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A Project Study

Presented to

The Faculty of the Civil Engineering Department

Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology

Cabanatuan city

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirement for the Subject

Hydrology (CE 423)


Problems in provision of adequate water supply to the

rapidly growing urban population in developing cities are
increasing dramatically. As a result demand for additional
water sources and infrastructure is growing. Moreover, Nearly
50% of the water produced is lost at different levels of the
distribution systems before reaching the consumers. Sangitan
Public Market is one of the developing markets suffering a
high shortage of water as well as high water loss. This
papers contribution is the case of water supply at Sangitan
Public Market to provide an accurate data and necessary
information for future studies. Specifically, the study (1)
obtain the quantity of water supply (2) the quality of water
supply (3) and the water distribution system. As it is difficult
to directly characterize the causes of losses, local experts
opinion that was collected through discussion during
fieldwork has been also used to support the quantitative
analysis qualitatively.



Providing sufficient water of appropriate quality and

quantity has been one of the most important issues in human
history. Most ancient civilizations were initiated near water
sources. As populations grew, the challenge to meet user
demands also increased.
Today, a water supply system consists of infrastructure
that collects, treats, stores, and distributes water between
water sources and consumers. Limited new natural water
sources, rapidly increasing population has led to the need for
innovative methods to manage a water supply system. For
example, reclaimed water has become an essential water
resource for potable and non-potable uses. Structural system
additions including new conveyance systems and treatment
and recharge facilities and operation decisions, such as
allocating flow and implementing conservation practices, are
made with the present and future demands in minds. As
additional components and linkages between sources and
users are developed, the complexity of the water supply
system and the difficulty in understanding how the system
will react to changes grows. The inherent uncertainty in
climate and water demands and supplies further raises the
difficulty in interpreting the system. These concerns raise the
need for generalized design tools for decision makers and the
public to plan structural changes and manage the water
supply system to adapt to future water demands and
supplies. Such tools can be simulation or optimization models
and may directly or indirectly account for system