, as well as utilizing objects of focus which are often still
present today. In modern art, there has been a small shift back towards the
objects of focus of Renaissance painters. Paintings of Greek gods have
become more common in modern art than in periods before, but not to the

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same level as the Renaissance. In many cases, in fact, the painting of such
gods are entirely intentioned to remind the viewer of Renaissance style.
6. Why was the Renaissance painter interested in perspective?
Because linear perspective uses principles of math to realistically portray
space and depth in art. Renaissance artists were largely concerned with
painting realistic scenes, and linear perspective gave them a reliable method
to accomplish this realism, which helped make their paintings all the more

7. What are the qualities of baroque?

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used

exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama,
tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture,
literature, dance, theater, and music. The style began around 1600
in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. Baroque art manifested in
Europe during the 17th century. Baroque painters wanted to create emotion
through their artwork in dramatic ways. This type of art is associated with
the cultural movement between the Catholic revival and the Counter
Reformation. Those who wanted to reform belonged to the Protestant
movement and believed in personal self-determination. Church authorities
used religious artwork to display Catholic theological dogma while reformers
supported decorative artwork.
Artists such as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens and Poussin contributed to
the Baroque period by using chiaroscuro lighting to dramatize scenes. Unlike
the artwork of the Renaissance, Baroque artwork often showed action at the
moment it happened. An example of Baroque art can be seen in Rembrandt's
"Descent from the Cross," which portrays a dramatic religious scene
emphasized by the use of light and shadow.
A common theme artists used during the Baroque period was divine figures
intervening on earth. These scenes were described as miraculous and were
intended to be emotionally persuasive to their viewers.
Things to look for in Baroque Art:

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Images are direct, obvious and As opposed to Renaissance art with
dramatic its clearly defined planes, with
each figure placed in isolation from
Tries to draw the viewer in to each other, Baroque art has
participate in the scene continuous overlapping of figures
and elements
Depictions feel physically and
psychologically real. Emotionally Common themes: grandiose
intense visions, ecstasies and conversions,
martyrdom and death, intense
Extravagant settings and
light, intense psychological

Dramatic use of color

Dramatic contrasts between light

and dark, light and shadow

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8. How did the world wars affect artistic expression?

9. Along with millions of idealistic young men who were cut to pieces
by machine guns and obliterated by artillery shells, there was
another major casualty of World War I: traditional ideas about
Western art.
10. The Great War of 1914-18 tilted culture on its axis, particularly in
Europe and the United States. Nearly 100 years later, that legacy is
being wrestled with in film, visual art, music, television shows like
the gauzily nostalgic PBS soaper "Downton Abbey" and plays
including the Tony Award-winning"War Horse," concluding its run at
the Ahmanson Theatre.
11. "It created an epoch in art," said Leo Braudy, a USC professor of
English and author of "From Chivalry to Terrorism: War and the
Changing Nature of Masculinity." "The question is, what was on one
side and what was on the other?"
12. The simple answer as to what lay on the near side of World War I
is Modernism, that slippery but indispensable term denoting a wide
range of new sensibilities and aesthetic responses to the industrial
age. Modernism took shape decades before World War I, but its
clamorous arrival was vastly accelerated by the greatest collective
trauma in history to that point.

13. From the fiction of Hemingway, Virginia Woolf and John Dos
Passos to the savagely critical paintings and etchings of George
Grosz and Otto Dix, World War I reshaped the notion of what art is,
just as it forever altered the perception of what war is. Although
World War II racked up more catastrophic losses in blood and
treasure, World War I remains the paradigmatic conflict of the
modern age, not only politically but also culturally.
14. "Of all the wars, that is the one that seems to explain us best,"
said Michael Morpurgo, the English author of the novel "War Horse,"
about a Devonshire farm boy's death-defying bond with his noble

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steed Joey, on which the National Theatre of
GreatBritain'sproduction is based.
15. The fear that powerful new machines invented to serve humanity
might instead destroy it also took root around World War I, later
spreading into science fiction and the debates surrounding today's
aerial drone warfare. "World War I definitely gives a push forward to
the idea of dystopia rather than utopia, to the idea that the world is
going to get worse rather than better," Braudy said.

16. Why can social realism in art be meaningful to a society?

17. Because Art mirrors society thus, social realism is meaningful to

society because while there was a variety of styles and subjects
within Social Realism, the artists were united in their attack on the
status quo and social power structure. Despite their stylistic
variance, the artists were realists who focused on the human figure
and human condition.
19. Why is cubism considered a reaction to impressionism?
20. Cubism was a completely different style of art that no one had
seen before. It was the style that came to challenge the principles of
Renaissance painting as dramatically as Einsteins theory of
relativity had challenged Newtonian physics (Fiero 9). It is composed
of geometrical shapes, abstraction and time. There are no specific.
colors or objects used. Cubists were looking for a different way to
express human form as well as art in general. They provided what
we could almost call a God's-eye view of reality: every aspect of the
whole subject, seen simultaneously in a single dimension. According
to Fiero, the Cubist image, conceived as if one were moving around,
above, and below the subject and even perceiving it from within,
appropriated the fourth dimension-time itself. In a sense, Cubism is
four-dimensional: depth, height, breath, and time, but seen all at
once. It displays different viewpoints from different aspects. The

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object is taken and looked at in many perspectives and is
represented that way on the canvas. Monets painting Sunrise
displays vivid color, which is commonly used among impressionists.
The painting is of the sun rising over the lake, over looking the bay
and the boats within. Sunrise is a patently a seascape; but the
painting says more about how one sees than about what one sees.
It transcribes the fleeting effects of light and the changing
atmosphere of water and air into a tissue of small dots and streaks
of color-the elements of pure perception (Fiero 114). This painting
is typical of its style because it captures light at that moment. The
sun is rising and its color is projected to everything in its path.
Monet seems to capture this beautiful moment with numerous brush
strokes. One can almost point out where the vibrant colors were
mixed directly on the canvas. Monets painting is typical of its style
is because there are no defining lines, the images are blurred one
can barely make out the boats in the background. Monet
successfully obtains the light he was trying to portray. Cubism
focuses more on movement and viewpoints

21. What are some common elements in Philippine and indonesian art?

22. As a result of their close history, Indonesia and the Philippines

also display similar cultural characteristics, though less than
of Malaysia. The people of both nations share some similar
lifestyles, such as the tradition with eating with the hands and
eating on banana leaves. Both countries also share similar dishes,
such as bakpia, or commonly known as "hopia" in the Philippines, a
Chinese-influenced pastry as well as the lumpia spring-roll.


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24. The art of Indonesia and Philippines has been shaped by
long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple
foreign influences. As a result of their close history, Indonesia and
the Philippines also display some similar art elements in crafts,
music, and language. Several Indonesian islands are famous for
their batik, ikat and songket cloth which are also used by Muslim
and indigenous Filipinos. Some instruments used by Filipinos are
also used by Indonesians such as Kulintang. Moreover, some
Tagalog words are the same with Bahasa Indonesia words, such as
lima, mahal, lumpo, etc.



27. To what period does the Taj Mahal belong?

28. Shah Jahan was the fifth ruler of the Mughal dynasty. During
his third regnal year, his favorite wife, known as Mumtaz Mahal,
died due to complications arising from the birth of their fourteenth
child. Deeply saddened, the emperor started planning the
construction of a suitable, permanent resting place for his beloved
wife almost immediately. The result of his efforts and resources was
the creation of what was called the Luminous Tomb in contemporary
Mughal texts and is what the world knows today as the Taj Mahal.
29. In general terms, Sunni Muslims favor a simple burial, under an
open sky. But notable domed mausolea for Mughals (as well as for
other Central Asian rulers) were built prior to Shah Jahans rule, so
in this regard, the Taj is not unique. The Taj is, however, exceptional
for its monumental scale, stunning gardens, lavish ornamentation,
and its overt use of white marble.

30. Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in Agra, where he took the throne
in 1628. First conquered by Muslim invaders in the eleventh

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century, the city had been transformed into a flourishing area of
trade during Shah Jahans rule. Situated on the banks of the Yamuna
River allowed for easy access to water, and Agra soon earned the
reputation as a riverfront garden city, on account of its
meticulously planned gardens, lush with flowering bushes and fruit-
bearing trees in the sixteenth century.


32. What is the classical Budhist structure of India?

33. Three types of structures are associated with the religious
architecture of early Buddhism: monasteries (viharas), places to venerate
relics (stupas), and shrines or prayer halls (chaityas also called chaitya
grihas), which later came to be called temples in some places
34. How does borobudur reflect the buddhist religion?

35. One of the most spectacular of these is the Buddhist temple of

Borobudur that lies in Eastern Java on the Kedu Plain. It is
surrounded by an idyllic landscape of incomparable beauty of rice-
terraced hills and overlooked by four volcanoes. The industrious
subjects of the Sailendra dynasty built it over a period of 80 years in
the ninth century who transformed a volcanic plug of basalt into a
stepped pyramid with a base measuring 120 metres square and a
height of 35 metres.

36. It was built to resemble a microcosm of the universe and its

purpose was to provide a visual image of the teachings of the
Buddha and show, in a practical manner, the steps through life that
each person must follow to achieve enlightenment. The pilgrim to
this shrine would first have been led around the base and shown the
friezes, which illustrate the consequences of living in the World of
Desire. In this realm ruled by Greed, Envy, and Ignorance, man is a
slave to earthly desires and suffers from the illusions that are
caused by these unfulfilled yearnings, a state regarded as hell by
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Buddhists. After completing this circuit, the pilgrim was then led in a
clockwise fashion through five levels in a gradual ascension of the
pyramid. Here he was shown how to conquer desire and attachment
by viewing 1300 panelled friezes that illustrate the life of the
Buddha and his previous incarnations. These levels were called the
World of Form and correspond to the earthly realm in Buddhist
symbology. The passages of both of these realms followed the
square shape of the pyramid but above these two lay the World of
Formlessness where the right-angled, heavily decorated passages
gave way to a round unadorned summit where meditating Buddhas
and saints sit in supreme bliss contemplating a view of exquisite
beauty. In the centre a bell shaped tower, or stupa, points to
heaven, a blissful realm beyond form and concept, known as
Nirvana. Encompassing the totality of existence with its
representations of heaven, earth, and hell in this metaphor of stone,
the monument was abandoned after a severe earthquake and a
large eruption of the volcano Merapi in 1006 AD until it was
rediscovered by the West during colonial times. One of the miracles,
perhaps equalling the miracle of its construction and craftsmanship,
is that the monument still exists and can be seen to this day. This
area of Java is one of the most earthquake prone regions in the
world as well as one of the most volcanic. From the top of the
temple, the volcano Merapi is easily visible, still smoking to this day,
having erupted on more than a few occasions during the last
millennia. Reliefs depicting the life of the Buddha cover the upper
half of the main wall all around the first gallery of the monument, a
total of 120 panels. These reliefs were carved to illustrate a text
entitled the Lalitavistara, "The Unfolding of the Play." The above
relief shows Sakyamuni having left the palace and dismissed his
horse and groom, stands at the left beneath a parasol, bidding
farewell to the supernatural beings who accompanied him.

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37. What were the art forms in the Philippine pre colonial period?

38. The following are some art forms during the Philippine Pre-
colonial period:

MUSIC - the ancient Filipinos had music practically for all occasions, for
every phase of life, from birth to death. Some musical instruments were
Bamboo Zither, Gaddang and Kulintang.
ARCHITECTURE - the ancient Filipinos had first dwelt in caves and has
learned the art of architecture as they move and hunt for food. Some
architectures built were Tausog house, Torogan, Ifugao house BALE.
SCULPTURE - The ancient Filipinos had attained a high artistic level
through pottery, jewelry, and wood carving.
PAINTINGS - The ancient Filipinos had expressed paintings through
tattoos and cave carvings
Balangay Paggiyod Galis
Sangka Agda
Batuk Ambahan Linoping
Tosok Panika
Malong Kamagi

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