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Web Science

Centre for Doctoral Training

October 2016
Web Science
Centre for Doctoral Training
The Centre for Doctoral Training in Web Science is funded by the EPSRC, and
underlines Southamptons pre-eminence in this new research discipline. Web Science
has an ambitious agenda. It is inherently interdisciplinary as much about social and
organisational behaviour as about technology. Its research programme targets the
Web as a primary focus of attention, adding to our understanding of its architectural
principles, its development and growth, its capacity for furthering global knowledge
and communication, and its inherent values of trustworthiness, privacy and respect
for social boundaries. The first year of the training programme is a taught MSc and
includes short courses and project work tailored to each students research interests.
This is followed by three years of challenging and original research at PhD level.

This booklet details the current MSc students academic and professional
backgrounds along with their research plans for the future. It also includes a research
poster from each of our PhD researchers.

The Digital Economy Theme is a Research Councils UK cross council initiative led by
EPSRC and contributed to by AHRC, ESRC, and MRC. This work was supported by
the EPSRC through grants EP/G036926/1 and EP/L016117/1.
Biography | MSc Students 2016

Jacqueline AYLING 1



Justyna JONAK 2




Bernard ROPER 4





Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2015 2019

Clarissa BROUGH Listening to Gender: The Role of Online Music Networks in the Construction 7
and Performance of Gender Identity

Jo DIXON Digital Exclusion: Due to Basic Literacy Skills? 8

Ryan JAVANSHIR Interactive Transmedia Storytelling 9

Louise KEEN Team Sponsorship in eSports: Legitimising Or Corrupting Play? 10

Anna KENT-MULLER Could Music Recommendation Systems be Enhanced by using Musical Analysis 11
of Encoded Data?

Bartosz PASZCZA Broadening the Definition of Impact 12

Maria PRIESTLEY How Does the Web Evolve? 13

Fernanda SANTOS-SANCHEZ Applying Web Analysis Techniques to Clinical Text: Analyzing the Effect of 14
Emotive Materials on Clinical Trial Recruitment and Retention Rates

Chira Tochia Understanding Young Childrens' Pathway to Digital Literacy and the Effects 15
this has their Identity

Clare Walsh Dimensions of Assessment in Onine Game Based Learning 16

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Christopher ADETUNJI Enterprise Mobility And Big Data Analytics: A Leverage For Corporate Knowledge 17

Nada AL BUNNI Investigating the Online Public Sphere for the Arabic World 18

Neil AMOS Social Media and the Far Right: Web 2.0, Opportunity for the English Defence 19

Nicholas BENNETT Team Sponsorship in eSports: Legitimising or Curruptiong Play? 20

Nicholas FAIR A Framework for Understanding Personal Learning Networks 21

Paul GILBERT A Web Observatory for Mapping Web Information 22

Briony GRAY Social Media and Natural Disasters: A Framework for Web 2.0 23

Sarah HEWITT The Problem with Identifying Misogynist Language on Twitter (and other online 24
social spaces)

Dola MAJEKODUNMI Investigating Customer Attitudes and preferences in Social Media Banking 25

Rafael MELGAREJO-HEREDIA Public Web 26

Keisha TAYLOR Moving Beyond Local to Assess how Intangible Assets are Developed by Micro, 27
Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) on the Global Web

Gefion THUERMER Use of the Web in Decision-Making Processes in Political Parties 28

Niko TSAKALAKIS Identity Assurance: Technical Implementation in the UK and its Legal Implications 29

Jack WEBSTER Music Recommender Systems as Cultural Intermediaries: A Theoretical 30

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Mark ANDERSON Hypertext Knowledge:// Farmers, Fettlers Or Flaneurs? 31

Elisabeth COSKUN Emerging a Web Science Curriculum Overview 32

Emma CRADOCK Understanding How to Talk Formally About Personal Data to Make Data 33
Processing More Transparent

Michael DAY Digital Citizenship: An Interdisciplinary Reconstruction Of Digital 34

Citizenship to Build a Stronger Foundation for a Future Pro-Human Web

Conrad DSOUZA Predicting Selections from Past Performance Data: A Case Study 35
Predicting Winners of Horse Racing

Faranak HARDCASTLE Back on the Track of Do Not Track: Raising Transparency in the Online# 36
Behavioural Tracking Ecosystem

Laura HYRJAK Youth, Drugs And The Web: Exploring Youths Use Of The Web To Access 37
And Research NPS
Sami KANZA Bringing The Modern Power Of The Web To Chemical Research 38

Amy LYNCH Examining the Activated Patient: A Qualitative Study of How and Why 39
Diabetic Patients Use the Web to Aid Self-Management of their Disease

Neil MACEWAN Navigating the Dangers of Victim Blaming and Scapegoating within UK 40
Cyber Security

Joanna MUNSON Online Grocery Consumption 41

Jessica OGDEN Institutional Repositories on the Web: Intersecting Narratives and Technical 42

Tim ORIORDAN Measuring Cognitive Activity in Online Comments 43

Alexander OWEN Styling the Internet of Things 44

Sophie PARSONS Exploring the Use of Social Media in UK Emergency Response 45

Alan PONCE Open Data And Entrepreneurship: An Economic Perspective 46

Neal REEVES From Crowd to Community: Use of Community Features to Encourage 47

Contributions in Online Citizen Science

Gert JAN VAN HARDEVELD Online Criminal Transaction Processes: Using Crime Script Analysis to Identify 48
Interceptive Opportunities

Johanna WALKER The Risks And Barriers Of Open Data: An Entrepreneurial Perspective 49

Anna WESTON Developing A Framework for Understanding (Dis)Engagement in Digital 50

Behaviour Change Interventions

Peter WEST The Quantified Self in Clinical Decision Making 51

Steven WHITE Aligning Learning Theory, Learning Design And Trust In MOOCs 52
Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

James BAKER Immersion in Serious Games: A Model for Immersive Factors in Educational 53
Gareth BEESTON Innovation Competitions on the Web: An Analysis of Open Data Usage in 54
Innovation Production to Tackle Social Challenges
Robert BLAIR Is Social Media Being Used to Support Non-Formal Learning by School 55
Ian BROWN The DNA of Web Observatories 56

Jennifer GASKELL The Role Of ICTs for Post-Conflict Peacebuilding 57

Lawrence GREEN Using Web Based Information in Decision Making 58

Caroline HALCROW SPENCE: A Model to Describe, Measure and Map Online/Offline Community (O/OC) 59

William LAWRENCE The Investor Decision Making Process - A Web Science Perspective 60

Manuel LEN URRUTIA Understanding Attitudes Towards MOOCs in Higher Education Institutions 61

Evangelia PAPADAKI The Role of Internet Service Providers in Improving Cybersecurity: 62

An Interdisciplinary Approach
Elzabi RIMMINGTON How wo We Build Society in Game Worlds? 63

Keiran RONES The Web and Digital Pirates: Who Are Pirates and do they Understand the 64
Eamonn WALLS How to Make the World a Better Place in 5 Easy Steps 65

Abigail WHITMARSH Revenge Pornography 66

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

Reuben BINNS Personal Data and Transparency 67

Paul BOOTH Visual Analytics: The Framing of Data & User Behaviour 68

Timothy DAVIES Shaping the Civic Impacts of Open Data on the Web 69

Maire BYRNE-EVANS Classifying Policing Social Machines 70

Gemma FITZSIMMONS Skim Reading: An Adaptive Strategy for Reading on the Web 71

Mark FRANK Open Data and Democratic Participation in UK Local Government 72

Dominic HOBSON What Impact has the Technology Behind Cryptocurrencies 73

had on Cybercrime, Security and Policing?
Alison KNIGHT Identity Linkability and Attribution: Digital Challenges for Law and Policy 74

Ching Man (Mandy) LO Handwriting Recognition for Online Mathematics Communication 75

David MATTHEWS Network Symmetry 76

Rebecca NASH Making Bodies: What is the Role of the Web on Womens Engagement with 77
Aesthetic Surgery??
Javier PEREDA Enhancing Engagement with Online Cultural Heritage 78
Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Craig ALLISON Orienting Within Complex Digital Environments: Bridging the Gap Between the 79
Inside and Out to Reduce Disorientation
Nicole BEALE Memory Institutions And The Web 80

Jaymie CAPLEN Online Behaviour Of States: The Effect Of Different Strategies on Populations And 81
International Relations
Huw DAVIES Abandoned Youth? the Problem of Youths Lack of Digital Literacy 82

Huw FRYER Reimagining the Public Health Analogy for Web Security 83

William FYSON Dissemination & Disaggregation 84

Paul GASKELL Predicting Stock Prices with Online Information 85

Richard GOMER Privacy Choices & Informed Consent 86

Christopher HUGHES A Multi-Dimensional Framework of the ICT Innovation System: An Agent Based 87
Approach for Policy Making
Terhi NURMIKKO Web Science for Ancient History: Deciphering Proto-Elamite Online 88

Christopher PHETHEAN Revealing the Value of Social Media for Charitable Organisations 89

Olivier PHILIPPE How can we Develop Sociological Approaches to Design a New Model for 90
Understanding Relationships on the Web
Lisa SUGIURA Buying Medicine from the Web 91

Jack TOWNSEND Digital Taxonomy for Sustainability 92

Philip WADDELL Exploring the Use of the Web in Global Justice Networks 93

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

Laura GERMAN Academic Research Data Re-usage in a Digital Age: Modelling Best Practice 94

Sarosh KHAN The Emergent Threat of Defamation Online: The Need for a New Model Governing 95
Online Defamation with the Emergence of Social Web Technologies

Russell NEWMAN Modelling Speculative Behaviour In Web 2.0 And Social Media Companies 96

Ramine TINATI Flow140: Tracing The Flow Of Conversations 97

Michael YIP A Social Network Approach to Cybercrime Disruption 98

Aristea-Maria A Framework For Analysing Location Data 99

MSc Students 2016

Jacqueline AYLING

BA Hons Philosophy (2:2), MSc Environmental Resources (Pass),


My research interest is in online information-seeking behaviour in Higher

Education students; understanding the challenges students face, especially
undergraduates, non-native speakers and students with disabilities; how
institutions might better support students in their digital learning and research.
Other interests include environment and politics, and how issues in these
domains intersect with the web.


MSc Automatics and Electronics in Physics, National Research Nuclear

University MEPhI

My fascination by every aspect of the Web has brought me to this course: every
action, participation and choice brings an array of research questions. I like
facing challenges and get inspired everyday by bright and innovative people.
What particularly interests me is the future of the Web and predictions
especially on the subject of personal data value from commercial and individual
prospect. The greatest challenge for me is to bring some sustainable positive
change in the interest of the public.

MSc Students 2016


BSc (Upper Second Class Honours), Computer Science & Mathematics,

Keele University ,
MSc (Distinction) Cyber Security, University of Southampton

My main area of interest is in cybercrime and cyber security, specifically the

formation and structure of organised cybercrime groups and how they operate
online and offline.

Justyna JONAK

BA, Arts, Media and Communication

One of the research areas of interest to me is open justice and privacy. Open
courts are a fundamental feature of any democratic society, as they can
guarantee a fairy judicial system.
The Web is a place where the public can readily access information about trials
and cases at low costs. Currently, most of the courts in the UK are starting to
adopt an electronic system. This means that more and more government data
will become available on the Web, thus contributing to the transparency and
accountability of the government. One should not forget, however, that there is
a delicate line between open justice and privacy. At courtrooms, a large volume
of information is gathered. This is problematic in that defendants are judged,
punished, and shamed. The disclosure of court records with personal details
raises serious concerns about privacy. In addition to the Web, social
technologies facilitate live-publishing on a global scale. There is no regulation on
what can be published or blogged online by concerned citizens. This can lead to
people posting information about cases that are subsequently declared
mistrials. I believe that, in order to implement the concept of open justice on the
Web, the electronic system for open justice must be adequate addressed and
the aforementioned factors need to be taken into account.
I intend to research this topic by undertaking a multidisciplinary approach
involving legal, philosophical, technical, and criminological perspectives.

MSc Students 2016


BSc Computer Science

I am a Computer Scientist in the process of being a Web Scientist, blogger

and awesome cookie maker. I am originally from Cyprus where I was
educated until I moved to the UK in 2009 to do my undergraduate degree
in Computer Science at the University of Surrey. I moved back to Cyprus in
2012 with half a heart due to an unavailability at the time of pursuing a
Masters degree which I really longed for, and worked in Cyprus for nearly 3
and a half years. My role was that of an IT Assistant Officer for a small police
force in the Sovereign Base Areas, and my work involved creating and
maintaining ORACLE database applications and performing several
administrative tasks. In 2016 I took a leap of faith and returned to the UK
and the lovely Southampton to finally attend my Masters degree in Web
Science and learn everything behind the magnificent World Wide Web.


BA (Hons) Photography, Surrey Institute of Art and Design

PGCE (Pass) Art and Design, Goldsmiths College

MA Gender, Sexuality and Culture, Birkbeck College

My research interests lie in investigating the sociological behaviours that are

developed online through technological processes, and in particular the
shaping of identity through social media. I am looking into the effect that
Twitter has on online activism allowing it to flourish, and in particular the way
that feminist groups have developed a real presence in online discussions about
Project Guardian run by the British Transport Police and the Metropolitan
Police. Hollaback London and Everyday Sexism have been influential in
developing the #ReportItToStopIt campaign, and continue to petition for
better advertising for this initiative.
My interpretation of Web Science is that it is the study of the dependent
relationship that human have with technology and the Internet. It is essential
for our understanding of how identity has been affected by social media
interactions, identifying what trends are significant in terms of human
behaviour and investigating the impact that this has on society and individuals.

MSc Students 2016


Cambridge Trinity Certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign Language

I am currently a Research Assistant in the Web Science Institute. Prior to joining

the University I worked at Jaguar Land Rover developing a remote control
system app. I have recently created a start up called 'Handy Kanji', which has
developed a mobile learning app that uses intelligent stroke recognition and
scoring algorithms to teach and rate your progress in real time.

Bernard ROPER

MSc Software Engineering (Distinction)

PgDip Interactive Media
BA Environmental Management (2:1)

I am interested in the geospatial dimension of the web. There is now a large

amount of geospatial data and meta data available, much of it produced by
smartphones. I would like to study ways in which semantic web technology
could be used with geospatial data to gain understandings of the physical
environment and our interactions with it. What can we learn about the world by
looking at the way people behave and interact with the web within their
geographic context? I would also like to investigate Augmented Reality as a way
of viewing and creating web content in situ; what are the implications of this
and other mobile technology for the ways we link with place on the web and
the idea of web content in a spatial context?
I am also interested in the fake news phenomenon and potential ways which
semantic web technologies could be used to reason about the provenance of
web content. Can studying the hallmarks and topologies of fake news and
search engine gaming in web graphs give us greater insight? To what extent is
fake news merely a form of search engine gaming. Is there a difference between
that and fake news that is purely ideologically motivated?

MSc Students 2016


MSc Communication in Society, The Open University BSc

BSc (Hons) Biochemistry, The University of Southampton

Before joining the Web Science Centre for Doctoral Training I worked in
Education and Policy. My role being that of a Principle Examiner for an
international exam board and a Head of Biology at an FE College. My
background in Biology and Biochemistry led me to discover the sub discipline
of Web Science; Health Web Science initially, drawing my interest into the
impact of the Webs health-related uses on the design, structure, and further
development of the Web. The distributed and adaptable nature of the Web
encompasses many disciplines which require collaboration to study the
impact of the connections among Web users. I am interested in how the Web
is shaped by our 21st Century societys medical and healthcare needs and
conversely how web related technologies can facilitate health. In particular,
Web-based communities and the associated generation of Web-based data in
preventative medicine and surveillance of disease. My career ambitions are in
research and development of personalised medicine, integrating the
enormous knowledge base of the Web with individuals data to provide the
right treatment to the right people in the most efficient way possible.


BA , BA (Hons), MA ( Philosophy)
MBA, University of Stellenbosch

Having worked in compliance, management consultancy and finance, I have a

particular interest in the impact of legislation and regulation on how
companies conduct their activities. As such, I intend to investigate
international legislation and regulations aimed at shaping or directly
controlling the activities of Internet Intermediaries. This will include the
manner in which these firms are affected by, and respond to, governmental
interventions on both the national and international level.
There is however, also a third dimension present in the form of end user
activities. These activities not only include the use of services provided by
Internet Intermediaries, but also direct actions either undermining
government interventions or punishing service providers for compliance with
certain governmental initiatives. Examples include the use of zero record VPNs
and the backlash against the provision of backdoors to encrypted services.

MSc Students 2016


BA Hons Information Technology in Organisations, University of Southampton

I have worked in the Web development industry for approximately two years as
a full-stack developer. Projects I have worked on include developing the front-
end of 'iDEA'for the Duke of York.


BSc Law
MSc Law

I undertook both my Undergraduate degree and MSc in Law whilst also taking
on various pro bono activites and work experience in the legal industry. I also
went on to take my Legal Practice course in London. I have worked in London
for various legal firms working mostly on Big Data and Internet Law specifically.
My reserach interests are primarily centred around Data Protection and Big
Data and I would like to further my research in this area, especially in regard to
data regulation and its importance to the Web

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Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Web Science Institute

School of Electronics
and Computer Science

Enterprise Mobility and Big Data Analytics:

A Leverage for Corporate Knowledge Management

Knowledge Flow
Knowledge Flow

Introduction Research Questions

The consumerisation of mobile devices has helped in popularising the trends and 1. What factors influence the awareness and adoption of these innovative Web
technological trends within a corporate organisation?
concepts of Enterprise Mobility and Social Networking as they have pervaded within
the spectrums of Employee-owned and/or company-owned devices. Consequently, an 2. To what extent has Enterprise Mobility enhanced social networking within the
organisation and how have both trends impacted employee engagement and
enormous amount of rapid and varied data is being produced and also available for knowledge sharing?
organisations insight like never before, resulting in the exigency of Big Data
3. How can Big Data Analytics be exploited to elicit knowledge from a convergence of
Analytics. This research is therefore, focused on how to exploit the convergence of Enterprise Mobility, Social Networking and external data sources?
Enterprise Mobility and Big Data Analytic for knowledge capture and sharing, with
the aim of making KM deliver value to corporate organisations.!

Hypothesis Preliminary Experiment

1. Given the effective use of current and emerging Web innovations and A case of a medium-scale enterprise with about 200 employees in Hampshire was
technologies, Knowledge Management will remain a viable and sustainable studied. Having recently deployed a suite of mobile apps and devices in support of its
management tool and field of practice for the foreseeable future. operations, the experiment explored the value of hardening the enterprise mobility
agenda with knowledge sharing and discovery from Enterprise Social Networking.
2. Liberalised Enterprise Mobility policies would improve employees motivation and
engagement and thereby help organisations derive values from Knowledge To prove the concept, about 150,000 domain-specific tweets were polled from Twitters
Management. Streaming API in a week. Using text analytics techniques, actionable knowledge and
strategic insights were discovered from the data polled. As the value of the discovery is
3. There are measurable and valuable insights to be derived from a corporate in its potential to drive it towards strategic competitive advantage, the company
implementation of Big Data Analytics of its mobility and social data. officially decided to uphold and implement the knowledge gained from the experiment.

A Ph.D Research by: Supervisors:

Christopher Adetunji Prof. Leslie Carr
( (

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

The Studied Problem The political and social movements in the Arab world have received wide media
coverage in the western countries and have emphasized the role of social media in
Arab states have experienced tremendous social and such movements. The literature on the Arab Spring has generated many questions
yet to be addressed in order to fully understand how the social media affected and
political upheaval recently. These upheavals are
continue to affect the public in the Arab states. This work aims to study the
significant not only for those states, but also the emergence of online public sphere for the Arab users. The concept of public sphere
consequences on traditional social patterns and the identifies historical formation of democratic societies and it also posits a model of
impact on radically altered lives. Traditions have lost what an ideal society should be. This makes it a good candidate to use as
their decisive role in the destiny of the people in theoretical framework in order to understand the role of social media in the Arab
these situations. states. The statistical indicators suggest Facebook is providing a sphere for public
to discuss their public concerns. This research will use the techniques of social
Social divisions caused by civil war and the diasporas
network analysis to analyse the structure and the participants of this sphere and
that follow wholesale destruction have, however, how it is evolving during the political and social movements.
been penetrated by the use of new networking
technology that provides people with different
opportunities of connectivity and opens new venues
for diverse civil society groups to act as political Research Motivations
Although there is a rich literature that has been dedicated to
Social media has provided people with a medium not
only to vent their rage and despair, but also to study the recent social and political movements in the Arab
rethink their identities and values beyond the states as a manifestation of the potentials of the online social
traditional forms . This paper examines the transition networks, this literature has generated more questions to
from highly regulated and controlled web by
research on.
authoritarian regimes over the mass media and all
o Why Arab states have experienced different scenarios and
other traditional mediums to the current context of
various outcomes of their uprisings during the Arab Spring.
online connectivity. Some authors suggest that the
online social networks are enabling the emergence o The impact of social media on politics is continuous and it
of a new Arab public sphere. requires ongoing observation and analysis.

o Identifying the actors and explore how web empowers them.

Proposed Approach
o Recognize the identities chosen by users in the online
A macro-level exploration of the Arab public sphere is spheres.
problematic as the generalisation over the states would
minimise the effect of different scenarios of the events and
the initial political and economical differences of these
countries. My work proposes understanding the macro
Research Questions
phenomenon of the upheavals of the Arab states by
exploring the meso and micro views of these changes. The research questions we would like to answer are:
This work is suggesting network science as a method to do this. In particular o Are the social patterns that exist in the offline
the study of the social graph of Facebook over time to observe the changes world reproduced in the online public sphere?
in Arab public sphere as they manifest in the pattern of fragmentation in the o Do these social patterns in the online public
Facebook network. spaces evolve over the time?
Dr David Milland Dr Jeff Vass o What strategies have the Arab users adapted to
Web Science DTC Social Sciences deal with the social patterns?
University of University of
Southampton Southampton
Web Science DTC
University of

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Nic Fair

A Framework for understanding Personal Learning Networks

In a networked society, many individuals learn by autonomously creating, cultivating and activating relationships with the
people, organisations, devices and services around them in order to efficiently gather information from distributed on- and
offline sources. These relationships form their Personal Learning Network (PLN). PLNs are egocentric, socio-contextually
dependent, complex and used in different ways for different purposes in different learning contexts. They are a powerful,
modern tool through which formal and non-formal learning can occur, as they reflect the wider social changes resulting
from the World Wide Web and mobile communication technology.

The Framework for Understanding Personal Learning Networks draws conceptually on the Social Sciences approaches of
Actor Network Theory and Situational Analysis; the Educational theory of Connectivism; and the Network Science
toolkit of Social Network Analysis. It uses quantitative data to describe what PLNs look like and qualitative data to explain
why they look like that. Interaction patterns occurring across PLNs can be identified and used to inform educational
pedagogy, methodology and instructional design.
Example Social Network Graph

Example Technological Network Graph

Example Purposive Network Graph

A single Case Study records all PLN interactions over a given period using a
bespoke recording table designed for maximum data capture with mini-
mum effort. Three network graphs are the result, representing the compo-
nent Social Network / Technological Network / Purposive Network.

Where relevant the graphs can be filtered by mode of interaction (on/

offline) and learning context (formal/non-formal) - see example opposite.

The Case Study sits at the centre of each network and the frequency of
Example Filtered Purposive Network Graph
interaction between nodes is represented by the width of the edges. It is
also possible to weight interactions by their duration.

Interaction patterns can be easily identified and then explained with the
socio-contextual data captured in post-data-collection, structured inter-
view. Patterns can therefore be categorised as either specific to the Case
Studys context or generalizable across PLNs. General patterns can be used
to inform educational developments in networked learning.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018
Briony Gray Social Media and
University of
Natural Disasters: A Framework for Web 2.0

In the past decade social media and the Web have played an increasing role in emergencies and disasters,
primarily as they offer a means of two-way reliable and accessible communication. Examples of social media
include Facebook, Twitter, blogs such as Wordpress, video channels such as Youtube, professional sites such
as LinkedIn and general forums. They are used in a number of ways which range from individuals passing on
warning information, to governments distributing real-time updates or advice during an event. Social media
and Web use during disasters may be conceptualised into two broad categories: the first is used to
disseminate information and to receive communications, the second is used as a management tool.

The impact of social media in disaster situations however is reliant on a number of underlying factors. These
have been synthesised into key overriding themes that existing literature highlight at emergent areas which
require further study. Firstly, accessibility to the Web and subsequently social media is a vital consideration
to the effectiveness of online disaster management strategies. Secondly, the reliability of online information
shared on social media and other forms of communication has a direct link to the level of risk an individual
is subject to. Thirdly, usability of online sources, tools, applications and channels has clear connotations to
how effective these resources may be used. While the utility of social media during disasters remains
intriguing, many applications, tools and platforms remain either speculative, in their infancy, or have been
subject to unexplained underlying factors that subvert their potential.

In order for social media uses to be fully understood and integrated into disaster management the Web must also be
studied as it represents the intermediary between the individual, and online information. Related works synthesise
information regarding social media use/users and benefits/limitations in analysis frameworks for application to specific
disaster events, however these are lacking in key areas required for better understanding and improvements, and fail to
synthesise broad ranging information designed to be applied across multiple different disasters. This study sought to
address these gaps in knowledge by assessing the role of the Web in online disaster communications and questioning
whether this can be synthesised into disaster frameworks. Secondly, it questioned whether the incorporation of recent
literature is able to produce a more insightful analysis framework, and thus more detailed application. Finally, it sought
to evaluate whether the incorporation of an interdisciplinary perspective may broaden the explanations of said
framework, leading to more effective social media disaster management tools.

The qualitative nature of the study data, and the application to a number of varying case studies meant that a framework
was the most suitable way of synthesising information. To generate such a framework the study followed a number of

1. Relevant literature was searched for and a database made of suitable articles. These were identified through
key term searches using Google and Academic databases. The shortlist contained 59 individual papers.
2. Grounded theory and inductive coding were applied to the shortlist of papers, which produced a series of
categories explaining how and why social media was used during disasters (according to the literature).
3. Each category had appropriate sections of papers slotted in according to theme and content. This produced
a framework of 44 categories which illustrated the range of uses for social media during a disaster.
4. The framework was then applied to a case study to demonstrate relevancy and insight to a disaster situation
where social media and Web 2.0 had been used, which exceeded the usefulness of other existing frameworks.
5. Suitable conclusions were drawn from the framework application, and future suggestions provided.

The study produced a framework featuring 44 categories which took a number of considerations into account. These were broken down into the four key themes
highlighted by the literature review (accessibility, usability, reliability and effectiveness). They indicated several trends within the literature that previous
frameworks had not fully discussed or explained: firstly, there had been a rapid development in technology and software that was able to be utilised by disaster
management strategies. Secondly, there was a growing evaluation of the Web as the intermediary to social media. Finally, it was evident that offline and online
situations still differed dramatically, and that confusion between the two was a considerable limitation to the effective use of social media during disasters.

Accessibility A number of categories in the analysis framework indicated that Web accessibility remained a vital issue. This is because geographical differences
in location, household income, poverty levels, geographical internet spread and online authentication issues impacted who was able to gain access to the Web,
and therefore social media. Less economically developed countries were shown to have the lowest access to the Web during disasters, with ethnicity and location
also having a direct affect to Web access.

Reliability The reliability of information spread on social media was shown to be impacted in a number of ways throughout many framework categories. These
included unintentional spread of false information, malicious spread of information or terrorism, sharing information without verified sources or information
filtering systems not functioning as they were intended to. The categories however highlighted the fact that information reliability was an area in which individuals
and organisations were becoming increasingly critical of, leading to improved online information standards.

Usability The usability of the Web was broken down into two categories. The first was technical usability which involved the technical design, proficiency and
success of software and hardware during disasters. The framework found that this was the area in which huge improvements and investments were being made
both in research groups and on a governmental scale. These took the form of innovative tools, applications and protocols. Social usability involved the ability of
individuals to use the Web effectively and to understand the information on it. The framework showed that differences in computer literacy, the age at which
someone was first exposed to the Web, and how many technical devices and individual owned made an impact in management effectiveness.

Application and Future

The framework was applied to a dataset of Tweets from Nepal during the earthquake in April 2015, demonstrating its applicability. This case was chosen as there was little academic literature that
analysed communications in detail from the disaster. In addition to this, the disaster saw high usage of social media during all phases of the event making analysis clearer and broader. The dataset
was collected by the Southampton Web Observatory and has a sample size of 10,000 tweets. The dataset was searched for key terms highlighted by previous Twitter studies as being relevant to
identify communication patterns. Key terms included words or phrases from the framework categories to show tweets with immediate relevancy such as #earthquake, help, #nepal,
#nepalearthquake2015, aid, donate, and support.

Accessibility issues were demonstrated by tweets which stated that local Nepalese people did not own, or owned fewer, devices that could connect to the Web throughout the disaster. Reliability
issues were highlighted by the general confusion of the Facebook safety check application, which was made use of by individuals on a global scale rather than in Nepal alone. This confused rescue
efforts, and created discrepancies between online and offline situations. Reliability was also demonstrated by the lower than expected count of the standardised disaster hashtag #NepalEarthquake
in comparison to other hashtags, meaning that the spread of online information was not as easily traceable. Usability issues were shown in the manifestation of public unrest regarding the Nepalese
government. Tweets which called individuals around the world to invest in charities rather than to donate to the government for fear of corruption evidently represents underlying social factors and
political friction. The assessment of the Web as an intermediary to social media produced valuable insight to the analysis framework application, which was evidenced by the range of accessibility
issues shown in the Nepal tweet dataset. The range and depth of issues attributed to accessibility barriers meant that emerging theories regarding the Web, such as online identities and Web
perception, were able to be discussed unlike in related frameworks. Similarly, the incorporation of an interdisciplinary perspective allowed for the identification of underlying factors often overlooked
in related general frameworks, such as the presence of political frictions between the public and government.

Future development of the framework should focus on the creation of a translation system where a minimum of three individuals would translate and interpret the context of a tweet. This would ensure
a reduction in human error and/or bias, and develop a clearer idea of tweet context than individual translation alone. The application of the framework to the Nepal dataset demonstrated that the
research questions had been addressed, and that interdisciplinary, recent and Web-focus literature have produced a valuable insight to the case study. Consequently, in the future the framework may
be utilised by various tools, applications and online resources for improvements to online disaster management strategies that are both interdisciplinary and relevant.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Investigating Customer Attitudes and Preferences in Social

Media Banking
Dola Majekodunmi
Lead supervisor: Lisa Harris, Co-Supervisor: Yvonne Howard
What is Social Media Research Objectives
Banking? Social media banking refers to
the use of social media as a
form of delivery channel for To explore the adoption and
banking services. usage of social media by banks.
To identify what set of
attributes influence customers
perception and attitude
towards social media banking.

Theoretical Framework
Rogers Diffusion of Innovation

Relative Advantage
Attitudes and intention to adopt
Social Media Banking

A quantitative method approach was chosen for the study. The data used
for the study were in two categories, the primary data and secondary
data. The secondary data included a theoretical background from
journals, financial reports and market reviews of banks. The primary data
Complexity for this study was obtained directly from participants using a structured
questionnaire sent by email to University students. The questionnaire
had two sections- section one comprised of questions to obtain
information on the demographics of the respondents and section two
Trialability contained questions that collected data related to the influence of the
five attributes of innovation on the perception and attitude of
respondents to social media banking. A 5 point Likert scale (a
psychometric scale) was used and they were coded accordingly. The
questionnaire consisted of 34 questions measuring five variables. A
Observability reliability test using Cronbachs Alpha method was done to ensure
internal reliability of the multiple scale items used in the questionnaire.

Main findings
The study identified Facebook, Twitter and YouTube as the most
frequently used social channels by UK banks .
Convenience and ease of use were the major incentives for the use of
social media banking for the respondents .
Overall the respondents perceived data security and privacy as barriers to
adoption of social media banking .
The results showed that relative advantage, compatibility and trialability
were statistically significantly associated with attitudes of respondents
towards social media banking.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of
innovations, 5th edition New York: Simon &
Schuster Adult Publishing Group.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Rafael Melgarejo-Heredia
Supervisors: Prof. Leslie Carr,
Prof. Susan Halford PUBLIC WEB
While humans communicate, they create interaction spaces, where we integrate,
share, express, collaborate, and coordinate actions, within either a community
or a social structure. The Web and its infrastructure the Internet add speed
and breadth to this interaction, to this communication, to the point that,
conversations may take overall dimensions, giving the sensation of a
community entanglement, which spontaneously creates an interdependent global
space, an immeasurable transductive virtual contact-zone, through a flow of
coordination of actions that affects all participants.

Human interaction can occur in a public place, in a private area, specific

virtual environments, or within the Web. Government locates public places
for dialogue. Government transforms web-interactive spaces into functional
spaces. State-regulated media limits public sphere for debate, narrows
communication, distorting freedom of expression.

Within a hierarchical structure, communication is seen as a social function. Someone who

has power gives voice, controlling interaction space. What is the interest of claiming
voice for those who are not within the structure? Nevertheless, the Web permits all to be
connected clustering them according cultural, political and economical aspects.



Socio-technical structure Interdependent community
Give voice Co-creation through languaging
Value on data Value on action
A secure social machine A harmful free space
Mechanism Organism
Surveillance Community entanglement
Disruption, threat > Order Spontaneous, endogenous, emergent > Adap-
tation, innovation, self-organization
Functional Enactive
Ruled by a few, roles preassigned Erratic mass participation

Dynamic Balancing Conformational


Is the Public Web a languaging space?

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018


Enterprises'(MSMEs)'on'the'Global'Web!! !

Resource Based View Theory! Tacit = Local !Codified = Global!

Business! Geography
(Strategic Management)! (Economic Geography)!

Why'this'research?' Using! a! case! study! of! a! microIenterprise! in! the!

Resource! based! view! theory! (RBV)! analyses! the! Netherlands,! a! country! with! a! high! World! Economic!
importance!of!developing!intangible!resources!for!a! Forum! Network' Readiness' 2015! score,! this! thesis!
business.! The! idea! that! tacit! knowledge! is! more! takes! an! interdisciplinary! approach! to! assessing! the!
local! than! codied! knowledge! is! expressed! in! extent! to! which! locaBon! maQers! in! MSMEs!
economic! geography! and! examines! the! eect! of! development!of!intangible!assets!using!the!web.!!
spaBality! on! businesses.! Both! assess! how! this! !
aects!a!businesss!compeBBveness,!however!they! It! does! this! through! incorporaBng! theories! such! as!
insuciently' consider' the' impact' of' the' web' on! born'global,!social'construcPon'of'technology,!small'
the! ability! for! MSMEs! to! develop! intangible! assets! world' phenomenon! in! online' social' networks' and!
despite! the! pervasiveness! of! the! web! globally,! for! digital' literacy.! It! also! explores! the! way! that! tacit!
businesses!and!consumers.!! knowledge!is!being!developed!and!exchanged!through!
global! online! interacBon! and! how! the! web! is!

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Identity Assurance
technical implementation in the UK and its legal implications
Niko Tsakalakis | Supervised by: Dr. Kieron OHara | Dr. Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon

Introduction and Scope

Gov.UK Verify is the first national electronic identity management (eIDM) scheme that uses identification functions provided by the private-sector. While still in evaluation (currently in
public beta), this study examines its acclaimed privacy-preserving implementation against requirements imposed by national and international obligations.

Overview of Identity Management Systems Gov.UK Verify

eID Management Systems are designed to serve three Gov.UK Verify is UKs first attempt at eIDM after the
functions [1]: Figure 1: Federated Identity Management architecture [4] unsuccessful Identity Cards Bill. It is designed around a user-
Authentication: A can prove to B that he is A; no one else centric federated model (Figure 2).
can prove to B that they are A.
Software based solution, using HTTP transmissions and
Identification: A can prove to B that he is A; B cannot SAML 2.0 assertions
prove to anyone that he is A.
User accessible through username/password tokens
Signing: A can prove to B that he is A; B cannot prove even
to himself that he is A. Public-sector central authority (Central Hub [CH]) acting
They have been used in national schemes to provide high as an intermediary between users and providers.
certainty in eGovernment transactions:
Multiple private-sector Identity Providers (IdP)
Ease of use: Single Sign On (SSO)
Governmental services through separately contracted
Security: Multiple-factor authentication
Service Providers (SP)
Trust: Auditing trails
Actors bound by G2G (CH with SP), G2B (CH to IdP) and
They usually complement pre-existing national ID cards G2C (CH to users) eGovernance models
schemes, but other solutions (e.g. username/password) have
been employed. Regulated by the 9 Identity Assurance Principles (Table 2)

User-centric Federated eIDM

Figure 2: Gov.UK Verify architecture Implications of implementation
Federated eIDM (Figure 1) allows for [2]:
Relationships between the different actors are shaped by the
Anonymity: Use of a resource without disclosing the users
identity different contractual obligations each party has taken up. Still
all functions of the system need to adhere to the Identity
Unlinkability: A user may re-use a resource without the
system being able to link these uses together Assurance Principles, the Data Protection Act and
Table 1: Classification of Gov.UK Verify
(eventually) the eIDAS Regulation.
Unobservability: Third parties cannot observe a resource
is being used Four areas of concern have been identified:
Pseudonymity: A user does not disclose their identity but
is still accountable for their activity Spoke and Hub architecture; concerns that the system
offers partial only unlinkability and pseudonymity [3]
Federated eIDM is technology agnostic, with possible use of
contradict the Identity Assurance Principles it was built
software or hardware tokens, biometrics etc. It counters
security and privacy risks of earlier implementations, such as:
Selective attribute disclosure; without support for selective
Central databases, single points of failure / attack
release of attributes, there is a question if the system will
Data control under a single entity
compromise security when inter-operating with more
Easier profiling of activity robust systems that support this function.
Table 2: the 9 Identity Assurance Principles [5]
User agreements; T&Cs and privacy agreements users have
Principle Summary of purpose to sign with each party vary a lot in clarity and detail, with
Identity assurance activities can only take place if the user
User Control consents or approves them; users can exercise control over some not fully conforming to the requirements of the
Legal regulation of eIDM them
Identity assurance only takes place in ways the user knows DPA.
about and understands
In 2014, the EU enacted the eIDAS Regulation. Though the Multiplicity
Users can choose and use as many different identity
providers as they want to Contractual obligations; service agreements between
Regulation was designed to act as a legal framework for Data Minimisation
User interactions only use the minimum data necessary to
meet system needs parties severely limit the liability of private-sector actors.
cross-border eID use, it is expected to form the new norm in Data Quality Records are updated only upon users choice
Service User Access and Portability
Copies of all data are provided to users upon request; all This can leave member-state exposed, as it cannot escape
eIDM governance. eIDAS sets out minimum requirements: data can be moved / removed if users wish so
All participants of the Identity Assurance Service have to be its liability under eIDAS.
certified against common governance requirements
Technology agnostic legal harmonisation Dispute Resolution An independent Third Party handles disputes
Exceptional Circumstances
Any exception has to be approved by Parliament and is Identity rights; with common law lacking a clearly defined
3 Identity Assurance Levels (Low to High) subject to independent scrutiny
right to identity, questions of sufficient protection against
Member-states have discretion to notify their national eID identity misuse arise compared to jurisdictions with clear
protections of identity rights, such as Germany or France.
Notification of the scheme makes it available across
Other member-states are obliged to accommodate References:
notified schemes [1] Fiat, A. and A. Shamir, How To Prove Yourself: Practical Solutions to Identification and Signature Problems, in Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO 86, A.M. Odlyzko,
Editor 1987, Springer Berlin Heidelberg 186-194.
Ultimate liability for the performance of a scheme lies [2] Arora, S., National e-ID card schemes: A European overview. Information Security Technical Report, 2008. 13(2) 46-53.
with the notifying member-state [3] Brando, L., N. Christin, and G. Danezis, Toward Mending Two Nation-Scale Brokered Identification Systems. Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies,
2015(2) 135
[4] Clarke, R., Identity Management: The Technologies, Their Business Value, Their Problems, Their Prospects, in Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, at, March 2004
[5] Cabinet Office, Privacy and Consumer Advisory Group: Draft Identity Assurance Principles, 2013

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2014 2018

Music Recommender Systems as

Cultural Intermediaries:
A Theoretical Framework

Cultural Cultural
Producers Consumers

mediate$between$the$production/consumption$of$culture.$They$are$underpinned$ by$their$cultural$
How might Bourdieus theories be extended to think about recommender
systems? How might other theories be combined to achieve this?
Bourdieu Actor'Network'Theory
Capital$(economic,$cultural,$social)$is$the$ The$social/material$world$understood$in$terms$of$
accumulation$of$labour in$all$its$forms heterogeneous$(human/non)$actorDnetworks$
Cultural$capital is$the$basis$of$legitimacy$and$ There$is$a$delegation$of$labour amongst$actors$in$
expertise$of$intermediaries order$to$make$technologies$exist$and$function
Habitus$is$the$internalised norms$of$the$field$of$ Delegation$results$in$the$prescription$of$behavior$
relations$and$it$manifests$in$regulated$practice between$human/non$actors$in$an$actorDnetwork

delegated'labour amongst$human/nonDhuman$actors$in$a$socioDtechnical$system
Habitus and$regulatory$norms$of$the$field$manifests$in$the$prescription'of'behavior'

Jack Webster
Prof. Susan Halford, Dr. Brian Hracs &
Dr. Nick Gibbins

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Knowledge, stored as hypertext, doesnt naturally retain its relevance. The knowledge
may evolve or become obsolescent, as may its context within the web of other
hypermedia. Curation of the media persists the data but not necessarily its meaning or
relevance. How is this relevance retained:

Are appropriate tools available? How may Spatial Hypertext help?

How is knowledge re-factored without excessive link breakage?

Who undertakes this task in collaborative hypertexts and what is their skill-set?

How is this work privileged over other contributors yet given proper oversight?

Curation Skill-set

Trust Context
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Meaning Link Breakage

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Formalisms Visualisation
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tristique. Vivamus

Narrative Spatial Hypertext


Tyranny of Search Emergent Structure

Trails Tools

Mark Anderson

Web Science Supervisor: Professor Les Carr


Mark Anderson:

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

The key question:

Emerging a
What is the extent of the Web
Science Subject?
This study explores the feasibility of creating a
definitive subject definition for Web Science. This
work uses a bottom up approach to document
current Web Science related material, including
compiling details of current Web Science taught
programmes available, in order to answer the
question What is Web Science? Further Research
What is taught as Web
Want to
contribute? What is the taught definition of Web Science, and
Do you have a background is there a difference between existing subject
definitions and what is taught as Web Science
in Web Science or a related across the world?
Take the online survey: How is Web Science taught? How do people structure their web science taught
programmes? What are the different types of
(Or scan the QR code) courses offered by institutions?
(e.g. Masters, PhD, or online MOOCs?)
What are the regional variations in how Web
Science is taught?
Web Science Teaching
Institutions identified which teach a Web
Science or related programme or module:
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Oxford Internet Institute For more information
British university in Egypt - EL Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
SHEROUK CITY, Cairo, Egypt RWTH Aachen University please contact:
Cologne University, Germany Saint-Joseph University of Beirut
Eindhoven University of
The University of Edinburgh:
School of Social and Political Elisabeth Ann Coskun
Georgia Tech University
Goldsmiths London
UAH MediaLab, University of
Johannes Kepler University Linz Alcal (Spain) Follow me on Twitter
Korea Advanced Institute of University College London
Science and Technology (KAIST) University of Erlangen-Nrnberg @eacwebsci
MIT - Massachusetts Institute of University of Koblenz-Landau, Supervisor: Su White
Technology Institute for Web Science and
Northwestern University School of Technologies, 2nd Supervisor: ThanassisTiropanis
Communication University of Liverpool
University of Southampton, UK

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017


RQ1:$ How$ do$ the$ privacy$ policies$ of$ online$

services$ currently$ talk$ formally$ about$ the$
personal$data$that$they$collect?(( (
RQ2:$ Is$ it$ a$ legal$ requirement$ to$ inform$ (
individuals$ of$ the$ specic$ personal$ data$
which$is$being$collected$from/about$them?$$$ (
RQ3:$ What$ are$ the$ reasons$ for$ informing$ (
individuals$ of$ the$ specic$ personal$ data$ L Who(I(am((
being$gathered$about$them?$$$ L The(purpose(for(borrowing(it((
L What(I(would(use(it(for(
L Who(else(I(might(give(it(to((
RQ4:$ What$ are$ the$ issues$ involved$ with$ L Whether(you(have(a(choice(to(give(it(
informing$ individuals$ about$ the$ specic$ L How(long(I(would(keep(it(for((
personal$ informa+on$ being$ gathered$ about$ (
them?$$ Is#there#anything#else#you#would#like#to#know?#


Wisdom:$ Accumulated( knowledge.( Allows( informa6on,$ knowledge,$ and$ some6mes$
understanding( of( how( to( apply( concepts( from( wisdom,$with$respect$to$one$another$and$to$
one( domain( to( new( situa>ons( or( problems.(
Ability( to( see( beyond( the( horizon( and( to( act( iden6fy$and$describe$the$processes$involved$
cri>cally(or(prac>cally(in(any(given(situa>on.( in$ transforming$ a$ lower$ level$ en6ty$ in$ the$
Knowledge:$ Created( by( establishing( links( with( level$in$the$hierarchy$(e.g.$informa6on).$$
e x i s > n g( k n o w l e d g e ,( i n f o r m a > o n ,(
understanding,( capability,( experience,( skills( Knowledge$$

purpose,(provides(answers(to(who,(what,( Informa+on$ Classica>on,( rearranging/sor>ng,( aggrega>ng,(
where(and(when(ques>ons.(( performing( calcula>ons( upon,( and( selec>on( of( data(
Data:$ Symbols( without( context,( lacks( Data$
meaning( or( value,( is( unorganised( and(

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017
Digital(CiEzenship( ci1zenship#to#build#a#stronger#founda1on#for#a#

My# work# is# intended# for# those# interested# in# digital# ci1zenship# and# shaping# a# founda1on# for# a# pro9human# future# for# the# Web,# through#

Digital# ci1zenship# and# the# pro9human# future# of# the# Web# have# Web 3.0
been# fervently# debated,# forming# diverse# interpreta1ons;# only#
now# is# an# emerging# associa1on# being# made,# moving# beyond# an#
implicit# rela1onship.# A# complex# issue# in# its# own# right,# digital#
Digital Citizens, not
na1on9state# ci1zenship.# As# such,# liPle# recogni1on# iden1es# the#

Likewise,# a# Pro9human# Web# is# tenta1vely# expressed# as#
fundamental# to# its# future.# Yet,# this# is# dominated# by# a# pressing#
epistemological# vision# to# realise# the# Seman1c# Web# 3.0;# # future#
direc1on# is# ambiguous.# Therefore,# I# propose# a# theore1cal#
of# a# hermeneu1c# circle,# which# u1lises# a# discussion# that# moves#
back# and# forth# between# the# individual# components# of# digital#
ci1zenship# and# the# whole# of# the# Pro9human# Web,# to# illustrate#

Discussion# PASSPORT
Web# is# grounding# it# in# digital# ci1zenship,# rather# than# seman1cs.#
realised# simultaneously.# We# must# deconstruct# current# debates#
about# digital# ci1zenship,# ques1oning# their# robustness.# Indeed,#
many# of# these# are# ambiguously# aligned# to# scholarship# of# Conclusion#
barely# extended# physical# ci1zenship,# rather# than# actual# digital# The# vision# of# a# Seman1c# Web# and# a# Pro9human# Web,#
ci1zenship,# so# nega1ng# of# socio9technical# and# co9cons1tu1onal# characterised# by# digital# ci1zenship,# aord# clashing#
views#which#must#be#considered#in#discussion#and#deni1on.## epistemological#and#ontological#posi1ons;#top9down,#technically#
# determinis1c,# and# boPom9up,# socio9technical# revolu1ons,#
Such# debates,# in# fact,# fail# to# link# digital# ci1zenship# to# digital# necessita1ng# further# explora1on.# Hence,# both# the# Pro9human#
rights#and#responsibili1es.#We#must,#then,#reinforce#the#posi1on# Web#and#post9na1onal#digital#ci1zenship#necessitate#equality#of#
that# digital# ci1zenship# is# a# post9na1onal# and# postmodernist# digital# rights# and# responsibili1es# across# the# global# stage,# with#
concept,#rather#than#a#ci1zenship#bolt#on.#Whilst#many,#such#as# scholarship#developing#mechanisms#to#realise#this#universally.##
Berners9Lee# (2014),# argue# for# such# recogni1on,# this# remains# #
largely#abstract#regarding#ci1zenship#scholarship.#Hence,#views#of# In#future#reconstruc1ons#and#discussions,#we#must#shape#digital#
digital#ci1zenship#must#be#reconstructed#with#a#deni1on#rooted# ci1zenship# within# the# Pro9human# Web# by# ensuring# recogni1on#
in# self9determina1on# of# ci1zens# who# are# digitally# situated,# but# of# the# changing# aYtudes# towards# na1onality,# as# individuals#
globally# located# and# networked.# To# accomplish# this,# we# must# become#globally#connected#in#a#post9na1onal#globalised#society.#
realise# a# framework# of# digital# rights# and# responsibili1es# that# are# The# Web# is# dened# by# social# and# the# technical# solu1ons;# we#
oset#against,#but#dis1nct#from,#contemporary#human#rights.# need#both#to#ensure#a#future#vision#grounded#in#digital#rights.##
# !(

BernersGLee,( T.( (2014).( Tim( BernersGLee( on( the( Web( at( 25:( the(
Marshall,( T.H.( (1950).( Ci.zenship! And! Social! Class:! and! other!

Mossberger,( K.,( Tolbert,( J.( McNeal,( R.( (2008).( Digital! Ci.zenship,!


Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Predicting Selections from Past Performance

Data: A Case Study Predicting Winners of
Horse Racing
Conrad DSouza 1,2, Ruben Sanchez-Garcia 2, Tiejun Ma 3,
Johnnie Johnson 3, Ming-Chien Sung 3
Web Science Doctoral Training Centre, 2 Mathematical Sciences, 3 Centre for Risk Research,
University of Southampton

score functions vary. However, by taking the dierence this ranking information. We can also measure the accu-
between the scores both voters assign a pairwise score racy of predictions made from both the betting market
of 2 to the pair {i, j}. Thus pairwise scores reduce the information and the ranking.
We aim to apply Topological Data Analysis (TDA) tech- eect of the subjectivity of the local rankings.
niques to predict which alternative will be selected based Based on these results, adjustments have made to the
on past selections. These selections can refer to the prod- HodgeRank algorithm which have improved the predic-
ucts bought in online marketplaces by consumers or the 3. Graphical Representation tive ability of the rankings generated. These alterations
behaviour exhibited by users online, amongst other inter- include varying the importance of each race and placing
pretations. We can graphically represent score functions and pairwise greater emphasis on better results.
The algorithm used in this project is adapted from scores by a simplicial complex. The vertices (nodes)
HodgeRank, a method for ranking alternatives and iden- of this complex are the alternatives to be ranked. Pairs 6. Results
tifying inconsistencies in datasets. Applying a more so- of alternatives are joined by an edge if a voter has scored
phisticated version of the algorithm, we generate rankings both alternatives and the direction of the edge indicates We have applied the improved HodgeRank algorithm to
and use them as the basis of the predictions. which alternative is preferred. three years of past data and the rankings produced have
Figure 1 shows a score function, f0, and pairwise scoring been used as a predictive variable for two years of fu-
Horse racing is used as a case study with the aim of bet-
function, f1, of 4 alternatives. ture observations. Two conditional logit models were
ter predicting the winners of horse races from a dataset
created, one with just the betting market information
of past results from 2008 to 2012.
and the other which included the ranking predictive vari-
Applying the ranking as a predictive variable to future, able. Comparing these models, the following results were
unseen data, predictions of the winners are made and obtained:
compared to the recorded outcomes.
Table 1: Conditional Logit Model Results

1. Ranking Problems e2 e2 increase

Model R R LLR
Betting Market 0.163754 - -
A ranking is an ordering of a collection of n alternatives incl. Ranking 0.164023 0.000269 11.55073
V = {1, ..., n} according to some measure of preference.
An optimal ranking is one which is the best solution to Using the pseudo correlation coecient, R e2, as a mea-
the ranking problem, although this is not well defined. sure of predictive ability, the predictive model incorpo-
Figure 1: Simplicial Complex Representation
Ranking problems are subject to a variety of challenges rating the predictive ranking variable had 0.164% greater
including the heterogeneity of ranking problems and the predictive ability than the model excluding it.
number of alternatives. There can be missing direct comparisons, as seen in Fig- A Log Likelihood Ratio (LLR) test statistic was calcu-
HodgeRank attempts to reduce the impact of two spe- ure 1 by the lack of an edge between nodes 3 and 4. lated for both of the later models. This is a statistical
cific challenges, subjectivity and incompleteness, which However these missing entries are compensated for by test which measures whether the information in a model
both occur in horse racing. the paths between the nodes which are indirect compar- is also contained in a simpler model which contains less
isons of pairs of alternatives. predictive variables. If this is case, the more complex
Subjectivity: Information used to solve ranking model is redundant and unnecessarily complex.
Using simplicial cohomology to analyse the simplicial
problems may be subjective which can produce incon-
complex, HodgeRank attempts to find a global scor- Comparing this statistic to a chi-squared distribution, the
sistencies in the ranking solution.
ing function, s, which best matches the local pairwise corresponding p-value is 0.000677. Hence there is evi-
Incompleteness: Large databases are prone to con- scores by solving an optimisation problem. dence at the 1% significance level that the information
taining a significant number of missing entries. Solu- contained in the global ranking is not accounted for by
tions based upon databases containing missing entries A global ranking can be created by the rule that alter-
native i is ranked higher than alternative j if s(i) > s(j). the betting market.
may not be optimal if these entries were complete
These tests indicate that the improved HodgeRank algo-
Races can be considered as subjective as each race is rithm is able to extract more information from past per-
4. Inconsistencies
dierent. The conditions, including distance, weather formance data than the betting market does, resulting in
and strength of competition, vary amongst races. Di- better predictions.
rectly comparing the results of races does not factor these The error between the global scoring function and the
changes in. local pairwise scores is the residual. The size of the
residual measures how well the global scoring function 7. Discussion
A complete dataset would have been formed if every horse matches the aggregated pairwise scores formed from all
raced in every race. However, the dataset indicated that the voters. Applying an improved version of HodgeRank to horse rac-
each of the 36151 races was competed in by approxi- ing data, we have been able to form predictions for future
mately 10 of the 37782 horses which ran over the 5 years. Applying Hodge Theory, we can decompose the residual
into consistent and inconsistent parts to identify which races which are better than those of the betting market.
Thus the dataset contained more than 99.97% missing
entries. alternatives are responsible for the errors. There is scope for improving the underlying method, from
theoretical and practical standpoints, with the aim of pro-
5. Application to Horse Racing ducing more accurate predictions and work is currently
2. Pairwise Scores
being undertaken to explore dierent avenues.
HodgeRank relies on pairwise scores formed from the vot- Considering horses as alternatives and races as votes, the Part of this work will involve identifying inconsistencies
ers scores. A local score function f is assigned to HodgeRank method can be applied to rank horses by their in dataset and understanding their nature. This will lead
each voter where f (i) is the voters score of the i-th past performances. to the development of sophisticated tools to measure the
alternative. quality of a dataset and identify the areas of it which are
A conditional logit model is used to make predictions erroneous.
For each voter, we calculate local pairwise scores by and testing these predictions, we can assess the predic-
taking the dierence between the scores of each pair of al- tive ability of the rankings and hence the utility of the Case studies applying the algorithm to dierent Web-
ternatives ranked by the voter. If the voter has not scored mode. based prediction problems will be conducted. These will
both alternatives, the corresponding local pairwise score lead to further improvements to the methodology as well
Each conditional logit model contains a predictive vari- as demonstrating the usefulness and scalability of the im-
is set to 0. able based on information from the betting market. proved HodgeRank algorithm and underlying TDA meth-
If two voters rank alternative i as 3rd and 5th respectively Adding the ranking variable to this model, we can de- ods.
and alternative j as 4th and 6th respectively, then their termine whether the betting market already accounts for

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Supervised by Prof. Luc Moreau and Prof. Susan Halford

Web Science Center for Doctoral Training, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, SO17 1BJ

Back on the Track of Do Not Track:

Raising Transparency in the Online Behavioural Tracking Ecosystem
Faranak Hardcastle (
Introduction Transparency and Accountability Tracking Extension
In the past decade Online Behavioural Tracking (OBT) has become a common (TATE)
business model for online advertisers and publishers. OBT refers to a set of TATE is a sociotechnical intervention that leverages the provisions of W3C DNT
technologies and mechanisms that allow advertisers to collect information about specification to raise visibility of OBT practices and promote accountability in the
users online behaviour (e.g. browsing history), infer users interests based on this OBT ecosystem by empowering Internet Governance to gain oversight on OBT
information, classify users into profiles, and target users with ads. On the one practices, enabling them to identify issues and intervene if needed, and ultimately
hand it is argued that the revenue generated from these business models to increase consumers control over the collection, usage and sharing of their data.
supports the free publication of content on the Web. On the other hand, the
evolution of these practices has brought implications in areas such as privacy TATEs core functionality:
and security [1,2,3,4], fairness and equity [4,5,6], and trust and chilling effects
[4,7] for consumers. 1. Repository: TATEs repository contains information communicated by OBT
companies via DNT, and enables retrieval by user agents in a machine-readable

As the experience of viewing a page is seamless to

the viewers, they might not notice that they are actually
2.Governance Framework: TATE defines access and usage control for its
interacting with several websites and not only one website. repository.
A Lack of Visibility of OBT practices leads to:

A Lack of Control for Consumers

Inability to investigate and study OBT issues, perform
risk-assessment, or reform the OBT ecosystem to
provide protection for consumers. Figure 1. Illustrating some of the user
agents interactions after visiting
and clicking on the News tab [8].

Figure 3.[9]

Conclusion and Future Work

As part of answering how to raise transparency in OBT practices we continue an
iterative process of analysing TATEs technical requirements by overcoming the
shortcomings of DNT in providing the tracking information required whilst
prioritising user requirements (see Figure 2 and Figure 3).

However, having transparency does not make OBT practices accountable. This
raises a second question: `How to increase accountability in OBT practices? As
part of our future work, we plan to find answers to this by exploring mechanisms
that enable and encourage OBT entities to adopt and engage with DNT and
TATE. Additionally we aim to investigate the potential future implementation of
Figure 2.[9] them from the lens of Science and Technology Studies.

1. Mayer, J. R. & Mitchell, J. C. (2012),Third-party web tracking: Policy and technology. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP '12). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 413-427. Available at
2. Narayanan, A. & Shmatikov, V. ( 2008), Robust de-anonymization of large sparse datasets. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP '08). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, 111-125. Available at
3. Lohr, S. (2013), Sizing up big data, broadening beyond the Internet. The New York Times. Available at, Last accessed oct 2015.
4. Ramirez, E. (2013), The Privacy Challenges of Big Data: A View from the Lifeguards Chair. Available at, Last accessed June 2015.
5. Singer, N. F.T.C. (2013), F.T.C Member Starts Reclaim Your Name Campaign for Personal Data. The Business of Technology (BITS). Available at, Last accessed Oct 2015.
6. Barocas, S. (2014), Panic Inducing: Data Mining, Fairness, and Privacy. Phd dissertation, New York University.
7. Madden, M. (2014), Public Perceptions of Privacy and Security. Pew Research Center. at
8. Using an open source platform for measuring dynamic web content developed by Stanford Security Lab and The Center for Internet and Society Available at .
9. Some of the information used in these diagrams are based on; Acar, G. et al. (2014), The Web never forgets: Persistent tracking mechanisms in the wild. in Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security 674689. Available at; and
Cookie Matching, Google Developers, Available at, Last accessed June 2015.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) can be defined as psychoactive drugs which are not prohibited by the Misuse of Drugs Act
1971, and which people in the UK are seeking for intoxicant use. By declaring NPS as not for human consumption, these substances
can be sold legally online to anyone with a credit or debit card. Within the UK, popular rhetoric has created a connection between NPS,
the web and todays youth, resulting in fear and panic over the ease of access to these substances and the threat this provides to young
people. Within this discourse, the web is posited through a technologically determinist stance, viewed simply as a deviant and dangerous
place which both increases access to, and heavily promotes the use of NPS. Youth are placed as vulnerable, unable to resist the webs
temptations as well as being unable to evaluate the information presented to them. In this way, societal fears are often oversimplified,
ignoring the complexity of the relationship between the web and the NPS user. This research aims to establish how young people
themselves view their relationship with the web, and whether they construct the web as a viable resource for obtaining NPS. By learning
about youths own opinions we are in a better position to tackle the problem of NPS, particularly to assess whether the web can
conversely be used as a site for risk minimisation as opposed to risk amplification.



Britains youth are and offering special
in severe danger services such as
from deadly so called delivery within
legal highs that are camouflaged
threatening to packaging. Detective
overwhelm the Brian Smith from the
country. And even Metropolitan police
worse, they could be yesterday warned
in your home right parents to stay
now. Legal highs can vigilant: Do you
be bought online with really know what your
the click of the button child is ordering
and delivered to your online? These legal
door the very next highs cause death
day. Cunning sellers and destruction
specifically advertise you must check the
to children, marketing packages your
the drugs under children receive from
popular brand names online stores.

Research Questions Methods

How do young people construct the web as a factor in their A mixed methods approach integrating some quantitative and
NPS use? predominately qualitative research will be employed with multiple
How do young peoples peer group effect their interpretations? stages. The proposed form of the research aims to both allow for
Do young people construct their NPS use differently online and offline comparisons inter and intra group, and to build
dependent on the space/social context? upon information generated through each stage of the research
Do beliefs differ in the online/offline environment? to inform and structure subsequent parts of the study; for
Do different peer groups behave in similar ways? example data gained from initial surveys will be used to generate
Do offline factors effect online usage and vice questions for the interviews. Methods used will include:
versa? Online and offline surveys
Does the web provide a suitable space to administer NPS Online observation
harm reduction advice?
Online and offline interviews
What do young NPS users desire from such a
space? Online and offline focus groups

Laura Hyrjak, PhD student

Supervisors: Charlie Walker, Catherine Pope and Gethin Rees

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017


Research'' Abstract' Completed''

Ques:ons'' Whilst!Electronic!Lab!Notebooks!(ELNs)!
! !have!acQvely!been!studied!over!the!years,!there!! Research'Objec:ves''
1.!What!are!the!approaches!that!! sQll!exist!many!relevant!concepts!that!have!not!been!! !
! explored,!such!as!uQlizing!cloud!technologies.!Most!ELNs! !
creaQng!an!ELN?! are!commercially!licensed!products,!whose!enQre!notebook! !
! systems!created!from!scratch;!few!are!plaTorm!independent,! !
2.!What!is!an!appropriate! and!a!majority!do!not!make!use!of!modern!Web!technologies.! !
environment!to!create!an! They!therefore!lack!both!the!exibility!and!agility!expected!by! plaTorms!for!creaQng!an!ELN!
ELN!with?! this!generaQons!students.!While!academia!has!explored!some! environment!with.!
! of!these!areas!(e.g!incorporaQng!SemanQc!Web!technologies)! !
! !
these!invesQgaQons.!My!research!explores!the!concept!of! !
! and!applies!domain!knowledge!where!necessary.!
Current'' !Web!to!transport!scienQc!research!!
Research'Objec:ves' into!the!digitally!driven!!
! 21st!Century.!!
! Paper'vs'Electronic''
4.!Research!proper!ELN!pracQce! Lab'Notebooks''
! !
! Paper! ! Electronic!!
Portable! Searchable!
! Securely!stored! Shareable!
No!power!supply! !
! Replicable!
Easy!data!entry! ! CollaboraQve!
Robustness! Electronic!Backup!
R&D! Rapid!access! ! Audit!Trail!
QA/QC! Mark!pages!! Version!Control!
Chemistry! !

Chemistry!ELNs! Survey'of'Chemistry'So0ware'Usage'
' Other!

' SemanQc!Web!

'' Chemistry!Bibliographic!Database!

0! 10! 20! 30! 0! 5! 10! 15!






0! 20! 40! 60! 80! 100! 120! 140!

So#ware( to( draw( all( chemistry( diagrams," Markush! structures," Open"
UCD!! 'Source," Convert' all' chemical' formats' to' other' formats," Calculate( mw(
mol( and( yields( from( mass( data( input," Create! rectangular! Nano!
parQcles," Crystal" structure" predic4on," Input' tools' for' LAMMPS,(
Graphing( So#ware," Calculate! funcQonal! groups! connecQng! atom!
classes," Retrosynthesis" probabili4es," Database' of' computa:onal'
Ethnography!! Approaches' results," 3D( data( rendering( so#ware," Bejer! integraQon," Web" based"
CollaboraQon!! exisQng!tools!with!each!other!""
Cloud! "
" ""

Solu:on' PlaTorm!Independent!

Domain!Specic!! 2.!Analyze!strengths!and!weaknesses!of!past!systems!

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Examining the activated patient: A qualitative study

Amy Lynch
of how and why diabetic patients use the Web to aid
self-management of their disease Catherine Pope &
Jeff Vass

What is Diabetes? A metabolic disease that develops when blood glucose is too high.
Blood levels have to be regulated.
What causes
Diabetes? Age Ethnicity

1 in 17 people have diabetes Diabetes is expensive. It cost the NHS 24 billion

In the UK 10% of people have Type 1 approx in 2014.
90% of people have Type 2 Diabetes prevalence is increasing, so there is a push
Gestational Diabetes impacts up for patients to become more efficient self-managers
to 5% of pregnancies of their condition.

Self-management may involve

insulin doses, medication, diet
and exercise Diabetes requires complicated Self-Management

Diabetes prevalence Is increasing and the Web is seen as a useful tool to support disease

Research Questions:
How is chronic illness self-management changing with the continued growth of social networking
sites and personal health tracking devices?

How are technology and policy intersecting to influence healthcare and health service delivery?

Are people with diabetes activated patients? How are activated patients discursively constructed?

How are different groups impacted by these changes?

Sociology Computer Health

How are activated
Science Science
patients discursively Interviews with
constructed? How can research
healthcare professionals
How do structural influence HCI and
and patients
influences impact self- software enginerring to
Can we implement
management in this new develop better
sociotechnical systems
climate? sociotechnical systems?
in healthcare?

Research Objectives:
To examine patient activity within public support groups pertaining to different Types of diabetes (Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes) on

social networking sites using non-participant ethnography

To interview patients to understand their perspectives on incorporating the Web, particularly social networking sites and internet-connected
wearable technology, into diabetes self-management
To interview healthcare professionals, investigating the integration of online communication and wearable technology into their healthcare
To examine the discursive construction of the activated patient through policy analysis, as well as content analysis of social networking pages
operated by charities

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Navigating the dangers of victim blaming

and scapegoating within UK cyber security

In researching cybercrime,
what can critical victimology
tell us that positivist
victimology cannot?

Within cybercrime In everyday life, do citizens

discourse, how is practice what the
the victim government and their
constructed? And employers preach to them
with what on cyber security? And if
implications? not, why not?

Researcher: Supervisory Team:

Dr Gethin Rees
Neil MacEwan
Dr Tim Chown
Dr Craig Webber

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

the Politics and Performativity of Web Archiving
Context @ j es s o g den
Since the mid-1990s institutions such as national
libraries and the Internet Archive have been archiving
the Web through the harvesting, collection and Motivations for Web Archiving
preservation of web objects (e.g. websites, web
pages and social media) in web archives [1]. Much of
the focus of the web archiving community has been
on the continued development of technologies and
Facilitate long-term maintenance and
practices for web collection development [2], with
preservation of scholarly citations and
increased attention in recent years on facilitating the
unpublished academic outputs
scholarly use of web archives [3].
Support web-based research, including
This research will take a step back to consider the discursive, textual, structural or feature
place of web archives in light of postmodernism, the analyses of web content
archival turn [4] and emergent questions over the
ever-expansive role of the archive in everyday life.
One of the main characteristics of web archiving is
that the process of archiving itself may change
Often required as part of public record
retainment of government Web presence
what is archived, thus creating something that is Non-print legal deposit laws for deposition
Digital Heritage
not necessarily identical to what was once online.[5] of digital online publications

Web archives have been positioned Regulatory compliance for private sector
as tools for the collection and web-based document retention
storage of digital cultural heritage
Problematising Web Archiving Motivations move beyond saving
Web archives embody a variety of meanings and websites to also saving social Technologies
forms within different communities of practice, as context that give web resources
dictated by the circumstances of their creation and meaning [8] Pace of web development
use. The mechanisms and circumstances surrounding Missing elements in
the production of web archives are fundamental to harvested data
understanding them as new forms of social data [6]. Challenges Path dependencies in
This research proposes to re-situate web archives as
collection software
places of knowledge and cultural production in their Legal and Ethical
own right, by implicating both the web archivist and Social media archives
technologies in the shaping of the politics of Limitations of access due to reliant on data access
ephemerality [7] that lead to the creation, copyright restrictions regimes dictated by APIs
maintenance and use of web archives. In short: Ethical implications of data defining the object
collection without consent Consequences of epistemological/ontological
Issues of achieving perspectives on selection + collection practices
how does web archival practice (the who, (geographic, language) and their role in determining use
what and how) change what is known representativeness of a Web archives as subjective reconstructions of
global Web the live Web
about the Web?

Framing the Approach

Theoretical Framework Methodology: Work in Progress
This study will identify key underlying This research will use ethnographic methods (interviews, participant observation)
assumptions about what the Web is (e.g. a to document the routine activities of archival practice and the typical patterns of
Web of Documents, abstract information
Technologies work as exhibited through the problems and solutions which arise in the collection
space), what of the contemporary Web is
Values Culture and maintenance of web archives.
(or isnt) being archived, and the relative
affordances for web archival practice and Performativity
scholarly use. Drawing on critical
approaches to information, Science and Knowledge
Technology Studies (STS) and Web Production

Science, this research will engage with the Jason Scott

performativity of web archiving, the
practices of selection, collection and A minimum of three case studies will be conducted in a variety of online and offline
classification as forms of knowledge Economics politics settings with different communities actively engaged in web archiving. The focus
production, and the possible implications will be to gather first hand observations of archival practice, considering each as a
for a socio-technical understanding of Web Archival Practice set of socio-technical actions with situated meanings that differ across
web archives. organisational, disciplinary and geographic settings.
To Be continued

References 3. Dougherty, M. & Meyer, E.T., 2014. Community, Tools, and

Practices in Web Archiving: The State-of-the-Art in Relation to
5. Stoler, A.L., 2002. Colonial archives and the arts of governance.
Archival Science, 2(1-2), pp.87109.
1. Adar, E. et al., 2009. The Web Changes Everything: Social Science and Humanities Research Needs. Journal of the 6. Lupton, D., 2015. Digital Sociology, London: Routledge. Brewster Kahle: Educause
Understanding the Dynamics of Web Content. In Proceedings Jason Scott: By pinguino k from North Hollywood, USA
Supervisors: Susan Halford & Les Carr of Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM) 2009. Web Search
Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(11), pp.
7. Taylor, D., 2003. The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing
Cultural Memory in the Americas, London: Duke University Press. Noun Project:
and Data Mining. Barcelona, Spain: ACM. 4. Brgger, N., 2012. When the Present Web is Later the Past: 8. Dougherty, M., 2007. Archiving the Web: Collection, Envelope by Alexandria Eddings code by Azis
2. Hockx-Yu, H., 2014. Access and Scholarly Use of Web Web Historiography, Digital History, and Internet Studies. Documentation, Display, and Shifting Knowledge Production building by Joo Proena Twitter by OliM
Archives. Alexandria: The Journal of National and International
Library and Information Issues, 25(1-2), pp.113127. 42
Historical Social Research, 37(4), pp.102 117. Paradigms. PhD. Seattle, Washington, USA: University of
Poetry by Cristiano Zoucas
colosseum by Adriano Gazzellini
Compass by gayatri
mouse pointer by Julynn B.
Question by SuperAtic LABS
Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Styling the Internet of Things

Alex Owen Supervisors: Kirk Martinez and Erich Graf

.ceiling.light .desk.light


.washer #home
#utilityRoom #kitchen .hob

The number of smart devices in our environments is increasing and controlling them all using individual smartphone apps is
becoming less plausible.
To make these devices more manageable and interoperable we can assign an ID and class to each device and each context (which
could be a room. Then we can select devices individually and in complex groups using CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) selectors.
For example #home #utilityRoom .dryer selects any dryers in the utility room context. Or #home .light selects all lights of all
types in the house.
Beyond this we could make style sheets similar to CSS to control multiple devices at the same time, for example setting up the
same living space for a party, a movie or a study space.
There is also a lot of potential for using this approach in commercial and industrial settings.

Images from the Noun Project (, by Aaron K. Kim, Crea>ve Stall, Andrew Liebchen, San>ago Arias, Christopher Pond and Edward Boatman

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

' ! # "'

  !( " " Supervisors:'

"! : " "  % # ## #  Peter'Atkinson'
!( !" "?

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!"#" # # !  #UKSn
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hamAi nR iots'
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 # !(  !" " #  !( "#$#?



Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

From Crowd to Community:

Use of community features to encourage contributions in online citizen
Neal Reeves (
Online citizen science projects must attract contributions from large numbers of volunteers to enable
research. Increasingly, such systems make use of online community aspects. This poster describes a
survey of online community features in CS projects aimed at encouraging user contributions.

Goals Task visibility

Design guidelines: Design guidelines:
Provide specific, challenging goals, with Provide simple tools, to track
deadlines incomplete/essential tasks

Sample mechanisms: Sample mechanisms:

Opportunities for rare discoveries Automatic entity assignment
Classfication completion goals Recent activity notifications
Meta challenges (fundraising) Required input trackers
Links to feedback, rewards Percentage completion bars

Feedback Rewards
Design guidelines: Design guidelines:
Provide systematic, quantitative Utilise non-transparent, irregular
performance feedback reward criteria

Sample mechanisms: Sample mechanisms:

Task/performance contingent Status rewards (titles, ranks)
Gold standard derivation Privilege rewards (tasks, tools)
Majority opinion derivation Tangible rewards (merchandise)
Numerical point scores Obscured point calculations

Supervisors: Elena Simperl,

Jeff Vass

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Online Criminal Transaction Processes

Using Crime Script Analysis to Identify Interceptive Opportunities
Gert Jan van Hardeveld
Web Science Centre for Doctoral Training
University of Southampton
Online criminal markets
The aim of my research is to identify the steps users of online criminal marketplaces have to go through
to be successful in committing an illicit transaction on the web. Online criminal marketplaces foster
environments that promote sophisticated measures to protect their members from law enforcement. This
is particularly the case on the Tor network, on which my research will focus. As both buyers and sellers
go through similar steps in the transactional process, their steps can be mapped with crime script
analysis, a method that looks at the procedural aspects of a crime.

Tutorials, guides, how tos

In the forums that users of such marketplaces use,
guides, tutorials and how tos are posted to help (new)
members execute their transactions in the perceived
safest way. In my research I will lay out this process
and highlight at which stages potential interceptive
opportunities can occur. However, I will also interview
law enforcement experts to see at which stages users
tend to improvise and not strictly follow the norms and
to what new chances for interception this may lead.

Carding forums are used by cybercriminals to buy
and sell stolen credit card data. Members of such
forums use pseudonyms to communicate with one
another to make sure they stay out of hands of law
enforcement. On the left, a representation of carding
in its simplest form can be seen. Sellers obtain
stolen credit card details and offer them on various
carding forums to buyers. However, in this process,
there are many steps that have to be taken and from
which can be deviated. I will map these steps with
crime script analysis.

Drug trade Deviating from the criminal norm

Online drug trade is similar to carding, but requires From interviews with law enforcement I want to find
more physical activity, as drugs have to be shipped out to what extent users follow crime scripts. Their
to the buyer. However, many safety procedures aberrant behaviour may lead to possibilities for
will be similar on both types of markets. interception. Some deviations from the criminal
norm will overlap on both types of forums, while
Future work other will be criminal domain-specific.

Describe( Propose(
Analyse( Talk(to(LE( common( feasible(
Create(scripts(( preventa:ve(
tutorials( professionals( criminal( intercep:ve(
improvisa:ons( methods(

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017


Entrepreneurs! I!thought!it!would!be!easyI!was!so!nave.!
Users!who!aim!to!generate!economic!value!from!Open!Data!! You!need!deep!pockets!to!sustain!yourself!
Studies!show!they!employ!riskQreducLon!strategies!(1)! Open!Government!Data!
! More!valuable!than!Public!Sector!InformaLon!as!more!accessible!
! Removing!fricLon!from!informaLon!market!opens!opportunity!for!
Data!that!is!most!valuable!to!private! Government!is!not!best!placed!to!exploit!its!own!byproducts!for!
organisaLons!and!consumers!is!the!data! Proper!role!is!championing!innovaLon!in!Open!Data!
that!is!most!protected.! .But!this!has!to!be!more!than!hackathons!and!compeLLons!
There!isnt!a!culture!of!transparency!and! !

Methodology! Results!
! !
Interviewed!founders,! People,!not!clean!or!
investors!and!supporters!of!! linked!data,!are!key!to!the!
early!stage!companies! process!
using!Open!Data! !
! Many!stakeholders!are!
Compiled!barriers!and! involved,!not!just!
challenges!from!blogs!and! publisherQuser!
case!studies! !
! The!UK!Open!Data!culture!
Engaged!with!users,!not! is!not!value!creaLonQled!
publishers!or!academics! !
! !

You!need!! PerspecLves!on!Open!Data!uLlity!and!standards!are!situaLonal! Entrepreneurs!
the!right! The!entrepreneurial!user!takes!a!more!pragmaLc!view!of!Open! seek!
connecLons!! forgiveness,!
in!the! an!interacLve,!conLnuous!dialogue!!
government.! Open!data!is!a!process,!not!a!property! permission.!


Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Developing a Framework For By Anna Weston

Understanding (Dis)Engagement In Digital
Behaviour Change Interventions @anna_west0n

Q2. How is engagement measured?

Quest Cardiovascular Eye
ionna -track
ires measures ing
Self-reporting Physiological Q3b. Can the point of disengagement be
gland predicted using this pattern?
Web analytics y

Digital Behaviour
Change Q3a. Do disengaging users
follow a pattern of behaviour?

Autonomy Motivation
Self-Determination Theory

Point of
Q1 Disengagement Q4

Q4. What is
Q1. How is engagement Website/App
conceptualised? Re-engagement Disengagement
This can be during or at the end of
a session. It can be long-term or


short-term. It is a period of time


away from the site or app.


  Disengagement from the
intervention material and guidance



Q5a. Are there common barriers to
dBCIs which cause disengagement?


Q5b. Can these barriers be overcome
to re-engage a disengaging user?

Leanne Morrison
Supervisors Mark Weal
Lucy Yardley

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2013 2017

Aligning learning theory, learning design

and Trust in MOOCs Steve$White$(,$Su$White$ Web Science



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Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

James Baker Supervisors: Dr. Gary Wills (

( Prof. Ashok Ranchhod (Winchester School of Art)

Introduction This project is investigating how to make educational games immersive.

To accomplish this, various learning theories and game design theories - as
well as serious game attempts previously made were analysed, and the
As computer games have become more popular, there has been
most important themes for keeping players engaged were extracted.
considerable interest in developing serious games, which are games with
a purpose beyond entertainment; in particular, to educate
However, it is not easy to design such games. To be successful, they must These themes were then made into a model, comprising of all the general
keep the players attention, teach their material in a more lasting way than factors which can influence educational game immersion, split into three
traditional teaching methods, and of course be fun. categories.

Relevance - Players feel more immersed in
an educational game if its educational
content is made relevant to the player, i.e.
the player feels that they can use the Sequencing- It is important to ensure that
content in their own life the content is presented in an appropriate
order, in terms of what skills and
The first category summarises immersion in knowledge they require to progress
Gameplay Integration - An educational
the games educational content. This game is more immersive when its
involves how to maximise the possibility of educational content is integrated into the
learning the material within the game, by gameplay, so the two do not feel distinct
emphasising why it should matter to the from each other while playing
player in the real world, and by presenting it
naturally within the progression of a game.

Balanced Challenge - A player can become
more easily immersed in an educational
game if the challenges it presents are Guidance - There needs to be appropriate
balanced to the players abilities (it does guidance provided to the player when
not feel too hard or too easy) they get stuck, in order to reduce their
frustration and keep them focused on the
Feedback - To prevent the player getting challenge
The second category outlines the factors in
too frustrated with an educational game,
gameplay that influence a players
it is important to provide frequent, helpful
immersion. This includes the way the
feedback on how well they are progressing
games challenges are designed, and the
through the game
underlying feedback mechanisms they

Narrative - The game must feature a Scenario - Educational games can be more
Agency compelling narrative. This includes immersive if they have unfamiliar setting,
establishing clear goals for the player, because they can more readily disengage
ensuring consistency in the game world, from the real world, and can approach the
and keeping the story flexible enough so educational content presented from a
that the player is able to influence it new perspective

Curiosity - Players become more immersed Identity Projection - The player becomes
in a game when the game world and the more engaged with an educational game if
story stimulates curiosity (e.g. through they feel in control of their in-game
interesting details within the world, or character, and feel invested in the role
mysteries and surprises in the narrative) they play in the game
The third category focuses on factors which
let the player feel like an active, immersed
participant in the games virtual world. In this Experimentation - Educational games are more engaging when they
way, the players learning feels more allow players to experiment with the ideas they are trying to teach (i.e.
immediately important and consequential. allow the players to use the educational content to solve challenges)

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Is Social Media Being Used To Support

Non-Formal Learning by School Children? Web Science

PercepAons of Social Media Learning as a Social Event

Findings of this work indicate that, perhaps When one couples this apparent enthusiasm of
surprisingly, a signicant minority of pupils hold a teenagers to uAlise social media with consideraAon of
negaAve of view social media. Of the two studies construcAvism as the basis for the majority of current
conducted so far ndings of study one, in which self learning theories the importance of using social media
reported negaAve view did not appear to impact upon in support of non-formal, collaboraAve learning
use of social media, appear to be reinforced by ndings becomes apparent. From a pedagogical perspecAve
of study two in which the negaAve inuence of social social media, being collaboraAve and communal in
media was reportedly greater. Though the negaAve nature, would appear to be a logical partner in support
percepAon was higher in study two the level of use, of construcAvist learning whether cogniAve or social in
compared to the administraAve task use reported in nature.
study one, was also higher in that social media was
reported more oKen as used in support of school
related work and homework understanding.

In line with the level of importance

aLached to low level use of social media such as
chaMng with friends or relaAves found in an iniAal Most commonly occurring words recorded during
study, parAcipant comments in a second study focus group interviews
indicated a strong preference to use social media to
Use and perceived level of importance of social media
support dyadic interacAons. This would appear to
indicate that the aordances of social media to by school pupils Inuence of Pupil PercepAon
communicate within local networks are being used in Pupil percepAon relates to the overall percepAon a
the majority of occasions whereas the aordances Why InvesAgate? parAcipant might have with regard uAlising social media to
enabled by a global or school wide network are used With a focus upon the aordances enabled by social enable aordances which support learning. As seen in the
rarely. This preference for dyadic use of social media media such as creaAvity, sharing of knowledge and the chart below, the overall percepAon reported was posiAve
may be due to issues of digital literacy, social capital, building of communiAes of learners this research seeks with 54% of comments associated with a willingness or
pedagogical models in place which may not promote to idenAfy possible barriers to the use of social media desire to use social media to support learning. It is also of
the use of aordances enabled by social media or by pupils aLending secondary schools in England in note that, as menAoned previously, a signicant minority
social expectaAons which limit social media to a minor support of non-formal, self directed, collaboraAve of 36% of comments were negaAve in nature.
role. learning.
In aLempAng to address this quesAon the landscape in
which learning may be supported through social media
is being invesAgated by looking at percepAons and use
of social media by pupils and how these percepAons
compare to those held by other stakeholders at the
operaAonal level i.e. teachers and parents.

By exploring percepAons held by stakeholders at the
operaAonal level it may be determined whether barriers
to non-formal learning supported by social media exist Percentage of comments for percepAon of social media
due to limitaAons of pupils or technology and eecAng selecAon of social media to support not-formal
determine whether, or indeed if, they can be overcome learning
through educaAon, policy, or some form of technical
Preferred InteracAon
Though not idenAed as a specic theme an interesAng
aspect of social media alluded to by parAcipants was
that of interacAon type. This chart shows the percentage
of comments made by parAcipants with regard the type
of interacAon they would describe as normally taking
SupporAng Non-Formal Learning part in and the inuence it would have on their decision
to use social media in support of non-formal learning.
From the survey data collected in study one it was suggested
that social media was being used to support not-formal
learning but at a low level and with no clear indicaAon how it
was being used.

Use of social media to support non-formal learning

by subjects and gender
Inuencing Factors
Factors idenAed which may have an eect upon
whether a parAcipant will opt to use social media to
support their learning.

Percentage of comments for preferred type of interacAon

eecAng selecAon of social media to support not-formal

Researcher: Robert Blair

Web Science iPhD candidate
Dr. David Millard Dr. John Woollard
Centre for Doctoral Training
ECS EducaAon School
University of Southampton
University of Southamtpon University of Southampton J.

The Digital Economy Theme is a Research Councils UK cross council iniAaAve led by EPSRC and contributed to by AHRC, ESRC, and MRC

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Web$Observatories$ Web Science








Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Web Science
The role of ICTs for Jennifer Gaskell
Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Prof Susan Halford
Dr Mark Weal
Prof Gerry Stoker

Related work The research

[i]f the Internet can provide a canvas upon which nations can paint their social, linguistic, 1. Conceptual framework
cultural, and political beliefs, then perhaps the physical struggle for safe cultural havens and

borders may no longer be as necessary for their preservation or evolution

McCormick (2002) Focusing on the concept of affordances and building on
The role of the Web and ICTs in peacebuilding is at present widely under-researched, yet previous work, the thesis takes as its starting point the
there is a prevalent assumption of the many potentials of their uses to improve the relevance co-constitution of technology and society. The
and impact of post-conflict peacebuilding practice. The literature on the subject is small, but analytical emphasis shifts to the co-evolutive nature of
in 2004 already Sanjana Hattotuwa (2004: 39) highlighted an increasing confluence between local and other uses of technology, in situations where
ICT, conflict transformation and peacebuilding. In 2013, Stability Journal launched a special complex power dynamics are at play, and as such
collection on New Technologies for Peace and Development, while earlier academic work on allows us to better understand the technologies
the uses of the web for peacebuilding or conflict transformation processes focused on the emergent properties, providing a more comprehensive
role of so-called digital diasporas (Brinkerhoff, 2011, 2007; Turner, 2008; Kent, 2006). These account of their wider societal impacts.
academic developments have been paralleled by increased policy and practical attention to
the topic.

2. Practice review

Opening of the first international conference on ICTs for peacebuilding Build Peace How are ICTs being used
Peace through Technology, at MIT (Cambridge, MA) in April 2014

in peacebuilding
contexts, for what
purpose and with what

Participatory Action Research

A key stakeholder committee formed

to review conceptual framework, Putting research into action through
analysis from practice review and case studies and the implementation
advise on case studies. of early results of the thesis into real
life projects, analysis of which forms
the final empirical part of the study.

Interviews conducted by the

researcher with each member of the
key stakeholder committee.

CC BY 3.0 Meeting designed by Dan Hetteix from the Noun Project; Interview designed by Sarah Abraham from the Noun Project

Lawrence Green
How quickly is new web based Technology How Does Distance and Time effect peoples Supervised By:
Adopted? decision making on travelling? Tiejun Ma
Virtual Globes like Google Earth provide new Thanassis Tiropanis
information on terrain Johnnie Johnson
Ming-Chien Sung
Virtual Globes more popular than any other
web technolgy and even Facebook!
Is Distance OR Time more important
in decision making?

Information from Virtual Globes is used in complex decision We analyse decisions in a repeated choice experiment $PMPVSDPEFENBQ
making over 18 years. SBDFUSBJOFSTBOEUIF
1. How quickly does information from a new technology diffuse 1. Calculate how far each horse has travelled to a race MPDBUJPOTPGUIFSBDF
through a financial market? 2. Use statistical models to analyse whether distance NBQ

2. If new information is not immediately discounted, what is the and probability of winning are linked
economic impact of the information diffusing through a market? 3. Test the economic imact of this information
Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Information from new technology takes a Trip Time is more important than Distance
number of years to fully diffuse through a People will travel further if the likelihood of
market winning is greater
There are significant opportunities for Over a 3 year period statistical models can
economic profit be used to generate a profit in betting

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

The investor decision making process A web science perspec7ve

William Lawrence

Interdisciplinary Approach
This project combines insight from
Psychology, Finance and Computer
Science to help build an
understanding of the role of the web
in the investor decision making

Key Ques7ons
- How do investors interact with
online informa7on?
- Can online footprints give
es7mates of investor mood?
- How important is the role of
investor mood in the stock

Proposed Methods
- Dieren7a7ng public
mood and investor
mood from online
social media
- Applying psychological
models of mood to
social media analysis
- Tes7ng models
against individual
stock prices/market

Above ndings from Bollen et al.s (2011) study

of Twi\er mood and DIJA index prices

Prof. Johnnie Johnson (Management)
Dr. Tiejun Ma (Management)
Prof. Ming-Chien Sung (Management)
Dr. Thanassis Tiropanis (Electronics and Computer

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Manuel Leon Urrutia

Understanding Attitudes Towards MOOCs

in Higher Education Institutions
Dr. Su White (School of Electronics and Computer Science)
Dr. Lisa Harris (School of Management)

Higher Education Institutions (HEIS) are facing the disrup-
tion of MOOCs as a technological innovation with chances of
altering the Higher Education landscape. MOOCs are now a METHODS
reality in an increasing number of universities, which is
provoking a wide range of reactions both in faculty members
Desk Survey Questionnaires Interviews
and academic leaders. This project aims to capture these
perceptions by enquiring university staff with different levels
Survey of specific facts reported Addressed at educators in HEIs (mainly Addressed at a selection of participants in the
of responsibility within the institution. The results of this in specialist magazines such as lecturers), both involved and not involved questionnaires, AND academic leaders in
study are intended to inform about how the inclusion of Times Higher Education and The in production or delivery of MOOCs HEIs.
Chronicle of Higher Education.
MOOCs in the educational catalogues of universities is
All sources curated with
perceived within the faculty so that the best course of action
is chosen accordingly.

As an initial stage of this project, this poster reflects upon the

main concerns that MOOCs are generating in the Higher
Education arena by reviewing the already large body of
literature that the topic has generated to date. The literature
review will also include references on the theoretical frame-
work within which the project is to be developed, which
includes different theoretical models on attitudes, innova-
tion, and disruptive technologies in organisations.

What are the plans of academic leaders How are the observed universities incorporating
regarding MOOCs? MOOCs?
For them, what is the role of MOOCs at the university? What resources are they dedicating (human, financial), and
where do the budgets come from?
What are their boundaries? What domains of
traditional education MOOCs should not trespass? What is the role of MOOCs within their organisational

What reactions and attitudes are MOOCs causing in


Are they perceived as a threat, or as an opportunity?

Are they perceived as they are going to affect their working


Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

The Role of Internet Service Providers in Improving Cybersecurity:

An Interdisciplinary Approach
Evangelia Papadaki {LLM, MSc)
Web Science CDT

Law Economics

ISPs are best suited to

Cyber safeguard the Internet but
insecurity is the necessary security
still an open measures are not in place
Lack of Lack of
economic specific legal
incentives for obligations
ISPs to imposed on
implement ISPs
costly security
measures Security techniques How can ISPs secure the Internet
might be
infrastructure and users personal
difficult to implement,
data while maintaining fundamental
ineffective (i.e. high-
speed Internet backbone human rights and principle of
networks) Internet governance?
or subject to misuse (i.e.
surveillance by Technology
governments or private specific regulation
entities) imposing detailed
security obligations
on ISPs

Mechanisms Adoption of a
Adoption of for changing risk
approved codes
of conduct ISPs security management
culture frame

Law enforcement
mechanisms: better
incentives for
compliance, serious
sanctions for non-
Dr Tim Chown (ECS)
Web Science Dr Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon (Faculty of Business&Law)

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

How do we experience and live in a social world as individuals? The interplay

Online game worlds are sites of conflict between self and society has fascinated thinkers for millennia, from Platos
By Elzabi Rimington. Supervisors: Pauline Leonard and Mark Weal recommendation to subdue individual will for a common good, to Freuds
and communication. They reflect and battling id and superego. By contrast, there stands a strong argument that the Cultural capital, according to Bourdieu, exists in three forms. The first, the
self is the social, that humans are made and exist and make ourselves within a embodied state, takes time to cultivate and become internalised by the
extend real-world social networks while structured and structuring social system (Bourdieu, 1990). Bourdieu wrote that individual and as such cannot be instantaneously exchanged freely or for
"the socialized body (which one calls the individual or person) does not stand in economic capital, though it can be unconsciously learned. As such it takes on a
building individual markers of class, opposition to society, it is one of its forms of existence" (Bourdieu, quoted in form of symbolic power manifested as authority. The second, cultural capital in
Swartz, 1997). In this interpretation there is no dichotomy; we are social to our the objectified state, can conversely be traded for, as it is embodied in material
expertise, and belonging, expressed in core. objects. For example a highly sought-after objet dart is valued both in terms of
Fields, as Bourdieu would have it, are structured conceptual spaces within economic capital and symbolic power. Finally, the institutionalized state
what players say and do in games. culture and society, based on relational modes of reasoning (Bourdieu, in institutes cultural capital by collective magic(Bourdieu, 1986). Expressed
Swartz, 1997). They are operated and inhabited by groups of human agents through qualification by an independent, authoritative body onto an agent, it is
This research takes the form of an with a shared habitus, which is of strong enough influence that they become a form of cultural capital that imbues an agent with a degree of authority and
willing to and capable of investing in a particular field. Their internal structures yet remains relatively autonomous from its bearer by its own value. Medals of
ethnography undertaken in the game and hierarchies are largely negotiated by their own development, and allow the achievement, badges of honour, ranks and titles all fall into this category of
field to become to some extent autonomous from external environs. For cultural capital.
League of Legends, a massive online Bourdieu, this autonomy is a form of symbolic power, in that as a field grows in While most scholarship on the subject is preoccupied by notions of value and
autonomy it may extricate itself from hegemonic forms of political and social capital in virtual worlds, Malaby (2006) proposes the consideration of
battle arena known for its enormous economic power and increase their capacity to legitimate existing social cultural capital in this context. He claims that the notion may act as a means of
arrangements (Swartz, 1997). bringing together current research, completing the picture of virtual worlds as
and verbally combative player base. Like the field, capital is a process by which society expresses itself as much as a microcosms of society. As a concept it goes some way to describe behaviours
theoretical construct. As Bourdieu (1986a) describes it, the structure of the of expertise, rank, and reputation undertaken by participants in these worlds
distribution of the different types and subtypes of capital at a given moment in and is flexible enough that it can potentially be applied to the resources that

time represents the immanent structure of the social world. There are many participants develop and acquire in the form of competencies and credentials
forms of capital and they continue to emerge and re-emerge in different social and that they also invest in valued cultural objects or artefacts (Malaby, 2006).
environments, occasionally needing re-negotiation into more manageable This may differ according to the type of synthetic environment being discussed,
conceptual constraints. The three most fundamental according to Bourdieu are depending on which goals and achievements are framed as particularly
economic, social, and cultural (Bourdieu, 1986). desirable. Certainly it seems no stretch to assume that expertise can be
demarcated in any game with a levelling mechanic, purely by whether the
player is low- or high-level (Malaby, 2006), but there are other factors which
may come into play. For example, in World of Warcraft rare achievements such
as exploring the game world in its entirety or finding particularly rare treasure
will bestow a title on the player, surely indicating a practice of institutionalised
Designing a project which has the capability to effectively answer this question,
cultural capital. In the MMOBA League of Legends, players enter tournaments
while bearing in mind the implications of the literature, is a challenging part of
to be ranked against each other, their standing (a complicated score based on
this process. Ethical considerations, practicality, and rigour must all be taken
ratios of not only wins to losses but ratios of kills to deaths) indicated by
into account. As virtual-worlds research is quite new, there is no
medallions and ranks. Climbing ranks takes time, skill, and concentrated
predetermined method to follow. Instead, I took into consideration methods of
effort. The reward for such an investment goes beyond a ranking number and a
practice and analysis which have proven successful for a number of other
virtual gew-gaw, rather it is in the conference of authority and the
acknowledgement of skill above that of other players.
An ethnographic approach to this research could have been undertaken in both
While there is a burgeoning body of research on capital in video games and
the real and virtual world, or simply online. I chose a virtual ethnography
virtual environments, far less work has been done on the possibility of
followed by semi-structured interviews. The understanding was that this would
distinction existing in some form. Nonetheless, as microcosms of society, it
offer less of an insight into a particular players lived experiences of gaming as
must be that distinguishing behaviours can be observed. Bourdieu would seem
part of their life, but that it would also be less invasive while still allowing for a
to agree, claiming as he did in 1980 that while it might be most prominent in
reflexive and participant-focused approach to answering the research question.
Contact: art, there is no area of practice in which the intention of purifying, refining and
Elzabi Rimington I spent approximately one hour a day, four days a week and at varying times of
sublimating facile impulses and primary needs cannot assert itself (2010:176).
University of Southampton day immersed in the League of Legends environment. This time was spent both
In-game experience is tallied by levels, and highly experienced, elite players
in and out of game instances making field notes and forming social ties.
scorn clumsy newbies or noobs. In this they make displays of cultural capital,
58/3129 Preliminary results are encouraging.
indicating that further distinguishing practices may be found.
Salisbury Road
Highfield Campus
SO17 1BJ
Image and Riot Games
Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

The Web and Digital Pirates

Who are Pirates and do they understand the Law?

Definitions of the term Pirate Understanding of the law

Pirate is not a legal term. Though it does appear in the The first part of this research aims to establish more accurate
definitions of the term piracy, from historical, to political, to
Berne convention, more recently, it has been banned from copyright infringement. The second part aims to compare
use in court as pejorative (Ernesto, 2013; Williams, 2013). pirates attitudes to infringing behaviour against their
An approach often taken in piracy research is to define understanding of the law. This comparison should help to
establish the possibilities of different pirate typologies based on
digital pirates as those who engage in digital copyright
differing levels of legal understanding. It has been suggested
infringement. Yet some estimates have suggested that the that copyright law is one of the most complex areas of law
average user might incur roughly 1.6 Million in civil liability (Vaver, 2006). So much so that some have questioned not
just whether the public understands their interactions with
for infringement of copyright during the course of a normal
day without awareness of the infringement (Tehranian,
2007). This makes
copyright infringers, to
broadly describe pirates,
seem inappropriate. Even
in more explicit cases,
copyright but even whether there is consistent agreement
it is not clear that those
amongst lawyers as to the interpretations and applications
that are actively infringing of copyright laws and legislations.
understand the illegality.
So then, who are pirates? Behavioural Checks
Given the potential complete lack of understanding, it
might seem inappropriate to ask participants questions
Crime Deviancy like do you pirate? or have you infringed copyright?
Several researchers have highlighted that many pirates Yet, these are the questions that are deployed across
almost every single study done on digital piracy in the
appear not to construe their actions as immoral or even last 10-15 years. Lack of behavioural checks may be one
suggested that pirates dont make moral considerations explanation for the inconsistent findings regarding
(Gray, 2012; Yu, 2012). Yet many approaches to demographics or the claims that digital piracy, a
behaviour that some
explaining pirate behaviour take explicitly normative studies find occurring
perspectives that preclude a thorough examination of at rates of 90+% in their
samples, results from
the phenomenon. Criminological theories consistently
lowself-control. Quite
suggest a dissociation of crime (illegality) from deviant what high self-control
behaviour and piracy would look like in this
context is unclear.
may be a case where this
dissociation is necessary
for academic investigation.
This research:
The first portion of this research, described in the left
Illegal Not Illegal
columns, is concerned with outlining potential typologies for
Deviant Murder Adultery
Not Deviant Possession of a Breathing
digital pirates and assessing the relevance of the normative
short lobster perspectives that have been applied to this area previously.
As in The Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 3371- The second portion of this research, described in the
3378) which would make possession of a short
lobster a Federal crime in the US (Duane, 2008). right columns, outlines the methodological direction for
To quote Duane, It doesnt matter if hes dead or
alive. It doesnt matter if you killed it, or if it died of
establishing both whether pirates understand the legality
natural causes. It doesnt even matter if you acted of their actions and how this can be assessed in a research
in self-defence.
context. This is done by establishing a best practice for
All images used under CC licensing and/or with permission.
Survey of Literature on the Ethics of Digital Piracy. The Serials
Librarian, 63(3-4), 288295.
future research in such a way as to begin establishing a
Listed left to right, top to bottom:
Omning Old ladies pirating cook books at Barnes and Nobel
Lacey, J. F., The Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42; 16 U.S.C. 3371-3378).
Tehranian, J. (2007). Infringement nation: Copyright reform and the
law/norm gap. Utah Law Review, 2007, 537.
typology of digital piracy.
Mr. TinDC Law Books Vaver, D. (2006). Does the Public Understand Intellectual Property
Joe Shlabotnik - Everett And His New Lobster Law? Do Lawyers? (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 902793). Rochester,
vXCCN7 NY: Social Science Research
Contact Information and Supervision:
Joriel Joz Jimenez Arrrgh! | Pirates Williams, K. Case 11-cv-20427-KMW (UNITED STATES DISTRICT
COURTSOUTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA 27 November 2013). Kieran Rones BSc MSc MSc email:
References: World Intellectual Property Organization. (1886). Berne convention Twitter: @K_Rones
Duane, J. (2008). Dont Talk to Police. Regent Law School. for the protection of literary and artistic works. Supervisors
Ernesto. (2013). MPAA Banned From Using Piracy and Theft Terms Yu, S. (2012). College Students Justification for Digital Piracy: A
in Hotfile Trial. Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 6(4), Dr Craig Webber (Criminology)
Gray, K. (2012). Stealing From the Rich to Entertain the Poor?: A 364378. Dr Eleonora Rosati (Law)

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016


STEPS Web Science



web science cdt

university of southampton


This project aims to explore the ways in which digital, web and
IN PARTNERSHIP WITH mobile technologies (DWMTs) might or might not contribute to
making the world a slightly less bad place (SLBP). The point is that
u JAMIES COMPUTERS, SOCIETY OF ST JAMES people have different ideas about what a SLBP might look like.

The Concept of Social Good

The concept of social good is that it is possible and desirable to

make the world a SLBP, and that it is worth finding out what ideas
people have proposed about how to go about achieving this. It turns
out that people have proposed LOTS of ideas. So I went out into the
u OCTOBER BOOKS world to find out about that.

Case Studies: 5 SGOs

I have been working for about a year with five community

organisations in Southampton which I have described as social good
organisations (SGOs). Each of these SGOs has a set of values, a
mission, and a SLBP-related reason for existing. I want to find out
u SOUTHAMPTON CITY MISSION BASICS BANK in what ways DWMTs might or might not contribute to each SGOs
vision of social good.


A standard qualitative Grounded Theory analysis following the

Corbin-Strauss tradition will make systematic comparisons of
u CITY LIFE SOUP RUN perceptions and realisations of social good within and between the
SGOs. There is a focus on convergences and divergences in opinion
and actualisation of SLBP based strategies, per SGO and across all
SGOs, particularly with reference to DWMTs.

Wider Application

Im a social activist. What I really care about is trying to make the

u SOUTHAMPTON SUNDAY LUNCH PROJECT world a SLBP. If you care about this as well, send me an email and
we can solve all the worlds problems.


with many thanks to my super-super-supervisors !

They are so amazing!

Dr Gary Wills & Dr Jeff Vass

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2012 2016

Revenge Pornography
Abigail Whitmarsh
Web Science CDT
University of Southampton

Revenge Pornography describes the act of publishing on the Web pornographic images of a person without their consent. It is a phenomenon
that has been enabled through the development of the Web and almost universal public access to digital photography and file sharing
technology. Legal responses aimed at ending revenge pornography have focused heavily on the either the owner of the Website, as in the cases
of Hunter Moore, Kevin Bollaert, Craig Brittain and Casey Meyering or by criminalising the act of uploading material without the consent of
the subject. England and Wales have taken the latter approach, and with the Criminal Justice and Courts Bill 2015 it is now an offence for a
person to disclose a private sexual photography or film if the disclosure is made a) without the consent of an individual who appears in the
photograph or film, and b) with the intention of causing that individual distress.

Research Objective Methods

is revenge pornography an individualistic act or a
broader manifestation of misogyny? Using a custom made Web scraper, data was collected from a revenge pornography
Website. The scraper will ran once an hour for 28 days and collected;
Research Questions New posts
Number of views the post gets hourly
Who are the various types of users of Comments that are made on the post
and do they constitute an online community? Time of comments
Why do people post intimate images of other Commenters chosen pseudonym
people without their consent to
Why do people engage with the content on The scraper ran successfully 97%.

A total of 396 posts were made to the Revenge Pornography Website over the 28 days (672 hours).
270 posts remained on the Website for the full 672 hours, 126 were removed before the full month.
378 posts featured women, 18 featured men.
The true percentage of posts that feature women on this revenge pornography Website is between 93% and 98% at a
confidence level of 95%.
The 95% confidence interval for the number of views that a post featuring a woman receives is between 32892.4 and 36272.5
and 95% confidence interval for the number of views that a post featuring a man receives is between 6660 and 8263.
The 95% confidence interval for the number of comments that a post featuring a woman receives is between 14 and 15. The
95% confidence interval for the number of comments that a post featuring a man receives is between 6 and 9.

Maximum Number of Views for All Posts Over 28 Days Number of Posts to Revenge Porngraphy Website by Subject's
Posts that Remained Live Gender Over 28 Days
140000 35

120000 30

N 25
N 100000 u
u m
m b
b e
e 20
80000 r
o Male Male
f Female Female
60000 P
V o
i s
e t
w s 10
s 40000


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

The Digital Economy Programme is a Research Councils UK cross council initiative led by EPSRC and contributed to by AHRC, ESRC and
My PhD supervisors; Gethin Rees, Elena Simperl and Craig Webber

Web Science

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

David Millard, Computer Science
Reuben Binns,, @RDBinns, Michel O'Floinn, Law

Personal data: what, why, where? What kinds of personal data are collected?
By using digital technologies we reveal information
Personal Details
about ourselves such as likes and dislikes, purchase
Financial Details
histories, messages, emails, tweets, GPS coordinates,
Goods Provided
browsing habits and search terms. Many people now
Family, Lifestyle
track their daily activity, health and diet via the web.

When combined, such data constitutes a rich digital
profile of our lives. Mining and analysing this data can
reveal a lot for marketers, researchers and individuals
Trade Union
Over 350,000 organisations in the UK are required to Membership
disclose how they use personal data.
We collected these disclosures over 18 months to draw a
picture of the personal data landscape in the UK.

Where in the world does it go?

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

The Framing of Data & User Behaviour: Evaluating Visualisations Using Economics to Improve Decision Support
This research introduces the concept that reasoning and decision-making, when 1. To what extent does data visualisation affect the choices and behaviour of
facilitated by Visual Analytic tools and processes, can be improved through the use analysts using visual analytic tools on the Web?
of Web technologies to evaluate user interaction events and the application of
Economic theories. The field of visual analytics is an extension of data visualisation 2. To what extent can interaction data be used to identify the influence of
that provides tools and processes for extracting information from raw data by framing for VA tools on the Web?
enabling user-interaction, highlighting an opportunity to observe and record chains
of user events that are generated. . The work addresses the following research 3. Can interaction data be used to identify framing effects in visualisations on
questions: the web and to improve measurable analytic performance ?


Military / National Security MARKET TRADING / ONLINE ADS Crisis response

Strategic Decision Making in the field Temporal, Value-driven Decisions Natural Disasters & Anti-Terrorism

Theories are emerging from Visual Analytics and Visualisation literature which The use of interaction data in VA tools is an important step towards improving
suggest that interaction events can provide insights into the utility of design and can analysts performance and to be used to assist in building more effective analysis
inform new developments in data visualisation. This research examines visualisations environments The application of framing effects represents a significant
for the presence of framing effects - a established concept in Economics - by utilising contribution to VA and Web Science by providing a new tool to better inform
an existing taxonomy of action types commonly used in visual analytic applications. design processes and improve the utility of VA on the Web.

1 In visual analytics we can

2 Users can visually analyse
3 Filtering multiple charts &
interact with directional filters. data in a Web browser. The graphs interactively enables
Clicking a component on one data is visually encoded, but users to quckly get an
chart can filter another, where the scale used on each axis overview, filter and retrieve
we see new relationships in the could affect how the data is details on demand which
data.. framed... lead to decision making.

Economics is concerned with social A By capturing chains of user interactions B Framing a problem in multiple ways can
phenomena while Behavioural Economics in log files and observing users the affect decision-making. Visual framing has
offers to increase the explanatory power of potential affect of visual framing can be mapped been explored in the context of positive or negative
economics by providing it with more out. A/B tests and lab experiments are applied to ratings (see below right). Howver, this approach
realistic psychological foundations. Beyond confirm either: (1) A reduction in errors in data has not previously been applied in a commerical
Framing Effects it is possible that Prospect interpretation. (2) The increasing efficiency / setting or with a VA tools that
Theory, Risk & Uncertainty, Bounded timeliness of decisions, or (3) impovements in enable insights interactively
Rationality, Heuristics and Bias could be comprehension in a given doman (military, stock using Web technologies.
applied in the future. trading, and crisis response).
Symbols aquired from are public license except for those under the CC Attribution license: Bomb by Scott Lewis. Corporation by Stephen Copinger. Dollar (sign) and Twitter by Lubo Volkov. Dollar (bill) by Christopher Beach.
Globe by Nicholas Menghini. Chevron by Christopher T. Howlett. Military Vehicle and Airplane by Luke Anthony Firth. Dangerous Area, UN Office, Police, Water, NGO Office and Storm Surge by OCHA Visual Information Unit.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015
October 2015

Shaping the civic impacts of open data on the web

Supported by:
A pragmatic enquiry into open data infrastructures |
Web Scienceis not just about methods for modelling, analysing and understanding the Web at the Drawing on work from:

various micro- and macroscopic levels. It is also about engineering protocols and providing
infrastructure, and ensuring that there is t between the infrastructure and the society that hosts it. Web
Science must coordinate engineering with a social agenda, policy with technical constraints and
possibilities, analysis with synthesis...[1]. Berners-Lee et. al. (2006) A Framework for Web Science.

Over the last six years open data has moved into the policy mainstream. Transparency and openness, mediated
through machine-readable re-usable data, is increasingly a key public policy tool of choice for decision makers. From
the scal accountability and anti-corruption agenda, to the new global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) open
data, is central to the delivery strategy. At the same time, open data is discussed as a crucial resource for economic
growth and innovation: with government collected data targeted as a particularly valuable raw material for private
sector exploitation.

Neither social, nor the economic, impacts of open data are a foregone conclusion. Policy choices, technical designs,
and how they unfold together in different contexts around the world shape the impacts of open data.

Pragmatic research starts from a particular problem. The starting point for this enquiry: How can the civic potential of
open government data best be promoted?. The enquiry has four steps:

(1) Establishing scope: Open data is a global phenomena: but how does it vary across the world?
What balance must be struck between local and global interventions.

The Open Data Barometer combines expert survey and secondary data to build up a multi-dimensional
picture of open data across 86 countries.

- Widespread presence of Open Government Data Initiatives: but varying depth of government support
- Limited implementation of Open Denition [Machine Readable + Open License + Freely available]
- Cluster analysis identities four groups of countries - including one sided initiatives, focussing on
economic goals to the exclusion of civic potential of open data;

Future work: comparing 2013, 2014 and forthcoming 2015 Barometer data.

(2) Exploring initiatives: How is the implementation of open data policy shaped at the country level?
Civic life is frequently constructed at a national level, so the way open data ideas are transposed in different
country contexts can inform analysis on opportunities for intervention. An in-depth reading of policy
documents offers an empirical basis for this.

- Method: Six countries selected based on political, economic and social diversity. Policy timelines
constructed, and documents read and coded;
- Findings: Open data policy used to focus on reconstructing data infrastructures of the state;
- A shift over time from civic to economic focus of open data discourse in most countries;

Future work: Tracking the impact of global policy initiatives, including Open Government Partnership, and
International Open Data Charter on focus countries.

(3) Investigating infrastructures: Whilst national open data agendas may tend to diverge,
policy and technology standards bring back common global elements. Data standards play a central role
in determining how data can be used, who by, and what for. Interviews with data standards creators and
users & participant observation in data standards communities offers a route into infrastructural
inversion: revealing the way in which standards are shaped, and then shape the civic potential of open

- Data standards constitute a complex infrastructure of schema, identiers and compliance tools;
- Data standards are shaped by the data publishers or users closest to them in their early stages;
- Data standard infrastructures, once developed, are resistant to substantial change;

Future work: evaluating the impact of interventions into data standard development.

(4) Synthesis & action: The test of pragmatic enquiry is practical. Given a social agenda that seeks greater equality between citizens, and
greater inclusion of all citizens in governance and decision making, has the enquiry identied successful strategies for action? Finding this out is
ultimately the nal step of this enquiry >

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

Classifying Policing Social Machines

Maire Byrne-Evans, Thanassis Tiropanis, Craig Webber, Kieron OHara
University of Southampton, Web Science DTC

Introduction Method
Crime preoccupies the media and our TV schedules; it fills our
fiction shelves and is a large part of public spending, whether via Grounded Theory and the Web
warfare and defence, or policing.
Grounded Theory is underpinned by philosophy of science,
A report suggests that the amount spent on combating just violent crime Wittgensteins family resemblances, American pragmatism,
equates to 7.7% of the UKs GDP, or 4,700 for every household. [5] Is symbolic interactionism, Kantianism, Mills system of
this effective spending? differences, Baconian inductivism and Aristotelian axiology.

How much is this spending driven by crime statistics? is a site pro- Grounded Theory appropriate for Web research:
vided by the U.K.s Home Office which presents open crime data, support- Allows the theorist to revise their findings as they move through
ing the Governments transparency and accountability agenda.
the discovery process.
How much are the data / statistics shaped by technology or social causes
policy, culture, administration, bureaucracy? Can the transparency The process of undertaking research on the responsive web
agenda help in understanding this? [2] can affect the thing being researched, for example in
examining websites, talks to site designers affect the sites as
Web Science can help us to classify these crime apps and websites, some- designers are influenced by questions about design, intent,
times referred to as Crime Social Machines. Understanding the data and competition, data provenance and policy.
information ecosystem which allows society to address crime, helps us un- A methodological approach is required which accepts some
derstand the sites singularly.
interplay between the observer and the thing observed,
without this making the results of observation invalid.
Hence the reactive impact that investigators have upon their
data bears more on the scope than on the credibility of an

Three dimensions: Results emerging theory. The technique that forces investigators to stay
close to their data, and which constitutes the systemisation of
the approach, is the constant comparative method.[4]
How crime is addressed , mediating processes and Mainstream science looks for reproducibility in results as being
what the system does. fundamental to the scientific method; where we carry out web
Implications: Home Office crime data (and the official crime searches with results returned via Google, data returned may
statistics that it comes from) is largely performance data, not be the same from moment to moment, depending on data
knowledge-based and sits within the context of assurance and centre locations, indexing, and the constant addition of new
mapping as a way of scientific understanding. links to the web that then may alter search results. [1]
Similar looking crime map sites leverage fear of crime coming Grounded theory allows this; the focus is on creating a
from risk analyses to sell services including data itself. methodology that lets researchers apply it or alter it
Open crime data is about policing, rather than crime. It is themselves, as it fits their needs. The aim of this research
shaped by the social systems it moves through and the method is building theory, not testing theory. [3] Such an
processes it undergoes, and the way in which it is mandated. approach is pragmatic and suits fluid data results coming from
To understand why a crime is reported and why it appears on the web.
a map, we have to examine these confluences.
It is possible to differentiate similar-looking sites by
investigating which sites they link to and which sites are linking
to them and the economics of risk and fear.
We can see:
(a) How crime data is used; apparent worry about faked
data dissolves into a more sensible discussion of the social
origins of policing data; if the target culture were removed this
might then remove perverse incentives to shape data
according to often irrational targets.
(b) We have seen how data can be crowdsourced, and started
to examine some of the attendant problems of anonymity,
evaluation and incentives. These first two points presumably
help not only the public, but the police themselves.
(c) We have asked whether data and apps such as these can
help us to address crime, without increasing fear of crime, and
looked at the way in which the information economy might
drive some designers to sell crime data or a sense of safety
through leveraging fear of crime. Next stepsto produce
Policing Social Machine signatures.

The work in this paper was funded by the Research Councils UK
Digital Economy Programme, Web Science Doctoral Training Centre,
University of Southampton, EP/G036926/1 and by SOCIAM: The
Theory and Practice of Social Machines, funded by the UK Engineering
and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under grant number
EP/J017728/1 comprising the Universities of Southampton, Oxford and

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015
Skim Reading: An Adaptive Strategy for Reading on the Web
Gemma Fitzsimmons, Mark J Weal, & Denis Drieghe
University of Southampton
Contact email:

We spend a vast amount of time on the Web and much of that time is spent To explain these findings, it was suggested that an adaptive satisficing
reading strategy was being used to gain as much information from the text in
However, with the large amount of information available we cannot read it reduced time
all in great detail, therefore we engage in skim reading (Lui , 2005; Morkes & A satisficing strategy is where an individual searches through alternatives
Nielsen, 1997) until an acceptable threshold is met. In this case the individuals search for
Skim reading has been shown to negatively affect comprehension (Carver, where information gain is high and when it drops below a certain threshold,
1984; Just & Carpenter, 1987 ; Dyson & Haselgrove, 2000) they move on to a new piece of text
Others have shown that there is a different between important and In this experiment we explore whether a satisficing skim reading strategy is
unimportant information. The important information does not receive the used when reading on the Web and whether hyperlinks have an impact on
same loss of comprehension that the unimportant information does the strategy
(Masson, 1982; Reader & Payne, 2007; Duggan & Payne, 2009)

Experimental Conditions
2 x 2 x 2 within-participant Question 1: Question 2:
design Does skim reading affect Does skim reading
the way we read affect comprehension?
Task Type: Normal/Skimming
Word Type: Linked/Unlinked 160 comprehension questions
Word Frequency: High/Low (4 after each stimulus)
32 participants
160 experimental sentences 50% asked about important
inserted into 40 edited Wikipedia sentences
Sentence Rating - Each sentence pages (4 in each) 50% asked about unimportant
of the stimuli was also rated by 20 pages read were normally, 20 sentences
Figure 1. SR-Research EyeLink 1000 eye tracker
20 independent participants on pages were skim read Figure 2. Example stimulus with fixations of
its general importance normal reading


Figure 3. Task Type x Word Type interaction in skipping probability and Task Type x Word Type x Word Figure 4. Average accuracy for comprehension questions
Frequency interaction in single fixation durations
Eye Movement Results Comprehension results
The linked words were less likely to be skipped when skimming Comprehension was reduced when skim reading
Faster reading speed in skimming condition Comprehension was marginally better for the questions related to
No frequency effect observed for the unlinked words while the important sentences compared to the unimportant sentences
skimming when skim reading
Does skim reading affect the way we read hypertext? Does skim reading affect comprehension?
Yes, the linked words were skipped less when skim reading Yes, comprehension accuracy does decline when skim reading, but
compared to the unlinked words participants did perform better when the comprehension questions
When the linked words were fixated they were processed fully, was related to the important sentences
unlike the unlinked words that showed no frequency effect in the Taken together with the eye movement results we can suggest that
skim reading condition skim readers could be engaging in a satisficing strategy
What does this mean for reading on the Web? By focusing on important sentences and using hyperlinks as a guide
If participants are using linked words to suggest important to where the important information may be, the participants could
information and using them as anchor points to guide their reduce the speed-comprehension trade-off that comes with skim
movement through the text, then the choice of which words to add reading
links to needs to be considered very carefully
This is because skim readers focus primarily on linked words and use
them as a marker for the most important information Science

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

Open Data and Democratic Participation in

UK Local

Mark Frank - University of Southampton

The Research Question

How should the UK governments open data policy evolve for
effective democratic engagement?

The Accountability Story The Participation Story

unleash an army of armchair auditors and quite the future of public institutions demands that
rightly make those charged with doling out the we create a collaborative ecosystem with
pennies stop and think twice about whether they numerous opportunities for experts to engage
are getting value for money

Trust Collaboration

Accountability Deliberation

Transparency Consultation/Protest

Open Data

Data published by default Reusable Data

The users view The politicians view

They ask us for lots of data but give us very little We are a reference library
We havent got the skills or the time It doesnt give a fair picture
I never knew the data was there It is the taxpayers data

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

What impact has the technology behind cryptocurrencies had on cybercrime, security
and policing?
Dr Craig WebberCriminology
Professor Vladimiro SassoneComputer Science
Background Attack Category Deviancy Defence Applications of blockchain tech
Originally invented and released under the pseudonym Satoshi Attack against currency Double spends Source code review? Bitcoin was the first to use a blockchain - a public ledger which
Nakamoto, Bitcoin is seen as the first cryptocurrency. The refer- Exploits vulnerabilities in the Buffer overflow allows a distributed network to come to a consensus via proof-
ence client was released as open source software and has now protocol or reference client Mining attacks (selfish mining) of-work (PoW). Participants agree to accept the history which
spawned over 500 different cryptocurrencies. has had the most work done to create it. Work for Bitcoin in-
Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, are decentralised online cur- volved hashing the last block of transaction in hope that the ran-
Attacks against infrastructure Exchange hacks Cryptocurrency spe- dom result starts with a pre-set amount of 0s.
rencies. Unlike fiat currencies, their creation, distribution and
Exploit weaknesses in the infra- Web wallet hacks cific security practices
value are not governed by law and they are typically not associ- This consensus method has been altered and applied to network
structure (e.g. off protocol) Pool attacks and standards?
ated with any single offline jurisdiction. The technology behind to solve problems other than just transactions.
Market manipulation
these currencies provides users with a high degree of privacy, Namecoin presents a censorship resistant DNS system, where
and their implementation means that they have no central transaction instead represent registrations of a .bit domain.
point of operation, failure or control. These currencies allow the Attacks against the individual Chargeback scams Education?
Targeted attacks that exploit the Ponzi schemes Ethereum offers smart contracts, extending the idea of a trans-
direct transfer of value between individuals online, without the

consumer Social engineering attacks action scripting language with a Turing complete language.
inconvenience, cost or trust required with a third party such as
Maidsafe uses Safecoins to automatically reward developers and
a bank or payment processor (e.g. PayPal).
contributors to its decentralised storage network.
Despite there being ~$5billion worth of cryptocurrencies in cir-
culation and lots of media coverage (particularly relating to Other attacks Laundering Twister serves as a P2P microblogging platform, using the torrent
crime), very little research, particularly social or criminological Malware (mining malware, wallet steal- protocol, DHTs, and a blockchain.
research, has been conducted. ing malware, clipboard malware) Monegraph uses the Namecoin blockchain to show authenticity
Privacy/deanonymisation attacks of digital artwork.
Research Questions Scripting Language Criminal Opportunities Cryptocurrency Policy & Policing
What new criminal opportunities have been creat- A Bitcoin transaction is a set of commands. Cryptocurrencies requires users to hold the Unlike traditional payment services, there is no central point of
Transactions are verified by everyone by run- private keys to spend their currency. contact for cryptocurrencies. As a large portion of cybercrime is
ed by cryptocurrency technology?
ning the commands in the transaction. This leads to new opportunities for crime, as motivated by money, authorities can typically approach money
How is the Bitcoin transaction scripting language The scripting language is a forth like non- this is the first time it has been possible for service providers such as banks or PayPal and request infor-
being used in the wild? Turing complete stack based language with people other than banking institutions to be mation on individuals, freeze finances, or block users from such
approximately 190 different commands. responsible for their own electronic money. services altogether. This is not possible with cryptocurrencies.
What policies are in place to handle practical polic-
However, this language is poorly document- Services have sprung up, known as web wal- Cryptocurrencies do not fall within existing legal definitions of
ing differences of decentralised currencies? electronic cash due to the lack of central issuer or authority.
ed and incomplete in its implementation, in- lets, who hold private keys for individuals.
At what point will national companies and au- cluding reserved commands by Satoshi, and But these services have become targets due Attempts to regulate, such as New York BitLicences, include fin-
thorities begin to implement cryptocurrency spe- other commands disabled due to security to the amount of money they hold. gerprinting users for 10 years and have been met with resistance.
concerns. We would like to find out who are the relevant authorities,
cific policies? We would like to find out what new crimi-
We would like to see how this language is nal opportunities are being exploited with what policies they have in place, and if there are none, at what
Who are the relevant authorities for handling cryp- used in the wild, by quantitatively analysing cryptocurrencies with a qualitative analysis point would they consider bringing policies into place by inter-
tocurrency related crime? all transactions in the blockchain. of public forum data. viewing key authority figures
Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015


Giant strides have been taken recently in developing theories and techniques of identity attribution
from data indirectly linked to individuals either alone, or in combination with other data.

These challenge traditional distinctions found in data protection and privacy laws between two
categories of information: PERSONAL DATA and NON-PERSONAL DATA.

Consider the inferences that might be made from communications metadata alone:
You spoke with an HIV testing service, then your doctor, then your health insurance company in the same hour.
You called the suicide prevention hotline while standing on a bridge.
You rang a phone sex service at 2:24 am and spoke for 18 minutes.
You called a gynecologist, spoke for a half hour, and then called the local Family Planning Clinics number later that day.

Research Questions:
To what extent are we anonymous online? What exactly do we mean by anonymous?
Can we rely on anonymisation techniques to hide our identities?
What weight should be placed on indirect digital identifiers and their links to a person? (e.g. Should I bear any liability for
what happens via an IP address linked to my home? Should the same IP address be deemed my personal data worthy of
legal data protection against those who might use it to try to identify my offline identity?)
What is the harm from digital identity attribution? Does it extend beyond a privacy harm? What is its value?


Alison Knight
University of Southampton

Web Science

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

Handwriting Recognition For

Online Mathematics Communication
PhD Student: Mandy Lo (
Supervisors: Dr. Edwards, Dr. Bokhove, Prof. Davis

The Problem Handwriting Recognition

2 4


Fig.1: Non-intuitive codes Fig.2: Writing mathematics Fig.3: Good handwriting

are required to express is natural and allows the recognition can provide
mathematics online, which person to focus on the the codes needed, making
interrupts the natural flow mathematics free of mathematics learning on
of mathematical thinking technological concerns the web more accessible

Background Rationale Milestones

the development of e- Simplify digitisation of Software R&D/ expert review
Learning in the sciences in mathematics expressions 4 rounds of live trials with
general, and mathematics Use current handwriting school-aged children
in particular, has not met recognition techniques to working with maths task
the general expectation[1] translate handwritten work Initial analysis confirms:
This may be, in part, into computer codes - significant enabling effect
because practical and Develop educationally- for online mathematical
intuitive mathematics input informed interface to communications
for users is still under reduce technology-induced - it is possible to progress
investigation[2] cognitive overload while mathematical ideas via
Current input methods for working electronically online communications
online mathematics Could also be used to Develop product for
communication are interface with interactive general public
cumbersome[3] textbook and mobile apps.
References: [1] Ahmed (2008). Support Mathematical Instruction in Web-Based Learning System Using Object-Oriented Approach. ICACTE'08. IEEE.
[2] Mikusa et al. (2005). Features and advantages of WME: a Web-based mathematics education system. SoutheastCon05. IEEE.
[3] Lo et al. (2013). MathPen: identifying and solving the problems of online collaborative learning for mathematics. ICTMT11.
Funded by Research Councils UK Digital Economy,
Web Science Doctoral Training Centre, EP/G036926/1.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015




in! pursuit! of! an! aesthetic! ideal.! Becoming!
increasingly! popular! throughout! the! 20th! Century;!
media! images! idealised! certain! body! types! !
overwhelmingly! young! people! with! perfect!
Western! characteristics! W! drove! commoditisation! of!
795),! and! the! notion! of! the! ! body! as! a! reNlexive!
project!(Giddens,!1991;!Shilling,!2003).!The!web!has! Research'Outcomes'
opened! up! spaces! for! these! practices,! enabling! not! Continuities'and'discontinuities'of'the'Web'
only! discussion! of! aesthetic! surgery,! and! websites! In! some! cases,! materials! disseminated! online! do! not! differ!
afNiliated! with! established! organisations,! but! also! from!materials!accessible!ofNline.!However,!the!Web!departs!
unlicensed! practitioners,! potentially! risky! sites! for! from!traditional!media!in!three!main!ways:!the!3Vs,!ease!of!
aesthetic! tourism,! howWto! guides,! and! purchasing! access! and! navigation,! and! user! enrolment.! In! relation! to!
spaces! for! aesthetic! materials.! This! thesis! is! aesthetic! surgery! online,! continuities,! discontinuities! and!
exploring! these! spaces! to! comprehend! varying! contradictions!are!evident!across!spaces.!!
discourses,! and! how! they! may! impact! upon! Womens'bodies'as'perpetually'aesthetically'deKicient''
individuals!interested!in!undergoing!a!procedure.! The!Web!is!far!from!the!disembodied!space!put!forward!by!
postWhuman! theorists,! and! indeed! not! a! space! with! neat!
online/ofNline! boundaries.! It! is! a! number! of! spaces!
Research'Methods'' presenting! real! female! bodies,! possessing! real! assumed!
This! research! used! a! combination! of! Multimodal! deNiciencies,! with! real! life! consequences! for! viewers! of!
Critical! Discourse! Analysis! and! semiWstructured! materials!!
interviews! with! 20! women! who! had! engaged! with! Hypertextual'Feminism'
aesthetic!surgery!online.!! The! Web! provides! images,! discussion,! and! ways! to! alter!
! bodies! and! empowerment! comes! through! browsing! and!
References'' assessing! Web! materials! on! aesthetic! surgery.! Yet,!
Surgery,!Psychology)and)Marketing,!19!(10):!793W81! simultaneously,! women! are! faced! with! critiques! of!
Giddens,! A.! (1991)! Modernity) and) Self5Identity:) Self) and) Society) in) the) Late) Modern) Age,!
undesirable! bodies! ! altered! and! unaltered;! reinforcing!


Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2011 2015

Enhancing Engagement with

Online Cultural Heritage




















Cultural Heritage organisations exist to disseminate knowledge, as well as to

preserve it. For example, museums have a responsibility towards the
communities of whom they hold the objects thus playing an important role in
their cultural development (ICOM, 2013, Trevelyan, 2008).
Traditionally the transfer of knowledge is carried out by interacting with an
artefact. Alternatively, in OCH the transfer of knowledge takes place by
interacting with the information presented to the users.

Cultural Heritage Knowledge Online Cultural

Organisations on the Web Heritage

How is knowledge constructed?

Javier Pereda
Due to the interdisciplinary
nature of this research, data Data Information Knowledge Wisdom
and information will be Web Science
addressed as a single entity
It is by adding meaning, that the transition between the elements is
called informatum.
possible in the DIKW Model (Acko, 1989).
One of the main objectives of this research is to enhance the
engagement with data and information held in OCH.

Informatum Production Informatum Sharing Engagement withInformatum

Museum Professionals, Researchers, Archaeologists, etc Museums, Researchers, Media, Publishers, etc Users of OCH, Developers, Designers, etc
The process of Informatum Production includes Some of the important factors when sharing OCH presents the channel for visitors to engage
not just the input of data but the strategy or informatum are not only access to the data, but with informatum related to cultural heritage that
vision to make it useful and/or meaningful to the also the possibility to create relationships would come from dierent sources. To access
dierent museum users so they can retrieve the between the dierent datasets (e.g. Linked Data). any sort of digital data or information, a UI is
relevant information that they are looking for to necessary. OCH is the bridge in between the
ll that gap in their knowledge. informatum and the user/visitor.

In the process of dening dierent levels of interaction and/or type of user levels in OCH, Taylor (1967)
provides a set of dierent perspectives of how a user/visitor might attempt to gain knowledge.
Visceral Conscious Formalised Compromised

Interactions Systems for Online Cultural Heritage

Human Information Interaction Human Computer Interaction User Experience Constructivism


Physical Tangible Intangible Digital

Objects/Artifacts Static Dynamic Informatum
Environment Persistent Transient World

Tangible Interaction
(Campenhout,, 2013)

Tangible User Interface (TUI)

TUIs present an interactive paradigm where a wider range of opportunities can be exploited. An example of this
is the capability of dierent levels of digital inclusion to be applied into interactive interfaces.
Dr. Leif Isaksen Dr. Yuanyuan Yin Dr. Graeme Earl
School of Humanities, Archaeological Computing Winchester School of Art School of Humanities, Archaeological Computing

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

) Orienting within Complex Digital Environments (

122cm Bridging the Gap Between the Inside and Out to Reduce Disorientation This Po
Craig Allison1,2, Dr Edward Redhead2, Richard Treves3, Dr Matthew Jones2 asked q
If you a
1 Web Science Doctoral Training Centre, 2Psychology, 3Geography, University of Southampton templa
me day
Introduction Procedure
When we move, we can effectively keep track of where we are with limited effort Participants explored the outside and inside of the virtual building before completing
de (Riecke, Cunningham & Bulthoff, 2007). To do this we must effectively track our four orientation trials. At the start of each orientation trial Participants found
themselves within rooms in the virtual building and were asked to turn to face a non-
your position in terms of stationary objects, via a process of Spatial Updating. As we move
visible external landmark. Once participants were happy with their position they Go to t
within complex internal spaces, our relationship with the larger, unseen world also
proceeded to the next trial.
constantly changes. preferr
But have you ever lost track of where you are in relation
to the exit in a shopping centre? Two rooms in the orientation trials were external, allowing the use of external visual of the
cues to orientate. The other two rooms were internal, over looking the inner 100% th
Wang and Brockmole, (2003) suggest that within nested courtyard, and required an understanding of the spatial relationship between the
environments, such as rooms within a building, people internal and external cues to complete the task. One of the external rooms and one when p
can automatically update cues within their local of the internal rooms had been visited previously in the acquisition trials. quality
environment (the room), but struggle to update their
for prin
position relative to the larger outside world. Results
Klatzky et al. (1998) suggests that without physical 140 Group Control Mean Orientation Error, in Degrees,
for each trial.
140 Group Experimental Mean Orientation Error in Degrees, Using t
for each trial.
movement, for example when moving within a virtual
environment, automatic spatial updating can be impeded.
Orientatation Error (in degrees) 120 120 To add
100 Female
100 Female
and typ
80 80
Gender differences within spatial activities is the most
60 60 click o
pronounced of all cognitive tasks (Lawton & Morrin,1999). 40 40 frame
Gender differences in Spatial Updating have produced
mixed findings, though many report greater performance
20 20
Then, c
0 0
by males (Tlauka et al., 2005) External Internal External Internal External Internal External Internal you can
Unvisited Unvisited Visited Visited
he Unvisited Unvisited Visited Visited be foun
Because of these factors, keeping track of our position in
digital environments is a great challenge. This research Results suggest that without the coloured cues Females in Group Control found it
aims to investigate whether the addition of simple visual difficult to orient within the inner rooms, especially if they had not previously Modify
cues within a virtual nested environment could help individuals track their overall This te
to location.
A 4-way mixed design ANOVA revealed a main effect of room type, F(1,36)= 4.45,
Method P<0.05 suggesting it was more difficult to perform the task from an internal room. A mouse
Participants main effect of movement, F(1, 36) = 9.96, p<0.01 suggests that the orientation task
hin 40 undergraduate students (Female = 27, Male = 13) completed this study in was more difficult from within a room which participants had not previously visited.
click o
exchange for course credit. Participants were randomly allocated to either a Control No other main effects were significant. There was a significant 4-way interaction, layout
or Experimental condition. F(1, 36) = 6.91, p<0.05. Further analysis via simple main effects revealed that there
was only an effect of gender in Group Control in the Internal room to which the
the pro
Design participants had not previously moved, F(1, 144) = 8.96, p<0.01. This suggests that advanc
females found it harder than males to orientate in this room, but this impairment in
Study used a 2(Condition) x2(Gender) x2(Room Type) x2 (Movement) mixed design.
spatial updating was removed by the addition of the coloured cues.
and the

ter to
Apparatus Conclusion Import
This study used a virtual environment which participants were required to navigate Participants within the control condition struggled to automatically update their
and explore. This was modelled on the University of Southampton Shackleton position within internal rooms, suggesting they were unable to update multiple
Building (44), using 3DSMax 2012. Participants controlled their movement using the environments simultaneously. This is consistent with previous findings, using real placeh
arrow keys, but could not interact with items within the environment. world tasks (Wang & Brockmole, 2003)
Group Control explored a replica of the building with no additional navigation aids. In side of
contrast Group Experimental also saw large coloured bands on the top of each of the
The effect of movement offers partial support for Klatzky et al. (1998). Participants PHOTO
walls, based on their compass facing (North Blue, East Yellow, South Green and West
made greater orientation errors within rooms which they had not previously visited. in it an
However many were able to remain oriented within the virtual environment without
e it the need for physical movement. TABLES
r. docum
There was no overall effect of gender, but a gender difference was apparent when the tex
participants were required to use internal cues. Females within Group Control were
unable to effectively update their orientation automatically within the internal pasted
room. The addition of colour cues however allowed females in Group Experimental to then cl
orient as well as the males. This is consistent with females greater reliance on direct
landmark cues (Lawton, 1994). values

Results suggest that losing track of where you are within a virtual environment can Modify
be reduced by the addition of salient visual cues which are associated with external
orienting features. To chan
References Design
Klatsky, R.L., Loomis, J.M., Beall, A.C., Chance, S.S., & Golledge, R.G. (1998). Spatial updating of self-position and orientation during real,
from th
imagined, and virtual locomotion. Psychological Science, 9, 293298
Lawton, C. A. (1994). Gender differences in way-finding strategies: Relationship to spatial ability and spatial anxiety. Sex Roles, 30, 765-779. your ow
Lawton, C. A., & Morrin, K. A. (1999). Gender differences in pointing accuracy in computer-simulated 3D mazes. Sex Roles, 40, 73-92.
Riecke, B.E., Cunningham, D.W., & Buelthoff, H.H. (2007) Spatial updating in virtual reality: the sufciency of visual information.
Psychological Research, 71, 298313.
Rieser, J. J. (1989). Access to knowledge of spatial structure at novel points of observation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory, and Cognition, 15, 1157-1165.
Tlauka, M., Brolese, A., Pomeroy, D.E., & Hobbs, W. (2005), Gender differences in spatial knowledge acquired through simulated exploration
of a virtual shopping centre, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25, 111-118.
Wang, R.F. & Brockmole, J.R. (2003) Simultaneous spatial updating in nested environments. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 10, 981986 201
Acknowledgments 2117
This research was funded by the Research Councils UK Digital Economy Program, Web Science Doctoral Training Centre,
University of Southampton. EP/G036926/1 Berk

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Nicole Beale

Memory Institutions
My PhD looks at the potential of
web-based phenomena for local
and the Web
authority museums in the UK.
This poster presents a case study
which forms a part of a chapter of
my PhD thesis. Museums, libraries and archives are conventionally recognised
memory institutions. The web is changing this. For museums,
traditionally understood mechanisms for collecting, preserving
and interpreting the heritage of humanity and our
environments are no longer enough.

The photographs in this poster form part of the Europeana collection Vintage Animals and are curated by Retronaut.
They are multi-institutionally sourced, and owe their presence here to good metadata (which made them findable) and
comedic subject matter (which made them adorable).

Online metadata indexes as The example of Retronaut

an opportunity Chris Wild is the Curator of the website Retronaut. Wild curates
historical photographs via Retronaut which (as of 19th February
2014) has more than 200,000 views per day, just over 63,000
The creation of online content should be a major consideration for followers to its Twitter account and over 209,000 likes to its
local authority museums. The web offers a new way for museums to Facebook page. The majority of the content for the website are
present social history data held in their collections. photographs with unusal subject matter. Most photographs come from
large online collections, such as, a European Commission
Social networking platforms are tools for the collating and sharing of such funded cultural heritage metadata search portal. Retronaut makes use of the
content, but they are resource-heavy. Large centralised metadata indexes metadata within Europeana in a way that people find engaging and
present the best option for smaller museums today. Europeana is an example of entertaining.
such an index.
Wild has created an institution using only the information that is freely
Museums have much to offer the web, in particular to the development and available online via Europeana. Retronaut was established in 2009 and is
continued uptake of social networking systems. Recent research into the web curated by a team of less than ten people. The site has had a Facebook page
as a repository for the memory of the world is evidence of the recognition of since 2010. The British Museum, arguably one of the most well known
the importance of the web for the future of the archive (Robinson, 2012; museums in the world only boasts just over 500,000 likes to its Facebook
Andermann & Arnold-de Simine, 2012). page, and just under 269,000 Twitter followers (as of 19th February 2014). The
British Museum has used Facebook since April 2010 (Pett, 2012). The number
Blogging and micro-blogging platforms provide ways to self-memorialise both of likes for Retronaut when compared with the British Museum on Facebook is
publically as commemoration and privately as remembrance without the staggering. Retronaut only has 41.8% of the British Museums likes, which is a
need of museums, libraries and archives. In the 1990s, predictions of the significant percentage when considering the size of the organisations
democratisation of the past and the way that technologies threaten the time- managing the social media and the resources available to each organisation in
boundedness of memory were thought to lead to the extinction of the archive, the real world.
as the past and the present became blurred and the world archived and
collected everything. Today these concerns manifest themselves in a similar Retronaut makes use of the benefit of the web to bring disparate data
way, with academics and archival professionals alike expressing concerns about sources together, to highlight the multi-faceted nature of humanity and to
the increasing propensity of people to share everything online. use historical collections to engage people in conversations about the
simultaneous distance and closeness of the past to the world today. The
But the web today is messy. Information is lost almost as soon as it is shared. Retronaut approach has been so successful that Wild is now installed at the
Twitter is an example of this, within days a tweet can be lost. The sharing of Museums and Archives Northumberland as a time-traveller to engage new
information is not necessarily going to result in the creation of an archive. audiences (Woodhorn, 2013).

On the web, the audience of heritage is very different. Young people and
people of different socio-economic backgrounds engage with content with a
history or archaeology focus much more readily online than they do offline. In
addition to this, the audiences of this kind of content are finding information
and knowledge about these topics away from the large authoritative
organisations. An online user will come across the information in a different
way, and this is key to the success of sharing heritage knowledge online.

Content online still needs to be collected and categorised, to be interpreted

and then presented: to be curated. Open data is an essential component to
this re-discovery of information. Social networking systems, the tools and
platforms where people are creating and sharing content are essential to the
future of museums. Museums are the appropriate institution to exhibit data
from the web that relates to cultural memory, and that the adoption of open
data and real engagement with the social aspects of the web will be integral to
this occurring. References:
Andermann, J., and S. Arnold-de Simine, 2012. Introduction: Memory,
Community and the New Museum, Theory Culture Society, 29(3); 3-13
Online metadata indexes make collections and objects within collections
Pett, D., 2012. Use of Social Media within the British Museum and the Museum
findable. The serendipity of the case study, Retronaut, and the fun and relaxed Sector. In: Bonacchi, C, (ed.) Archaeology and Digital Communication: Towards
way that the site and its associated social networking platforms engage with Strategies of Public Engagement. Archetype Publications: London, UK: 83-102

audiences is illustrative of this potential. Robinson, H., 2012. Remembering things differently: museums, libraries and
archives as memory institutions and the implications for convergence,
Museums Management and Curatorship, 27(4): 413-429

Woodhorn, 2013. Time traveller to open up archives, Woodhorn: Museums

and Archives Northumberland, 5th December 2013. Available at:

Accessed 16th February 2014

Thoughts: @nicoleebeale Supervisors: Dr. Yvonne Marshall and Dr. Graeme Earl

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Online Behaviour of States

Jaymie Caplen, Prof.Gerry Stoker, Dr. Tim Chown
Web Science DTC, University of Southampton

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Huw Davies @huwcdavies

Susan Halford Nick Gibbins

Since its inception 25 years ago the World Wide Web has facilitated an explosion of
information unprecedented in its scale. Many websites are said to embody the Webs
censor-free, information anarchy. This has led to widespread anxiety about the fidelity
of some of this information and its potential to do harm. As the myth of the Digital
Native is debunked, young people, it is now claimed, are exceptionally vulnerable to this
new danger; they are declared nave and lacking in the crucial new literacies needed to
discern fact from fiction.

This work investigates the reality of these fears and claims. Drawing on case studies
from two very different institutions a state sector FE college with a largely white
working class intake and a prestigious independent fee paying school with an ethnically
diverse intake the research explores how groups of 16-18 year olds access, interpret
and use information. It focusses on controversial information involving issues such as
immigration, climate-change, and government cover-ups and makes use of multiple
methods including interviews and workshops as well as proxy servers to digitally record
everything young people do on the Web. The data suggests highly differentiated, class-
based practices grounded in the social, material and cultural contexts of everyday life
that can be better understood by combining Bourdieusian and Foucauldian theoretical
Acknowledgement: The Digital Economy Programme is a Research Councils UK cross council initiative led by EPSRC and
contributed to by AHRC, ESRC and MRC

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Reimagining the Public Health Analogy

for Web Security
Huw Fryer (ECS) Supervisors: Tim Chown (ECS), Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon (ILAWS)
Web Science DTC
University of Southampton

A compromised Web server is like a contaminated water pump

Infected machines generate revenue for the criminal

This environment enables them to survive People drinking the water provides an
environment for Cholera to survive

Malware doesnt propagate like viruses any more, so
epidemic models need to be changed
Imagining the criminal as the pathogen changes the
focus to the environment in general
A more hostile environment makes cybercrime less
worthwhile to participate in
Bad security practices are a problem for the whole
Web, not just an individual network


Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Dissemination & William Fyson

Dr Simon Coles

Prof Les Carr

The models that govern scholarly discourse have developed over hundreds of years to produce a rigid and stable system for
exchanging research outputs. Whilst the mechanisms in place have served academia well, the Web presents an opportunity
for a number of innovations. Yet despite potential benefits, changes in academic publishing have been relatively
unforthcoming compared to many industries now dominated by the Web. Only by understanding the complex socio-technical
dynamics that underpin the system are we able to determine why the Web may not have enabled a scholarly utopia, that it has
to potenital to create.

Dissaggregation Reward &

Posters Discussions Recognition
Presentations Workflows The system that drives research relies on researchers building their reputation
as someone who contributes useful knowledge to their community. Thus to
Datasets Thesis Methodologies encourage an open and disaggregated scholarly discourse, it must be easier
for researchers to prove the validity of their work to their peers, show the
impact of their work to institutions and demonstrate their skills and experience
Workshops Contacts to industry.
Collaborations Ideas
An online portfolio of a researchers work may be one way to achieve this,
Academic publishing serves a number of different roles beyond dissemination aiming to elevate disaggregated research outputs to the level enjoyed by
of research outputs, including: peer review, measuring impact both within journal articles. Provenance metadata provides vital context to research
academia and beyond, recognising academic contributions and allocating outputs and Altmetrics could be used to help demonstrate a wide range of
funding. At present this is mostly achieved through the single scholarly unit of a impact.
journal article, the success of which is typically measured via citations. conte
Provenance xt Industry
Dissemination of research outputs online can be much more flexible however
allowing us to disaggregate the bundle of research outputs that form an article
or thesis. This in turn presents new opportunities for demonstrating our knowledge
contributions to a field and measuring impact. Such issues have already arisen
Peers Community
in other online markets and business models have adapted as a result; will the impa
same innovative and disruptive forces take hold in academic publishing?
AltMetrics ions University

Tools & Services

The Disaggregator tool takes a user's document and assists the user in
extracting discrete chunks of knowledge that can be distributed in their own
right - in a Chemistry context as illustrated below, this may involve extracting
the data that represents a compound or a reaction from a thesis, so that it can
be more easily shared and used and built upon.

The Redactor tool assists researchers with disseminating their work to the
widest audience possible. It allows a user to remove any elements that inhibit
wider dissemination and assists the user with finding alternative content that
may be more suitably distributed. A unique idenitfier for researchers,
allowing a researcher to attach
For example, images can be replaced with Creative Commons licenced
themselves to their diverse research
alternatives, or a user can distribute their own images by embedding licences in outputs, distributed across a range of
the metadata. platforms, institutions and disciplines.

Available at:

Once a work has been disaggregated, the resultant items of data and
The Creative Commons suite of licences allow anyone information are available to be exploited by a researcher to further enhance
to publish their work openly whilst still requiring their reputation and be used by their peers. Further research will look into
anyone who uses the work to attribute the original associating items extracted by the disaggregator with an ORCID and
author. Thus the licences are useful to publish any
research outcomes, including papers and data sets.
publishing results to blogging platforms to further explore ideas of reward and

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Web Science

Predicting Stock Prices with Online Information

Paul Gaskell
Professor Frank McGroarty
Dr. Thanassis Tiropanis

On the 23 of April 2013, a fake tweet was sent from the White House's twitter
account. A few minutes later the price of the Standard and Poor's 500 index,
representing 500 of the highest valued companies in the US dived by nearly 1%.

1 tweet accounted for the loss of nearly 1% of the value of the US Economy.

In a sense this is not surprising, financial news services like Bloomberg and
Reuters regularly update and publish indices of media sentiment towards
stocks. Over the last 4-5 years researchers have begun to look for models of
media sentiment which can be used to predict prices. The results of this
research are, however, generally quite disappointing.
The reason for this is that the way language relates to offline events is a
difficult thing to model. Language is temporally uncertain, in that a
statement can be about an event in the future, past or present. Also as yet
there is no literature which describes how to model word frequency
movements over time.
The aim of this PhD is to define a methodology that tackles these issues.

Signal Diffusion Mapping Spurious Regressions with Online Text Data

A New Time-Series Analysis Methodology for
Modelling and Forecasting Based on Complex Lead- A large number of studies now exist which report correlations
between some text based metric and an offline variable. These
Lag Relationships
studies always use metrics built under the assumption that the
Currently, almost all time series probability of a word occurring in a set of messages is either not
analysis research uses some form of a function, or at most a linear function of the number of
linear regression. The trouble with this messages.
is that the temporal relationship
between variables is fixed if there is But a wide range of studies exist showing that word frequencies
uncertainty as to when a variable are approximately power law distributed in text. We show that
influences another this cannot be firstly, this property has significant implications for modelling
picked up in the analysis. text based time-series metrics and secondly, this property
means that current regression results in this literature are
In order to be able to model series where the temporal
largely invalid.
relationship between the variables is uncertain, we invented a
new time-series analysis methodology (paper currently under
We go on to present a model of word frequency movements
review). This combines concepts from speech processing and
that better fits that data.
polymer physics to model the relationship as a bumpy surface,
over which information attempts to diffuse from one series into
the other.
We go on to show how mapping the diffusion rate properly
allows us to predict the daily return of the major US and UK
stock indices. We show a trading model that could return around
908% over a 14 year period, just using two indices to predict
each other.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014


University of Southampton University of Oxford University of Southampton University of Southampton

Our project combines Reectance

TransformaGon Imaging (RTI) and ciGzen
science to create a new tool for the
decipherment of this ancient script.
Proto-Elamite is one of the
last of the myriad of
languages from the
ancient Near East to
remain undeciphered.

ParGcipants idenGfy signs

based on visual
characterisGcs and assign
labels to these images.
Tasks are assigned depending
Exempla are all dated to a relaGvely short period on areas of interest and level
of Gme during the Bronze Age (c. 3000 BC), and of competence.
all are provenanced to archaeological sites
We will gain a beVer
within modern day Iran.
understanding of
Earlier aVempts to decipher the proto-Elamite
online community
script have taught us many things about the
dynamics and paVerns
nature of use and layout of documents, but the
of behaviour.
language eludes us.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Revealing the Value of Social Media for

Charitable Organisations
Chris Phethean
Supervisors: Dr Thanassis Tiropanis and Dr Lisa Harris

Social media provide a unique opportunity for charities to reach a large audience with whom they can
engage in productive two-way conversations, for little cost. While it is often assumed that using social media
will be productive, and that charities should use these services, there is a lack of understanding regarding
what value is actually produced and where by using them. This poster presents a framework for
understanding the value that could potentially be created by a charity depending on their intentions and
motivations, communication style, audience intentions and audience engagement.

This framework has been produced as a result of a mixed methods investigation into what influences the creation of value on social media for
charities. It goes beyond existing free analytic services that rarely take into account the context of the organisation in question, and instead focuses
on what their aims are, how they relate to their supporters' reasons for using social media to connect with a charity, and how these aspects are
reflected in actual behaviour on the sites.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014
Institute of Criminal
Justice Research

Buying Medicine from the Web

Lisa Sugiura, Catherine Pope, Craig Webber
Web Science DTC, Faculty of Health Sciences, Division of Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology
University of Southampton

The study was comprised of three stages:

Aims of the Research 1. Virtual Ethnography: observation of web forums

2. Online Survey designed and implemented with the assistance of
This research explored the following questions: the MHRA
What types of medicines are available online, and what types of 3. Semi-Structured Interviews
websites sell these medicines?
What are the different routes for purchasing medicines, especially Since so little is known about the issue of purchasing prescription
prescription medicine, on the Web? only/ unlicensed medicines online, and even less about the reasons
How and why do people buy medicines from the Web? behind the decision to make that purchase, the research sought to
identify important aspects of these potentially deviant areas of the
Web, by drawing on theories of deviancy established within
criminology and sociology.

Medicines and drugs are subject to national and state/federal

regulation. The misuse, illegal consumption and purchase of Findings
drugs and medicines is not a new phenomenon, but it is one The forum and survey data show the wide variety of medicines
which the Web may enable or magnify, opening up as it does available to buy online, and that the Web is a source of discussion
access to online information and purchasing. and debate about such purchasing. These data also indicate that
there are websites that do not follow regulatory standards in
The provision, purchase and supply of prescription only requiring prescriptions and consultations for prescription only
medicines are typically regulated by national or state law. This medicine.
can vary between countries; each with their own licensing body
(e.g. UK The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory
Agency (MHRA) and the US The Food and Drug
Administration (FDA). Current UK medicines legislation is
comprised of the Medicines Act 1968 and approximately 200
statutory instruments. Much of this legislation has not kept up
with developments online and the Web is notoriously difficult to

Figure 1. Types of medicine available online

The Role of the Web

The interviews show that people talk about the purchasing medicine
online in relation to other consumptive behaviour on and offline.
People that have purchased medicine from the Web presented
The Web can make medicines accessible. People can view justifications for their behaviour. Such justifications involved
websites outside of the UK and may access to unregulated sites. availability, convenience and need to support the online purchasing.
The Web enables advertising including spam emails, and direct
marketing when people are browsing other sites which may
encourage purchasing of medicines online. The nature of online
purchasing is impersonal and may be anonymous which can may
encourage disregard for the law/regulation. Those who purchase
medicines online may ignore possible health risks, and may not be Impact / deployment
as aware that they are breaking the rules as they would be in the
This work has been undertaken in collaboration across different
University Faculties and groups such as Electronics and Computer
Science, Health Sciences, Social Sciences and Social Policy, and
This research sets out to explore the online purchase of prescription
Law. This research will describe and understand the purchase of
only / unlicensed medicines. While such purchases may not be
prescription only medicine from the Web and help to develop
criminal and are distinct from offline illegal drug purchasing and use
methods for analysing this phenomena.
they can contravene regulations and social norms. The Web
appears to remove or bypass some of the sanctions and stigma
associated with illegal drug purchasing and appears to offer a safe This research is pioneering because there is currently no qualitative
way to engage in deviant behaviour. Online purchasing of understanding of why individuals choose to purchase prescription only
unlicensed medicines may therefore be an example of respectable medicine from the Web. This will be the first study to apply
deviancy. sociological and criminological theories to Web phenomena of this
type. Working closely with the UK regulatory agency, the MHRA, this
project seeks to inform patient safety, policy decisions, regulation,
and in particular to contribute to future public advise and advertising
campaigns from this agency.

to procure them. What is legitimately available is constantly shifting and the Web
does not always reflect this, allowing sales toAcknowledgement:
be conducted outsideTheauthorised
Digital Economy Programme is a Research Councils UK
forms of supply. cross council initiative led by EPSRC and contributed to by AHRC, ESRC and

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014


Townsend, J. H. (2015). Doctoral thesis,
Townsend, J. H. (2015). Digital Taxonomy
for Sustainability. Proceedings of ICT for
Sustainability 2015. THINKING Developing knowledge & options for action ACTION Materialising chosen options to cause effects



Knowledge is Novelty is People disseminate Options are Options are Action takes place,

1. DIGITAL developed that

informs effective
action. Data and
developed. Options
are developed for
new or altered
and discuss ideas,
opinions and
decided between,
access is
controlled, action is
materialised into
actions by bringing
together the
enacting rules to
cause effects in
the wider world in
knowledge are action that could be agreements. promoted up to required order to progress
SYSTEM POWER: gathered, more effective. global scales. resources. the objectives.
DIGITAL CAPABILITY analysed, refined
and organised.


Wiki discussion pages Revision control and Social networking e-Marketplaces Crowdfunding Social behaviour
Digital hardware Social activity records collaborative software Blogs Peer-to-peer Crypto-currency change and
COLLECTIVE and software Organisation analysis Collaborative design Telephony, borrowing Collaborative
coordinating analysis conferencing Redistribution markets manufacturing and Physical group
Sensor journalism coordination
interactions Design sharing, open Email Staffed customer disposal
Decentralised oracles source and open Decentralised
between humans, hardware Forums, commentary services Logistics and delivery autonomous
Citizen science forums robots and drones
connecting supply [Hackathons, meetups Peer-to-peer content Directories organisations
and demand. sharing Group purchasing and Employee coordination
and coding events]
Activism coordination community adoption P2P software sharing
[Digital Collective agreement Offers and discounts Enterprise transaction
entrepreneurship] and e-participation Sales team
<Sock puppets> coordination [Digital
[Maker culture] entrepreneurship]
Ratings and


AUGMENTED and software Knowledge-bases and Optimisation of options News, analysis, blogs e-Marketing and digital Installation planning Individual behaviour
interacting with, wikis Customisation of eEducation and games advertising Distributed feedback, quantified
informing, Data analytics options CRM and services manufacturing and self
Mass e-Campaigning
influencing and applications Design environments and public relations E-locks and access disposal Mobile and wearable
monitoring Geographical
information systems Open innovation and Data journalism control Virtual customer
services Crowd tasks
humans. Accounting systems
identification Leaks Ticketing
Real-time employee Flash mob formation
Open data Sales gamification
User profiles Design assessment guidance Business intelligence
{Artificial intelligence Recommender
{Crowd sensing} Ideation catalysts systems Problem diagnosis and operations
advice} advice management
{Human computation} [Accelerators and {Information Decision support Logistics and delivery Real-time guidance
incubators] systems
<Data theft> visualisation} optimisation and navigation
[Digital agencies, {Content display} Voting
software and design Industrial predictive Action knowledge-
<Social network bots> <Phishing, trojans and analytics bases Planning and
services] social engineering> decision support

MACHINE Automated or
controlled digital Photography, satellite
and drone sensing
Ontologies, semantic
web, linked data
Auto-software update Manufacturing robots
and drones
File download Drones
hardware and Mathematical analysis Simulation and Data platforms and Automated process
{User control} Automated
software. 2D/3D Scanners prediction standards optimisation optimization
<Viruses,worms and
Scientific instruments {Computation / {Transmission} botnets> 2D/3D printing Motors, actuators
Affective monitoring {Data transfer Automated problem Networked machines
{Software} protocols} diagnosis (Internet of things)
Activity records
{Cloud computing {Volunteer computing} Installation assessment Dematerialised content
Mobile &wearable services} drones and robots
sensors {Computer outputs}
{Artificial intelligence {System components:
{Sensors} agents} software, hardware
{Memory / storage} and digital services}
{Computer inputs} [Digital industry
manufacturing base]
{Machine learning,
pattern and image



The major challenges that must ultimately be addressed for environmental sustainability.
Intermediate steps across
the capability processes to
sustainability progress Decoupling. Efficiency and productivity. INTERACTIONS
Interdependent relationship of
ENERGY OTHER RESOURCES humans with the Earth System
Sustainability education, arts and media Building efficiency Water and waste water Biodiversity and habitat
Sustainability science and knowledge Renewable energy Food, agriculture, and fishing conservation
development Adaptation and resilience to
Carbon and fossil fuels Waste, materials and mineral
Finance, insurance, resource pricing extraction environmental risk
Electricity distribution and storage
ICTs (cleanweb, second order applications) Manufacturing and supply chains Environmental health and safety,
ICTs (green computing, first order air quality
Government, regulation and e-participation impacts) Real estate, storage and
construction Geoengineering
Local economy and community Transport and electric vehicles
Consumer goods General sustainability
Fundamental technology or resource Cities

Font: Klima CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Icons: Freepik, Robin Kylander, CCBY3.0; JACK TOWNSEND DIGITALTAXONOMY.COM 0.6

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2010 2014

Web Science



























Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

Thesis title
Academic Research Data
Re-usage in a Digital Age:
Modelling Best Practice
Laura German
LLB (Hons) Law, University of Southampton 2009
MSc (Dist.,) Web Science, University of Southampton 2010
Web Science PhD Candidate October 2010 to (expected completion) early 2015
Senior Research Assistant (The Ordnance Survey Data Enrichment Project) January 2014 to January 2015

Supervisory team:
Professor Mary Orr Lead Supervisor, Modern Languages, Faculty of Humanities
Professor Stephen Saxby Co-Supervisor, Law, Faculty of Business and Law
Professor Leslie Carr Co-Supervisor, Web and Internet Science, Faculty of Physical and Applied Sciences

Recent high profile retractions such as the case of Woo Suk Hwang and others demonstrate that there are still significant
issues regarding the reliability of published academic research data. While technological advances offer the potential for
greater data re-usability on the Web, models of best practice are yet to be fully re-purposed for a digital age.

Employing interdisciplinary web science practices, this thesis asks what makes for excellent academic research across the
sciences, social sciences and humanities. This thesis uses a case study approach to explore five existing digital data platforms
within chemistry, marine environmental sciences and modern languages research. It evaluates their provenance metadata,
legal, technological and ethical frameworks. This thesis further draws on data collected from semi-structured interviews
conducted with eighteen individuals connected to these five data platforms. The participants have a wide range of expertise in
the following areas: data management, data policy, academia, law and technology.

Through the interdisciplinary literature review and cross-comparison of the three case studies, this thesis identifies the five
main principles which inform how best practice should be modelled both now and in the future. These principles are:
sustainability, discoverability, working towards a common understanding, a good user experience and accreditation. It also
reveals the key grey areas that require further investigation.

Post-doctoral project
The Ordnance Survey Data
Enrichment Project
Enriching Ordnance Survey Content: Provenance, IP and
Licensing Impacts of Data Usage from Multiple Sources
Summary January 2014 to January 2015

Researchers from the Ordnance Survey and the University of Southampton have joined together to work on an
interdisciplinary research project that focuses on data enrichment in a digital age.
Dr Jenny Harding (Ordnance Survey) and Professor Mary Orr (Modern Languages) lead the research team with Ashley Wright
(Ordnance Survey), Victoria Lavender-Seagrave (Ordnance Survey), Dr Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon (Law) and Laura German (Web
Science) as co-investigators.

This research focuses on how data at Ordnance Survey can be further enriched for business, research and leisure users
through data mining of existing data and linking to other external datasets. It explores the potential for data enrichment at
Ordnance Survey and how this could be achieved (where necessary) by modification to its existing provenance metadata,
legal, technological and ethical frameworks.

This one-year project is funded by Ordnance Survey and sponsored by the University of Southampton.
Web Science Poster. Version 1.0. Last modified by Laura German on 24 October 2014.

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

The Emergent Threat of Defamation Online: The need for a new model governing online
defamation with the emergence of social web technologies
Sarosh Khan , Phd Candidate,
Dr Roksana Moore (Faculty of Business & Law)
Dr Mark Weal (Faculty of Applied & Physical Sciences)
Web Science Doctoral Training Centre, University of Southampton

Introduction Online Defamation

The development of the Web has led to the development of the
Web as a medium of dissemination Including potentially
defamatory. The Essence in the emergence of the social Web
whereby no longer is the Web merely an informational resource
but an interpersonal network. The Web ha shifted from merely a
resource with which the vast majority of individuals have simply
taken from what has been presented on the browser to being a
resource that has allowed individuals through their ability to
publish content to become an interpersonal network.
The multiple publication rule dictates that a publisher is liable every
Twitter is the most popular with 400 million worldwide users with time a defamatory publication is read, along with any subsequent
individuals able to publish 140 character pieces. The Interpersonal republisher and intermediary involved. The protection of reputation
network is developed through retweeting and searching content is one of the most important aspects of the legal landscape of the
on mass. U.K.

Defamation on the Web is governed through the same principles as

govern offline defamation; cyberpaternalism. A publisher will be
liable every time a defamatory comment has been accessed, any
individual that republishes will be liable every time the republication
is seen and intermediary liable for its active role in publications.

Cyberlibertarianism says that you should leave the community of

Web users to govern themselves through norms and standards that
will develop but it was disregarded for paternalism because of a lack
of homogeneity amongst people online. Decisions in Berezovsky,
Dow Jones, Loutchansky, Godfrey, Bunt and eBay have affirmed the
application of the paternal approach in the U.K. These rules have
developed to continue to protect reputations, one of the most
fundamental aspects of the legal landscape of the U.K.

The Problem The continued adoption of the paternal approach is no longer appropriate to govern online defamation in the U.K. in
light of the essence of the Web 2.0 environment. The ability to republish and search for content means that more individuals are engaging
with potentially defamatory content than ever before.

RT Convention Proliferation
Variation Username Date Text
Via @tagami 16/03/2007 @jasonCalacanis (via@kosso) new Nokia N-
Series phones will do Flash, Video and YouTube.
HT @TravisSeitler 22/10/2007 The Age Project: how old do I look? (HT @technosailor)
Retweet @kevinks 01/11/2007 Retweet: @AHealthyLaugh is in the Boston Globe
today, for a stand-up show shes doing tonight.
Add the funny lady on Twitter!
Retweeting @musicdt 05/01/2008 Retweeting @Bwana: Is anyone streaming live
from CES? #ces
RT @TDavid 25/01/2008 RT @BreakingNewsOn: LV Fire Department: No
major injuries and the fire on the Monte Carlo
west wing contained east win nearly contained
R/T @samflemming 20/06/2008 r/t: @danwei Live Online chat with Chinese
President Hu Jintao,. Variation
He claims he uses net to # of adopters % of # of adopters of # of retweets
know netizen concerns. total
Recycle Icon @claynewton 16/09/2008 [recycle icon] @ev of @biz re:twitterkeys [star]
RT 1,836,852 89.2% 53,221,529

Via 751,547 36.5% 5,367,304

Retweeting 50,400 2.44% 296,608

Retweet 36,601 1.78% 110,616

HT 8,346 0.41% 22,657

R/T 5,300 0.26% 28,658

Recycle icon 3,305 0.16% 18,225

Total 2,059,350 59,065,627

Through a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis of a corpus of 80 million tweets from Jan 2007 to Oct 2009, we can
demonstrate the way in which the convention of RT has spread across the non homogeneous community of Twitter users to become the
accepted method of communication among the community. We see, RT and via exceed all others with no written rules as a standard of
behaviour through the existence of weak ties. Weak ties mean that even if individuals do not believe in a standard, they will adopt it if they
see others have adopted it.


Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

Research Posters | PhD Researchers 2009 2013

Web Science Centre for Doctoral Training
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Web Science Institute
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