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GOOD MORNING/AFTERNOON/EVENING

SMILE WILL ALWAYS BRIGHTEN


Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIETUP YOUR MOODS
Concrete Technology
TEACHING SCHEME

LECTURES: 03 / WEEK
THEORY PAPER : 100 MARKS.

-PRACTICALS: 02 Hours/ Week


-TERMWORK: 25 MARKS.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY
Some Questions??
What you know about concrete?
Ingredients of Concrete?
Quality of Ingredients?
Steps to prepare concrete?
Strength of Concrete?
Have you seen any concreting work?
What was the procedure?
What was the supervision?
With/ without technical guidance?
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
CEMENT

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


WHAT IS CEMENT????
 Material with adhesive and cohesive
properties
 Any material that binds or unites -
essentially like glue

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


FUNCTION OF CEMENT

 To bind the sand and coarse aggregate


together
 To fill voids in between sand and coarse
aggregate particle
 To form a compact mass

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Cement is Very Old Material.

Research by Invention of Invention of chemical Cement


Louis Vicat on Portland Cement Engineering process Standard by
Hydraulic Binders by Joseph Aspedin by Isaac Johnson Wilhelm
Michaelis

1812 1824 1838 1875

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


CEMENT HISTORY
L.J.Vicat: inventions led him to prepare an artificial
hydraulic lime
Joseph Aspdin: builder & bricklayer took patent of
Portland Cement on 21/10/1824
Name Portland given as due to resemblance of this
hardened cement to the natural stone occuring at Portland
at England
Aspadin mixed Hard limestone and finely devided clay in form
of slurry

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


CEMENT HISTORY IN INDIA
Before producing in India, cement was imported
from UK.
In 1904, Portland Cement first Manufactured in
Madras, But this attempt failed
Between 1912-1913, Indian Cement co. was
established at Porbandar(Gujarat) and at end of year
1914, 1000 tons of cement was produced.
By 1969, Total cement production in India was 13.2
Million toones , 9th place in world cement
production
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
 2 types of cement normally used in
building industry are as follows:

a) Hydraulic Cement

b) Nonhydraulic Cement

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Hydraulic Cement
 Hydraulic Cement sets and hardens by
action of water. Such as Portland Cement
 In other words it means that hydraulic
cement are:
Any cements that turns into a solid product
in the presence of water (as well as air)
resulting in a material that does not
disintegrate in water.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Most common Hydraulic Cement is Portland Cement
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Nonhydraulic Cement
 Any cement that does not require water to
transform it into a solid product.
 2 common Nonhydraulic Cement are
a) Lime
- derived from limestone / chalk
b) Gypsum

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


PORTLAND CEMENT
 Chemical composition of Portland Cement:
a) Tricalcium Silicate (50%) C3S
b) Dicalcium Silicate (25%) C2S
c) Tricalcium Aluminate (10%) C3A
d)Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (10%) C3AF
e) Gypsum (5%)

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


FUNCTION :TRICALCIUM SILICATE

 Hardens rapidly and largely responsible for


initial set & early strength
 The increase in percentage of this compound
will cause the early strength of Portland
Cement to be higher.
A bigger percentage of this compound will
produces higher heat of hydration and
accounts for faster gain in strength.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
FUNCTION :DICALCIUM SILICATE

 Hardens slowly
 It effects on strength increases occurs at ages
beyond one week .
 Responsible for long term strength

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


FUNCTION :TRICALCIUM ALUMINATE
 Contributes to strength development in the
first few days because it is the first compound
to hydrate .
 It turns out higher heat of hydration and
contributes to faster gain in strength.
 But it results in poor sulfate resitance and
increases the volumetric shrinkage upon drying.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Cements with low Tricalcium Aluminate
contents usually generate less heat, develop
higher strengths and show greater
resistance to sulfate attacks.
 It has high heat generation and reactive
with soils and water containing moderate
to high sulfate concentrations so its least
desirable.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


FUNCTION : TETRACALCIUM
ALUMINOFERRITE
Assist in the manufacture of Portland Cement
by allowing lower clinkering temperature.
 Also act as a filler
 Contributes very little strength of concrete
eventhough it hydrates very rapidly.
 Also responsible for grey colour of Ordinary
Portland Cement

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


MANUFACTURING OF
PORTLAND CEMENT
 The 3 primary constituents of the raw
materials used in the manufacture of
Portland Cement are:
a) Lime (Calcareous Material)
b) Silica
(c) Alumina
 Lime is derived from limestone or chalk
 Silica & Alumina from clay, shale or bauxite
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
 There are 2 chief aspects of the
manufacturing process:
First
To produce a finely divided mixture of raw
materials chalk / limestone and clay / shale
Second
To heat this mixture to produce chemical
composition
 There 2 main process that can be used in
manufacturing of Portland Cement that is
i) wet process ii) dry process
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
WET PROCESS
 Raw materials are homogenized by crushing,
grinding and blending so that approximately
80% of the raw material pass a No.200 sieve.
 The mix will be turned into form of slurry by
adding 30 - 40% of water.
 It is then heated to about 2750F (1510C) in
horizontal revolving kilns (76-153m length
and 3.6-4.8m in diameter.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
 Natural gas, petroluem or coal are used for
burning. High fuel requirement may make it
uneconomical compared to dry process.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


DRY PROCESS
 Raw materials are homogenized by crushing,
grinding and blending so that approximately
80% of the raw material pass a No.200 sieve.
 Mixture is fed into kiln & burned in a dry state
 This process provides considerable savings in
fuel consumption and water usage but the
process is dustier compared to wet process
that is more efficient than grinding.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
DRY PROCES & WET PROCESS
 In the kiln, water from the raw material is
driven off and limestone is decomposed into
lime and Carbon Dioxide.
limestone lime + Carbon Dioxide
 In the burning zone, portion of the kiln, silica
and alumina from the clay undergo a solid
state chemical reaction with lime to produce
calcium aluminate.
silica & alumina + lime calcium aluminate
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
 The rotation and shape of kiln allow the
blend to flow down the kiln, submitting it to
gradually increasing temperature.
 As the material moves through hotter regions
in the kiln, calcium silicates are formed
 These products, that are black or greenish
black in color are in the form of small
pellets, called cement clinkers
 Cement clinkers are hard, irregular and ball
shaped particles about 18mm in diameter.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Traditional Manufacture of
Portland Cement

1. Stone is first reduced to 125 mm (5 in.)


Source: PCA, 2003
size, then to 20 mm (3/4 in.), and stored.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
2. Raw materials are ground to powder and blended.

or Source: PCA, 2003

2. Raw materials are ground, mixed with water to form slurry,


and blended.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Rotary Kiln

Formation of C3A and C4AF begins, decomposition of


CaCO3 completed, free lime reaches maximum

Formation of C2S reaches maximum,


C3A and C4AF formation completed

Formation of liquid phase

Formation of C3S, gradual decrease


of free lime content.
CEMENT CLINKERS

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


 The cement clinkers are cooled to about
150F (51C) and stored in clinker silos.
 When needed, clinker are mixed with 2-5%
gypsum to retard the setting time of cement
when it is mixed with water.
 Then, it is grounded to a fine powder and
then the cement is stored in storage bins or
cement silos or bagged.
 Cement bags should be stored on pallets in
a dry place.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
KILN

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


CEMENT SILO

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Physical properties of cement
Fineness: (1)
As hydration starts at surface of cement
particles, it is total surface area available for
hydration.
Rate of hydration depends on fneness of cement
For rapid development of strength, high
fineness is necessary.
Disadvantage ---fine grinding is susceptible to
air set and deterioration.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Physical properties of cement
Fineness: (2)---How it should be?
Max. particles should have size less than 100
microns.
Smallest particle may have size 1.5 micron.
25 to 30 % partcles of size less than 7 micron.
Average size can be taken as 10 micron.
1 day strength affected by particles <3 micron
28 days strength aff. by particles 3-25 micron

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Physical properties of cement
Innitial setting time
Time elapsed between the moment water added
to cement, to time that paste starts loosing its
plasticity.
Why mortar,concrete & paste should be in
plastic stage?
Certain time is required for mixing, transporting,
placing, compacting and finishing
Min time 30 to 45 minuits.
For this constituents are maintained.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Physical properties of cement
Final setting time:
Time elapsed between moment water is added
to cement and time at which paste has
completely lost its plasticity.
At this time, paste is ready to take certain
definite pressure.
Should not be more than 10 hours

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Innitial & Final setting time

VICATS APPARATUS
Innitial Setting Time
Paste of standard consistency
Needle of 1 Sq. mm
For I. S. T: penetrate upto 33-35 mm
from top

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Innitial & Final setting time

VICATS APPARATUS
Final Setting Time
Paste of standard consistency
Plunger of 10 mm diameter
For F. S. T: when lowering the plunger,
centre needle makes impression but
circular cutting edge fails to do so.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Physical properties of cement
Consistency
Actual mean is Uniformity among parts.
Uniform paste of water & cement called paste
of standard consistency.
OR paste which permit vicats plunger to
penetrate 33 to 35 mm from top.
Paste of standard consistency is used for
determination of Innitial and final setting time.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Physical properties of cement
Compressive Strength
Cubes of size 7.06mm X 7.06 mm X 7.06 mm
Cement + Ennore sand in proportion 1:3
Cement 185 gm + Ennore sand 555 gm.
Water (P/4 + 3)% of total weight.
Mix for min 3 minuit to 4 minuit & fill cube.
Test for 3, 7 , 28 days

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Soundness of cement

Soundness
It is essential, cement paste once set should not
undergo any large change in volume.
Expansion may be due to reaction of free lime,
magnesia and calcium sulphate.
Le Chateliers accelerated test.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Soundness of cement

Cement paste of 0.78 P


Time 3 to 5 minuits
Place apparatus on glass and fill
paste without entrapped air
Measure indicator distance
Submerge in water for 24 hours
Keep at boiling temp. for 3 hours
Again measure indicator distance
Expansion should not be more
than 10 mm
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Ordinary Portland Cement:
33 Grade cement: IS269-1989
43 Grade cement: IS 8112-1989
53 Grade cement: IS 12269-1987

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Types of Cement
Portland Pozzolona Cement:
10 to 25 % pozzolonic material
What is pozzolonic material?
Silicious or aluminious material
Possess no cementious property
Finely devided form
In presence of water, react with Calcium hydroxide
liberated in hydration process to form compound
possessing cementious properties
Calcined clay / Fly Ash
PPC offer greater resistance to attack of
aggressive water than OPC
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Portland Pozzolona Cement: (IS 1489-1991)
Economical as costly clincker replaced in some amount
PPC being finer than OPC, improves pore size
distribution, reduces microcracks
Long term strength higher than OPC
PPC consumes calcium hydroxide.
Rate of development of strength is innitialy slightly
lower than OPC
Reduction in alkalinity reduces resistance to corrosion
Generate reduced heat of hydration
Hydraulic structures, mass concrete structures as Dams, Bridge
Pier, Thick foundation

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Types of Cement
Rapid Hardening Cement (IS 8041-1990)
It develops strength rapidly.
Strength of 7 days in three days, but final strength is
slightly higher.
Due to higher fineness of grinding
Higher C3S content => quicker hydration
Lower C2S content => no slow hardening
Should not be used in mass construction.
Used in pre-fabricated concrete construction, road repair,
site where formwork required to be removed early to use
elsewhere
Only 10 % costlier than OPC
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement

Quick setting cement


Sets very early
Reduced Gypsum content while manufacturing
Used for underwater construction
For grouting operations

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Types of Cement
Sulpher Resisting Cement
Low C3A content (less than 5 %)
To avoid sulphate attack from outside concrete
Solid sulphate dont harm, soluble form do.
Sulphate + Calcium hydroxide => Calcium sulpho-
aluminate whose volume is 227 % more than
original volume, Expansion result in cracking called
sulphate attack
High silicate content.
This process is greatly accelerated if accompanied by
alternate freezing & drying
Used in marine environment, foundations in chemically
aggressive soil, Construction of STP
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Expansive Cement:
Concrete with OPC shrinks while setting
Cement for grouting anchor bolts, Grouting
machine foundations?
Cement which suffer no change in volume on
drying called Expansive Cement
Developed by busing expanding agent & drying
agents
Use of such cement requires skill & experience
8 to 20 parts of Sulphoaluminate clinker+100 parts
of Portland cement+ 15 parts of stabiliser.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Super sulphated cement
Content
80 to 85 % Granulated Slag
10 to 15 % Hard burnt Gypsum
5 % Portland Cement Clinker
Finer than Portland Cement
Low Heat of Hydration
40-45 Cal./Gm@ 7 Days& 45-50 Cal/Gm
High Sulphate Resistance.
Recommended in Foundations of Chemically
agressive soils & Marine works
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Rediset Cement:
High strength in few hours
Handling time 8 to 10 minuits
Strength with OPC in 3,7 days achieved in 3 , 7
hours
Release lot of heat advantageous in winter work
Very poor sulphate resistance
Used at
Patch & emergency repair
Quick release of formwork
Construction between tides
Very high early strength concrete & mortar
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Coloured cement
OPC with 5 to 10 % pigments
Pigment property : durability of colour for
exposure to light and weather
Absent of salt must be in pigments
Base are white cement & Grey cement
Use of white cement as base is costly
Using grey colour as base, red & brown cement
can be produced
Properties nearly same as OPC
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Low Heat Cement:
Formation of Cracks in large concrete body is
due to Heat of Hydration
Cement is required such that it will produce less
/same heat with low rate
1930, for mass concrete of Dams HOH
excessively large..
Achieved by reducing content of C3S & C3A
As per IS,
7 Days not more than 65 Calorie / gram
28 Days not more than 70 Colorie/Gram
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
Types of Cement
Hydrophobic Cement:
Produced by grinding clinker with water
repellent film forming substance as Oleic Acid
and Steric Acid
WRF formed around each grain of cement,
reduces rate of deterioration of cement during
long time storage.
Film is broken when cement is mixed with C.A
Assam, Shillong..storage and transportation
affect quality.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Types of Cement
High Alumina Cement:
Manufactured by fusing mixture of
Alumina + Calcareous Material
Limestone & Bauxite
Fusion takes place at temp. of 1550 to 1600 C
Maintained in liquid state in furnace
Molten cement is run into moulds & cooled
Known as Pigs
Pigs cooled & ground to tube mills

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


HYDRATION PROCESS
2(3CaO.SiO2) + 6H2O = 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O + 3Ca(OH)2
(Tricalcium silicate) (Tobermerite gel)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2(2CaO.SiO2) + 4H2O = 3CaO.2SiO2.3H2O+Ca(OH)2
(Dicalcium silicate) (Tobermerite gel)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3CaO.Al2O3 + 12H2O + Ca(OH)2 = 3CaO. Al2O3. Ca(OH)2.12H2O
(Tricalcium aluminate) (Tetra-calcium aluminate hydrate)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4CaO.Al2O3..Fe2O3 + 10H2O + 2Ca(OH)2 = 6CaO. Al2O3. Fe2O3.12H2O
(Tetra-calcium alumino-ferrite) (Calcium alumino-ferrite
hydrate)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3CaO.Al2O3+10H2O+ CaSO4.2H2O = 3CaO.Al2O3.CaSO4.12H2O
(Tricalcium aluminate) (Calcium sulphoaluminate hydrate)

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


HYDRATION PROCESS
C3S hardens rapidly: responsible for early
strength
C2S hardens slowly and responsible for
strength gain beyond one week
Heat of hydration: Hydration is always
accompanied by release of heat
C3A liberates the most heat
C2S liberates the least

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


COARSE AGGREGATES

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


WHAT IS AGGREGATES????
 Important constituent of concrete
 Occupy 70 to 80 % volume of concrete
 For concrete, Cement is only factory made standard
material & other are natural materials varying to any
extent of their property
 Coarse Aggregate: size more than 4.75mm
 Fine Aggregate: size less than 4.75 mm
 MSA depends on
Thickness of section, Clear cover , Spacing of
Reinforcement, Mixing, Handling & Placing
requirements
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
COARSE AGGREGATE: SHAPE
 Affects Workability
Crushed Rounded

Shape of aggregate depend on Characteristics


of parent rock & type of crusher used

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


COARSE AGGREGATE: SHAPE
Angular agg. are Superior to rounded
Angular aggregates exhibits better
interlokcking effect in concrete
Using rounded agg., poor concrete is produced,
due to lack of bond between CA & cement
paste

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


COARSE AGGREGATE: TEXTURE
 It is a property that determines weather
surface of particle is polished or smooth or
rough?
Surface Texture depends on
Hardness, Grain size, structure of rock,
Forces which acting on surface have
smoothened or roughened it!
As surface smoothness increases, contact
area decreases
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
COARSE AGGREGATE: TEXTURE

 Smooth surface particle requires thinner


layer of paste to make its relative movement
while concreting
Rough textured aggregates develops higher
bond strength in tension.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


COARSE AGGREGATE
SIEVE ANALYSIS:
Operation of dividing sample into
various fractions each consisting of
particles of same size.
Aggregates for concrete: 80mm,
40mm,20mm,10mm,4.75mm,2.36
mm,600Micron, 300 micron, 150
micron
Grading pattern achieved by
sieving sample through all sieves
mounted one over the other
Mechanically or Manualy
To find Particle size Distribution
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
COARSE AGGREGATE
 Fineness Modulus: It is a impirical factor
obtained by adding cumulative percentage
of aggregate retained on each of standard
sieve dividing by 100.
 F.M is calculated for Fine Aggregates.
 Fine Sand => 2.2 to 2.6
 Medium Sand =>2.6 to 2.9
 Coarse Sand => 2.9 to 3.2
Sand of F.M 3.2 will be unsuitable for making
satisfactory concrete.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
COARSE AGGREGATE
Specific Gravity:-
For design calculations
Gives relation between mass and volume
For Coarse Aggregates, 2.6 to 2.8
Experimental Procedure?

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


COARSE AGGREGATE
Water Absorption
Some aggregates are porous & absorptive
Affect w/c ratio & workability
Porosity affect durability of concrete
Procedure?

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


COARSE AGGREGATE
 Alakali Aggregate Reaction:
C. A. are considered as inert material
Some aggregate contain reactive silica which react
with alkalies in cement.
Traps, andesite, rhyolite etc contain reactive
constituents in the form of opals, cherts, volcanic
glass etc.
Reaction starts with attack on reactive siliceous
minerals in aggregate by alkaline hydroxide
derived from alkalies in cement.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
COARSE AGGREGATE
 AAR
As a result, alkali silicate gel of unlimited swelling
type are formed.
Result in disruption of concrete with spreading of
pattern cracks => failure of structure
Factors promoting AAR:
Reactive type of aggregate
High Alkali content in cement :for alkalies less than 0.6 %
Availability of moisture: Chemical reaction requires water
so reduction in AAR can be achieved by waterproofing
agents on surface of water.
Optimum temp. condition: favourable temp.10 to 38 0C
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
COARSE AGGREGATE
AAR: how to control?
Selecting non reactive aggregates
Using low alkali cement
Controllong void space in concrete
Controlling moisture condition and
temprature

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


FINE AGGREGATES
Bulking of sand:
Free moisture forms a film around each particle.
This film exerts surface tension, which keeps
neighbouring particle away from each other.
No point contact is possible between particles.
This causes bulking of volume.
How far adjucent particle is kept depends on % of
moisture content and particle size of F.A.
Bulking increases with increase in moisture content
upto certain limit. After saturation, no bulking.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
ARTIFICIAL AGGREGATES
Unavailibility of Natural Sand.
High cost of natural sand.
Natural sand particles are cubical or rounded
with smooth surface texture gives good
workability.
Crushed sand is flaky, badly graded & rough
textured, produces harsh concrete.
Drawback fullfilled by Modern Crushers.
Pune-Mumbai Express Highway Project.
Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET
RECYCLED AGGREGATES.
GUUESS?

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


WATER

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Water
Water safe for drinking, fit for concrete??
Not true for all conditions
Water + Sugar => not safe for concrete
Water safe for concrete not safe to drink.
Impurities in water
Affect setting of cement
Affect strength of concrete
Lead to corrosion of reinforcement

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


WATER
 IS 456 Says:
Water should be clean & free from injurious
amount of Oils, Acid, Alkali, Salt, Sugar, organic
material
 Potable water is satisfactory
To neutralize 100 ml sample of water
By Phenolphthalein , less than 5 ml 0.02 NaOH
By Indicator, less than 25 ml 0.02 H2SO4
 Chlorides less than 10000 ppm & sulphates less than
3000 ppm are permitted.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


Specific Gravity
Bulk Density
Flakiness Index
Elongation Index
Crushing Value
Impact Value
Abrasion Value
Grading of Aggregate.

Prof. Sagar B. Patil TKIET


IS IT BORING? ENGINEER MUST KNOW ABOUT CONCRETE.

LIFE IS BEAUTIFUL, LEARN


Prof. Sagar TO APPRECIATE IT
B. Patil TKIET