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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 04, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Experimental Study on the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for


Rigid Pavements
T Pratap1 Y Mahesh2
1
PG student 2Assistant Professor
1,2,3
Department of Civil Engineering
1,2
Sankentika institute of technology and management, Visakhapatnam, A.P., India
Abstract This project work involves in an experimental amount of short randomly distributed fibers (steel, glass,
investigation on the influence of polyester and glass fibers on synthetic and natural) and can be practiced among others that
the mechanical properties of the concrete used in the rigid remedy weaknesses of concrete, such as low growth
pavement. In this experimental study two types of concrete resistance, high shrinkage cracking, low durability,etc . The
mixes were prepared individually. Polyester fibers of 0.1% to presence of micro cracks at the mortar-aggregate interface is
0.4% and glass fibers of 0.1% to 0.3% by weight of cement responsible for the inherent weakness of plain concrete. The
were added to the mixes. After that a comparative analysis weakness can be removed by inclusion of fibers in the mix.
has been carried out for conventional concrete to that of the Different types of fibers, such as those used in traditional
fiber reinforced in relation to their compressive, split tensile, composite materials have been introduced into the concrete
flexural strength properties. As the fiber content increases mixture to increase its toughness, or ability to resist crack
compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths are growth. The fibers help to transfer loads at the internal micro
proportionally increasing. . In this study the observation cracks. Such a concrete is called fiber-reinforced concrete
shows that, the percentile of fiber content increases from 0%, (FRC). Thus fiber-reinforced concrete is a composite
0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% for polyester fiber and 0%, 0.1%, material essentially consisting of conventional concrete or
0.2%, 0.3% for glass fiber in concrete mixes. By the mortar reinforced by fine fibers.
experimental work the compressive, split tensile and flexural Polymer fiber reinforced concrete pavements
strengths are proportionally increased both polyester and satisfies two of the much demanded requirements of the
glass fiber usage. It is observed that the optimum dosages of pavement material in India economy and reduced pollution.
polyester fiber are 0.3% and glass fiber is 0.2% by weight of It also has several other advantages like longer life, low
cement. It is found that with 0.3% polyester fiber and 0.2% maintenance cost, fuel efficiency, good riding quality,
glass fiber content results in 20% and 26% reduction of increased load carrying capacity and impermeability to water
pavement thickness. Economic analysis is indicating that over flexible pavements.
with the addition of polyester and glass fibers there is a saving
A. Objectives of The Study:
in economy by 11.63% and 20.24% respectively compared to
that of conventional concrete. 1) The main objective is to investigate the mechanical
Key words: Fiber reinforced concrete, Polyester fiber, Glass properties of concrete by adding polyester fiber and glass
fiber, Compressive strength, Split tensile strength, Flexural fiber in concrete mixes.
strength 2) To find out the optimum percentage of fiber content for
polyester and glass fibers to be added in concrete in
I. INTRODUCTION relation to their mechanical properties
3) To find the thickness of pavement based on fiber material
In a developing country such as India, road networks form the 4) Finally comparing the cost of pavement with and without
arteries of the nation. A pavement is the layered structure on using fibers.
which vehicles travel. It serves two purposes, namely, to
provide a comfortable and durable surface for vehicles, and
II. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
to reduce stresses on underlying soils. In India, the traditional
system of bituminous pavement is widely used. Locally A. Materials Used:
available cement concrete is a better substitute to bitumen 1) Cement:
which is the by product in distillation of imported petroleum Ordinary Portland cement of grade 53 is used for this
crude. It is a known fact that petroleum and its by products experimental work.
are dooming day by day. 2) Fine Aggregate:
The strength and durability of concrete can be The material which passes through BIS test sieve number 4
changed by making appropriate changes in its ingredients like (4.75mm) is termed as fine aggregate usually natural sand is
cementitious material, aggregate and water and by adding used as a fine aggregate at places where natural sand is not
some special ingredients. Hence concrete is very well suited available crushed stone is used as fine aggregates. The sand
for a wide range of applications. However concrete has some used for the experimental works was locally procured and
deficiencies as low tensile strength, low post cracking confirmed to grading zone II, sieve analysis of the fine
capacity, brittleness and low ductility, limited fatigue life, aggregate was carried out in the laboratory as per IS 383-1970
not capable of accommodating large deformations, low and results are provided.
impact strength. 3) Coarse Aggregate:
Cement concrete is characterized by brittle failure, The material which is retained on BIS test sieve number 4
the nearly complete loss of loading capacity, once failure is (4.75mm) is termed as coarse aggregate. The broken stone is
initiated. This characteristic, which limits the application of generally used as a stone aggregate. The aggregate is
the material, can be overcome by the inclusion of a small

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Experimental Study on the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Rigid Pavements
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/341)

collected from stone crushing unit near Anandapuram located Description


AR- glass
Polyester fiber
at a distance of 20 Km from Visakhapatnam. fiber
4) Polyster Fibre: Zirconium
The Polyester fibers are available in monofilament form and which is 19% Polyester by nature
belong to the thermoplastic polyester group. The Polyester of the integral is damaged by
composition concentrated alkali
fibers are temperature sensitive and above normal service
Alkali resistance of the glass action. No proven
temperature their properties may be altered. The polyester fiber gives it data of long term
fiber is produced from Reliance industries Ltd., Mumbai. The the alkali alkali resistance.
type of polyester fiber is CT 2024. The constant dosages of resistance
0.1% fibers up to 0.4% are used by weight of cement. The property.
length of fiber is 8mm and its diameter is 0.014mm. AR-glass
Polyester fibers have
fibers have
density of 1.36
density of
which is
2.60 which
significantly lower
Dispersion similar to that
than that of concrete
of concrete
causing to float up &
enabling it to
form bunches at the
get high
surface.
dispersion.
Tensile strength 3500 Mpa 550 Mpa
Elastic modulus 74 Gpa 10 Gpa
Abrasion resistance High Low
Table 1: Properties of fibres
B. Mix Design:
The mix proportion chosen for this study is M20 grade with
water-cement ratio of 0.5. In this test total 81 Cubes of
standard size 150x150x150mm and 81 Cylinders of standard
Fig. 1: Polyster Fibre diameter 150mm and height 300mm and 81 Prisms of size
5) Glass Fiber: 500x100x100mm were casted and cured for 7,14 and 28 days
Glass fiber is available in continuous or chopped lengths. and tested as per code IS: 516-1959. The mix proportion
Fiber lengths of up to 35-mm are used in spray applications chosen for this study is given in Table II.
and 25-mm lengths are used in premix applications. Glass Fine Coarse Aggregate (60% +
fiber has high tensile strength (2-4 Gpa) and elastic modulus Water Cement
Aggregate 40%)
(70-80 Gpa) but has brittle stress-strain characteristics and 150 300 736.23 1248 (748.8 + 499.2)
low creep at room temperature. Claims have been made that 0.5 1 2.45 4.16
up to 5% glass fiber by volume has been used successfully in Table 2: Mix proportion (Kg/m3) and mix ratio
sand-cement mortar without balling.The glass fiber is
produced from Reliance industries Ltd., Mumbai. The III. TESTS AND RESULTS
constant dosages of 0.1% fibers up to 0.3% are used by
The different tests were conducted in the laboratories as
weight of cement. The length of fiber is 8mm and its diameter
shown in below. It consists of mixing of concrete in the
is 0.07mm.
laboratory by partial replacing Polyester fiber as cement with
proportions (by weight) of Polyester fiber added to concrete
mixtures were as follows: 0% (for the concrete mix), 0.1%,
0.2%, 0.3% & 0.4% and Glass fiber as Cement with
proportions (by weight) of glass fiber added to concrete
mixtures were as follows: 0% (for the concrete mix), 0.1%,
0.2% & 0.3% Concrete samples were prepared and cured in
the laboratory, and are tested, to evaluate the concrete fresh
and harden properties like compressive strength, Split tensile
strength and flexural strength requirements.
A. Slump Cone Test: Slump Cone Test Was Conducted To
Determine The Workability Of Concrete:
Grade
% of Polyester fiber Slump(mm)
of concrete
0 110
0.1 104
Fig. 2: Glass Fibre
M20 0.2 95
0.3 86
0.4 74
Table 3: Slump values for different % of polyester fiber

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Experimental Study on the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Rigid Pavements
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/341)

From the fig:5 It is observed that compressive strength


of the concrete increases to 8.38%, 12.2% and 16.37%
when % of fiber increases from 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% for
PFRC when it is compared with conventional concrete at
28 days.
It is observed that compressive strength values decreased
as the percentage of fibers increases beyond 0.3%.
2) Split Tensile Strength PFRC

Fig. 3: Variation of Slump in polyester fiber


Grade
% of glass fiber Slump(mm)
of concrete
0 110
0.1 102
M20
0.2 89
0.3 76
Table 4: Slump values for different % of glass fiber

Fig. 6: Split tensile strength values of C.C and PFRC at 7,


14 and 28 Days
Description:
From the fig:6, It is observed that split tensile strength of
the concrete increases to 12.44%, 20.2% and 37.78%
when % of fiber increases from 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% for
PFRC when it is compared with conventional concrete at
28 days.
It is observed that split ensile strength values decreased
Fig. 4: Variation of Slump in Glass fiber
as the percentage of fibers increases beyond 0.3%.
Description:
From the fig:3&4, It is observed that from the above 3) Flexural Strength of PFRC:
results as the percentage of fiber increases the slump of the
concrete is decreasing. This may be due to the fiber, as the
percentage of fiber increases they obstructing the flow of the
concrete.
B. Mechanical Characteristics of PFRC:
1) Compressive Strength of PFRC:

Fig. 7: Flexural strength values of C.C and PFRC at 7,


14and 28 Days
Description:
From the fig:7 It is observed that flexural strength of
the concrete increases to 12.42%, 26.12% and 41.13%
when % of fiber increases from 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% for
PFRC when it is compared with conventional concrete at
Fig. 5: Compressive strength values of C.C and PFRC at 7, 28 days.
14 and 28 Days
Description:

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Experimental Study on the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Rigid Pavements
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/341)

It is observed that flexural strength values decreased as 3) Flexural Strength of GFRC:


the percentage of fibers increases beyond 0.3%.
C. Mechanical Characteristics of GFRC:
1) Compressive Strength of GFRC:

Fig. 10: Flexural strength values of C.C and GFRC at 7, 14


and 28 Days
Description:
From the fig:10, It is observed that flexural strength of
Fig. 8: Compressive strength values of C.C and GFRC at 7, the concrete increases to 19.48% and 53.96% when % of
14 and 28 days fiber increases 0.1% and 0.2% for GFRC when it is
Description: compared with conventional concrete at 28 days.
From the fig:8, It is observed that compressive strength It is observed that flexural strength values decreased as
of the concrete increases to 12.2% and 20.4% when % the percentage of fibers increases beyond 0.2%.
of fiber increases from 0.1% and 0.2% for GFRC when
it is compared with conventional concrete at 28 days. IV. COST COMPARISON
It is observed that compressive strength values decreased
as the percentage of fibers increases beyond 0.2%. A. Cost Comparison Of C.C Pavement With FRC Pavement:
2) Split Tensile Strength GFRC: A cement concrete pavement is to be laid with following
dimensions. Quantity and cost of each material for that stretch
is calculated and compared for conventional concrete and
polyester fiber reinforced concrete in this section.
1) Cost For Conventional Concrete:
Length of the pavement = 1m.
Width of the pavement = 3.75m.
Thickness of the pavement = 31cm.
Total volume of concrete required to fill the surface course =
Lbh.
= 1m3.75m0.31m.
=1.162m3.
Quantity Rate per
S.no. Material Cost in Rs.
(kg) kg in Rs.
1 Cement 348.6 7 2440.2
Fine
2 856.6 0.4 342.64
aggregate
Coarse
3 aggregate 870.1 1.12 974.51
(20mm)
Fig. 9: Split tensile strength values of C.C and GFRC at 7,
Coarse
14 and 28 Days 4 aggregate 580.07 0.75 435.05
Description: (10mm)
From the fig:9, It is observed that split tensile strength of Super
5 2.52 60 151.2
the concrete increases to 17.05% and 43.77%,when % plasticizer
of fiber increases from 0.1% and 0.2% for GFRC when Table 5: Estimation of materials for conventional concrete
it is compared with conventional concrete at 28 days. Total cost in Rupees for 1.162m3 of concrete for a stretch of
It is observed that split tensile strength values decreased 1m3.75m0.31m = 4343.6 /-
as the percentage of fibers increases beyond 0.2%. 2) Cost for Polyester Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Length of the pavement = 1m.
Width of the pavement = 3.75m.
Thickness of the pavement = 25cm.

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Experimental Study on the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Rigid Pavements
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/341)

Total volume of concrete required to fill the surface course = 6) As the fiber content is increased from 0.1% to 0.2% in
Lbh. weight of cement there is an increase in the split tensile
= 1m3.75m0.25m. strength from 17.05 to 43.77% compared to the
=0.937m3. conventional concrete at 28 days.
S.no. Material
Quantity Rate per Cost in 7) At the age of 28 days, there is a significant improvement
(kg) kg in Rs. Rs. in the flexural strength with the addition of fibers. The
1 Cement 281.1 7 1967.7 increment in the flexural strength is from 19.48% to
2 Fine aggregate 690.78 0.4 276.31 53.96% when % of fibers varied from 0.1% to 0.2%
Coarse aggregate respectively. 0.2% is observed as the optimum value.
3 701.62 1.12 785.81
(20mm)
8) From the results it is observed that 0.2% addition of glass
Coarse aggregate
4 467.7 0.75 350.77 fiber increases the compressive, split tensile and flexural
(10mm)
5 Super plasticizer 2.03 60 121.8 strength by 6.81%, 19.54% and 22.07% respectively,
6 Fibers(polyester) 0.84 400 336 when it is compared with polyester fiber with the same
Table 6: Estimation of materials for PFRC fiber content at 28 days.
Total cost in Rupees for 0.937 m3 of concrete for a stretch of 9) Addition of polyester fiber in concrete, the pavement
1m3.75m0.25m = 3838.31 /- thickness decrease by 19.35%.
3) Cost for Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete 10) Addition of glass fiber in concrete, the pavement
Length of the pavement = 1m. thickness is decreased by 25.8%.
Width of the pavement = 3.75m. 11) Construction cost of the pavement is reduced by 11.63%
Thickness of the pavement = 23cm. by using polyester fiber.
Total volume of concrete required to fill the surface course = 12) Construction cost of the pavement is reduced by 20.24%
Lbh. by using glass fiber.
= 1m3.75m0.23m.
=0.8625m3. REFERENCES
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Experimental Study on the Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Rigid Pavements
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/341)

Mechanical Properties Of Seven Nonwood Plant Fiber


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