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A Research on Extracting Low Quality Human Finger

Vein Pattern Characteristics

Yu Chengbo Qing Huafeng Zhang Lian


Research Institute of Remote Test & Control, Chongqing Institute of Technology,
Chongqing, China
yuchengbo@cqit.edu.cn

AbstractBased on fuzzy theory and combined the image that can effectively resolve the many problems in the
segmentation algorithm and concave detection algorithm, this traditional difficult biometrics.
paper proposed an enhanced method for extracting finger vein
features. Firstly, based on the concave configuration The finger vein recognition is a biometrics that utilizes
characteristic of the finger vein image, the detection operator is human finger vein features to realize identification. Compared
defined to detect the concave area. Secondly, the finger vein with human finger mark, the finger vein has following
image is segmented three regions through by twice coarse characteristic. 1) Universality and uniqueness. The vein images
segmentation. The three regions are objects region, background of most people cant change at all with the increasing of ages.
region and fuzzy region. The fuzzy region is improved by Different people have different vein image. 2) The vein is in
enhancement algorithm then. Finally, the enhancement region is body. The finger vein recognition is non-contact identification.
subdivided. The experiment results show that it is not only So it doesnt have effects on body health and doesnt make
effective in removing noise and false vein feature, but also people conflicting feeling. 3) The vein feature is difficult to be
extracted vein features is smooth and continuous. So it is very forged and changed by surgery. 4) The epidermis status doesnt
perfect to extract features of low quality human finger vein have any effects on the vein recognition almost. 5) The
image. equipment has low cost and the collecting course is simple and
fast. So the identification technique on vein features emerges as
Keywords- fuzzy theory; image segmentation; concave detection; the times require. In 2000, subsidized by the under the Hitachi
finger vein image; feature extraction
Lease Corporation, M. Kono developed near infrared
recognition system on finger vein firstly and used in personal
I. INTRODUCTION recognition[14]. However, the base and key of finger vein
In modern society, with the rapid development of computer recognition is extracting of finger vein image features. Whether
and network technology, the security demand for person goods, the vein features can be extracted exactly is directly related
in-house network, building passage, Internet and electronic with the recognition precision of the whole system. Now many
commerce is more and more strict, and the require for identify scholars at home and abroad make a wide and deep study on
authentication becomes more and more necessary. People the image segmentation. Sankur and Sezgin list more than 40
expect a more convenient and reliable method for identify various threshold segmentation techniques in literature [1],
authentication. The biometrics makes this possible. The cards Naoto Miura and others put forward repeat linear tracking
may be lost or their passwords may be forgotten, but the method for extracting finger vein features [10], literature [1]
peoples biology features, such as face, finger mark, iris, palm and literature [2] put forward the direction segmentation
print and vein, cant be lost or forgotten. In the many method and the threshold method. But segmentation effect of
biometrics methods, the finger mark recognition, face vein image with low quality by these algorithms isnt ideal. So
recognition, iris recognition, palm shape recognition and gait this paper put forward a new extracting algorithm for finger
recognition only observe representation of hominine biology vein feature.
features. Their assurance coefficients are low. The finger mark
recognition is most convenient, reliable non-disturbing and II. A NEW FINGER VEIN EXTRACTION ALGORITHM
relative mature technique. But it has some shortcomings[9]: 1)
less finger mark features for some people or some colony cant A. The basic principles of algorithm
meet the demand of building record; 2) the crime finger mark Image vein feature extraction algorithm refers to image
databank in the automatic finger mark identifying system is so preprocessing, the image vein feature extraction, image post-
widely used by the global judicial practice that people have processing, and so on. One of the most important is the image
wariness with it; 3) when using finger mark, the users finger vein feature extraction. By analyzing the finger vein images, it
mark moulages is left in the finger mark collector, and these shows clearly that the veins appear as dark lines which were
moulages may be used to copy finger mark; 4) finger marks of less bright than that of the surrounding area.
part users are attrited so that the finger mark recognition cant
be used. Arming at the above shortcomings, a more advanced
biometricsthe finger vein identifying system is adopted,

This article belongs to science and technology research item of Chongqing


education committee (KJ070620)

978-1-4244-1748-3/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE 1876


And then by combining the knowledge of digital image,
extracting character is the valley regions shaped by the image 0
0
0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0 0 0


3 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(As shown in Figure 1).
0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 -1
0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
-4 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
(e) 90o orientation (f) 67.5o orientation

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0
0 0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0
(a) Cross-sectional profile (b) Location of profile 0

0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0

3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Figure 1. Cross-sectional profile of finger vein image 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

o
Therefore, the feature extraction is achieved by detecting (g) 45 orientation (f) 22.5o orientation
the Valley region. The Valley region (vein patterns) has
Figure 3. The direction of the operator
relatively clear market direction, so the Accuracy of estimating
market direction directly determines the results of image But there are pseudo-vein characteristics and noise. To this
enhancement and segmentation algorithm. To estimate the end, by using its threshold method it can be classified three
market direction, the direction of the vein is divided into eight regional: regional which is most impossible to contain the vein
directions. Shown as in Figure 2, i=1,2,,8 represents the characteristic (background regional), regional containing
eight directions position. pseudo-vein characteristics and noise (fuzzy region), and
regional which is only the most likely to contain vein
characteristics (targets regional). Then each region is processed
respectively, that is to remove background regional, retain
targets regional, subdivide fuzzy region.
Because the region containing noise and pseudo-vein
characteristics are fuzzy region, the division of the department
is the key in the whole vein feature extraction. Firstly, we must
clear the fuzzy part, which can reduce the noise and remove the
Figure 2. Eight vein ridge directions in a pixel's
pseudo-vein characteristic, and it is propitious to threshold
Then we design an operator to detect the Valley-region, segmentation. Then segmenting it by threshold, but they should
namely, calculating the convolution between eight direction not use a single threshold value to segment image, otherwise,
template Operator (As shown in Figure 3) and the points in the when noise and pseudo-vein characteristics are removed the
area of points by using formula for convolution. (Template and vein feature information is lost at the same time. So a multi-
the neighborhood have same size). With regarding the largest threshold segmentation method must be adopted. Each of its
convolution at the eight directions as the point pixel gray value, region deals specifically with the following ideas:
we get the image containing vein characteristics. Identifying background regional. That is to remove the
non-obvious vein features. Firstly, let the pixel gray
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

value of the valley-shaped region be greater than zero,

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

amount to zero in flat region, be less than zero in the

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0

convex regional by convolution. So, the gray value
3 0 -1 0 -4 0 -1 0 3 0 0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 0
which is greater than zero is the certain vein
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0
0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

characteristics, and the value remains unchanged.
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conversely, it is the non-vein characteristics. The first
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

division can be carried out by zero.
(a) 0o (Horizontal) orientation (b) 157.5oorientation
Retaining targets regional, retaining the pixel which is
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 obviously the vein characteristics. There are a lot of
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0
futures in the image after first step, but there are also a
0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
pseudo-vein characteristics and noise. Taking
0

0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 -4 0 0 0 0

appropriate threshold can retain obvious vein
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 -1 0 0
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 characteristic. The gray value which is greater than
0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
threshold amount threshold, contrarily, the gray value
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 keeps constant.
(c) 135o orientation (d) 112.5o orientation

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Clearing the fuzzy part. After the first two steps, Step 2.3: Fuzzy Enhancement
pseudo-vein characteristics and noise exists in the
After the previous twice segmentation, then range of the
fuzzy part. First of all, it is necessary to reduce
gray value is [0, Gmean ] , pseudo-vein characteristics and noise
ambiguity of the fuzzy part before segmentation, which
is clearing the fuzzy part. This will further reduce the are likely to exist in the region, cleared the fuzzy part by using
noise and removed pseudo-vein, and it is conducive the fuzzy enhancement operator. This will further reduce the noise
next accurate segmentation. and removed pseudo-vein.

Segmenting the fuzzy part by threshold. This is key The algorithm is as follows:
part in the whole vein characteristics extraction. We (1) Calculation of degree of membership, namely:
use regional threshold method, that is calculated for the
mean and variance in each point region (the size of
area can be chosen according to need), using NiBlack Gray (m, n)
[6] method to ascertain the threshold. So each point in umn = G (Gray (m, n) ) = 5
K 1
images has a threshold. Then the image is segmented
by using each threshold. Finally we can get the vein (2) Calculating the means Tmn of all the elements within
features images.
(2p+1) (2p +1) window.
B. Algorithm specific description
(3) Calculating pixel gray Gray (m, n) ' and gray degree of
Generally finger vein images have clearer orientation field.
membership umn adjusted within (2p+1) (2p +1) window, its
The orientation field estimated accurately directly determines
enhancement and segmentation effect of image. To estimate mathematical expression is
orientation field, the direction of the vein is divided into eight
directions. As shown in figure 3, feature extraction algorithm is
described as follows: umn 2r
umn ( T ) umn Tmn
To determine the ridge line direction of the pixel, mn
=
umn (6)
Convolution Fgray (i ) (i , 2,",8) of each pixel within 1 (1 u )( 1 umn )2r Tmn < umn
mn
the 9 9 window in image were calculated by corresponding 1 Tmn
eight directions Operator (Shown as Figure 3). Then get the
largest convolution G max in eight directions. Gray (m, n)= ( K 1)umn

Step 2.4: 3rd threshold segmentation


G max = Max (Fgray (i ) ) (1)
i
Use (2p+1) (2p +1) window sliding in the original image,
Then, maximum G max is gray value of the point pixel gray value in the window center is Gray (m, n) ' , then all
the pixels within the window compose of a set as the
following:
Gray (m, n) = G max (2)

Step 2: threshold segmentation S(i, j )={f (m+k , n+l )|k , l =-p ",1, 0, 1" ,p}
Step 2.1: the first threshold segmentation
Obtained the average Average(S(m, n)), of all pixels in the
window Formula as follows:
Gray (m, n ) if Gray (m, n) > 0
Gray (m, n ) = (3)
0 else
1 p p
Average(S(m, n))= Gray (m, n) (7)
Step 2.2The second threshold segmentation (2p +1)(2p+1) m = p n = p

Gmean = sum(Gray ) / Num (m, n)=


1 p p
(Gray ( m, n ) Average(S(m, n))) 2 (

(2p +1)(2p +1) m = p n = p
Gmean if Gray (m, n) > Gmean 8)
Gray (m, n) = (4)
Gray (m, n) else
T (m, n) = Average(S(m, n))+ (m, n) (9)
Gmean is the average of non-zero elements in the image.
So each pixel of images has a threshold value. The binary
sum(Gray ) and Num expressed the sum and number of non- images obtained by the each respective threshold values are:
zero elements respectively.

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1 if Gray (m, n) ' > T (m, n) better than the previous two methods. So it can effectively
Gray (m, n)' = (10) extract vein characteristics of low-quality finger vein images.
0 else
IV. CONCLUSION
The obtained final image Gray (m, n) ' only contains the
vein characteristics. Based on the analysis finger vein, this paper proposed an
enhanced method for extracting finger vein based on fuzzy
theory algorithm, according to the image, it can be divided into
III. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS three regions, and each region is processed respectively to
Use camera to take three experiments images, and then extract accurately vein characteristics of the low-quality finger
normalize size and grey level and filtering. We extract veins vein images. The experimental results show that the algorithm
feature by using this method and comparing with algorithm in to extract the finger vein achieves very satisfactory results, and
the literature [1] and [2]. Experimental results as shown in extraction feature is not only accurate but also smooth. It is
Figure 4. Figure 4 (a) is the original image, Figure 4 (b) possible to embody the advantages of the finger vein
obtained by the literature [1] segmentation method, Figure 4 (c) application areas more fully. The algorithm not only applied to
obtained by the literature [2] segmentation method, Figure 4 ( the finger vein feature extraction, but also applies to feature
d) obtained by the segmentation method that this paper extraction those lower SNR and uneven illumination image
proposed. (such as features extraction of hand vein image), it has high
practical value.

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