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Nicholas Barbera

Block C

Chapter 1 Critical Thinking Answers


1.
Describe a situation when a desktop computer might be preferred over a
notebook computer.
-When you need more processing power
-When you plan to use the computer for an extended period of time and the battery
life of a notebook wont work.
List 3 advantages of a desktop computer over a notebook.
- More powerful computer
- Easier to upgrade and/or swap out pieces if one stops working.
- Full size keyboard with number pad

Describe a situation where the user would prefer a tablet PC over a


notebook computer.
If you were elderly and had heart problems you could use a wearable
handheld computer to monitor heart rate and respiration flow.
Describe two Occupations where it would be helpful to have a handheld
computer.

A mechanic that wants to display computer drawings of the car from a head
mounted wearable computer, the notebook would be too big to strap to your
head.
Describe how wearable computers are used in the health care industry.
Nurses and doctors can use hand held computers on patients to monitor
heart rate and respiration flow.

2.
List and compare three input devices
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An input device is a device used to enter data and instructions into a


computer.
Mouse A hand controlled pointing device used to guide the motion of a
cursor on screen.
Microphone An instrument used to convert sound waves into electric energy
which can be read by a computer
Keyboard The primary text input device for a computer.

List and compare three output devices


After computers process data it is conveyed to an output device.
Monitors Display video information generated by the computer allowing the
user to with the computer.
Printers A machine that displays text or pictures on paper
Disk drive A device that allows a computer to read from and write to
computer disks

List and describe two peripheral devices


Peripheral devices are added to make a computer more versatile
Webcams An input device used to take picture to send to the computer
Microphone - An instrument used to convert sound waves into electric energy
which can be read by a computer
List three types of ports
USB, FireWire, Bluetooth

3.
List and describe 5 components found in the motherboard
Expansion board Circuit board that connect to the computer and add
functionality
CPU Processes data and controls the flow of data between the other
computers units.
Bus set of circuits that connect CPU to other components
ROM Contains most basic operating instructions for computer
RAM Memory where data and instructions are stored temporarily
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4.
Describe the flow of data of the components of a computer starting
with the input
The input device gives instructions to the CPU. The CPU processes the
instructions. The instructions (if memory) are sent to the RAM and stay there
until they are told to be permanently saved to the hard drive. The memory is then
sent to a output device.

Input Memory Output

CPU

5.
What is a cache memory used for?

Used to store frequently used data so it can be quickly used by an


application.

6.
Describe one difference between Operating software and application
software
Operating software is run automatically when you start the computer and
usually comes with the computer, application software is written to perform a
specific task.
List three different operating systems

Linux, Mac OS X, Windows.


What does environment refer to?
A computers hardware and software configuration.
What is another word for environment?
Platform

7.
What is a utility program? Give an example
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Utility programs read and write to memory, manage the processor, maintain
system security and manage files and disks

8.
Why is cross platform connectivity important to many users?
Cross platform connectivity is important because it may be required if
computers use a different OS or generate different file formats.

9.
What is the difference between low and high level programming
languages?
Low level languages are used to communicate with the computer and is
difficult to program because the languages consists of 0s and 1s
High level programming is much easier to program because the computer
can accept English-like instructions
List three high level programming languages
Forton, Basic, COBOL.
What is the difference between a compiler and an interpreter?
A compiler converts an entire program into machine code before the program
is executed.
An interpreter translates and executes instruction before moving onto
the next instruction in the program
List an advantage of using an object based programming language
Code can be used over and over again

10.
List 4 benefits of using a network

Reliably share and exchange data, reduce cost by sharing devices such as
printers offers security options such as passwords, provides
communication details such as email for network users

11.
What are 2 common size classifications for networks?

LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network)


What size classification is used to connect computers over large
geographical distances?
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WAN (Wide Area Network)

12.
What is a network operating system?

A software that allows users to communicate over a network


What does a network environment refer to?
A Network that connects computers around
the world using the TCP/IP protocol.

13.
Describe two common architecture network models

Peer to peer Each computer is equal in its sharing and responsibility


Client/Server Consists of a group of computers called clients
connect to a server a server is a computer with lots of RAM, CPU and big hard
drive that is used to manage network functions

14.
What does physical topology refer to?

Physical topology is the arraignment of nodes on a network


What is a node?

A node is the locations on the network with a device that can take and
process information an example would be a printer
Which topology uses a hub?
Star topology Each node is attached to a hub
Which topology connects all nodes to form a closed loop?
Ring topology Each node is connected to form a closed loop
What is the difference between a physical and a logical topology?
A logical topology passes data in a different way that a physical topology

15.
What netiquette rules apply in your class room?

- Do not attempt to access the account of another user without permission


- Do not share your password, change it periodically
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- Use appropriate subject matter and language, and be considerate of


others beliefs and opinions

16.
Explain why the binary number system was adopted for use in
computers.
The binary system was adopted because electrical circuits on the IC have two
states, off or on. Therefore a system which only uses 2 digits was adopted
for use in computers

17.
What is the decimal of 1011?

4170
What is the decimal equivalent of 2A16?
10774

18.
What is Unicode?
Unicode is an international coding language that contains every symbol or
character from most languages

19.
How many bytes of ram can 2 GB or ram store?
2,147,483,648 Bytes
How many bytes of data can a 500GB Hard Drive store?
536870912000 Bytes of data

20.
When would an overflow error occur?
When the number of bits needed to represent the
integer is greater than the size of 4 bytes.
What are real numbers?
Real numbers are numbers that contain decimal points

When would a round off error occur?


When there is not enough bits to store the mantissa
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21.
What is the difference between a text file and a binary file?
Text files are readable by humans, binary files are
readable by machines or computers
Explain how extension distinguishes file types.
When a file is created the application add a unique extension such as .txt for
a text file or .img for an image file
Describe how organizing your files into folder would help you keep
you organized
Files can be used to organize commonly related files and would help to keep
similar stuff all in one place.

22.
List to ways a storage device can be classified and give
an example of each Internal Hard disk External USB or
portable hard drive

23.
List four rules that should be followed to prevent damaging
files stored on CD/DVDS -Keep magnetic media away from
magnets -Handle CD/DVDS by the
center hole or the edges -Store CD/DVDS in
a jewel case or sleeve to prevent scratches -Keep
media away from moisture and extreme temperatures

24.
What is the difference between an intranet and an
extranet? An intranet is a network used by a
single organization such as school or office and is
. usually private and only accessible by people who have been given
the passcode. An extranet extends an intranet by providing
various levels of access to different users. Who controls the
internet? Computers
on the internet are either servers or clients, the servers control the
internet by hosting the clients.

25.
What problem is associated with using a conventional modem?
Conventional modems are usually associated with
having a slow access time.
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Describe the difference between a DSL modem and a Cable


modem. A DSL line uses telephone lines and the data
transmission is up to 640Kbps. A cable modem transmits data
through cable television network and receives speeds from 2-10 Mbps

26.
What is the most widely used internet service?
Electronic mail or e-mail for short.

List one benefit of email over standard mail


Emails are almost instantaneous while mail has
travel time.
Write your email address and label the parts of it.
nikjobar@gmail.com

Username|Host|Domain

What are to requirements for sending and receiving email


messages? An email software and access to the internet
or cellular data
List one example of a browser based email site
Googles webmail Gmail

27.
Why should sending an email be treated the same as sending a postcard?
Sending an email should be the same as sending a postcard because the email will
go through many servers before it reaches its recipient and the email should be
considerate of other people beliefs and should use appropriate subject matter and
language.
Discuss with a partner and then summarize issues that could occur is
proper email etiquette is not followed in the work place.

If your email contains profanity or derogatory beliefs/words the email could reach
your boss and get you fired, the email potentially could also be taken as a threat if
someone takes it personally.

28.
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List three commonly used search engines.


Google, Bing, Yahoo

Which search engine do you prefer to use? Why?


Google is my preferred search engine because I like the
site directory and using google applications such as Gmail, Drive and Google+.

Describe the importance of effective search criteria.


As most searches yield too many matches to find
what you are looking for, search criteria can help you narrow down those
answers and make it easier to find what you are looking for.

29.
Write search criteria to too locate websites that have the follow
information a) Restaurant in Miami Restaurant +
Miami b) Art museums in
Montreal Canada Art Museums + Montreal + Canada
c) Clothing stores near your city Clothing store + Near me
d) Alligators but not crocodiles Alligators -Crocodiles
e) The author James Patterson James
Patterson +Author Artist f) The phrase
Garbage in garbage out Garbage in garbage out +Phrase
g) George Washington and John Adams but not Thomas Jefferson
+George Washington +John Adams Thomas Jefferson

30.
Why should finals only be downloaded from authentic sites?
Downloading is copying files from one persons
computer to another, files should only be downloaded from authentic
sites as downloadable files are often associated with viruses

31.
List 4 questions you should ask when evaluation a website
source. What is the privacy policy? Is the website
cited? Does it have a good source? Is the site credible?
Why is it necessary to cite sources?
To give credit to the original author
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32.
What is online profiling?
When information about the user is collected by commercial
websites.
What is a cookie?
A cookie is a text file created by a website about the users
browsing habits.
What is a web beacon?
Web beacons are tiny and transparent graphics that are used with cookies to
collect a profile for the user.
Who usually monitors the information collected by web beacons?
Usually a third party advertising company.

34.
Name and describe one law the protects the privacy of an individual
A law that protects accessing electronic data
without authorization, this law is called the EPCA

35.
List three reasons why many schools have developed an acceptable
use policy To prevent malware from being installed on school
computers, to prevent school rules from being broken online, and to help
protect students.

36.
What can you do if you are turned down at a bank and believe that
that the data being used to deny credit is inaccurate
Contact the bank

37.
What is necessary federal government to access an individual
financial records The government must possess a search
warrant before accessing a individuals search records.

38.
What is Copyright infringement?
The illegal use of someone elses work.
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Why is computer piracy such a concern to software


developers? It could jeopardize the development of
software in the future
What is a computer virus
A computer virus is a malicious file that enters the users
computer and can replicate without the user knowing
Describe Phishing
Phishing is the
act of sending a malicious email in an attempt to make the victim think
you are a legitimate company

39.
What ethnical responsibilities does an it professional have
System reliability and reliability of the
software

40.
40a) False. Softwares are programs that are downloaded, so they
arent part of the computer unless you download them
40b) True
40c) True
40d) False, Assembly language is a low level programing language
40e) True
40f) True
40g) True
40h) True
40i) True
40j) No, were in the technology age.
40k) True
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