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21.615 14 CFR Ch.

I (1104 Edition)

(1) A complete and current technical in the applicable performance standard


data file for each type or model article, through its civil aviation authority.
including design drawings and speci- (b) The letter of TSO design approval
fications. will be issued by the Administrator and
(2) Complete and current inspection must list any deviation granted to the
records showing that all inspections manufacturer under 21.609.
and tests required to ensure compli- (c) After the Administrator has
ance with this part have been properly issued a letter of TSO design approval
completed and documented. and the country of manufacture issues
(b) Retention of records. The manufac- a Certificate of Airworthiness for Ex-
turer shall retain the records described port as specified in 21.502(a), the man-
in paragraph (a)(1) of this section until ufacturer shall be authorized to iden-
it no longer manufactures the article. tify the appliance with the TSO mark-
At that time, copies of these records ing requirements described in 21.607(d)
shall be sent to the Administrator. The and in the applicable TSO. Each appli-
manufacturer shall retain the records ance must be accompanied by a Certifi-
described in paragraph (a)(2) of this cate of Airworthiness for Export as
section for a period of at least 2 years. specified in 21.502(a) issued by the
country of manufacture.
21.615 FAA inspection.
21.619 Noncompliance.
Upon the request of the Adminis-
trator, each manufacturer of an article The Administrator may, upon notice,
under a TSO authorization shall allow withdraw the TSO authorization or let-
the Administrator to ter of TSO design approval of any man-
(a) Inspect any article manufactured ufacturer who identifies with a TSO
under that authorization; marking an article not meeting the
(b) Inspect the manufacturers qual- performance standards of the applica-
ity control system; ble TSO.
(c) Witness any tests; 21.621 Transferability and duration.
(d) Inspect the manufacturing facili-
ties; and A TSO authorization or letter of TSO
design approval issued under this part
(e) Inspect the technical data files on
is not transferable and is effective
that article.
until surrendered, withdrawn, or other-
21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design wise terminated by the Administrator.
approval: import appliances.
(a) A letter of TSO design approval PART 23AIRWORTHINESS STAND-
may be issued for an appliance that is ARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACRO-
manufactured in a foreign country BATIC, AND COMMUTER CAT-
with which the United States has an EGORY AIRPLANES
agreement for the acceptance of these
appliances for export and import and SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATION NO.
that is to be imported into the United 23
States if
(1) The country in which the appli- Subpart AGeneral
ance was manufactured certifies that Sec.
the appliance has been examined, test- 23.1 Applicability.
ed, and found to meet the applicable 23.2 Special retroactive requirements.
TSO designated in 21.305(b) or the ap- 23.3 Airplane categories.
plicable performance standards of the
country in which the appliance was Subpart BFlight
manufactured and any other perform- GENERAL
ance standards the Administrator may
prescribe to provide a level of safety 23.21 Proof of compliance.
23.23 Load distribution limits.
equivalent to that provided by the TSO 23.25 Weight limits.
designated in 21.305(b); and 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding cen-
(2) The manufacturer has submitted ter of gravity.
one copy of the technical data required 23.31 Removable ballast.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23
23.33 Propeller speed and pitch limits. 23.253 High speed characteristics.
PERFORMANCE Subpart CStructure
23.45 General.
GENERAL
23.49 Stalling period.
23.51 Takeoff speeds. 23.301 Loads.
23.53 Takeoff performance. 23.302 Canard or tandem wing configura-
23.55 Acceleratestop distance. tions.
23.57 Takeoff path. 23.303 Factor of safety.
23.59 Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.305 Strength and deformation.
23.61 Takeoff flight path. 23.307 Proof of structure.
23.63 Climb: General.
23.65 Climb: All engines operating. FLIGHT LOADS
23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative. 23.321 General.
23.67 Climb: One engine inoperative.
23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions.
23.69 Enroute climb/descent.
23.333 Flight envelope.
23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes.
23.335 Design airspeeds.
23.73 Reference landing approach speed.
23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors.
23.75 Landing distance.
23.341 Gust loads factors.
23.77 Balked landing.
23.343 Design fuel loads.
FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS 23.345 High lift devices.
23.347 Unsymmetrical flight conditions.
23.141 General. 23.349 Rolling conditions.
23.351 Yawing conditions.
CONTROLLABILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY
23.361 Engine torque.
23.143 General. 23.363 Side load on engine mount.
23.145 Longitudinal control. 23.365 Pressurized cabin loads.
23.147 Directional and lateral control. 23.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to engine
23.149 Minimum control speed. failure.
23.151 Acrobatic maneuvers. 23.369 Rear lift truss.
23.153 Control during landings. 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.
23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.373 Speed control devices.
23.157 Rate of roll.
CONTROL SURFACE AND SYSTEM LOADS
TRIM
23.391 Control surface loads.
23.161 Trim. 23.393 Loads parallel to hinge line.
23.395 Control system loads.
STABILITY 23.397 Limit control forces and torques.
23.171 General. 23.399 Dual control system.
23.173 Static longitudinal stability. 23.405 Secondary control system.
23.175 Demonstration of static longitudinal 23.407 Trim tab effects.
stability. 23.409 Tabs.
23.177 Static directional and lateral sta- 23.415 Ground gust conditions.
bility.
23.181 Dynamic stability. HORIZONTAL STABILIZING AND BALANCING
SURFACES
STALLS 23.421 Balancing loads.
23.201 Wings level stall. 23.423 Maneuvering loads.
23.203 Turning flight and accelerated turn- 23.425 Gust loads.
ing stalls. 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads.
23.207 Stall warning.
VERTICAL SURFACES
SPINNING 23.441 Maneuvering loads.
23.221 Spinning. 23.443 Gust loads.
23.445 Outboard fins or winglets.
GROUND AND WATER HANDLING
CHARACTERISTICS AILERONS AND SPECIAL DEVICES
23.231 Longitudinal stability and control. 23.455 Ailerons.
23.233 Directional stability and control. 23.459 Special devices.
23.235 Operation on unpaved surfaces.
23.237 Operation on water. GROUND LOADS
23.239 Spray characteristics. 23.471 General.
23.473 Ground load conditions and assump-
MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS
tions.
23.251 Vibration and buffeting. 23.477 Landing gear arrangement.

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Pt. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
23.479 Level landing conditions. CONTROL SURFACES
23.481 Tail down landing conditions.
23.651 Proof of strength.
23.483 One-wheel landing conditions. 23.655 Installation.
23.485 Side load conditions. 23.657 Hinges.
23.493 Braked roll conditions. 23.659 Mass balance.
23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail
wheels. CONTROL SYSTEMS
23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose
23.671 General.
wheels.
23.672 Stability augmentation and auto-
23.505 Supplementary conditions for ski-
matic and power-operated systems.
planes.
23.673 Primary flight controls.
23.507 Jacking loads.
23.675 Stops.
23.509 Towing loads.
23.677 Trim systems.
23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on
23.679 Control system locks.
multiple-wheel units.
23.681 Limit load static tests.
WATER LOADS 23.683 Operation tests.
23.685 Control system details.
23.521 Water load conditions. 23.687 Spring devices.
23.523 Design weights and center of gravity 23.689 Cable systems.
positions. 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system.
23.525 Application of loads. 23.693 Joints.
23.527 Hull and main float load factors. 23.697 Wing flap controls.
23.529 Hull and main float landing condi- 23.699 Wing flap position indicator.
tions. 23.701 Flap interconnection.
23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condi- 23.703 Takeoff warning system.
tion.
23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. LANDING GEAR
23.535 Auxiliary float loads. 23.721 General.
23.537 Seawing loads. 23.723 Shock absorption tests.
23.725 Limit drop tests.
EMERGENCY LANDING CONDITIONS
23.726 Ground load dynamic tests.
23.561 General. 23.727 Reserve energy absorption drop test.
23.562 Emergency landing dynamic condi- 23.729 Landing gear extension and retrac-
tions. tion system.
23.731 Wheels.
FATIGUE EVALUATION 23.733 Tires.
23.571 Metallic pressurized cabin structures. 23.735 Brakes.
23.572 Metallic wing, empennage, and asso- 23.737 Skis.
ciated structures. 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering.
23.573 Damage tolerance and fatigue evalua-
FLOATS AND HULLS
tion of structure.
23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fa- 23.751 Main float buoyancy.
tigue evaluation of commuter category 23.753 Main float design.
airplanes. 23.755 Hulls.
23.575 Inspections and other procedures. 23.757 Auxiliary floats.

Subpart DDesign and Construction PERSONNEL AND CARGO ACCOMMODATIONS


23.771 Pilot compartment.
23.601 General. 23.773 Pilot compartment view.
23.603 Materials and workmanship. 23.775 Windshields and windows.
23.605 Fabrication methods. 23.777 Cockpit controls.
23.607 Fasteners. 23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
23.609 Protection of structure. 23.781 Cockpit control knob shape.
23.611 Accessibility provisions. 23.783 Doors.
23.613 Material strength properties and de- 23.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts,
sign values. and shoulder harnesses.
23.619 Special factors. 23.787 Baggage and cargo compartments.
23.621 Casting factors. 23.791 Passenger information signs.
23.623 Bearing factors. 23.803 Emergency evacuation.
23.625 Fitting factors. 23.805 Flightcrew emergency exits.
23.627 Fatigue strength. 23.807 Emergency exits.
23.629 Flutter. 23.811 Emergency exit marking.
23.812 Emergency lighting.
WINGS
23.813 Emergency exit access.
23.641 Proof of strength. 23.815 Width of aisle.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23
23.831 Ventilation. 23.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
23.994 Fuel system components.
PRESSURIZATION 23.995 Fuel valves and controls.
23.841 Pressurized cabins. 23.997 Fuel strainer or filter.
23.843 Pressurization tests. 23.999 Fuel system drains.
23.1001 Fuel jettisoning system.
FIRE PROTECTION
OIL SYSTEM
23.851 Fire extinguishers.
23.853 Passenger and crew compartment in- 23.1011 General.
teriors. 23.1013 Oil tanks.
23.855 Cargo and baggage compartment fire 23.1015 Oil tank tests.
protection. 23.1017 Oil lines and fittings.
23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. 23.1019 Oil strainer or filter.
23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.1021 Oil system drains.
23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, en- 23.1023 Oil radiators.
gine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.1027 Propeller feathering system.
ELECTRICAL BONDING AND LIGHTNING
COOLING
PROTECTION
23.1041 General.
23.867 Electrical bonding and protection
23.1043 Cooling tests.
against lightning and static electricity.
23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine
MISCELLANEOUS engine powered airplanes.
23.1047 Cooling test procedures for recipro-
23.871 Leveling means. cating engine powered airplanes.
Subpart EPowerplant LIQUID COOLING
GENERAL 23.1061 Installation.
23.1063 Coolant tank tests.
23.901 Installation.
23.903 Engines. INDUCTION SYSTEM
23.904 Automatic power reserve system.
23.905 Propellers. 23.1091 Air induction system.
23.907 Propeller vibration. 23.1093 Induction system icing protection.
23.909 Turbocharger systems. 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
23.925 Propeller clearance. 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system ca-
23.929 Engine installation ice protection. pacity.
23.933 Reversing systems. 23.1099 Carburetor deicing fluid system de-
23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust tail design.
reverser systems tests. 23.1101 Induction air preheater design.
23.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting sys- 23.1103 Induction system ducts.
tems. 23.1105 Induction system screens.
23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics. 23.1107 Induction system filters.
23.943 Negative acceleration. 23.1109 Turbocharger bleed air system.
FUEL SYSTEM 23.1111 Turbine engine bleed air system.

23.951 General. EXHAUST SYSTEM


23.953 Fuel system independence.
23.1121 General.
23.954 Fuel system lightning protection.
23.1123 Exhaust system.
23.955 Fuel flow.
23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers.
23.957 Flow between interconnected tanks.
23.959 Unusable fuel supply. POWERPLANT CONTROLS AND ACCESSORIES
23.961 Fuel system hot weather operation.
23.963 Fuel tanks: General. 23.1141 Powerplant controls: General.
23.965 Fuel tank tests. 23.1142 Auxiliary power unit controls.
23.967 Fuel tank installation. 23.1143 Engine controls.
23.969 Fuel tank expansion space. 23.1145 Ignition switches.
23.971 Fuel tank sump. 23.1147 Mixture controls.
23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. 23.1149 Propeller speed and pitch controls.
23.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor 23.1153 Propeller feathering controls.
vents. 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and
23.977 Fuel tank outlet. propeller pitch settings below the flight
23.979 Pressure fueling systems. regime.
23.1157 Carburetor air temperature controls.
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
23.1163 Powerplant accessories.
23.991 Fuel pumps. 23.1165 Engine ignition systems.

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Pt. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
POWERPLANT FIRE PROTECTION 23.1395 Maximum intensities in overlapping
beams of position lights.
23.1181 Designated fire zones; regions in-
23.1397 Color specifications.
cluded.
23.1399 Riding light.
23.1182 Nacelle areas behind firewalls.
23.1401 Anticollision light system.
23.1183 Lines, fittings, and components.
23.1189 Shutoff means. SAFETY EQUIPMENT
23.1191 Firewalls.
23.1192 Engine accessory compartment dia- 23.1411 General.
phragm. 23.1415 Ditching equipment.
23.1193 Cowling and nacelle. 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system.
23.1195 Fire extinguishing systems. 23.1419 Ice protection.
23.1197 Fire extinguishing agents.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers.
23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems mate- 23.1431 Electronic equipment.
rials. 23.1435 Hydraulic systems.
23.1203 Fire detector system. 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine air-
planes.
Subpart FEquipment 23.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic sys-
tems.
GENERAL 23.1441 Oxygen equipment and supply.
23.1301 Function and installation. 23.1443 Minimum mass flow of supplemental
23.1303 Flight and navigation instruments. oxygen.
23.1305 Powerplant instruments. 23.1445 Oxygen distribution system.
23.1307 Miscellaneous equipment. 23.1447 Equipment standards for oxygen dis-
23.1309 Equipment, systems, and installa- pensing units.
tions. 23.1449 Means for determining use of oxy-
gen.
INSTRUMENTS: INSTALLATION 23.1450 Chemical oxygen generators.
23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equip-
23.1311 Electronic display instrument sys- ment.
tems. 23.1453 Protection of oxygen equipment
23.1321 Arrangement and visibility. from rupture.
23.1322 Warning, caution, and advisory 23.1457 Cockpit voice recorders.
lights. 23.1459 Flight recorders.
23.1323 Airspeed indicating system. 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy
23.1325 Static pressure system. rotors.
23.1326 Pitot heat indication systems.
23.1327 Magnetic direction indicator. Subpart GOperating Limitations and
23.1329 Automatic pilot system.
Information
23.1331 Instruments using a power source.
23.1335 Flight director systems. 23.1501 General.
23.1337 Powerplant instruments installa- 23.1505 Airspeed limitations.
tion. 23.1507 Operating maneuvering speed.
23.1511 Flap extended speed.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
23.1513 Minimum control speed.
23.1351 General. 23.1519 Weight and center of gravity.
23.1353 Storage battery design and installa- 23.1521 Powerplant limitations.
tion. 23.1522 Auxiliary power unit limitations.
23.1357 Circuit protective devices. 23.1523 Minimum flight crew.
23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configu-
23.1361 Master switch arrangement. ration.
23.1365 Electric cables and equipment. 23.1525 Kinds of operation.
23.1367 Switches. 23.1527 Maximum operating altitude.
23.1529 Instructions for Continued Air-
LIGHTS worthiness.
23.1381 Instrument lights.
MARKINGS AND PLACARDS
23.1383 Taxi and landing lights.
23.1385 Position light system installation. 23.1541 General.
23.1387 Position light system dihedral an- 23.1543 Instrument markings: General.
gles. 23.1545 Airspeed indicator.
23.1389 Position light distribution and in- 23.1547 Magnetic direction indicator.
tensities. 23.1549 Powerplant and auxiliary power unit
23.1391 Minimum intensities in the hori- instruments.
zontal plane of position lights. 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator.
23.1393 Minimum intensities in any vertical 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator.
plane of position lights. 23.1555 Control markings.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23
23.1557 Miscellaneous markings and plac- PERFORMANCE
ards.
4. General. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed
23.1559 Operating limitations placard.
in this regulation, compliance with each ap-
23.1561 Safety equipment. plicable performance requirement in sections
23.1563 Airspeed placards. 4 through 7 of this regulation must be shown
23.1567 Flight maneuver placard. for ambient atmospheric conditions and still
air.
AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL AND APPROVED (b) The performance must correspond to
MANUAL MATERIAL the propulsive thrust available under the
23.1581 General. particular ambient atmospheric conditions
23.1583 Operating limitations. and the particular flight condition. The
23.1585 Operating procedures. available propulsive thrust must correspond
23.1587 Performance information. to engine power or thrust, not exceeding the
approved power or thrust less
23.1589 Loading information.
(1) Installation losses; and
APPENDIX A TO PART 23SIMPLIFIED DESIGN
LOAD CRITERIA (2) The power or equivalent thrust ab-
sorbed by the accessories and services appro-
APPENDIX B TO PART 23 [RESERVED]
priate to the particular ambient atmospheric
APPENDIX C TO PART 23BASIC LANDING CON- conditions and the particular flight condi-
DITIONS
tion.
APPENDIX D TO PART 23WHEEL SPIN-UP AND (c) Unless otherwise prescribed in this reg-
SPRING-BACK LOADS ulation, the applicant must select the take-
APPENDIX E TO PART 23 [RESERVED] off, en route, and landing configurations for
APPENDIX F TO PART 23TEST PROCEDURE the airplane.
APPENDIX G TO PART 23INSTRUCTIONS FOR (d) The airplane configuration may vary
CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS with weight, altitude, and temperature, to
APPENDIX H TO PART 23INSTALLATION OF AN the extent they are compatible with the op-
AUTOMATIC POWER RESERVE (APR) SYS- erating procedures required by paragraph (e)
TEM of this section.
APPENDIX I TO PART 23SEAPLANE LOADS (e) Unless otherwise prescribed in this reg-
ulation, in determining the critical engine
AUTHORITY: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701
inoperative takeoff performance, the accel-
44702, 44704.
erate-stop distance, takeoff distance,
SOURCE: Docket No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. changes in the airplanes configuration,
18. 1964; 30 FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, unless other- speed, power, and thrust, must be made in
wise noted. accordance with procedures established by
the applicant for operation in service.
SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATION (f) Procedures for the execution of balked
NO. 23 landings must be established by the appli-
cant and included in the Airplane Flight
1. Applicability. An applicant is entitled to Manual.
a type certificate in the normal category for (g) The procedures established under para-
a reciprocating or turbopropeller multien- graphs (e) and (f) of this section must
gine powered small airplane that is to be cer- (1) Be able to be consistently executed in
tificated to carry more than 10 occupants service by a crew of average skill;
and that is intended for use in operations (2) Use methods or devices that are safe
under Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regu- and reliable; and
lations if he shows compliance with the ap- (3) Include allowance for any time delays,
plicable requirements of Part 23 of the Fed- in the execution of the procedures, that may
eral Aviation Regulations, as supplemented reasonably be expected in service.
or modified by the additional airworthiness 5. Takeoff(a) General. The takeoff speeds
requirements of this regulation. described in paragraph (b), the accelerate-
2. References. Unless otherwise provided, all stop distance described in paragraph (c), and
references in this regulation to specific sec- the takeoff distance described in paragraph
tions of Part 23 of the Federal Aviation Reg- (d), must be determined for
ulations are those sections of Part 23 in ef- (1) Each weight, altitude, and ambient
fect on March 30, 1967. temperature within the operational limits
selected by the applicant;
FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS
(2) The selected configuration for takeoff;
3. General. Compliance must be shown with (3) The center of gravity in the most unfa-
the applicable requirements of Subpart B of vorable position;
Part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (4) The operating engine within approved
in effect on March 30, 1967, as supplemented operating limitation; and
or modified in sections 4 through 10 of this (5) Takeoff data based on smooth, dry,
regulation. hard-surface runway.

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Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
(b) Takeoff speeds. (1) The decision speed V1 lizing procedures prescribed by the appli-
is the calibrated airspeed on the ground at cant.
which, as a result of engine failure or other 6. Climb(a) Landing climb: All-engines-oper-
reasons, the pilot is assumed to have made a ating. The maximum weight must be deter-
decision to continue or discontinue the take- mined with the airplane in the landing con-
off. The speed V1 must be selected by the ap- figuration, for each altitude, and ambient
plicant but may not be less than temperature within the operational limits
(i) 1.10 Vs1; established for the airplane and with the
(ii) 1.10 VMC; most unfavorable center of gravity and out-
(iii) A speed that permits acceleration to of-ground effect in free air, at which the
V1 and stop in accordance with paragraph (c) steady gradient of climb will not be less than
allowing credit for an overrun distance equal 3.3 percent, with:
to that required to stop the airplane from a (1) The engines at the power that is avail-
ground speed of 35 knots utilizing maximum able 8 seconds after initiation of movement
braking; or of the power or thrust controls from the
(iv) A speed at which the airplane can be mimimum flight idle to the takeoff position.
rotated for takeoff and shown to be adequate (2) A climb speed not greater than the ap-
to safely continue the takeoff, using normal proach speed established under section 7 of
piloting skill, when the critical engine is this regulation and not less than the greater
suddenly made inoperative. of 1.05MC or 1.10VS1.
(2) Other essential takeoff speeds necessary (b) En route climb, one-engine-inoperative. (1)
for safe operation of the airplane must be de- the maximum weight must be determined
termined and shown in the Airplane Flight with the airplane in the en route configura-
Manual. tion, the critical engine inoperative, the re-
(c) Accelerate-stop distance. (1) The accel- maining engine at not more than maximum
erate-stop distance is the sum of the dis- continuous power or thrust, and the most
tances necessary to unfavorable center of gravity, at which the
(i) Accelerate the airplane from a standing
gradient at climb will be not less than
start to V1; and
(i) 1.2 percent (or a gradient equivalent to
(ii) Decelerate the airplane from V1 to a
0.20 Vso2, if greater) at 5,000 feet and an ambi-
speed not greater than 35 knots, assuming
ent temperature of 41 F. or
that in the case of engine failure, failure of
(ii) 0.6 percent (or a gradient equivalent to
the critical engine is recognized by the pilot
0.01 Vso2, if greater) at 5,000 feet and ambient
at the speed V1. The landing gear must re-
temperature of 81 F.
main in the extended position and maximum
(2) The minimum climb gradient specified
braking may be utilized during deceleration.
in subdivisions (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (1)
(2) Means other than wheel brakes may be
of this paragraph must vary linearly between
used to determine the accelerate-stop dis-
41 F. and 81 F. and must change at the same
tance if that means is available with the
rate up to the maximum operational tem-
critical engine inoperative and
perature approved for the airplane.
(i) Is safe and reliable;
(ii) Is used so that consistent results can 7. Landing. The landing distance must be
be expected under normal operating condi- determined for standard atmosphere at each
tions; and weight and altitude in accordance with FAR
(iii) Is such that exceptional skill is not re- 23.75(a), except that instead of the gliding ap-
quired to control the airplane. proach specified in FAR 23.75(a)(1), the land-
(d) All engines operating takeoff distance. ing may be preceded by a steady approach
The all engine operating takeoff distance is down to the 50-foot height at a gradient of
the horizontal distance required to takeoff descent not greater than 5.2 percent (3) at a
and climb to a height of 50 feet above the calibrated airspeed not less than 1.3s1.
takeoff surface according to procedures in TRIM
FAR 23.51(a).
(e) One-engine-inoperative takeoff. The max- 8. Trim(a) Lateral and directional trim. The
imum weight must be determined for each airplane must maintain lateral and direc-
altitude and temperature within the oper- tional trim in level flight at a speed of Vh or
ational limits established for the airplane, at VMO/MMO, whichever is lower, with landing
which the airplane has takeoff capability gear and wing flaps retracted.
after failure of the critical engine at or (b) Longitudinal trim. The airplane must
above V1 determined in accordance with maintain longitudinal trim during the fol-
paragraph (b) of this section. This capability lowing conditions, except that it need not
may be established maintain trim at a speed greater than VMO/
(1) By demonstrating a measurably posi- MMO:
tive rate of climb with the airplane in the (1) In the approach conditions specified in
takeoff configuration, landing gear extended; FAR 23.161(c)(3) through (5), except that in-
or stead of the speeds specified therein, trim
(2) By demonstrating the capability of must be maintained with a stick force of not
maintaining flight after engine failure uti- more than 10 pounds down to a speed used in

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23
showing compliance with section 7 of this any probable electric trim tab runaway
regulation or 1.4 Vs1 whichever is lower. which might be reasonably expected in serv-
(2) In level flight at any speed from VH or ice allowing for appropriate time delay after
VMO/MMO, whichever is lower, to either Vx or pilot recognition of the runaway. This dem-
1.4 Vs1, with the landing gear and wing flaps onstration must be conducted at the critical
retracted. airplane weights and center of gravity posi-
tions.
STABILITY
9. Static longitudinal stability. (a) In showing INSTRUMENTS: INSTALLATION
compliance with the provisions of FAR 12. Arrangement and visibility. Each instru-
23.175(b) and with paragraph (b) of this sec- ment must meet the requirements of FAR
tion, the airspeed must return to within 712 23.1321 and in addition
percent of the trim speed. (a) Each flight, navigation, and powerplant
(b) Cruise stability. The stick force curve instrument for use by any pilot must be
must have a stable slope for a speed range of plainly visible to him from his station with
50 knots from the trim speed except that the minimum practicable deviation from his
the speeds need not exceed VFC/MFC or be less normal position and line of vision when he is
than 1.4 Vs1. This speed range will be consid- looking forward along the flight path.
ered to begin at the outer extremes of the (b) The flight instruments required by FAR
friction band and the stick force may not ex- 23.1303 and by the applicable operating rules
ceed 50 pounds with must be grouped on the instrument panel
(i) Landing gear retracted; and centered as nearly as practicable about
(ii) Wing flaps retracted; the vertical plane of each pilots forward vi-
(iii) The maximum cruising power as se- sion. In addition
lected by the applicant as an operating limi- (1) The instrument that most effectively
tation for turbine engines or 75 percent of indicates the attitude must be on the panel
maximum continuous power for recipro- in the top center position;
cating engines except that the power need (2) The instrument that most effectively
not exceed that required at VMO/MMO: indicates airspeed must be adjacent to and
(iv) Maximum takeoff weight; and directly to the left of the instrument in the
(v) The airplane trimmed for level flight top center position;
with the power specified in subparagraph (3) The instrument that most effectively
(iii) of this paragraph. indicates altitude must be adjacent to and
VFC/MFC may not be less than a speed mid- directly to the right of the instrument in the
way between VMO/MMO and VDF/MDF, except top center position; and
that, for altitudes where Mach number is the (4) The instrument that most effectively
limiting factor, MFC need not exceed the indicates direction of flight must be adjacent
Mach number at which effective speed warn- to and directly below the instrument in the
ing occurs. top center position.
(c) Climb stability. For turbopropeller powered 13. Airspeed indicating system. Each airspeed
airplanes only. In showing compliance with indicating system must meet the require-
FAR 23.175(a), an applicant must in lieu of ments of FAR 23.1323 and in addition
the power specified in FAR 23.175(a)(4), use (a) Airspeed indicating instruments must
the maximum power or thrust selected by be of an approved type and must be cali-
the applicant as an operating limitation for brated to indicate true airspeed at sea level
use during climb at the best rate of climb in the standard atmosphere with a
speed except that the speed need not be less mimimum practicable instrument calibra-
than 1.4 Vs1. tion error when the corresponding pilot and
STALLS static pressures are supplied to the instru-
ments.
10. Stall warning. If artificial stall warning (b) The airspeed indicating system must be
is required to comply with the requirements calibrated to determine the system error,
of FAR 23.207, the warning device must give i.e., the relation between IAS and CAS, in
clearly distinguishable indications under ex- flight and during the accelerate takeoff
pected conditions of flight. The use of a vis- ground run. The ground run calibration must
ual warning device that requires the atten- be obtained between 0.8 of the mimimum
tion of the crew within the cockpit is not ac- value of V1 and 1.2 times the maximum value
ceptable by itself. of V1, considering the approved ranges of al-
titude and weight. The ground run calibra-
CONTROL SYSTEMS
tion will be determined assuming an engine
11. Electric trim tabs. The airplane must failure at the mimimum value of V1.
meet the requirements of FAR 23.677 and in (c) The airspeed error of the installation
addition it must be shown that the airplane excluding the instrument calibration error,
is safely controllable and that a pilot can must not exceed 3 percent or 5 knots which-
perform all the maneuvers and operations ever is greater, throughout the speed range
necessary to effect a safe landing following from VMO to 1.3S1 with flaps retracted and

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Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
from 1.3 VSO to VFE with flaps in the landing AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL
position.
18. General. The Airplane Flight Manual
(d) Information showing the relationship must be prepared in accordance with the re-
between IAS and CAS must be shown in the quirements of FARs 23.1583 and 23.1587, and
Airplane Flight Manual. in addition the operating limitations and
14. Static air vent system. The static air vent performance information set forth in sec-
system must meet the requirements of FAR tions 19 and 20 must be included.
23.1325. The altimeter system calibration 19. Operating limitations. The Airplane
must be determined and shown in the Air- Flight Manual must include the following
plane Flight Manual. limitations
(a) Airspeed limitations. (1) The maximum
OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION operating limit speed VMO/MMO and a state-
ment that this speed limit may not be delib-
15. Maximum operating limit speed VMO/MMO.
erately exceeded in any regime of flight
Instead of establishing operating limitations
(climb, cruise, or descent) unless a higher
based on VME and VNO, the applicant must
speed is authorized for flight test or pilot
establish a maximum operating limit speed
training;
VMO/MMO in accordance with the following: (2) If an airspeed limitation is based upon
(a) The maximum operating limit speed compressibility effects, a statement to this
must not exceed the design cruising speed Vc effect and information as to any symptoms,
and must be sufficiently below VD/MD or VDF/ the probable behavior of the airplane, and
MDF to make it highly improbable that the the recommended recovery procedures; and
latter speeds will be inadvertently exceeded (3) The airspeed limits, shown in terms of
in flight. VMO/MMO instead of VNO and VNE.
(b) The speed Vmo must not exceed 0.8 VD/ (b) Takeoff weight limitations. The max-
MD or 0.8 VDF/MDF unless flight demonstra- imum takeoff weight for each airport ele-
tions involving upsets as specified by the Ad- vation, ambient temperature, and available
ministrator indicates a lower speed margin takeoff runway length within the range se-
will not result in speeds exceeding VD/MD or lected by the applicant. This weight may not
VDF. Atmospheric variations, horizontal exceed the weight at which:
gusts, and equipment errors, and airframe (1) The all-engine operating takeoff dis-
production variations will be taken into ac- tance determined in accordance with section
count. 5(d) or the accelerate-stop distance deter-
16. Minimum flight crew. In addition to mined in accordance with section 5(c), which
ever is greater, is equal to the available run-
meeting the requirements of FAR 23.1523, the
way length;
applicant must establish the minimum num-
(2) The airplane complies with the one-en-
ber and type of qualified flight crew per-
gine-inoperative takeoff requirements speci-
sonnel sufficient for safe operation of the fied in section 5(e); and
airplane considering (3) The airplane complies with the one-en-
(a) Each kind of operation for which the gine-inoperative en route climb require-
applicant desires approval; ments specified in section 6(b), assuming
(b) The workload on each crewmember con- that a standard temperature lapse rate ex-
sidering the following: ists from the airport elevation to the alti-
(1) Flight path control. tude of 5,000 feet, except that the weight may
(2) Collision avoidance. not exceed that corresponding to a tempera-
(3) Navigation. ture of 41 F at 5,000 feet.
(4) Communications. 20. Performance information. The Airplane
(5) Operation and monitoring of all essen- Flight Manual must contain the performance
tial aircraft systems. information determined in accordance with
the provisions of the performance require-
(6) Command decisions; and
ments of this regulation. The information
(c) The accessibility and ease of operation must include the following:
of necessary controls by the appropriate (a) Sufficient information so that the take-
crewmember during all normal and emer- off weight limits specified in section 19(b)
gency operations when at his flight station. can be determined for all temperatures and
17. Airspeed indicator. The airspeed indi- altitudes within the operation limitations
cator must meet the requirements of FAR selected by the applicant.
23.1545 except that, the airspeed notations (b) The conditions under which the per-
and markings in terms of VNO and VNE must formance information was obtained, includ-
be replaced by the VMO/MMO notations. The ing the airspeed at the 50-foot height used to
airspeed indicator markings must be easily determine landing distances.
read and understood by the pilot. A placard (c) The performance information (deter-
adjacent to the airspeed indicator is an ac- mined by extrapolation and computed for the
ceptable means of showing compliance with range of weights between the maximum
the requirements of FAR 23.1545(c). landing and takeoff weights) for

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23
(1) Climb in the landing configuration; and propeller drag limiting system, considering
(2) Landing distance. the probable pilot corrective action on the
(d) Procedure established under section 4 of flight controls.
this regulation related to the limitations (1) At speeds between VMC and VD, the
and information required by this section in loads resulting from power failure because of
the form of guidance material including any fuel flow interruption are considered to be
relevant limitations or information. limit loads.
(e) An explanation of significant or un- (2) At speeds between VMC and VC, the
usual flight or ground handling characteris- loads resulting from the disconnection of the
tics of the airplane. engine compressor from the turbine or from
(f) Airspeeds, as indicated airspeeds, cor- loss of the turbine blades are considered to
responding to those determined for takeoff be ultimate loads.
in accordance with section 5(b). (3) The time history of the thrust decay
21. Maximum operating altitudes. The max- and drag buildup occurring as a result of the
imum operating altitude to which operation prescribed engine failures must be substan-
is permitted, as limited by flight, structural, tiated by test or other data applicable to the
powerplant, functional, or equipment char- particular engine-propeller combination.
acteristics, must be specified in the Airplane (4) The timing and magnitude of the prob-
Flight Manual. able pilot corrective action must be conserv-
22. Stowage provision for Airplane Flight atively estimated, considering the character-
Manual. Provision must be made for stowing istics of the particular engine-propeller-air-
the Airplane Flight Manual in a suitable plane combination.
fixed container which is readily accessible to (b) Pilot corrective action may be assumed
the pilot. to be initiated at the time maximum yawing
23. Operating procedures. Procedures for re- velocity is reached, but not earlier than two
starting turbine engines in flight (including seconds after the engine failure. The mag-
the effects of altitude) must be set forth in nitude of the corrective action may be based
the Airplane Flight Manual. on the control forces specified in FAR 23.397
except that lower forces may be assumed
AIRFRAME REQUIREMENTS
where it is shown by analysis or test that
FLIGHT LOADS these forces can control the yaw and roll re-
sulting from the prescribed engine failure
24. Engine torque. (a) Each turbopropeller conditions.
engine mount and its supporting structure
must be designed for the torque effects of GROUND LOADS
(1) The conditions set forth in FAR
27. Dual wheel landing gear units. Each dual
23.361(a).
wheel landing gear unit and its supporting
(2) The limit engine torque corresponding
structure must be shown to comply with the
to takeoff power and propeller speed, multi-
following:
plied by a factor accounting for propeller
(a) Pivoting. The airplane must be assumed
control system malfunction, including quick
to pivot about one side of the main gear with
feathering action, simultaneously with 1 g
the brakes on that side locked. The limit
level flight loads. In the absence of a ration-
vertical load factor must be 1.0 and the coef-
al analysis, a factor of 1.6 must be used.
(b) The limit torque is obtained by multi- ficient of friction 0.8. This condition need
plying the mean torque by a factor of 1.25. apply only to the main gear and its sup-
25. Turbine engine gyroscopic loads. Each porting structure.
turbopropeller engine mount and its sup- (b) Unequal tire inflation. A 6040 percent
porting structure must be designed for the distribution of the loads established in ac-
gyroscopic loads that result, with the en- cordance with FAR 23.471 through FAR 23.483
gines at maximum continuous r.p.m., under must be applied to the dual wheels.
either (c) Flat tire. (1) Sixty percent of the loads
(a) The conditions prescribed in FARs specified in FAR 23.471 through FAR 23.483
23.351 and 23.423; or must be applied to either wheel in a unit.
(b) All possible combinations of the fol- (2) Sixty percent of the limit drag and side
lowing: loads and 100 percent of the limit vertical
(1) A yaw velocity of 2.5 radius per second. load established in accordance with FARs
(2) A pitch velocity of 1.0 radians per sec- 23.493 and 23.485 must be applied to either
ond. wheel in a unit except that the vertical load
(3) A normal load factor of 2.5. need not exceed the maximum vertical load
(4) Maximum continuous thrust. in paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
26. Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure.
FATIGUE EVALUATION
(a) Turbopropeller powered airplanes must
be designed for the unsymmetrical loads re- 28. Fatigue evaluation of wing and associated
sulting from the failure of the critical engine structure. Unless it is shown that the struc-
including the following conditions in com- ture, operating stress levels, materials, and
bination with a single malfunction of the expected use are comparable from a fatigue

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Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
standpoint to a similar design which has had 32. Doors and exits. The airplane must meet
substantial satisfactory service experience, the requirements of FAR 23.783 and FAR
the strength, detail design, and the fabrica- 23.807 (a)(3), (b), and (c), and in addition:
tion of those parts of the wing, wing carry- (a) There must be a means to lock and
through, and attaching structure whose fail- safeguard each external door and exit
ure would be catastrophic must be evaluated against opening in flight either inadvert-
under either ently by persons, or as a result of mechan-
(a) A fatigue strength investigation in ical failure. Each external door must be op-
which the structure is shown by analysis, erable from both the inside and the outside.
tests, or both to be able to withstand the re- (b) There must be means for direct visual
peated loads of variable magnitude expected inspection of the locking mechanism by
in service; or crewmembers to determine whether external
doors and exits, for which the initial opening
(b) A fail-safe strength investigation in
movement is outward, are fully locked. In
which it is shown by analysis, tests, or both
addition, there must be a visual means to
that catastrophic failure of the structure is
signal to crewmembers when normally used
not probable after fatigue, or obvious partial external doors are closed and fully locked.
failure, of a principal structural element, (c) The passenger entrance door must qual-
and that the remaining structure is able to ify as a floor level emergency exit. Each ad-
withstand a static ultimate load factor of 75 ditional required emergency exit except floor
percent of the critical limit load factor at level exits must be located over the wing or
Vc. These loads must be multiplied by a fac- must be provided with acceptable means to
tor of 1.15 unless the dynamic effects of fail- assist the occupants in descending to the
ure under static load are otherwise consid- ground. In addition to the passenger en-
ered. trance door:
(1) For a total seating capacity of 15 or
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION less, an emergency exit as defined in FAR
29. Flutter. For Multiengine turbopropeller 23.807(b) is required on each side of the cabin.
powered airplanes, a dynamic evaluation (2) For a total seating capacity of 16
must be made and must include through 23, three emergency exits as defined
in 23.807(b) are required with one on the same
(a) The significant elastic, inertia, and aer-
side as the door and two on the side opposite
odynamic forces associated with the rota-
the door.
tions and displacements of the plane of the
(d) An evacuation demonstration must be
propeller; and conducted utilizing the maximum number of
(b) Engine-propeller-nacelle stiffness and occupants for which certification is desired.
damping variations appropriate to the par- It must be conducted under simulated night
ticular configuration. conditions utilizing only the emergency
exits on the most critical side of the aircraft.
LANDING GEAR
The participants must be representative of
30. Flap operated landing gear warning de- average airline passengers with no prior
vice. Airplanes having retractable landing practice or rehearsal for the demonstration.
gear and wing flaps must be equipped with a Evacuation must be completed within 90 sec-
warning device that functions continuously onds.
when the wing flaps are extended to a flap (e) Each emergency exit must be marked
position that activates the warning device to with the word Exit by a sign which has
give adequate warning before landing, using white letters 1 inch high on a red back-
normal landing procedures, if the landing ground 2 inches high, be self-illuminated or
gear is not fully extended and locked. There independently internally electrically illumi-
may not be a manual shut off for this warn- nated, and have a minimum luminescence
ing device. The flap position sensing unit (brightness) of at least 160 microlamberts.
may be installed at any suitable location. The colors may be reversed if the passenger
The system for this device may use any part compartment illumination is essentially the
of the system (including the aural warning same.
device) provided for other landing gear warn- (f) Access to window type emergency exits
ing devices. must not be obstructed by seats or seat
backs.
PERSONNEL AND CARGO ACCOMMODATIONS (g) The width of the main passenger aisle
at any point between seats must equal or ex-
31. Cargo and baggage compartments. Cargo ceed the values in the following table.
and baggage compartments must be designed
to meet the requirements of FAR 23.787 (a) Minimum main passenger aisle
width
and (b), and in addition means must be pro- Total seating capacity
vided to protect passengers from injury by Less than 25 25 inches and
the contents of any cargo or baggage com- inches from floor more from floor
partment when the ultimate forward inertia
10 through 23 ........... 9 inches ............. 15 inches.
force is 9g.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23
MISCELLANEOUS stallation must not result in vibration char-
acteristics of the engine exceeding those es-
33. Lightning strike protection. Parts that
tablished during the type certification of the
are electrically insulated from the basic air-
engine.
frame must be connected to it through light-
37. In-flight restarting of engine. If the en-
ning arrestors unless a lightning strike on
gine on turbopropeller powered airplanes
the insulated part cannot be restarted at the maximum cruise
(a) Is improbable because of shielding by altitude, a determination must be made of
other parts; or the altitude below which restarts can be con-
(b) Is not hazardous. sistently accomplished. Restart information
34. Ice protection. If certification with ice must be provided in the Airplane Flight
protection provisions is desired, compliance Manual.
with the following requirements must be 38. Engines(a) For turbopropeller powered
shown: airplanes. The engine installation must com-
(a) The recommended procedures for the ply with the following requirements:
use of the ice protection equipment must be (1) Engine isolation. The powerplants must
set forth in the Airplane Flight Manual. be arranged and isolated from each other to
(b) An analysis must be performed to es- allow operation, in at least one configura-
tablish, on the basis of the airplanes oper- tion, so that the failure or malfunction of
ational needs, the adequacy of the ice protec- any engine, or of any system that can affect
tion system for the various components of the engine, will not
the airplane. In addition, tests of the ice pro- (i) Prevent the continued safe operation of
tection system must be conducted to dem- the remaining engines; or
onstrate that the airplane is capable of oper- (ii) Require immediate action by any crew-
ating safely in continuous maximum and member for continued safe operation.
intermittent maximum icing conditions as (2) Control of engine rotation. There must be
described in FAR 25, appendix C. a means to individually stop and restart the
(c) Compliance with all or portions of this rotation of any engine in flight except that
section may be accomplished by reference, engine rotation need not be stopped if con-
where applicable because of similarity of the tinued rotation could not jeopardize the safe-
designs, to analysis and tests performed by ty of the airplane. Each component of the
the applicant for a type certificated model. stopping and restarting system on the engine
35. Maintenance information. The applicant side of the firewall, and that might be ex-
must make available to the owner at the posed to fire, must be at least fire resistant.
time of delivery of the airplane the informa- If hydraulic propeller feathering systems are
tion he considers essential for the proper used for this purpose, the feathering lines
maintenance of the airplane. That informa- must be at least fire resistant under the op-
tion must include the following: erating conditions that may be expected to
(a) Description of systems, including elec- exist during feathering.
trical, hydraulic, and fuel controls. (3) Engine speed and gas temperature control
(b) Lubrication instructions setting forth devices. The powerplant systems associated
the frequency and the lubricants and fluids with engine control devices, systems, and in-
which are to be used in the various systems. strumentation must provide reasonable as-
(c) Pressures and electrical loads applica- surance that those engine operating limita-
ble to the various systems. tions that adversely affect turbine rotor
(d) Tolerances and adjustments necessary structural integrity will not be exceeded in
for proper functioning. service.
(e) Methods of leveling, raising, and tow- (b) For reciprocating-engine powered air-
ing. planes. To provide engine isolation, the pow-
(f) Methods of balancing control surfaces. erplants must be arranged and isolated from
(g) Identification of primary and secondary each other to allow operation, in at least one
structures. configuration, so that the failure or malfunc-
(h) Frequency and extent of inspections tion of any engine, or of any system that can
necessary to the proper operation of the air- affect that engine, will not
plane. (1) Prevent the continued safe operation of
(i) Special repair methods applicable to the the remaining engines; or
airplane. (2) Require immediate action by any crew-
(j) Special inspection techniques, including member for continued safe operation.
those that require X-ray, ultrasonic, and 39. Turbopropeller reversing systems. (a) Tur-
magnetic particle inspection. bopropeller reversing systems intended for
(k) List of special tools. ground operation must be designed so that
no single failure or malfunction of the sys-
PROPULSION tem will result in unwanted reverse thrust
under any expected operating condition.
GENERAL
Failure of structural elements need not be
36. Vibration characteristics. For turbo- considered if the probability of this kind of
propeller powered airplanes, the engine in- failure is extremely remote.

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Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
(b) Turbopropeller reversing systems in- with turbine engines which do not have pro-
tended for in-flight use must be designed so visions for mechanically driving the main
that no unsafe condition will result during pumps. It must be demonstrated that the
normal operation of the system, or from any pump installations provide a reliability and
failure (or reasonably likely combination of durability equivalent to that provided by
failures) of the reversing system, under any FAR 23.991(a).
anticipated condition of operation of the air- 44. Fuel strainer or filter. For turbopropeller
plane. Failure of structural elements need powered airplanes, the following apply:
not be considered if the probability of this (a) There must be a fuel strainer or filter
kind of failure is extremely remote. between the tank outlet and the fuel meter-
(c) Compliance with this section may be ing device of the engine. In addition, the fuel
shown by failure analysis, testing, or both strainer or filter must be
for propeller systems that allow propeller (1) Between the tank outlet and the en-
blades to move from the flight low-pitch po- gine-driven positive displacement pump
sition to a position that is substantially less inlet, if there is an engine-driven positive
than that at the normal flight low-pitch stop displacement pump;
position. The analysis may include or be sup- (2) Accessible for drainage and cleaning
ported by the analysis made to show compli- and, for the strainer screen, easily remov-
ance with the type certification of the pro- able; and
peller and associated installation compo- (3) Mounted so that its weight is not sup-
nents. Credit will be given for pertinent ported by the connecting lines or by the
analysis and testing completed by the engine inlet or outlet connections of the strainer or
and propeller manufacturers. filter itself.
40. Turbopropeller drag-limiting systems. Tur- (b) Unless there are means in the fuel sys-
bopropeller drag-limiting systems must be tem to prevent the accumulation of ice on
designed so that no single failure or malfunc- the filter, there must be means to automati-
tion of any of the systems during normal or cally maintain the fuel flow if ice-clogging of
emergency operation results in propeller the filter occurs; and
drag in excess of that for which the airplane (c) The fuel strainer or filter must be of
was designed. Failure of structural elements adequate capacity (with respect to operating
of the drag-limiting systems need not be con- limitations established to insure proper serv-
sidered if the probability of this kind of fail- ice) and of appropriate mesh to insure proper
ure is extremely remote. engine operation, with the fuel contaminated
41. Turbine engine powerplant operating to a degree (with respect to particle size and
characteristics. For turbopropeller powered density) that can be reasonably expected in
airplanes, the turbine engine powerplant op- service. The degree of fuel filtering may not
erating characteristics must be investigated be less than that established for the engine
in flight to determine that no adverse char- type certification.
acteristics (such as stall, surge, or flameout) 45. Lightning strike protection. Protection
are present to a hazardous degree, during must be provided against the ignition of
normal and emergency operation within the flammable vapors in the fuel vent system
range of operating limitations of the air- due to lightning strikes.
plane and of the engine.
42. Fuel flow. (a) For turbopropeller pow- COOLING
ered airplanes 46. Cooling test procedures for turbopropeller
(1) The fuel system must provide for con- powered airplanes. (a) Turbopropeller powered
tinuous supply of fuel to the engines for nor- airplanes must be shown to comply with the
mal operation without interruption due to requirements of FAR 23.1041 during takeoff,
depletion of fuel in any tank other than the climb en route, and landing stages of flight
main tank; and that correspond to the applicable perform-
(2) The fuel flow rate for turbopropeller en- ance requirements. The cooling test must be
gine fuel pump systems must not be less conducted with the airplane in the configu-
than 125 percent of the fuel flow required to ration and operating under the conditions
develop the standard sea level atmospheric that are critical relative to cooling during
conditions takeoff power selected and in- each stage of flight. For the cooling tests a
cluded as an operating limitation in the Air- temperature is stabilized when its rate of
plane Flight Manual. change is less than 2 F. per minute.
(b) For reciprocating engine powered air- (b) Temperatures must be stabilized under
planes, it is acceptable for the fuel flow rate the conditions from which entry is made into
for each pump system (main and reserve sup- each stage of flight being investigated unless
ply) to be 125 percent of the takeoff fuel con- the entry condition is not one during which
sumption of the engine. component and engine fluid temperatures
would stabilize, in which case, operation
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
through the full entry condition must be
43. Fuel pumps. For turbopropeller powered conducted before entry into the stage of
airplanes, a reliable and independent power flight being investigated in order to allow
source must be provided for each pump used temperatures to reach their natural levels at

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23
the time of entry. The takeoff cooling test in flight, a means must be provided to pre-
must be preceded by a period during which vent inadvertent movement of the control
the powerplant component and engine fluid into this position. The means provided must
temperatures are stabilized with the engines incorporate a positive lock or stop at this
at ground idle. idle position and must require a separate and
(c) Cooling tests for each stage of flight distinct operation by the crew to displace
must be continued until the control from the normal engine oper-
(1) The component and engine fluid tem- ating range.
peratures stabilize; 52. Reverse thrust controls. For turbo-
(2) The stage of flight is completed; or propeller powered airplanes, the propeller re-
(3) An operating limitation is reached. verse thrust controls must have a means to
prevent their inadvertent operation. The
INDUCTION SYSTEM means must have a positive lock or stop at
47. Air induction. For turbopropeller pow- the idle position and must require a separate
ered airplanes and distinct operation by the crew to dis-
(a) There must be means to prevent haz- place the control from the flight regime.
ardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow 53. Engine ignition systems. Each turbo-
from drains, vents, or other components of propeller airplane ignition system must be
flammable fluid systems from entering the considered an essential electrical load.
engine intake system; and 54. Powerplant accessories. The powerplant
(b) The air inlet ducts must be located or accessories must meet the requirements of
protected so as to minimize the ingestion of FAR 23.1163, and if the continued rotation of
foreign matter during takeoff, landing, and any accessory remotely driven by the engine
taxiing. is hazardous when malfunctioning occurs,
48. Induction system icing protection. For there must be means to prevent rotation
turbopropeller powered airplanes, each tur- without interfering with the continued oper-
bine engine must be able to operate through- ation of the engine.
out its flight power range without adverse
effect on engine operation or serious loss of POWERPLANT FIRE PROTECTION
power or thrust, under the icing conditions 55. Fire detector system. For turbopropeller
specified in appendix C of FAR 25. In addi- powered airplanes, the following apply:
tion, there must be means to indicate to ap- (a) There must be a means that ensures
propriate flight crewmembers the func- prompt detection of fire in the engine com-
tioning of the powerplant ice protection sys- partment. An overtemperature switch in
tem. each engine cooling air exit is an acceptable
49. Turbine engine bleed air systems. Turbine method of meeting this requirement.
engine bleed air systems of turbopropeller (b) Each fire detector must be constructed
powered airplanes must be investigated to and installed to withstand the vibration, in-
determine ertia, and other loads to which it may be
(a) That no hazard to the airplane will re- subjected in operation.
sult if a duct rupture occurs. This condition (c) No fire detector may be affected by any
must consider that a failure of the duct can oil, water, other fluids, or fumes that might
occur anywhere between the engine port and be present.
the airplane bleed service; and (d) There must be means to allow the flight
(b) That if the bleed air system is used for crew to check, in flight, the functioning of
direct cabin pressurization, it is not possible each fire detector electric circuit.
for hazardous contamination of the cabin air (e) Wiring and other components of each
system to occur in event of lubrication sys- fire detector system in a fire zone must be at
tem failure. least fire resistant.
EXHAUST SYSTEM 56. Fire protection, cowling and nacelle skin.
For reciprocating engine powered airplanes,
50. Exhaust system drains. Turbopropeller the engine cowling must be designed and
engine exhaust systems having low spots or constructed so that no fire originating in the
pockets must incorporate drains at such lo- engine compartment can enter, either
cations. These drains must discharge clear of through openings or by burn through, any
the airplane in normal and ground attitudes other region where it would create addi-
to prevent the accumulation of fuel after the tional hazards.
failure of an attempted engine start. 57. Flammable fluid fire protection. If flam-
mable fluids or vapors might be liberated by
POWERPLANT CONTROLS AND ACCESSORIES
the leakage of fluid systems in areas other
51. Engine controls. If throttles or power le- than engine compartments, there must be
vers for turbopropeller powered airplanes are means to
such that any position of these controls will (a) Prevent the ignition of those fluids or
reduce the fuel flow to the engine(s) below vapors by any other equipment; or
that necessary for satisfactory and safe idle (b) Control any fire resulting from that ig-
operation of the engine while the airplane is nition.

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Pt. 23, SFAR No. 23 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
EQUIPMENT (1) All essential loads after failure of any
prime mover, power converter, or energy
58. Powerplant instruments. (a) The fol-
storage device.
lowing are required for turbopropeller air-
(2) All essential loads after failure of any
planes:
one engine on two-engine airplanes.
(1) The instruments required by FAR
(3) In determining the probable operating
23.1305 (a)(1) through (4), (b)(2) and (4).
(2) A gas temperature indicator for each combinations and durations of essential
engine. loads for the power failure conditions de-
(3) Free air temperature indicator. scribed in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this
(4) A fuel flowmeter indicator for each en- paragraph, it is permissible to assume that
gine. the power loads are reduced in accordance
(5) Oil pressure warning means for each en- with a monitoring procedure which is con-
gine. sistent with safety in the types of operations
(6) A torque indicator or adequate means authorized.
for indicating power output for each engine. 60. Ventilation. The ventilation system of
(7) Fire warning indicator for each engine. the airplane must meet the requirements of
(8) A means to indicate when the propeller FAR 23.831, and in addition, for pressurized
blade angle is below the low-pitch position aircraft the ventilating air in flight crew and
corresponding to idle operation in flight. passenger compartments must be free of
(9) A means to indicate the functioning of harmful or hazardous concentrations of
the ice protection system for each engine. gases and vapors in normal operation and in
(b) For turbopropeller powered airplanes, the event of reasonably probable failures or
the turbopropeller blade position indicator malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating,
must begin indicating when the blade has pressurization, or other systems, and equip-
moved below the flight low-pitch position. ment. If accumulation of hazardous quan-
(c) The following instruments are required tities of smoke in the cockpit area is reason-
for reciprocating-engine powered airplanes: ably probable, smoke evacuation must be
(1) The instruments required by FAR readily accomplished.
23.1305. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
(2) A cylinder head temperature indicator
for each engine. 61. General. The electrical systems and
(3) A manifold pressure indicator for each equipment of the airplane must meet the re-
engine. quirements of FAR 23.1351, and the following:
(a) Electrical system capacity. The required
SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENTS generating capacity, and number and kinds
of power sources must
GENERAL
(1) Be determined by an electrical load
59. Function and installation. The systems analysis, and
and equipment of the airplane must meet the (2) Meet the requirements of FAR 23.1301.
requirements of FAR 23.1301, and the fol- (b) Generating system. The generating sys-
lowing: tem includes electrical power sources, main
(a) Each item of additional installed equip- power busses, transmission cables, and asso-
ment must ciated control, regulation, and protective de-
(1) Be of a kind and design appropriate to vices. It must be designed so that
its intended function; (1) The system voltage and frequency (as
(2) Be labeled as to its identification, func- applicable) at the terminals of all essential
tion, or operating limitations, or any appli- load equipment can be maintained within
cable combination of these factors, unless the limits for which the equipment is de-
misuse or inadvertent actuation cannot cre- signed, during any probable operating condi-
ate a hazard; tions;
(3) Be installed according to limitations (2) System transients due to switching,
specified for that equipment; and fault clearing, or other causes do not make
(4) Function properly when installed. essential loads inoperative, and do not cause
(b) Systems and installations must be de- a smoke or fire hazard;
signed to safeguard against hazards to the (3) There are means, accessible in flight to
aircraft in the event of their malfunction or appropriate crewmembers, for the individual
failure. and collective disconnection of the electrical
(c) Where an installation, the functioning power sources from the system; and
of which is necessary in showing compliance (4) There are means to indicate to appro-
with the applicable requirements, requires a priate crewmembers the generating system
power supply, such installation must be con- quantities essential for the safe operation of
sidered an essential load on the power sup- the system, including the voltage and cur-
ply, and the power sources and the distribu- rent supplied by each generator.
tion system must be capable of supplying the 62. Electrical equipment and installation.
following power loads in probable operation Electrical equipment controls, and wiring
combinations and for probable durations: must be installed so that operation of any

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.3
one unit or system of units will not ad- from serious head injury when sub-
versely affect the simultaneous operation of jected to the inertia loads resulting
to the safe operation. from the ultimate static load factors
63. Distribution system. (a) For the purpose
of complying with this section, the distribu-
prescribed in 23.561(b)(2) of this part,
tion system includes the distribution busses, or which will provide the occupant pro-
their associated feeders and each control and tection specified in 23.562 of this part
protective device. when that section is applicable to the
(b) Each system must be designed so that airplane. For other seat orientations,
essential load circuits can be supplied in the the seat/restraint system must be de-
event of reasonably probable faults or open signed to provide a level of occupant
circuits, including faults in heavy current protection equivalent to that provided
carrying cables.
(c) If two independent sources of electrical
for forward- or aft-facing seats with a
power for particular equipment or systems safety belt and shoulder harness in-
are required by this regulation, their elec- stalled.
trical energy supply must be insured by (b) Each shoulder harness installed at
means such as duplicate electrical equip- a flight crewmember station, as re-
ment, throwover switching, or multichannel quired by this section, must allow the
or loop circuits separately routed. crewmember, when seated with the
64. Circuit protective devices. The circuit safety belt and shoulder harness fas-
protective devices for the electrical circuits
of the airplane must meet the requirements tened, to perform all functions nec-
of FAR 23.1357, and in addition circuits for essary for flight operations.
loads which are essential to safe operation (c) For the purpose of this section,
must have individual and exclusive circuit the date of manufacture is:
protection. (1) The date the inspection accept-
[Doc. No. 8070, 34 FR 189, Jan. 7, 1969, as ance records, or equivalent, reflect
amended by SFAR 231, 34 FR 20176, Dec. 24, that the airplane is complete and
1969; 35 FR 1102, Jan. 28, 1970] meets the FAA approved type design
data; or
Subpart AGeneral (2) In the case of a foreign manufac-
tured airplane, the date the foreign
23.1 Applicability. civil airworthiness authority certifies
(a) This part prescribes airworthiness the airplane is complete and issues an
standards for the issue of type certifi- original standard airworthiness certifi-
cates, and changes to those certifi- cate, or the equivalent in that country.
cates, for airplanes in the normal, util- [Amdt. 2336, 53 FR 30812, Aug. 15, 1988]
ity, acrobatic, and commuter cat-
egories. 23.3 Airplane categories.
(b) Each person who applies under (a) The normal category is limited to
Part 21 for such a certificate or change airplanes that have a seating configu-
must show compliance with the appli- ration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or
cable requirements of this part. less, a maximum certificated takeoff
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as weight of 12,500 pounds or less, and in-
amended by Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1825, Jan. 15, tended for nonacrobatic operation.
1987] Nonacrobatic operation includes:
(1) Any maneuver incident to normal
23.2 Special retroactive require- flying;
ments. (2) Stalls (except whip stalls); and
(a) Notwithstanding 21.17 and 21.101 (3) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep
of this chapter and irrespective of the turns, in which the angle of bank is not
type certification basis, each normal, more than 60 degrees.
utility, and acrobatic category air- (b) The utility category is limited to
plane having a passenger seating con- airplanes that have a seating configu-
figuration, excluding pilot seats, of ration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or
nine or less, manufactured after De- less, a maximum certificated takeoff
cember 12, 1986, or any such foreign air- weight of 12,500 pounds or less, and in-
plane for entry into the United States tended for limited acrobatic operation.
must provide a safety belt and shoulder Airplanes certificated in the utility
harness for each forward- or aft-facing category may be used in any of the op-
seat which will protect the occupant erations covered under paragraph (a) of

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23.21 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

this section and in limited acrobatic cannot be reasonably inferred from


operations. Limited acrobatic oper- combinations investigated.
ation includes: (b) The following general tolerances
(1) Spins (if approved for the par- are allowed during flight testing. How-
ticular type of airplane); and ever, greater tolerances may be al-
(2) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep lowed in particular tests:
turns, or similar maneuvers, in which
Item Tolerance
the angle of bank is more than 60 de-
grees but not more than 90 degrees. Weight ............................................... +5%, 10%.
(c) The acrobatic category is limited Critical items affected by weight ....... +5%, 1%.
C.G .................................................... 7% total travel.
to airplanes that have a seating con-
figuration, excluding pilot seats, of
nine or less, a maximum certificated 23.23 Load distribution limits.
takeoff weight of 12,500 pounds or less, (a) Ranges of weights and centers of
and intended for use without restric- gravity within which the airplane may
tions, other than those shown to be be safely operated must be established.
necessary as a result of required flight If a weight and center of gravity com-
tests. bination is allowable only within cer-
(d) The commuter category is limited tain lateral load distribution limits
to propeller-driven, multiengine air- that could be inadvertently exceeded,
planes that have a seating configura- these limits must be established for the
tion, excluding pilot seats, of 19 or less, corresponding weight and center of
and a maximum certificated takeoff gravity combinations.
weight of 19,000 pounds or less. The (b) The load distribution limits may
commuter category operation is lim- not exceed any of the following:
ited to any maneuver incident to nor- (1) The selected limits;
mal flying, stalls (except whip stalls), (2) The limits at which the structure
and steep turns, in which the angle of is proven; or
bank is not more than 60 degrees. (3) The limits at which compliance
(e) Except for commuter category, with each applicable flight require-
airplanes may be type certificated in ment of this subpart is shown.
more than one category if the require- [Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42156, Aug. 6, 1993]
ments of each requested category are
met. 23.25 Weight limits.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (a) Maximum weight. The maximum
amended by Amdt. 234, 32 FR 5934, Apr. 14, weight is the highest weight at which
1967; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1825, Jan. 15, 1987; 52 compliance with each applicable re-
FR 34745, Sept. 14, 1987; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR quirement of this part (other than
5183, Feb. 9, 1996] those complied with at the design land-
ing weight) is shown. The maximum
Subpart BFlight weight must be established so that it
is
GENERAL (1) Not more than the least of
(i) The highest weight selected by the
23.21 Proof of compliance. applicant; or
(a) Each requirement of this subpart (ii) The design maximum weight,
must be met at each appropriate com- which is the highest weight at which
bination of weight and center of grav- compliance with each applicable struc-
ity within the range of loading condi- tural loading condition of this part
tions for which certification is re- (other than those complied with at the
quested. This must be shown design landing weight) is shown; or
(1) By tests upon an airplane of the (iii) The highest weight at which
type for which certification is re- compliance with each applicable flight
quested, or by calculations based on, requirement is shown, and
and equal in accuracy to, the results of (2) Not less than the weight with
testing; and (i) Each seat occupied, assuming a
(2) By systematic investigation of weight of 170 pounds for each occupant
each probable combination of weight for normal and commuter category air-
and center of gravity, if compliance planes, and 190 pounds for utility and

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.33

acrobatic category airplanes, except must be one that is well defined and
that seats other than pilot seats may can be easily repeated.
be placarded for a lesser weight; and
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
(A) Oil at full capacity, and FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
(B) At least enough fuel for max- 21, 43 FR 2317, Jan. 16, 1978]
imum continuous power operation of at
least 30 minutes for day-VFR approved 23.31 Removable ballast.
airplanes and at least 45 minutes for Removable ballast may be used in
night-VFR and IFR approved airplanes; showing compliance with the flight re-
or quirements of this subpart, if
(ii) The required minimum crew, and (a) The place for carrying ballast is
fuel and oil to full tank capacity. properly designed and installed, and is
(b) Minimum weight. The minimum marked under 23.1557; and
weight (the lowest weight at which (b) Instructions are included in the
compliance with each applicable re- airplane flight manual, approved man-
quirement of this part is shown) must ual material, or markings and plac-
be established so that it is not more ards, for the proper placement of the
than the sum of removable ballast under each loading
(1) The empty weight determined condition for which removable ballast
under 23.29; is necessary.
(2) The weight of the required min-
imum crew (assuming a weight of 170 [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
pounds for each crewmember); and FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
13, 37 FR 20023, Sept. 23, 1972]
(3) The weight of
(i) For turbojet powered airplanes, 5 23.33 Propeller speed and pitch lim-
percent of the total fuel capacity of its.
that particular fuel tank arrangement
(a) General. The propeller speed and
under investigation, and
pitch must be limited to values that
(ii) For other airplanes, the fuel nec- will assure safe operation under normal
essary for one-half hour of operation at operating conditions.
maximum continuous power.
(b) Propellers not controllable in flight.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as For each propeller whose pitch cannot
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13086, Aug. 13, be controlled in flight
1969; Amdt. 2321, 43 FR 2317, Jan. 16, 1978; (1) During takeoff and initial climb
Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1825, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. at the all engine(s) operating climb
2345, 58 FR 42156, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt. 2350, 61
FR 5183, Feb. 9, 1996]
speed specified in 23.65, the propeller
must limit the engine r.p.m., at full
23.29 Empty weight and cor- throttle or at maximum allowable
responding center of gravity. takeoff manifold pressure, to a speed
not greater than the maximum allow-
(a) The empty weight and cor- able takeoff r.p.m.; and
responding center of gravity must be
(2) During a closed throttle glide, at
determined by weighing the airplane VNE, the propeller may not cause an
with engine speed above 110 percent of max-
(1) Fixed ballast; imum continuous speed.
(2) Unusable fuel determined under (c) Controllable pitch propellers without
23.959; and constant speed controls. Each propeller
(3) Full operating fluids, including that can be controlled in flight, but
(i) Oil; that does not have constant speed con-
(ii) Hydraulic fluid; and trols, must have a means to limit the
(iii) Other fluids required for normal pitch range so that
operation of airplane systems, except (1) The lowest possible pitch allows
potable water, lavatory precharge compliance with paragraph (b)(1) of
water, and water intended for injection this section; and
in the engines. (2) The highest possible pitch allows
(b) The condition of the airplane at compliance with paragraph (b)(2) of
the time of determining empty weight this section.

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23.45 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(d) Controllable pitch propellers with ing air supply in the position used in
constant speed controls. Each control- the cooling tests required by 23.1041 to
lable pitch propeller with constant 23.1047.
speed controls must have (d) The available propulsive thrust
(1) With the governor in operation, a must correspond to engine power, not
means at the governor to limit the exceeding the approved power, less
maximum engine speed to the max- (1) Installation losses; and
imum allowable takeoff r.p.m.; and (2) The power absorbed by the acces-
(2) With the governor inoperative, sories and services appropriate to the
the propeller blades at the lowest pos- particular ambient atmospheric condi-
sible pitch, with takeoff power, the air- tions and the particular flight condi-
plane stationary, and no wind, either tion.
(i) A means to limit the maximum
(e) The performance, as affected by
engine speed to 103 percent of the max-
engine power or thrust, must be based
imum allowable takeoff r.p.m., or
on a relative humidity:
(ii) For an engine with an approved
overspeed, a means to limit the max- (1) Of 80 percent at and below stand-
imum engine and propeller speed to not ard temperature; and
more than the maximum approved (2) From 80 percent, at the standard
overspeed. temperature, varying linearly down to
34 percent at the standard temperature
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as plus 50 F.
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42156, Aug. 6,
1993; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5183, Feb. 9, 1996]
(f) Unless otherwise prescribed, in de-
termining the takeoff and landing dis-
PERFORMANCE tances, changes in the airplanes con-
figuration, speed, and power must be
23.45 General. made in accordance with procedures es-
(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, the tablished by the applicant for oper-
performance requirements of this part ation in service. These procedures must
must be met for be able to be executed consistently by
(1) Still air and standard atmosphere; pilots of average skill in atmospheric
and conditions reasonably expected to be
(2) Ambient atmospheric conditions, encountered in service.
for commuter category airplanes, for (g) The following, as applicable, must
reciprocating engine-powered airplanes be determined on a smooth, dry, hard-
of more than 6,000 pounds maximum surfaced runway
weight, and for turbine engine-powered (1) Takeoff distance of 23.53(b);
airplanes. (2) Accelerate-stop distance of 23.55;
(b) Performance data must be deter- (3) Takeoff distance and takeoff run
mined over not less than the following of 23.59; and
ranges of conditions (4) Landing distance of 23.75.
(1) Airport altitudes from sea level to NOTE: The effect on these distances of op-
10,000 feet; and eration on other types of surfaces (for exam-
(2) For reciprocating engine-powered ple, grass, gravel) when dry, may be deter-
airplanes of 6,000 pounds, or less, max- mined or derived and these surfaces listed in
imum weight, temperature from stand- the Airplane Flight Manual in accordance
ard to 30 C above standard; or with 23.1583(p).
(3) For reciprocating engine-powered (h) For commuter category airplanes,
airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds the following also apply:
maximum weight and turbine engine- (1) Unless otherwise prescribed, the
powered airplanes, temperature from applicant must select the takeoff,
standard to 30 C above standard, or enroute, approach, and landing con-
the maximum ambient atmospheric figurations for the airplane.
temperature at which compliance with (2) The airplane configuration may
the cooling provisions of 23.1041 to vary with weight, altitude, and tem-
23.1047 is shown, if lower. perature, to the extent that they are
(c) Performance data must be deter- compatible with the operating proce-
mined with the cowl flaps or other dures required by paragraph (h)(3) of
means for controlling the engine cool- this section.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.51

(3) Unless otherwise prescribed, in de- meeting the flight characteristics spec-
termining the critical-engine-inoper- ified in 23.201.
ative takeoff performance, takeoff (c) Except as provided in paragraph
flight path, and accelerate-stop dis- (d) of this section, VSO and VS1 at max-
tance, changes in the airplanes con- imum weight must not exceed 61 knots
figuration, speed, and power must be for
made in accordance with procedures es- (1) Single-engine airplanes; and
tablished by the applicant for oper- (2) Multiengine airplanes of 6,000
ation in service. pounds or less maximum weight that
(4) Procedures for the execution of cannot meet the minimum rate of
discontinued approaches and balked climb specified in 23.67(a) (1) with the
landings associated with the conditions critical engine inoperative.
prescribed in 23.67(c)(4) and 23.77(c) (d) All single-engine airplanes, and
must be established. those multiengine airplanes of 6,000
(5) The procedures established under pounds or less maximum weight with a
paragraphs (h)(3) and (h)(4) of this sec- VSO of more than 61 knots that do not
tion must meet the requirements of 23.67(a)(1),
(i) Be able to be consistently exe- must comply with 23.562(d).
cuted by a crew of average skill in at- [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5184, Feb. 9, 1996]
mospheric conditions reasonably ex-
pected to be encountered in service; 23.51 Takeoff speeds.
(ii) Use methods or devices that are
(a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
safe and reliable; and
category airplanes, rotation speed, VR,
(iii) Include allowance for any rea-
sonably expected time delays in the is the speed at which the pilot makes a
execution of the procedures. control input, with the intention of
lifting the airplane out of contact with
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5184, Feb. 9, 1996] the runway or water surface.
(1) For multiengine landplanes, VR,
23.49 Stalling period. must not be less than the greater of
(a) VSO and VS1 are the stalling speeds 1.05 VMC; or 1.10 VS1;
or the minimum steady flight speeds, (2) For single-engine landplanes, VR,
in knots (CAS), at which the airplane must not be less than VS1; and
is controllable with (3) For seaplanes and amphibians
(1) For reciprocating engine-powered taking off from water, VR, may be any
airplanes, the engine(s) idling, the speed that is shown to be safe under all
throttle(s) closed or at not more than reasonably expected conditions, includ-
the power necessary for zero thrust at ing turbulence and complete failure of
a speed not more than 110 percent of the critical engine.
the stalling speed; (b) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
(2) For turbine engine-powered air- category airplanes, the speed at 50 feet
planes, the propulsive thrust not great- above the takeoff surface level must
er than zero at the stalling speed, or, if not be less than:
the resultant thrust has no appreciable (1) or multiengine airplanes, the
effect on the stalling speed, with en- highest of
gine(s) idling and throttle(s) closed; (i) A speed that is shown to be safe
(3) The propeller(s) in the takeoff po- for continued flight (or emergency
sition; landing, if applicable) under all reason-
(4) The airplane in the condition ex- ably expected conditions, including
isting in the test, in which VSO and VS1 turbulence and complete failure of the
are being used; critical engine;
(5) The center of gravity in the posi- (ii) 1.10 VMC; or
tion that results in the highest value of (iii) 1.20 VS1.
VSO and VS1; and (2) For single-engine airplanes, the
(6) The weight used when VSO and VS1 higher of
are being used as a factor to determine (i) A speed that is shown to be safe
compliance with a required perform- under all reasonably expected condi-
ance standard. tions, including turbulence and com-
(b) VSO and VS1 must be determined plete engine failure; or
by flight tests, using the procedure and (ii) 1.20 VS1.

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23.53 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(c) For commuter category airplanes, not to exceed the corresponding one-
the following apply: engine-inoperative takeoff distance,
(l) V1 must be established in relation determined in accordance with 23.57
to VEF as follows: and 23.59(a)(1), using the established
(i) VEF is the calibrated airspeed at VR. The takeoff, otherwise performed
which the critical engine is assumed to in accordance with 23.57, must be con-
fail. VEF must be selected by the appli- tinued safely from the point at which
cant but must not be less than 1.05 VMC the airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff
determined under 23.149(b) or, at the surface and at a speed not less than the
option of the applicant, not less than established V2 minus 5 knots.
VMCG determined under 23.149(f). (6) The applicant must show, with all
(ii) The takeoff decision speed, V1, is engines operating, that marked in-
the calibrated airspeed on the ground creases in the scheduled takeoff dis-
at which, as a result of engine failure tances, determined in accordance with
or other reasons, the pilot is assumed 23.59(a)(2), do not result from over-ro-
to have made a decision to continue or tation of the airplane or out-of-trim
discontinue the takeoff. The takeoff conditions.
decision speed, V1, must be selected by
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5184, Feb. 9, 1996]
the applicant but must not be less than
VEF plus the speed gained with the crit- 23.53 Takeoff performance.
ical engine inoperative during the time
interval between the instant at which (a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
the critical engine is failed and the in- category airplanes, the takeoff dis-
stant at which the pilot recognizes and tance must be determined in accord-
reacts to the engine failure, as indi- ance with paragraph (b) of this section,
cated by the pilots application of the using speeds determined in accordance
first retarding means during the accel- with 23.51 (a) and (b).
erate-stop determination of 23.55. (b) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
(2) The rotation speed, VR, in terms category airplanes, the distance re-
of calibrated airspeed, must be selected quired to takeoff and climb to a height
by the applicant and must not be less of 50 feet above the takeoff surface
than the greatest of the following: must be determined for each weight,
(i) V1; altitude, and temperature within the
(ii) 1.05 VMC determined under operational limits established for take-
23.149(b); off with
(iii) 1.10 VS1; or (1) Takeoff power on each engine;
(iv) The speed that allows attaining (2) Wing flaps in the takeoff posi-
the initial climb-out speed, V2, before tion(s); and
reaching a height of 35 feet above the (3) Landing gear extended.
takeoff surface in accordance with (c) For commuter category airplanes,
23.57(c)(2). takeoff performance, as required by
(3) For any given set of conditions, 23.55 through 23.59, must be deter-
such as weight, altitude, temperature, mined with the operating engine(s)
and configuration, a single value of VR within approved operating limitations.
must be used to show compliance with
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5185, Feb. 9, 1996]
both the one-engine-inoperative take-
off and all-engines-operating takeoff 23.55 Accelerate-stop distance.
requirements.
(4) The takeoff safety speed, V2, in For each commuter category air-
terms of calibrated airspeed, must be plane, the accelerate-stop distance
selected by the applicant so as to allow must be determined as follows:
the gradient of climb required in 23.67 (a) The accelerate-stop distance is
(c)(1) and (c)(2) but mut not be less the sum of the distances necessary to
than 1.10 VMC or less than 1.20 VS1. (1) Accelerate the airplane from a
(5) The one-engine-inoperative take- standing start to VEF with all engines
off distance, using a normal rotation operating;
rate at a speed 5 knots less than VR, es- (2) Accelerate the airplane from VEF
tablished in accordance with paragraph to V1, assuming the critical engine
(c)(2) of this section, must be shown fails at VEF; and

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.59

(3) Come to a full stop from the point (ii) 1.5 percent for three-engine air-
at which V1 is reached. planes;
(b) Means other than wheel brakes (iii) 1.7 percent for four-engine air-
may be used to determine the accel- planes; and
erate-stop distances if that means (4) Except for gear retraction and
(1) Is safe and reliable; automatic propeller feathering, the
(2) Is used so that consistent results airplane configuration must not be
can be expected under normal oper- changed, and no change in power that
ating conditions; and requires action by the pilot may be
(3) Is such that exceptional skill is made, until the airplane is 400 feet
not required to control the airplane. above the takeoff surface.
[Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1826, Jan. 15, 1987, as
(d) The takeoff path to 35 feet above
amended by Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5185, Feb. 9, the takeoff surface must be determined
1996] by a continuous demonstrated takeoff.
(e) The takeoff path to 35 feet above
23.57 Takeoff path. the takeoff surface must be determined
For each commuter category air- by synthesis from segments; and
plane, the takeoff path is as follows: (1) The segments must be clearly de-
(a) The takeoff path extends from a fined and must be related to distinct
standing start to a point in the takeoff changes in configuration, power, and
at which the airplane is 1500 feet above speed;
the takeoff surface at or below which (2) The weight of the airplane, the
height the transition from the takeoff configuration, and the power must be
to the enroute configuration must be assumed constant throughout each seg-
completed; and ment and must correspond to the most
(1) The takeoff path must be based on critical condition prevailing in the seg-
the procedures prescribed in 23.45; ment; and
(2) The airplane must be accelerated (3) The takeoff flight path must be
on the ground to VEF at which point the based on the airplanes performance
critical engine must be made inoper- without utilizing ground effect.
ative and remain inoperative for the [Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1827, Jan. 15, 1987, as
rest of the takeoff; and amended by Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5185, Feb. 9,
(3) After reaching VEF, the airplane 1996]
must be accelerated to V2.
(b) During the acceleration to speed 23.59 Takeoff distance and takeoff
V2, the nose gear may be raised off the run.
ground at a speed not less than VR. For each commuter category air-
However, landing gear retraction must plane, the takeoff distance and, at the
not be initiated until the airplane is option of the applicant, the takeoff
airborne. run, must be determined.
(c) During the takeoff path deter- (a) Takeoff distance is the greater
mination, in accordance with para- of
graphs (a) and (b) of this section (1) The horizontal distance along the
(1) The slope of the airborne part of takeoff path from the start of the take-
the takeoff path must not be negative off to the point at which the airplane is
at any point; 35 feet above the takeoff surface as de-
(2) The airplane must reach V2 before termined under 23.57; or
it is 35 feet above the takeoff surface, (2) With all engines operating, 115
and must continue at a speed as close percent of the horizontal distance from
as practical to, but not less than V2, the start of the takeoff to the point at
until it is 400 feet above the takeoff which the airplane is 35 feet above the
surface; takeoff surface, determined by a proce-
(3) At each point along the takeoff dure consistent with 23.57.
path, starting at the point at which the (b) If the takeoff distance includes a
airplane reaches 400 feet above the clearway, the takeoff run is the greater
takeoff surface, the available gradient of
of climb must not be less than (1) The horizontal distance along the
(i) 1.2 percent for two-engine air- takeoff path from the start of the take-
planes; off to a point equidistant between the

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23.61 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

liftoff point and the point at which the (b) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff category reciprocating engine-powered
surface as determined under 23.57; or airplanes of 6,000 pounds or less max-
(2) With all engines operating, 115 imum weight, compliance must be
percent of the horizontal distance from shown with 23.65(a), 23.67(a), where
the start of the takeoff to a point equi- appropriate, and 23.77(a) at maximum
distant between the liftoff point and takeoff or landing weight, as appro-
the point at which the airplane is 35 priate, in a standard atmosphere.
feet above the takeoff surface, deter- (c) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
mined by a procedure consistent with category reciprocating engine-powered
23.57. airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds
maximum weight, and turbine engine-
[Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1827, Jan. 15, 1987, as powered airplanes in the normal, util-
amended by Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5185, Feb. 9, ity, and acrobatic category, compli-
1996]
ance must be shown at weights as a
23.61 Takeoff flight path. function of airport altitude and ambi-
ent temperature, within the oper-
For each commuter category air- ational limits established for takeoff
plane, the takeoff flight path must be and landing, respectively, with
determined as follows: (1) Sections 23.65(b) and 23.67(b) (1)
(a) The takeoff flight path begins 35 and (2), where appropriate, for takeoff,
feet above the takeoff surface at the and
end of the takeoff distance determined (2) Section 23.67(b)(2), where appro-
in accordance with 23.59. priate, and 23.77(b), for landing.
(b) The net takeoff flight path data (d) For commuter category airplanes,
must be determined so that they rep- compliance must be shown at weights
resent the actual takeoff flight paths, as a function of airport altitude and
as determined in accordance with ambient temperature within the oper-
23.57 and with paragraph (a) of this ational limits established for takeoff
section, reduced at each point by a gra- and landing, respectively, with
dient of climb equal to (1) Sections 23.67(c)(1), 23.67(c)(2), and
(1) 0.8 percent for two-engine air- 23.67(c)(3) for takeoff; and
planes; (2) Sections 23.67(c)(3), 23.67(c)(4), and
(2) 0.9 percent for three-engine air- 23.77(c) for landing.
planes; and [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5186, Feb. 9, 1996]
(3) 1.0 percent for four-engine air-
planes. 23.65 Climb: All engines operating.
(c) The prescribed reduction in climb (a) Each normal, utility, and acro-
gradient may be applied as an equiva- batic category reciprocating engine-
lent reduction in acceleration along powered airplane of 6,000 pounds or less
that part of the takeoff flight path at maximum weight must have a steady
which the airplane is accelerated in climb gradient at sea level of at least
level flight. 8.3 percent for landplanes or 6.7 percet
for seaplanes and amphibians with
[Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1827, Jan. 15, 1987]
(1) Not more than maximum contin-
23.63 Climb: General. uous power on each engine;
(2) The landing gear retracted;
(a) Compliance with the require- (3) The wing flaps in the takeoff posi-
ments of 23.65, 23.66, 23.67, 23.69, and tion(s); and
23.77 must be shown (4) A climb speed not less than the
(1) Out of ground effect; and greater of 1.1 VMC and 1.2 VS1 for multi-
(2) At speeds that are not less than engine airplanes and not less than 1.2
those at which compliance with the VS1 for singleengine airplanes.
powerplant cooling requirements of (b) Each normal, utility, and acro-
23.1041 to 23.1047 has been dem- batic category reciprocating engine-
onstrated; and powered airplane of more than 6,000
(3) Unless otherwise specified, with pounds maximum weight and turbine
one engine inoperative, at a bank angle engine-powered airplanes in the nor-
not exceeding 5 degrees. mal, utility, and acrobatic category

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.67

must have a steady gradient of climb (i) Critical engine inoperative and its
after takeoff of at least 4 percent with propeller in the minimum drag posi-
(1) Take off power on each engine; tion;
(2) The landing gear extended, except (ii) Remaining engine(s) at not more
that if the landing gear can be re- than maximum continuous power;
tracted in not more than sven seconds, (iii) Landing gear retracted;
the test may be conducted with the (iv) Wing flaps retracted; and
gear retracted; (v) Climb speed not less than 1.2 VS1.
(3) The wing flaps in the takeoff posi- (2) For each airplane that meets the
tion(s); and requirements prescribed in 23.562(d),
(4) A climb speed as specified in or that has a VSO of 61 knots or less,
23.65(a)(4). the steady gradient of climb or descent
at a pressure altitude of 5,000 feet must
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5186, Feb. 9, 1996] be determined with the
(i) Critical engine inoperative and its
23.66 Takeoff climb: One-engine inop- propeller in the minimum drag posi-
erative.
tion;
For normal, utility, and acrobatic (ii) Remaining engine(s) at not more
category reciprocating engine-powered than maximum continuous power;
airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds (iii) Landing gear retracted;
maximum weight, and turbine engine- (iv) Wing flaps retracted; and
powered airplanes in the normal, util- (v) Climb speed not less than 1.2VS1.
ity, and acrobatic category, the steady (b) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
gradient of climb or descent must be category reciprocating engine-powered
determined at each weight, altitude, airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds
and ambient temperature within the maximum weight, and turbine engine-
operational limits established by the powered airplanes in the normal, util-
applicant with ity, and acrobatic category
(a) The critical engine inoperative (1) The steady gradient of climb at an
and its propeller in the position it rap- altitude of 400 feet above the takeoff
idly and automatically assumes; must be measurably positive with the
(b) The remaining engine(s) at take- (i) Critical engine inoperative and its
off power; propeller in the minimum drag posi-
(c) The landing gear extended, except tion;
that if the landing gear can be re- (ii) Remaining engine(s) at takeoff
tracted in not more than seven sec- power;
onds, the test may be conducted with (iii) Landing gear retracted;
the gear retracted; (iv) Wing flaps in the takeoff posi-
(d) The wing flaps in the takeoff posi- tion(s); and
tion(s): (v) Climb speed equal to that
(e) The wings level; and achieved at 50 feet in the demonstra-
(f) A climb speed equal to that tion of 23.53.
achieved at 50 feet in the demonstra- (2) The steady gradient of climb must
tion of 23.53. not be less than 0.75 percent at an alti-
tude of 1,500 feet above the takeoff sur-
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5186, Feb. 9, 1996] face, or landing surface, as appropriate,
with the
23.67 Climb: One engine inoperative. (i) Critical engine inoperative and its
(a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic propeller in the minimum drag posi-
category reciprocating engine-powered tion;
airplanes of 6,000 pounds or less max- (ii) Remaining engine(s) at not more
imum weight, the following apply: than maximum continuous power;
(1) Except for those airplanes that (iii) Landing gear retracted;
meet the requirements prescribed in (iv) Wing flaps retracted; and
23.562(d), each airplane with a VSO of (v) Climb speed not less than 1.2 VS1.
more than 61 knots must be able to (c) For commuter category airplanes,
maintain a steady climb gradient of at the following apply:
least 1.5 percent at a pressure altitude (1) Takeoff; landing gear extended. The
of 5,000 feet with the steady gradient of climb at the altitude

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23.69 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

of the takeoff surface must be measur- (i) The critical engine inoperative
ably positive for two-engine airplanes, and its propeller in the minimum drag
not less than 0.3 percent for three-en- position;
gine airplanes, or 0.5 percent for four- (ii) The remaining engine(s) at take-
engine airplanes with off power;
(i) The critical engine inoperative (iii) Landing gear retracted;
and its propeller in the position it rap- (iv) Wing flaps in the approach posi-
idly and automatically assumes; tion(s) in which VS1 for these posi-
(ii) The remaining engine(s) at take- tion(s) does not exceed 110 percent of
off power; the VS1 for the related all-engines-oper-
ated landing position(s); and
(iii) The landing gear extended, and
(v) A climb speed established in con-
all landing gear doors open;
nection with normal landing proce-
(iv) The wing flaps in the takeoff po- dures but not exceeding 1.5 VS1.
sition(s);
(v) The wings level; and [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5186, Feb. 9, 1996]
(vi) A climb speed equal to V2. 23.69 Enroute climb/descent.
(2) Takeoff; landing gear retracted. The
steady gradient of climb at an altitude (a) All engines operating. The steady
of 400 feet above the takeoff surface gradient and rate of climb must be de-
termined at each weight, altitude, and
must be not less than 2.0 percent of
ambient temperature within the oper-
two-engine airplanes, 2.3 percent for
ational limits established by the appli-
three-engine airplanes, and 2.6 percent
cant with
for four-engine airplanes with
(1) Not more than maximum contin-
(i) The critical engine inoperative uous power on each engine;
and its propeller in the position it rap- (2) The landing gear retracted;
idly and automatically assumes; (3) The wing flaps retracted; and
(ii) The remaining engine(s) at take- (4) A climb speed not less than 1.3
off power; VS1.
(iii) The landing gear retracted; (b) One engine inoperative. The steady
(iv) The wing flaps in the takeoff po- gradient and rate of climb/descent
sition(s); must be determined at each weight, al-
(v) A climb speed equal to V2. titude, and ambient temperature with-
(3) Enroute. The steady gradient of in the operational limits established by
climb at an altitude of 1,500 feet above the applicant with
the takeoff or landing surface, as ap- (1) The critical engine inoperative
propriate, must be not less than 1.2 and its propeller in the minimum drag
percent for two-engine airplanes, 1.5 position;
percent for three-engine airplanes, and (2) The remaining engine(s) at not
1.7 percent for four-engine airplanes more than maximum continuous
with power;
(i) The critical engine inoperative (3) The landing gear retracted;
and its propeller in the minimum drag (4) The wing flaps retracted; and
(5) A climb speed not less than 1.2
position;
VS1.
(ii) The remaining engine(s) at not
more than maximum continuous [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5187, Feb. 9, 1996]
power;
23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes.
(iii) The landing gear retracted;
(iv) The wing flaps retracted; and The maximum horizontal distance
(v) A climb speed not less than 1.2 traveled in still air, in nautical miles,
VS1. per 1,000 feet of altitude lost in a glide,
(4) Discontinued approach. The steady and the speed necessary to achieve this
gradient of climb at an altitude of 400 must be determined with the engine in-
feet above the landing surface must be operative, its propeller in the min-
not less than 2.1 percent for two-engine imum drag position, and landing gear
airplanes, 2.4 percent for three-engine and wing flaps in the most favorable
airplanes, and 2.7 percent for four-en- available position.
gine airplanes, with [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5187, Feb. 9, 1996]

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.77

23.73 Reference landing approach tendency to bounce, nose over, ground


speed. loop, porpoise, or water loop.
(a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic (d) It must be shown that a safe tran-
category reciprocating engine-powered sition to the balked landing conditions
airplanes of 6,000 pounds or less max- of 23.77 can be made from the condi-
imum weight, the reference landing ap- tions that exist at the 50 foot height, at
proach speed, VREF, must not be less maximum landing weight, or at the
than the greater of VMC, determined in maximum landing weight for altitude
23.149(b) with the wing flaps in the and temperature of 23.63 (c)(2) or
most extended takeoff position, and 1.3 (d)(2), as appropriate.
VSO. (e) The brakes must be used so as to
(b) For normal, utility, and acrobatic not cause excessive wear of brakes or
category reciprocating engine-powered tires.
airplanes of more than 6,000 pounds (f) Retardation means other than
maximum weight, and turbine engine- wheel brakes may be used if that
powered airplanes in the normal, util- means
(1) Is safe and reliable; and
ity, and acrobatic category, the ref-
(2) Is used so that consistent results
erence landing approach speed, VREF,
can be expected in service.
must not be less than the greater of
(g) If any device is used that depends
VMC, determined in 23.149(c), and 1.3
on the operation of any engine, and the
VSO.
landing distance would be increased
(c) For commuter category airplanes,
when a landing is made with that en-
the reference landing approach speed,
gine inoperative, the landing distance
VREF, must not be less than the greater
must be determined with that engine
of 1.05 VMC, determined in 23.149(c),
inoperative unless the use of other
and 1.3 VSO.
compensating means will result in a
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5187, Feb. 9, 1996] landing distance not more than that
with each engine operating.
23.75 Landing distance.
[Amdt. 2321, 43 FR 2318, Jan. 16, 1978, as
The horizontal distance necessary to amended by Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1828, Jan. 15,
land and come to a complete stop from 1987; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 351, Jan. 3, 1991;
a point 50 feet above the landing sur- Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5187, Feb. 9, 1996]
face must be determined, for standard
temperatures at each weight and alti- 23.77 Balked landing.
tude within the operational limits es- (a) Each normal, utility, and acro-
tablished for landing, as follows: batic category reciprocating engine-
(a) A steady approach at not less powered airplane at 6,000 pounds or less
than VREF, determined in accordance maximum weight must be able to
with 23.73 (a), (b), or (c), as appro- maintain a steady gradient of climb at
priate, must be maintained down to the sea level of at least 3.3 percent with
50 foot height and (1) Takeoff power on each engine;
(1) The steady approach must be at a (2) The landing gear extended;
gradient of descent not greater than 5.2 (3) The wing flaps in the landing posi-
percent (3 degrees) down to the 50-foot tion, except that if the flaps may safely
height. be retracted in two seconds or less
(2) In addition, an applicant may without loss of altitude and without
demonstrate by tests that a maximum sudden changes of angle of attack, they
steady approach gradient steeper than may be retracted; and
5.2 percent, down to the 50-foot height, (4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as de-
is safe. The gradient must be estab- fined in 23.73(a).
lished as an operating limitation and (b) Each normal, utility, and acro-
the information necessary to display batic category reciprocating engine-
the gradient must be available to the powered airplane of more than 6,000
pilot by an appropriate instrument. pounds maximum weight and each nor-
(b) A constant configuration must be mal, utility, and acrobatic category
maintained throughout the maneuver. turbine engine-powered airplane must
(c) The landing must be made with- be able to maintain a steady gradient
out excessive vertical acceleration or of climb of at least 2.5 percent with

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23.141 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(1) Not more than the power that is limit load factor, under any probable
available on each engine eight seconds operating condition (including, for
after initiation of movement of the multiengine airplanes, those condi-
power controls from minimum flight- tions normally encountered in the sud-
idle position; den failure of any engine).
(2) The landing gear extended; (c) If marginal conditions exist with
(3) The wing flaps in the landing posi- regard to required pilot strength, the
tion; and control forces necessary must be deter-
(4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as de- mined by quantitative tests. In no case
fined in 23.73(b). may the control forces under the condi-
(c) Each commuter category airplane tions specified in paragraphs (a) and (b)
must be able to maintain a steady gra- of this section exceed those prescribed
dient of climb of at least 3.2 percent in the following table:
with
(1) Not more than the power that is Values in pounds force applied Pitch Roll Yaw
to the relevant control
available on each engine eight seconds
after initiation of movement of the (a) For temporary application:
power controls from the minimum Stick ....................................... 60 30 ............
Wheel (Two hands on rim) .... 75 50 ............
flight idle position; Wheel (One hand on rim) ...... 50 25 ............
(2) Landing gear extended; Rudder Pedal ......................... ............ ............ 150
(3) Wing flaps in the landing position; (b) For prolonged application .... 10 5 20
and
(4) A climb speed equal to VREF, as de- [Doc. No, 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
fined in 23.73(c). amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31819, Nov. 19,
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5187, Feb. 9, 1996] 1973; Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, 1976;
Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42156, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt.
FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS 2350, 61 FR 5188, Feb. 9, 1996]

23.141 General. 23.145 Longitudinal control.


The airplane must meet the require- (a) With the airplane as nearly as
ments of 23.143 through 23.253 at all possible in trim at 1.3 VS1, it must be
practical loading conditions and oper- possible, at speeds below the trim
ating altitudes for which certification speed, to pitch the nose downward so
has been requested, not exceeding the that the rate of increase in airspeed al-
maximum operating altitude estab- lows prompt acceleration to the trim
lished under 23.1527, and without re- speed with
quiring exceptional piloting skill, (1) Maximum continuous power on
alertness, or strength. each engine;
(2) Power off; and
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42156, Aug. 6, 1993]
(3) Wing flap and landing gear
CONTROLLABILITY AND (i) retracted, and
MANEUVERABILITY (ii) extended.
(b) Unless otherwise required, it must
23.143 General. be possible to carry out the following
(a) The airplane must be safely con- maneuvers without requiring the appli-
trollable and maneuverable during all cation of single-handed control forces
flight phases including exceeding those specified in 23.143(c).
(1) Takeoff; The trimming controls must not be ad-
(2) Climb; justed during the maneuvers:
(3) Level flight; (1) With the landing gear extended,
(4) Descent; the flaps retracted, and the airplanes
(5) Go-around; and as nearly as possible in trim at 1.4 VS1,
(6) Landing (power on and power off) extend the flaps as rapidly as possible
with the wing flaps extended and re- and allow the airspeed to transition
tracted. from 1.4VS1 to 1.4 VSO
(b) It must be possible to make a (i) With power off; and
smooth transition from one flight con- (ii) With the power necessary to
dition to another (including turns and maintain level flight in the initial con-
slips) without danger of exceeding the dition.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.147

(2) With landing gear and flaps ex- pounds, to maintain a speed of not
tended, power off, and the airplane as more than VREF during a power-off glide
nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VSO, with landing gear and wing flaps ex-
quickly apply takeoff power and re- tended, for any weight of the airplane,
tract the flaps as rapidly as possible to up to and including the maximum
the recommended go around setting weight.
and allow the airspeed to transition (e) By using normal flight and power
from 1.3 VSO to 1.3 VS1. Retract the gear controls, except as otherwise noted in
when a positive rate of climb is estab- paragraphs (e)(1) and (e)(2) of this sec-
lished. tion, it must be possible to establish a
(3) With landing gear and flaps ex- zero rate of descent at an attitude suit-
tended, in level flight, power necessary able for a controlled landing without
to attain level flight at 1.1 VSO, and the exceeding the operational and struc-
airplane as nearly as possible in trim, tural limitations of the airplane, as
it must be possible to maintain ap- follows:
proximately level flight while retract- (1) For single-engine and multiengine
ing the flaps as rapidly as possible with airplanes, without the use of the pri-
simultaneous application of not more mary longitudinal control system.
than maximum continuous power. If (2) For multiengine airplanes
gated flat positions are provided, the (i) Without the use of the primary di-
flap retraction may be demonstrated in rectional control; and
stages with power and trim reset for (ii) If a single failure of any one con-
level flight at 1.1 VS1, in the initial con- necting or transmitting link would af-
figuration for each stage fect both the longitudinal and direc-
(i) From the fully extended position tional primary control system, without
to the most extended gated position; the primary longitudinal and direc-
(ii) Between intermediate gated posi- tional control system.
tions, if applicable; and [Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42157, Aug. 6, 1993;
(iii) From the least extended gated Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993, as
position to the fully retracted position. amended by Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5188, Feb. 9,
(4) With power off, flaps and landing 1996]
gear retracted and the airplane as
nearly as possible in trim at 1.4 VS1, 23.147 Directional and lateral con-
apply takeoff power rapidly while trol.
maintaining the same airspeed. (a) For each multiengine airplane, it
(5) With power off, landing gear and must be possible, while holding the
flaps extended, and the airplane as wings level within five degrees, to
nearly as possible in trim at VREF, ob- make sudden changes in heading safely
tain and maintain airspeeds between in both directions. This ability must be
1.1 VSO, and either 1.7 VSO or VFE, shown at 1.4 VS1 with heading changes
whichever is lower without requiring up to 15 degrees, except that the head-
the application of two-handed control ing change at which the rudder force
forces exceeding those specified in corresponds to the limits specified in
23.143(c). 23.143 need not be exceeded, with the
(6) With maximum takeoff power, (1) Critical engine inoperative and its
landing gear retracted, flaps in the propeller in the minimum drag posi-
takeoff position, and the airplane as tion;
nearly as possible in trim at VFE appro- (2) Remaining engines at maximum
priate to the takeoff flap position, re- continuous power;
tract the flaps as rapidly as possible (3) Landing gear
while maintaining constant speed. (i) Retracted; and
(c) At speeds above VMO/MMO, and up (ii) Extended; and
to the maximum speed shown under (4) Flaps retracted.
23.251, a maneuvering capability of 1.5 (b) For each multiengine airplane, it
g must be demonstrated to provide a must be possible to regain full control
margin to recover from upset or inad- of the airplane without exceeding a
vertent speed increase. bank angle of 45 degrees, reaching a
(d) It must be possible, with a pilot dangerous attitude or encountering
control force of not more than 10 dangerous characteristics, in the event

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23.149 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

of a sudden and complete failure of the ground effect negligible, for the takeoff
critical engine, making allowance for a configuration(s) with
delay of two seconds in the initiation (1) Maximum available takeoff power
of recovery action appropriate to the initially on each engine;
situation, with the airplane initially in (2) The airplane trimmed for takeoff;
trim, in the following condition: (3) Flaps in the takeoff position(s);
(1) Maximum continuous power on (4) Landing gear retracted; and
each engine;
(5) All propeller controls in the rec-
(2) The wing flaps retracted;
ommended takeoff position through-
(3) The landing gear retracted;
out.
(4) A speed equal to that at which
compliance with 23.69(a) has been (c) For all airplanes except recipro-
shown; and cating engine-powered airplanes of
(5) All propeller controls in the posi- 6,000 pounds or less maximum weight,
tion at which compliance with 23.69(a) the conditions of paragraph (a) of this
has been shown. section must also be met for the land-
(c) For all airplanes, it must be ing configuration with
shown that the airplane is safely con- (1) Maximum available takeoff power
trollable without the use of the pri- initially on each engine;
mary lateral control system in any all- (2) The airplane trimmed for an ap-
engine configuration(s) and at any proach, with all engines operating, at
speed or altitude within the approved VREF, at an approach gradient equal to
operating envelope. It must also be the steepest used in the landing dis-
shown that the airplanes flight char- tance demonstration of 23.75;
acteristics are not impaired below a (3) Flaps in the landing position;
level needed to permit continued safe (4) Landing gear extended; and
flight and the ability to maintain atti- (5) All propeller controls in the posi-
tudes suitable for a controlled landing tion recommended for approach with
without exceeding the operational and all engines operating.
structural limitations of the airplane. (d) A minimum speed to inten-
If a single failure of any one con- tionally render the critical engine in-
necting or transmitting link in the lat- operative must be established and des-
eral control system would also cause ignated as the safe, intentional, one-
the loss of additional control sys- engine-inoperative speed, VSSE.
tem(s), compliance with the above re- (e) At VMC, the rudder pedal force re-
quirement must be shown with those quired to maintain control must not
additional systems also assumed to be exceed 150 pounds and it must not be
inoperative. necessary to reduce power of the opera-
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5188, Feb. 9, 1996] tive engine(s). During the maneuver,
the airplane must not assume any dan-
23.149 Minimum control speed. gerous attitude and it must be possible
(a) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at to prevent a heading change of more
which, when the critical engine is sud- than 20 degrees.
denly made inoperative, it is possible (f) At the option of the applicant, to
to maintain control of the airplane comply with the requirements of
with that engine still inoperative, and 23.51(c)(1), VMCG may be determined.
thereafter maintain straight flight at VMCG is the minimum control speed on
the same speed with an angle of bank the ground, and is the calibrated air-
of not more than 5 degrees. The method speed during the takeoff run at which,
used to simulate critical engine failure when the critical engine is suddenly
must represent the most critical mode made inoperative, it is possible to
of powerplant failure expected in serv- maintain control of the airplane using
ice with respect to controllability. the rudder control alone (without the
(b) VMC for takeoff must not exceed use of nosewheel steering), as limited
1.2 VS1, where VS1 is determined at the by 150 pounds of force, and using the
maximum takeoff weight. VMC must be lateral control to the extent of keeping
determined with the most unfavorable the wings level to enable the takeoff to
weight and center of gravity position be safely continued. In the determina-
and with the airplane airborne and the tion of VMCG, assuming that the path of

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.157

the airplane accelerating with all en- (1) For wheel controls, W/100 (where
gines operating is along the centerline W is the maximum weight) or 20
of the runway, its path from the point pounds, whichever is greater, except
at which the critical engine is made in- that it need not be greater than 50
operative to the point at which recov- pounds; or
ery to a direction parallel to the cen- (2) For stick controls, W/140 (where W
terline is completed may not deviate is the maximum weight) or 15 pounds,
more than 30 feet laterally from the whichever is greater, except that it
centerline at any point. VMCG must be need not be greater than 35 pounds.
established with (b) The requirement of paragraph (a)
(1) The airplane in each takeoff con- of this section must be met at 75 per-
figuration or, at the option of the ap- cent of maximum continuous power for
plicant, in the most critical takeoff reciprocating engines, or the maximum
configuration; continuous power for turbine engines,
(2) Maximum available takeoff power and with the wing flaps and landing
on the operating engines; gear retracted
(3) The most unfavorable center of (1) In a turn, with the trim setting
gravity; used for wings level flight at VO; and
(4) The airplane trimmed for takeoff; (2) In a turn with the trim setting
and used for the maximum wings level
(5) The most unfavorable weight in flight speed, except that the speed may
the range of takeoff weights. not exceed VNE or VMO/MMO, whichever
is appropriate.
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5189, Feb. 9, 1996]
(c) There must be no excessive de-
23.151 Acrobatic maneuvers. crease in the gradient of the curve of
stick force versus maneuvering load
Each acrobatic and utility category factor with increasing load factor.
airplane must be able to perform safely
the acrobatic maneuvers for which cer- [Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31819, Nov. 19, 1973; 38 FR
tification is requested. Safe entry 32784, Nov. 28, 1973, as amended by Amdt. 23
speeds for these maneuvers must be de- 45, 58 FR 42158, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt. 2350, 61
FR 5189 Feb. 9, 1996]
termined.
23.157 Rate of roll.
23.153 Control during landings.
(a) Takeoff. It must be possible, using
It must be possible, while in the land-
a favorable combination of controls, to
ing configuration, to safely complete a
roll the airplane from a steady 30-de-
landing without exceeding the one-
gree banked turn through an angle of
hand control force limits specified in
60 degrees, so as to reverse the direc-
23.143(c) following an approach to
tion of the turn within:
land
(1) For an airplane of 6,000 pounds or
(a) At a speed of VREF minus 5 knots;
less maximum weight, 5 seconds from
(b) With the airplane in trim, or as
initiation of roll; and
nearly as possible in trim and without (2) For an airplane of over 6,000
the trimming control being moved pounds maximum weight,
throughout the maneuver;
(c) At an approach gradient equal to (W+500)/1,300
the steepest used in the landing dis-
seconds, but not more than 10 seconds,
tance demonstration of 23.75; and
where W is the weight in pounds.
(d) With only those power changes, if
(b) The requirement of paragraph (a)
any, that would be made when landing
of this section must be met when roll-
normally from an approach at VREF.
ing the airplane in each direction
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5189, Feb. 9, 1996] with
(1) Flaps in the takeoff position;
23.155 Elevator control force in ma- (2) Landing gear retracted;
neuvers. (3) For a single-engine airplane, at
(a) The elevator control force needed maximum takeoff power; and for a
to achieve the positive limit maneu- multiengine airplane with the critical
vering load factor may not be less engine inoperative and the propeller in
than: the minimum drag position, and the

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23.161 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

other engines at maximum takeoff landing gear and wing flaps retracted
power; and as follows:
(4) The airplane trimmed at a speed (1) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
equal to the greater of 1.2 VS1 or 1.1 category airplanes, at a speed of 0.9 VH,
VMC, or as nearly as possible in trim for VC, or VMO/MO, whichever is lowest; and
straight flight. (2) For commuter category airplanes,
(c) Approach. It must be possible, at all speeds from 1.4 VS1 to the lesser
using a favorable combination of con-
of VH or VMO/MMO.
trols, to roll the airplane from a steady
(c) Longitudinal trim. The airplane
30-degree banked turn through an angle
of 60 degrees, so as to reverse the direc- must maintain longitudinal trim under
tion of the turn within: each of the following conditions:
(1) For an airplane of 6,000 pounds or (1) A climb with
less maximum weight, 4 seconds from (i) Takeoff power, landing gear re-
initiation of roll; and tracted, wing flaps in the takeoff posi-
(2) For an airplane of over 6,000 tion(s), at the speeds used in deter-
pounds maximum weight, mining the climb performance required
(W+2,800)/2,200 by 23.65; and
(ii) Maximum continuous power at
seconds, but not more than 7 seconds, the speeds and in the configuration
where W is the weight in pounds. used in determining the climb perform-
(d) The requirement of paragraph (c) ance required by 23.69(a).
of this section must be met when roll- (2) Level flight at all speeds from the
ing the airplane in each direction in lesser of VH and either VNO or VMO/MMO
the following conditions (as appropriate), to 1.4 VS1, with the
(1) Flaps in the landing position(s); landing gear and flaps retracted.
(2) Landing gear extended;
(3) A descent at VNO or VMO/MMO,
(3) All engines operating at the power
whichever is applicable, with power off
for a 3 degree approach; and
(4) The airplane trimmed at VREF. and with the landing gear and flaps re-
tracted.
[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31819, Nov. 19, 1973, as (4) Approach with landing gear ex-
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42158, Aug. 6,
1993; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5189, Feb. 9, 1996]
tended and with
(i) A 3 degree angle of descent, with
TRIM flaps retracted and at a speed of 1.4 VS1;
(ii) A 3 degree angle of descent, flaps
23.161 Trim. in the landing position(s) at VREF; and
(a) General. Each airplane must meet (iii) An approach gradient equal to
the trim requirements of this section the steepest used in the landing dis-
after being trimmed and without fur- tance demonstrations of 23.75, flaps in
ther pressure upon, or movement of, the landing position(s) at VREF.
the primary controls or their cor- (d) In addition, each multiple air-
responding trim controls by the pilot plane must maintain longitudinal and
or the automatic pilot. In addition, it directional trim, and the lateral con-
must be possible, in other conditions of trol force must not exceed 5 pounds at
loading, configuration, speed and power
the speed used in complying with
to ensure that the pilot will not be un-
23.67(a), (b)(2), or (c)(3), as appro-
duly fatigued or distracted by the need
to apply residual control forces exceed- priate, with
ing those for prolonged application of (1) The critical engine inoperative,
23.143(c). This applies in normal oper- and if applicable, its propeller in the
ation of the airplane and, if applicable, minimum drag position;
to those conditions associated with the (2) The remaining engines at max-
failure of one engine for which per- imum continuous power;
formance characteristics are estab- (3) The landing gear retracted;
lished. (4) Wing flaps retracted; and
(b) Lateral and directional trim. The (5) An angle of bank of not more than
airplane must maintain lateral and di- five degrees.
rectional trim in level flight with the

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.175

(e) In addition, each commuter cat- (b) The airspeed must return to with-
egory airplane for which, in the deter- in the tolerances specified for applica-
mination of the takeoff path in accord- ble categories of airplanes when the
ance with 23.57, the climb in the take- control force is slowly released at any
off configuration at V2 extends beyond speed within the speed range specified
400 feet above the takeoff surface, it in paragraph (a) of this section. The ap-
must be possible to reduce the longitu- plicable tolerances are
dinal and lateral control forces to 10 (1) The airspeed must return to with-
pounds and 5 pounds, respectively, and in plus or minus 10 percent of the origi-
the directional control force must not nal trim airspeed; and
exceed 50 pounds at V2 with (2) For commuter category airplanes,
(1) The critical engine inoperative the airspeed must return to within plus
and its propeller in the minimum drag or minus 7.5 percent of the original
position; trim airspeed for the cruising condition
(2) The remaining engine(s) at take- specified in 23.175(b).
off power; (c) The stick force must vary with
(3) Landing gear retracted; speed so that any substantial speed
(4) Wing flaps in the takeoff posi- change results in a stick force clearly
tion(s); and perceptible to the pilot.
(5) An angle of bank not exceeding 5
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
degrees.
amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31820 Nov. 19,
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as 1973; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1828, Jan. 15, 1987]
amended by Amdt. 2321, 43 FR 2318, Jan. 16,
1978; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1828, Jan. 15, 1987; 23.175 Demonstration of static longi-
Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 351, Jan. 3, 1991; 56 FR tudinal stability.
5455, Feb. 11, 1991; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5189,
Feb. 9, 1996]
Static longitudinal stability must be
shown as follows:
STABILITY (a) Climb. The stick force curve must
have a stable slope at speeds between
23.171 General. 85 and 115 percent of the trim speed,
The airplane must be longitudinally, with
directionally, and laterally stable (1) Flaps retracted;
under 23.173 through 23.181. In addi- (2) Landing gear retracted;
tion, the airplane must show suitable (3) Maximum continuous power; and
stability and control feel (static sta- (4) The airplane trimmed at the speed
bility) in any condition normally en- used in determining the climb perform-
countered in service, if flight tests ance required by 23.69(a).
show it is necessary for safe operation. (b) Cruise. With flaps and landing
gear retracted and the airplane in trim
23.173 Static longitudinal stability. with power for level flight at represent-
Under the conditions specified in ative cruising speeds at high and low
23.175 and with the airplane trimmed altitudes, including speeds up to VNO or
as indicated, the characteristics of the VMO/MMO, as appropriate, except that
elevator control forces and the friction the speed need not exceed VH
within the control system must be as (1) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
follows: category airplanes, the stick force
(a) A pull must be required to obtain curve must have a stable slope at all
and maintain speeds below the speci- speeds within a range that is the great-
fied trim speed and a push required to er of 15 percent of the trim speed plus
obtain and maintain speeds above the the resulting free return speed range,
specified trim speed. This must be or 40 knots plus the resulting free re-
shown at any speed that can be ob- turn speed range, above and below the
tained, except that speeds requiring a trim speed, except that the slope need
control force in excess of 40 pounds or not be stable
speeds above the maximum allowable (i) At speeds less than 1.3 VS1; or
speed or below the minimum speed for (ii) For airplanes with VNE estab-
steady unstalled flight, need not be lished under 23.1505(a), at speeds
considered. greater than VNE; or

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23.177 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(iii) For airplanes with VMO/MMO es- able speed for the configuration being
tablished under 23.1505(c), at speeds investigated, in the takeoff, climb,
greater than VFC/MFC. cruise, and approach configurations.
(2) For commuter category airplanes, For the landing configuration, the
the stick force curve must have a sta- power must be that necessary to main-
ble slope at all speeds within a range of tain a 3 degree angle of descent in co-
50 knots plus the resulting free return ordinated flight. The static lateral sta-
speed range, above and below the trim bility must not be negative at 1.2 VS1 in
speed, except that the slope need not be the takeoff configuration, or at 1.3 VS1
stable in other configurations. The angle of
(i) At speeds less than 1.4 VS1; or sideslip for these tests must be appro-
(ii) At speeds greater than VFC/MFC; priate to the type of airplane, but in no
or case may the constant heading sideslip
(iii) At speeds that require a stick angle be less than that obtainable with
force greater than 50 pounds. a 10 degree bank, or if less, the max-
(c) Landing. The stick force curve imum bank angle obtainable with full
must have a stable slope at speeds be- rudder deflection or 150 pound rudder
tween 1.1 VS1 and 1.8 VS1 with force.
(1) Flaps in the landing position; (c) Paragraph (b) of this section does
(2) Landing gear extended; and not apply to acrobatic category air-
(3) The airplane trimmed at planes certificated for inverted flight.
(i) VREF, or the minimum trim speed (d) In straight, steady slips at 1.2 VS1
if higher, with power off; and for any landing gear and flap positions,
(ii) VREF with enough power to main- and for any symmetrical power condi-
tain a 3 degree angle of descent. tions up to 50 percent of maximum con-
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5190, Feb. 9, 1996] tinuous power, the aileron and rudder
control movements and forces must in-
23.177 Static directional and lateral crease steadily, but not necessarily in
stability. constant proportion, as the angle of
(a) The static directional stability, as sideslip is increased up to the max-
shown by the tendency to recover from imum appropriate to the type of air-
a wings level sideslip with the rudder plane. At larger slip angles, up to the
free, must be positive for any landing angle at which full rudder or aileron
gear and flap position appropriate to control is used or a control force limit
the takeoff, climb, cruise, approach, contained in 23.143 is reached, the ai-
and landing configurations. This must leron and rudder control movements
be shown with symmetrical power up and forces must not reverse as the
angle of sideslip is increased. Rapid
to maximum continuous power, and at
entry into, and recovery from, a max-
speeds from 1.2 VS1 up to the maximum
imum sideslip considered appropriate
allowable speed for the condition being
for the airplane must not result in un-
investigated. The angel of sideslip for
controllable flight characteristics.
these tests must be appropriate to the
type of airplane. At larger angles of [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5190, Feb. 9, 1996]
sideslip, up to that at which full rudder
is used or a control force limit in 23.181 Dynamic stability.
23.143 is reached, whichever occurs (a) Any short period oscillation not
first, and at speeds from 1.2 VS1 to VO, including combined lateral-directional
the rudder pedal force must not re- oscillations occurring between the
verse. stalling speed and the maximum allow-
(b) The static lateral stability, as able speed appropriate to the configu-
shown by the tendency to raise the low ration of the airplane must be heavily
wing in a sideslip, must be positive for damped with the primary controls
all landing gear and flap positions. (1) Free; and
This must be shown with symmetrical (2) In a fixed position.
power up to 75 percent of maximum (b) Any combined lateral-directional
continuous power at speeds above 1.2 oscillations (Dutch roll) occurring
VS1 in the take off configuration(s) and between the stalling speed and the
at speeds above 1.3 VS1 in other con- maximum allowable speed appropriate
figurations, up to the maximum allow- to the configuration of the airplane

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.203

must be damped to 1/10 amplitude in 7 been produced, or after the control has
cycles with the primary controls been held against the stop for not less
(1) Free; and than the longer of two seconds or the
(2) In a fixed position. time employed in the minimum steady
(c) If it is determined that the func- slight speed determination of 23.49.
tion of a stability augmentation sys- (d) During the entry into and the re-
tem, reference 23.672, is needed to covery from the maneuver, it must be
meet the flight characteristic require- possible to prevent more than 15 de-
ments of this part, the primary control grees of roll or yaw by the normal use
requirements of paragraphs (a)(2) and of controls.
(b)(2) of this section are not applicable (e) Compliance with the require-
to the tests needed to verify the ac- ments of this section must be shown
ceptability of that system. under the following conditions:
(d) During the conditions as specified (1) Wing flaps. Retracted, fully ex-
in 23.175, when the longitudinal con- tended, and each intermediate normal
trol force required to maintain speeds operating position.
differing from the trim speed by at (2) Landing gear. Retracted and ex-
least plus and minus 15 percent is sud- tended.
denly released, the response of the air- (3) Cowl flaps. Appropriate to configu-
plane must not exhibit any dangerous ration.
characteristics nor be excessive in rela- (4) Power:
tion to the magnitude of the control (i) Power off; and
force released. Any long-period oscilla- (ii) 75 percent of maximum contin-
tion of flight path, phugoid oscillation, uous power. However, if the power-to-
that results must not be so unstable as weight ratio at 75 percent of maximum
to increase the pilots workload or oth- continuous power result in extreme
erwise endanger the airplane. nose-up attitudes, the test may be car-
ried out with the power required for
[Amdt. 2321, 43 FR 2318, Jan. 16, 1978, as level flight in the landing configura-
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42158, Aug. 6,
1993]
tion at maximum landing weight and a
speed of 1.4 VSO, except that the power
STALLS may not be less than 50 percent of max-
imum continuous power.
23.201 Wings level stall. (5) Trim. The airplane trimmed at a
(a) It must be possible to produce and speed as near 1.5 VS1 as practicable.
to correct roll by unreversed use of the (6) Propeller. Full increase r.p.m. posi-
rolling control and to produce and to tion for the power off condition.
correct yaw by unreversed use of the [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5191, Feb. 9, 1996]
directional control, up to the time the
airplane stalls. 23.203 Turning flight and accelerated
(b) The wings level stall characteris- turning stalls.
tics must be demonstrated in flight as Turning flight and accelerated turn-
follows. Starting from a speed at least ing stalls must be demonstrated in
10 knots above the stall speed, the ele- tests as follows:
vator control must be pulled back so (a) Establish and maintain a coordi-
that the rate of speed reduction will nated turn in a 30 degree bank. Reduce
not exceed one knot per second until a speed by steadily and progressively
stall is produced, as shown by either: tightening the turn with the elevator
(1) An uncontrollable downward until the airplane is stalled, as defined
pitching motion of the airplane; in 23.201(b). The rate of speed reduc-
(2) A downward pitching motion of tion must be constant, and
the airplane that results from the acti- (1) For a turning flight stall, may not
vation of a stall avoidance device (for exceed one knot per second; and
example, stick pusher); or (2) For an accelerated turning stall,
(3) The control reaching the stop. be 3 to 5 knots per second with steadily
(c) Normal use of elevator control for increasing normal acceleration.
recovery is allowed after the downward (b) After the airplane has stalled, as
pitching motion of paragraphs (b)(1) or defined in 23.201(b), it must be possible
(b)(2) of this section has unmistakably to regain wings level flight by normal

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23.207 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

use of the flight controls, but without visual stall warning device that re-
increasing power and without quires the attention of the crew within
(1) Excessive loss of altitude; the cockpit is not acceptable by itself.
(2) Undue pitchup; (c) During the stall tests required by
(3) Uncontrollable tendency to spin; 23.201(b) and 23.203(a)(1), the stall
(4) Exceeding a bank angle of 60 de- warning must begin at a speed exceed-
grees in the original direction of the ing the stalling speed by a margin of
turn or 30 degrees in the opposite direc- not less than 5 knots and must con-
tion in the case of turning flight stalls; tinue until the stall occurs.
(5) Exceeding a bank angle of 90 de- (d) When following procedures fur-
grees in the original direction of the nished in accordance with 23.1585, the
turn or 60 degrees in the opposite direc- stall warning must not occur during a
tion in the case of accelerated turning takeoff with all engines operating, a
stalls; and takeoff continued with one engine in-
(6) Exceeding the maximum permis- operative, or during an approach to
sible speed or allowable limit load fac- landing.
tor. (e) During the stall tests required by
(c) Compliance with the require- 23.203(a)(2), the stall warning must
ments of this section must be shown begin sufficiently in advance of the
under the following conditions: stall for the stall to be averted by pilot
(1) Wing flaps: Retracted, fully ex- action taken after the stall warning
tended, and each intermediate normal first occurs.
operating position; (f) For acrobatic category airplanes,
(2) Landing gear: Retracted and ex- an artificial stall warning may be mu-
tended; table, provided that it is armed auto-
(3) Cowl flaps: Appropriate to configu- matically during takeoff and rearmed
ration; automatically in the approach configu-
(4) Power: ration.
(i) Power off; and
(ii) 75 percent of maximum contin- [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13087, Aug. 13, 1969, as
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42159, Aug. 6,
uous power. However, if the power-to- 1993; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5191, Feb. 9, 1996]
weight ratio at 75 percent of maximum
continuous power results in extreme SPINNING
nose-up attitudes, the test may be car-
ried out with the power required for 23.221 Spinning.
level flight in the landing configura- (a) Normal category airplanes. A sin-
tion at maximum landing weight and a gle-engine, normal category airplane
speed of 1.4 VSO, except that the power must be able to recover from a one-
may not be less than 50 percent of max- turn spin or a three-second spin, which-
imum continuous power. ever takes longer, in not more than one
(5) Trim: The airplane trimmed at a additional turn after initiation of the
speed as near 1.5 VS1 as practicable. first control action for recovery, or
(6) Propeller. Full increase rpm posi- demonstrate compliance with the op-
tion for the power off condition. tional spin resistant requirements of
[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31820, Nov. 19, 1973, as this section.
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42159, Aug. 6, (1) The following apply to one turn or
1993; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5191, Feb. 9, 1996] three second spins:
(i) For both the flaps-retracted and
23.207 Stall warning. flaps-extended conditions, the applica-
(a) There must be a clear and distinc- ble airspeed limit and positive limit
tive stall warning, with the flaps and maneuvering load factor must not be
landing gear in any normal position, in exceeded;
straight and turning flight. (ii) No control forces or char-
(b) The stall warning may be fur- acteristic encountered during the spin
nished either through the inherent aer- or recovery may adversely affect
odynamic qualities of the airplane or prompt recovery;
by a device that will give clearly dis- (iii) It must be impossible to obtain
tinguishable indications under ex- unrecoverable spins with any use of the
pected conditions of flight. However, a flight or engine power controls either

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.231

at the entry into or during the spin; tion. In addition, the requirements of
and paragraph (c) of this section and
(iv) For the flaps-extended condition, 23.807(b)(7) must be met if approval for
the flaps may be retracted during the spinning is requested.
recovery but not before rotation has (c) Acrobatic category airplanes. An ac-
ceased. robatic category airplane must meet
(2) At the applicants option, the air- the spin requirements of paragraph (a)
plane may be demonstrated to be spin of this section and 23.807(b)(6). In addi-
resistant by the following: tion, the following requirements must
(i) During the stall maneuver con- be met in each configuration for which
tained in 23.201, the pitch control
approval for spinning is requested:
must be pulled back and held against
the stop. Then, using ailerons and rud- (1) The airplane must recover from
ders in the proper direction, it must be any point in a spin up to and including
possible to maintain wings-level flight six turns, or any greater number of
within 15 degrees of bank and to roll turns for which certification is re-
the airplane from a 30 degree bank in quested, in not more than one and one-
one direction to a 30 degree bank in the half additional turns after initiation of
other direction; the first control action for recovery.
(ii) Reduce the airplane speed using However, beyond three turns, the spin
pitch control at a rate of approxi- may be discontinued if spiral charac-
mately one knot per second until the teristics appear.
pitch control reaches the stop; then, (2) The applicable airspeed limits and
with the pitch control pulled back and limit maneuvering load factors must
held against the stop, apply full rudder not be exceeded. For flaps-extended
control in a manner to promote spin configurations for which approval is re-
entry for a period of seven seconds or quested, the flaps must not be re-
through a 360 degree heading change, tracted during the recovery.
whichever occurs first. If the 360 degree (3) It must be impossible to obtain
heading change is reached first, it must unrecoverable spins with any use of the
have taken no fewer than four seconds.
flight or engine power controls either
This maneuver must be performed first
at the entry into or during the spin.
with the ailerons in the neutral posi-
tion, and then with the ailerons de- (4) There must be no characteristics
flected opposite the direction of turn in during the spin (such as excessive rates
the most adverse manner. Power and of rotation or extreme oscillatory mo-
airplane configuration must be set in tion) that might prevent a successful
accordance with 23.201(e) without recovery due to disorientation or inca-
change during the maneuver. At the pacitation of the pilot.
end of seven seconds or a 360 degree [Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5191, Feb. 9, 1996]
heading change, the airplane must re-
spond immediately and normally to GROUND AND WATER HANDLING
primary flight controls applied to re- CHARACTERISTICS
gain coordinated, unstalled flight with-
out reversal of control effect and with- 23.231 Longitudinal stability and
out exceeding the temporary control control.
forces specified by 23.143(c); and
(a) A landplane may have no uncon-
(iii) Compliance with 23.201 and
trollable tendency to nose over in any
23.203 must be demonstrated with the
airplane in uncoordinated flight, cor- reasonably expected operating condi-
responding to one ball width displace- tion, including rebound during landing
ment on a slip-skid indicator, unless or takeoff. Wheel brakes must operate
one ball width displacement cannot be smoothly and may not induce any
obtained with full rudder, in which undue tendency to nose over.
case the demonstration must be with (b) A seaplane or amphibian may not
full rudder applied. have dangerous or uncontrollable
(b) Utility category airplanes. A utility porpoising characteristics at any nor-
category airplane must meet the re- mal operating speed on the water.
quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-

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23.233 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

23.233 Directional stability and con- MISCELLANEOUS FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS


trol.
23.251 Vibration and buffeting.
(a) A 90 degree cross-component of
wind velocity, demonstrated to be safe There must be no vibration or buf-
for taxiing, takeoff, and landing must feting severe enough to result in struc-
be established and must be not less tural damage, and each part of the air-
than 0.2 VSO. plane must be free from excessive vi-
(b) The airplane must be satisfac- bration, under any appropriate speed
torily controllable in power-off land- and power conditions up to VD/MD. In
ings at normal landing speed, without addition, there must be no buffeting in
using brakes or engine power to main- any normal flight condition severe
tain a straight path until the speed has enough to interfere with the satisfac-
decreased to at least 50 percent of the tory control of the airplane or cause
speed at touchdown. excessive fatigue to the flight crew.
(c) The airplane must have adequate Stall warning buffeting within these
directional control during taxiing. limits is allowable.
(d) Seaplanes must demonstrate sat- [Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42159, Aug. 6, 1993]
isfactory directional stability and con-
trol for water operations up to the 23.253 High speed characteristics.
maximum wind velocity specified in If a maximum operating speed VMO/
paragraph (a) of this section. MMO is established under 23.1505(c),
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as the following speed increase and recov-
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42159, Aug. 6, ery characteristics must be met:
1993; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5192, Feb. 9, 1996] (a) Operating conditions and charac-
teristics likely to cause inadvertent
23.235 Operation on unpaved sur- speed increases (including upsets in
faces.
pitch and roll) must be simulated with
The airplane must be demonstrated the airplane trimmed at any likely
to have satisfactory characteristics speed up to VMO/MMO. These conditions
and the shock-absorbing mechanism and characteristics include gust upsets,
must not damage the structure of the inadvertent control movements, low
airplane when the airplane is taxied on stick force gradients in relation to con-
the roughest ground that may reason- trol friction, passenger movement, lev-
ably be expected in normal operation eling off from climb, and descent from
and when takeoffs and landings are Mach to airspeed limit altitude.
performed on unpaved runways having (b) Allowing for pilot reaction time
the roughest surface that may reason- after occurrence of the effective inher-
ably be expected in normal operation. ent or artificial speed warning speci-
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5192, Feb. 9, 1996] fied in 23.1303, it must be shown that
the airplane can be recovered to a nor-
23.237 Operation on water. mal attitude and its speed reduced to
A wave height, demonstrated to be VMO/MMO, without
safe for operation, and any necessary (1) Exceeding VD/MD, the maximum
water handling procedures for sea- speed shown under 23.251, or the struc-
planes and amphibians must be estab- tural limitations; or
lished. (2) Buffeting that would impair the
pilots ability to read the instruments
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5192, Feb. 9, 1996] or to control the airplane for recovery.
(c) There may be no control reversal
23.239 Spray characteristics.
about any axis at any speed up to the
Spray may not dangerously obscure maximum speed shown under 23.251.
the vision of the pilots or damage the Any reversal of elevator control force
propellers or other parts of a seaplane or tendency of the airplane to pitch,
or amphibian at any time during tax- roll, or yaw must be mild and readily
iing, takeoff, and landing.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.321

controllable, using normal piloting (a) Meet all requirements of subpart


techniques. C and subpart D of this part applicable
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13087, Aug. 13, 1969; as
to a wing; and
amended by Amdt. 2326, 45 FR 60170, Sept. (b) Meet all requirements applicable
11, 1980; Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993; to the function performed by these sur-
Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5192, Feb. 9, 1996] faces.
[Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 352, Jan. 3, 1991]
Subpart CStructure
23.303 Factor of safety.
GENERAL
Unless otherwise provided, a factor of
23.301 Loads. safety of 1.5 must be used.
(a) Strength requirements are speci- 23.305 Strength and deformation.
fied in terms of limit loads (the max-
imum loads to be expected in service) (a) The structure must be able to
and ultimate loads (limit loads multi- support limit loads without detri-
plied by prescribed factors of safety). mental, permanent deformation. At
Unless otherwise provided, prescribed any load up to limit loads, the defor-
loads are limit loads. mation may not interfere with safe op-
(b) Unless otherwise provided, the eration.
air, ground, and water loads must be (b) The structure must be able to
placed in equilibrium with inertia support ultimate loads without failure
forces, considering each item of mass for at least three seconds, except local
in the airplane. These loads must be failures or structural instabilities be-
distributed to conservatively approxi- tween limit and ultimate load are ac-
mate or closely represent actual condi- ceptable only if the structure can sus-
tions. Methods used to determine load tain the required ultimate load for at
intensities and distribution on canard least three seconds. However when
and tandem wing configurations must proof of strength is shown by dynamic
be validated by flight test measure- tests simulating actual load condi-
ment unless the methods used for de- tions, the three second limit does not
termining those loading conditions are apply.
shown to be reliable or conservative on [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
the configuration under consideration. amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6,
(c) If deflections under load would 1993]
significantly change the distribution of
external or internal loads, this redis- 23.307 Proof of structure.
tribution must be taken into account. (a) Compliance with the strength and
(d) Simplified structural design cri- deformation requirements of 23.305
teria may be used if they result in de- must be shown for each critical load
sign loads not less than those pre- condition. Structural analysis may be
scribed in 23.331 through 23.521. For used only if the structure conforms to
airplane configurations described in those for which experience has shown
appendix A, 23.1, the design criteria of this method to be reliable. In other
appendix A of this part are an approved cases, substantiating load tests must
equivalent of 23.321 through 23.459. If be made. Dynamic tests, including
appendix A of this part is used, the en- structural flight tests, are acceptable if
tire appendix must be substituted for the design load conditions have been
the corresponding sections of this part. simulated.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 (b) Certain parts of the structure
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23 must be tested as specified in Subpart
28, 47 FR 13315, Mar. 29, 1982; Amdt. 2342, 56 D of this part.
FR 352, Jan. 3, 1991; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5143,
Feb. 9, 1996] FLIGHT LOADS

23.302 Canard or tandem wing con- 23.321 General.


figurations. (a) Flight load factors represent the
The forward structure of a canard or ratio of the aerodynamic force compo-
tandem wing configuration must: nent (acting normal to the assumed

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23.331 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the (b) Maneuvering envelope. Except


weight of the airplane. A positive flight where limited by maximum (static) lift
load factor is one in which the aero- coefficients, the airplane is assumed to
dynamic force acts upward, with re- be subjected to symmetrical maneu-
spect to the airplane. vers resulting in the following limit
(b) Compliance with the flight load load factors:
requirements of this subpart must be (1) The positive maneuvering load
shown factor specified in 23.337 at speeds up
(1) At each critical altitude within to VD;
the range in which the airplane may be (2) The negative maneuvering load
expected to operate; factor specified in 23.337 at VC; and
(2) At each weight from the design
(3) Factors varying linearly with
minimum weight to the design max-
speed from the specified value at VC to
imum weight; and
(3) For each required altitude and 0.0 at VD for the normal and commuter
weight, for any practicable distribution category, and 1.0 at VD for the acro-
of disposable load within the operating batic and utility categories.
limitations specified in 23.1583 (c) Gust envelope. (1) The airplane is
through 23.1589. assumed to be subjected to symmet-
(c) When significant, the effects of rical vertical gusts in level flight. The
compressibility must be taken into ac- resulting limit load factors must cor-
count. respond to the conditions determined
as follows:
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, (i) Positive (up) and negative (down)
1993] gusts of 50 f.p.s. at VC must be consid-
ered at altitudes between sea level and
23.331 Symmetrical flight conditions. 20,000 feet. The gust velocity may be
(a) The appropriate balancing hori- reduced linearly from 50 f.p.s. at 20,000
zontal tail load must be accounted for feet to 25 f.p.s. at 50,000 feet.
in a rational or conservative manner (ii) Positive and negative gusts of 25
when determining the wing loads and f.p.s. at VD must be considered at alti-
linear inertia loads corresponding to tudes between sea level and 20,000 feet.
any of the symmetrical flight condi- The gust velocity may be reduced lin-
tions specified in 23.333 through early from 25 f.p.s. at 20,000 feet to 12.5
23.341. f.p.s. at 50,000 feet.
(b) The incremental horizontal tail (iii) In addition, for commuter cat-
loads due to maneuvering and gusts egory airplanes, positive (up) and nega-
must be reacted by the angular inertia tive (down) rough air gusts of 66 f.p.s.
of the airplane in a rational or conserv- at VB must be considered at altitudes
ative manner. between sea level and 20,000 feet. The
(c) Mutual influence of the aero- gust velocity may be reduced linearly
dynamic surfaces must be taken into from 66 f.p.s. at 20,000 feet to 38 f.p.s. at
account when determining flight loads. 50,000 feet.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 (2) The following assumptions must
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23 be made:
42, 56 FR 352, Jan. 3, 1991] (i) The shape of the gust is
23.333 Flight envelope.
U de 2s
(a) General. Compliance with the U= 1 COS
strength requirements of this subpart 2 25C
must be shown at any combination of Where
airspeed and load factor on and within
s=Distance penetrated into gust (ft.);
the boundaries of a flight envelope
C=Mean geometric chord of wing (ft.); and
(similar to the one in paragraph (d) of
Ude=Derived gust velocity referred to in sub-
this section) that represents the enve- paragraph (1) of this section.
lope of the flight loading conditions
specified by the maneuvering and gust (ii) Gust load factors vary linearly
criteria of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this with speed between VC and VD .
section respectively. (d) Flight envelope.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.335

[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13087, Aug. 13, 1969;
Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1829, Jan. 15, 1987]

23.335 Design airspeeds. (ii) 1.50 VC min (for utility category


Except as provided in paragraph airplanes); and
(a)(4) of this section, the selected de- (iii) 1.55 VC min (for acrobatic cat-
sign airspeeds are equivalent airspeeds egory airplanes).
(EAS). (3) For values of W/S more than 20,
(a) Design cruising speed, VC. For VC the multiplying factors in paragraph
the following apply: (b)(2) of this section may be decreased
(1) Where W/S=wing loading at the linearly with W/S to a value of 1.35
design maximum takeoff weight, Vc (in where W/S=100.
knots) may not be less than (4) Compliance with paragraphs (b)(1)
(i) 33 (W/S) (for normal, utility, and and (2) of this section need not be
commuter category airplanes); shown if VD/MD is selected so that the
(ii) 36 (W/S) (for acrobatic category minimum speed margin between VC/MC
airplanes). and VD/MD is the greater of the fol-
(2) For values of W/S more than 20, lowing:
the multiplying factors may be de-
(i) The speed increase resulting when,
creased linearly with W/S to a value of
from the initial condition of stabilized
28.6 where W/S=100.
flight at VC/MC, the airplane is as-
(3) VC need not be more than 0.9 VH at
sea level. sumed to be upset, flown for 20 seconds
(4) At altitudes where an MD is estab- along a flight path 7.5 below the ini-
lished, a cruising speed MC limited by tial path, and then pulled up with a
compressibility may be selected. load factor of 1.5 (0.5 g. acceleration in-
(b) Design dive speed VD. For VD, the crement). At least 75 percent maximum
following apply: continuous power for reciprocating en-
(1) VD/MD may not be less than 1.25 gines, and maximum cruising power for
VC/MC; and turbines, or, if less, the power required
(2) With VC min, the required min- for VC/MC for both kinds of engines,
imum design cruising speed, VD (in must be assumed until the pullup is
knots) may not be less than initiated, at which point power reduc-
(i) 1.40 Vc min (for normal and com- tion and pilot-controlled drag devices
muter category airplanes); may be used; and either

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23.337 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(ii) Mach 0.05 for normal, utility, and where W=design maximum takeoff
acrobatic category airplanes (at alti- weight, except that n need not be more
tudes where MD is established); or than 3.8;
(iii) Mach 0.07 for commuter category (2) 4.4 for utility category airplanes;
airplanes (at altitudes where MD is es- or
tablished) unless a rational analysis, (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category air-
including the effects of automatic sys- planes.
tems, is used to determine a lower mar- (b) The negative limit maneuvering
gin. If a rational analysis is used, the load factor may not be less than
minimum speed margin must be (1) 0.4 times the positive load factor
enough to provide for atmospheric for the normal utility and commuter
variations (such as horizontal gusts), categories; or
and the penetration of jet streams or (2) 0.5 times the positive load factor
cold fronts), instrument errors, air- for the acrobatic category.
frame production variations, and must (c) Maneuvering load factors lower
not be less than Mach 0.05. than those specified in this section
(c) Design maneuvering speed VA. For may be used if the airplane has design
VA, the following applies: features that make it impossible to ex-
(1) VA may not be less than VSn ceed these values in flight.
where [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
(i) VS is a computed stalling speed amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13088, Aug. 13,
with flaps retracted at the design 1969; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1829, Jan. 15, 1987;
weight, normally based on the max- Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5144, Feb. 9, 1996]
imum airplane normal force coeffi-
cients, CNA; and 23.341 Gust loads factors.
(ii) n is the limit maneuvering load (a) Each airplane must be designed to
factor used in design withstand loads on each lifting surface
(2) The value of VA need not exceed resulting from gusts specified in
the value of VC used in design. 23.333(c).
(d) Design speed for maximum gust in- (b) The gust load for a canard or tan-
tensity, VB. For VB, the following apply: dem wing configuration must be com-
(1) VB may not be less than the speed puted using a rational analysis, or may
determined by the intersection of the be computed in accordance with para-
line representing the maximum posi- graph (c) of this section, provided that
tive lift, CNMAX, and the line rep- the resulting net loads are shown to be
resenting the rough air gust velocity conservative with respect to the gust
on the gust V-n diagram, or VS1ng, criteria of 23.333(c).
whichever is less, where: (c) In the absence of a more rational
(i) ng the positive airplane gust load analysis, the gust load factors must be
factor due to gust, at speed VC (in ac- computed as follows
cordance with 23.341), and at the par-
ticular weight under consideration; and K g U de V a
(ii) VS1 is the stalling speed with the n = 1+
flaps retracted at the particular weight 498 ( W/S)
under consideration. Where
(2) VB need not be greater than VC.
Kg=0.88g/5.3+g=gust alleviation factor;
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as g=2(W/S)/r Cag=airplane mass ratio;
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13088, Aug. 13, Ude=Derived gust velocities referred to in
1969; Amdt. 2316, 40 FR 2577, Jan. 14, 1975; 23.333(c) (f.p.s.);
Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1829, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. r=Density of air (slugs/cu.ft.);
2324, 52 FR 34745, Sept. 14, 1987; Amdt. 2348, W/S=Wing loading (p.s.f.) due to the applica-
61 FR 5143, Feb. 9, 1996] ble weight of the airplane in the particular
load case.
23.337 Limit maneuvering load fac- W/S=Wing loading (p.s.f.);
tors. C=Mean geometric chord (ft.);
g=Acceleration due to gravity (ft./sec.2)
(a) The positive limit maneuvering V=Airplane equivalent speed (knots); and
load factor n may not be less than a=Slope of the airplane normal force coeffi-
(1) 2.1+(24,000(W+10,000)) for normal cient curve CNA per radian if the gust loads
and commuter category airplanes, are applied to the wings and horizontal tail

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.347
surfaces simultaneously by a rational (1) Maneuvering, to a positive limit
method. The wing lift curve slope CL per load factor of 2.0; and
radian may be used when the gust load is (2) Positive and negative gust of 25
applied to the wings only and the hori-
feet per second acting normal to the
zontal tail gust loads are treated as a sepa-
rate condition.
flight path in level flight.
(b) VF must be assumed to be not less
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13088, Aug. 13, 1969, as than 1.4 VS or 1.8 VSF, whichever is
amended by Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 352, Jan. 3, greater, where
1991; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5144, Feb. 9, 1996]
(1) VS is the computed stalling speed
23.343 Design fuel loads. with flaps retracted at the design
weight; and
(a) The disposable load combinations (2) VSF is the computed stalling speed
must include each fuel load in the with flaps fully extended at the design
range from zero fuel to the selected weight.
maximum fuel load. (3) If an automatic flap load limiting
(b) If fuel is carried in the wings, the device is used, the airplane may be de-
maximum allowable weight of the air- signed for the critical combinations of
plane without any fuel in the wing airspeed and flap position allowed by
tank(s) must be established as max- that device.
imum zero wing fuel weight, if it is (c) In determining external loads on
less than the maximum weight. the airplane as a whole, thrust, slip-
(c) For commuter category airplanes, stream, and pitching acceleration may
a structural reserve fuel condition, not be assumed to be zero.
exceeding fuel necessary for 45 minutes (d) The flaps, their operating mecha-
of operation at maximum continuous nism, and their supporting structures,
power, may be selected. If a structural must be designed to withstand the con-
reserve fuel condition is selected, it ditions prescribed in paragraph (a) of
must be used as the minimum fuel this section. In addition, with the flaps
weight condition for showing compli- fully extended at VF, the following con-
ance with the flight load requirements ditions, taken separately, must be ac-
prescribed in this part and counted for:
(1) The structure must be designed to (1) A head-on gust having a velocity
withstand a condition of zero fuel in of 25 feet per second (EAS), combined
the wing at limit loads corresponding with propeller slipstream cor-
to: responding to 75 percent of maximum
(i) Ninety percent of the maneu- continuous power; and
vering load factors defined in 23.337, (2) The effects of propeller slipstream
and corresponding to maximum takeoff
(ii) Gust velocities equal to 85 per- power.
cent of the values prescribed in [Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5144, Feb. 9, 1996]
23.333(c).
(2) The fatigue evaluation of the 23.347 Unsymmetrical flight condi-
structure must account for any in- tions.
crease in operating stresses resulting (a) The airplane is assumed to be sub-
from the design condition of paragraph jected to the unsymmetrical flight con-
(c)(1) of this section. ditions of 23.349 and 23.351. Unbal-
(3) The flutter, deformation, and vi- anced aerodynamic moments about the
bration requirements must also be met center of gravity must be reacted in a
with zero fuel in the wings. rational or conservative manner, con-
[Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5144, Feb. 9, 1996] sidering the principal masses fur-
nishing the reacting inertia forces.
23.345 High lift devices. (b) Acrobatic category airplanes cer-
(a) If flaps or similar high lift devices tified for flick maneuvers (snap roll)
are to be used for takeoff, approach or must be designed for additional asym-
landing, the airplane, with the flaps metric loads acting on the wing and
fully extended at VF, is assumed to be the horizontal tail.
subjected to symmetrical maneuvers [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
and gusts within the range determined amended by Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5144, Feb. 9,
by 1996]

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23.349 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

23.349 Rolling conditions. 23.361 Engine torque.


The wing and wing bracing must be (a) Each engine mount and its sup-
designed for the following loading con- porting structure must be designed for
ditions: the effects of
(a) Unsymmetrical wing loads appro- (1) A limit engine torque cor-
priate to the category. Unless the fol- responding to takeoff power and pro-
peller speed acting simultaneously
lowing values result in unrealistic
with 75 percent of the limit loads from
loads, the rolling accelerations may be
flight condition A of 23.333(d);
obtained by modifying the symmet- (2) A limit engine torque cor-
rical flight conditions in 23.333(d) as responding to maximum continuous
follows: power and propeller speed acting si-
(1) For the acrobatic category, in multaneously with the limit loads from
conditions A and F, assume that 100 flight condition A of 23.333(d); and
percent of the semispan wing airload (3) For turbopropeller installations,
acts on one side of the plane of sym- in addition to the conditions specified
metry and 60 percent of this load acts in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this
on the other side. section, a limit engine torque cor-
(2) For normal, utility, and com- responding to takeoff power and pro-
muter categories, in Condition A, as- peller speed, multiplied by a factor ac-
sume that 100 percent of the semispan counting for propeller control system
wing airload acts on one side of the air- malfunction, including quick feath-
plane and 75 percent of this load acts ering, acting simultaneously with lg
level flight loads. In the absence of a
on the other side.
rational analysis, a factor of 1.6 must
(b) The loads resulting from the aile- be used.
ron deflections and speeds specified in (b) For turbine engine installations,
23.455, in combination with an air- the engine mounts and supporting
plane load factor of at least two thirds structure must be designed to with-
of the positive maneuvering load factor stand each of the following:
used for design. Unless the following (1) A limit engine torque load im-
values result in unrealistic loads, the posed by sudden engine stoppage due to
effect of aileron displacement on wing malfunction or structural failure (such
torsion may be accounted for by adding as compressor jamming).
the following increment to the basic (2) A limit engine torque load im-
airfoil moment coefficient over the ai- posed by the maximum acceleration of
leron portion of the span in the critical the engine.
condition determined in 23.333(d): (c) The limit engine torque to be con-
sidered under paragraph (a) of this sec-
Dcm=0.01d tion must be obtained by multiplying
where the mean torque by a factor of
(1) 1.25 for turbopropeller installa-
Dcm is the moment coefficient increment; and tions;
d is the down aileron deflection in degrees in
(2) 1.33 for engines with five or more
the critical condition.
cylinders; and
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (3) Two, three, or four, for engines
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13088, Aug. 13, with four, three, or two cylinders, re-
1969; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1829, Jan. 15, 1987; spectively.
Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5144, Feb. 9, 1996]
[Amdt. 2326, 45 FR 60171, Sept. 11, 1980, as
23.351 Yawing conditions. amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6,
1993]
The airplane must be designed for
yawing loads on the vertical surfaces 23.363 Side load on engine mount.
resulting from the loads specified in (a) Each engine mount and its sup-
23.441 through 23.445. porting structure must be designed for
a limit load factor in a lateral direc-
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
tion, for the side load on the engine
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
42, 56 FR 352, Jan. 3, 1991]
mount, of not less than
(1) 1.33, or

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.371

(2) One-third of the limit load factor turbine or from loss of the turbine
for flight condition A. blades are considered to be ultimate
(b) The side load prescribed in para- loads.
graph (a) of this section may be as- (3) The time history of the thrust
sumed to be independent of other flight decay and drag buildup occurring as a
conditions. result of the prescribed engine failures
must be substantiated by test or other
23.365 Pressurized cabin loads. data applicable to the particular en-
For each pressurized compartment, gine-propeller combination.
the following apply: (4) The timing and magnitude of the
(a) The airplane structure must be probable pilot corrective action must
strong enough to withstand the flight be conservatively estimated, consid-
loads combined with pressure differen- ering the characteristics of the par-
tial loads from zero up to the max- ticular engine-propeller-airplane com-
imum relief valve setting. bination.
(b) The external pressure distribution (b) Pilot corrective action may be as-
in flight, and any stress concentra- sumed to be initiated at the time max-
tions, must be accounted for. imum yawing velocity is reached, but
(c) If landings may be made with the not earlier than 2 seconds after the en-
cabin pressurized, landing loads must gine failure. The magnitude of the cor-
be combined with pressure differential rective action may be based on the
loads from zero up to the maximum al- limit pilot forces specified in 23.397
lowed during landing. except that lower forces may be as-
(d) The airplane structure must be sumed where it is shown by analysis or
strong enough to withstand the pres- test that these forces can control the
sure differential loads corresponding to yaw and roll resulting from the pre-
the maximum relief valve setting mul- scribed engine failure conditions.
tiplied by a factor of 1.33, omitting [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13, 1969]
other loads.
(e) If a pressurized cabin has two or 23.369 Rear lift truss.
more compartments separated by bulk- (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must
heads or a floor, the primary structure be designed to withstand conditions of
must be designed for the effects of sud- reversed airflow at a design speed of
den release of pressure in any compart- V=8.7 (W/S) + 8.7 (knots), where W/
ment with external doors or windows. S=wing loading at design maximum
This condition must be investigated for takeoff weight.
the effects of failure of the largest (b) Either aerodynamic data for the
opening in the compartment. The ef- particular wing section used, or a value
fects of intercompartmental venting of CL equalling 0.8 with a chordwise
may be considered. distribution that is triangular between
a peak at the trailing edge and zero at
23.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to the leading edge, must be used.
engine failure.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
(a) Turbopropeller airplanes must be amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13,
designed for the unsymmetrical loads 1969; 34 FR 17509, Oct. 30, 1969; Amdt. 2345, 58
resulting from the failure of the crit- FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR
ical engine including the following con- 5145, Feb. 9, 1996]
ditions in combination with a single
malfunction of the propeller drag lim- 23.371 Gyroscopic and aerodynamic
iting system, considering the probable loads.
pilot corrective action on the flight (a) Each engine mount and its sup-
controls: porting structure must be designed for
(1) At speeds between VMC and VD, the gyroscopic, inertial, and aero-
the loads resulting from power failure dynamic loads that result, with the en-
because of fuel flow interruption are gine(s) and propeller(s), if applicable,
considered to be limit loads. at maximum continuous r.p.m., under
(2) At speeds between VMC and VC, either:
the loads resulting from the disconnec- (1) The conditions prescribed in
tion of the engine compressor from the 23.351 and 23.423; or

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23.373 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(2) All possible combinations of the 23.393 Loads parallel to hinge line.
following (a) Control surfaces and supporting
(i) A yaw velocity of 2.5 radians per hinge brackets must be designed to
second; withstand inertial loads acting parallel
(ii) A pitch velocity of 1.0 radian per to the hinge line.
second; (b) In the absence of more rational
(iii) A normal load factor of 2.5; and data, the inertial loads may be as-
(iv) Maximum continuous thrust. sumed to be equal to KW, where
(b) For airplanes approved for aero- (1) K=24 for vertical surfaces;
batic maneuvers, each engine mount (2) K=12 for horizontal surfaces; and
and its supporting structure must meet (3) W=weight of the movable surfaces.
the requirements of paragraph (a) of [Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5145, Feb. 9, 1996]
this section and be designed to with-
stand the load factors expected during 23.395 Control system loads.
combined maximum yaw and pitch ve- (a) Each flight control system and its
locities. supporting structure must be designed
(c) For airplanes certificated in the for loads corresponding to at least 125
commuter category, each engine percent of the computed hinge mo-
mount and its supporting structure ments of the movable control surface
must meet the requirements of para- in the conditions prescribed in 23.391
graph (a) of this section and the gust through 23.459. In addition, the fol-
conditions specified in 23.341 of this lowing apply:
part. (1) The system limit loads need not
exceed the higher of the loads that can
[Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5145, Feb. 9, 1996] be produced by the pilot and automatic
devices operating the controls. How-
23.373 Speed control devices. ever, autopilot forces need not be added
If speed control devices (such as to pilot forces. The system must be de-
spoilers and drag flaps) are incor- signed for the maximum effort of the
porated for use in enroute conditions pilot or autopilot, whichever is higher.
(a) The airplane must be designed for In addition, if the pilot and the auto-
the symmetrical maneuvers and gusts pilot act in opposition, the part of the
prescribed in 23.333, 23.337, and 23.341, system between them may be designed
and the yawing maneuvers and lateral for the maximum effort of the one that
gusts in 23.441 and 23.443, with the de- imposes the lesser load. Pilot forces
used for design need not exceed the
vice extended at speeds up to the
maximum forces prescribed in
placard device extended speed; and
23.397(b).
(b) If the device has automatic oper- (2) The design must, in any case, pro-
ating or load limiting features, the air- vide a rugged system for service use,
plane must be designed for the maneu- considering jamming, ground gusts,
ver and gust conditions prescribed in taxiing downwind, control inertia, and
paragraph (a) of this section at the friction. Compliance with this subpara-
speeds and corresponding device posi- graph may be shown by designing for
tions that the mechanism allows. loads resulting from application of the
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13, 1969] minimum forces prescribed in
23.397(b).
CONTROL SURFACE AND SYSTEM LOADS (b) A 125 percent factor on computed
hinge moments must be used to design
23.391 Control surface loads. elevator, aileron, and rudder systems.
However, a factor as low as 1.0 may be
The control surface loads specified in
used if hinge moments are based on ac-
23.397 through 23.459 are assumed to
curate flight test data, the exact reduc-
occur in the conditions described in tion depending upon the accuracy and
23.331 through 23.351. reliability of the data.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (c) Pilot forces used for design are as-
amended by Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5145, Feb. 9, sumed to act at the appropriate control
1996] grips or pads as they would in flight,

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.415

and to react at the attachments of the 23.399 Dual control system.


control system to the control surface
(a) Each dual control system must be
horns. designed to withstand the force of the
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as pilots operating in opposition, using in-
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13, dividual pilot forces not less than the
1969] greater of
(1) 0.75 times those obtained under
23.397 Limit control forces and 23.395; or
torques. (2) The minimum forces specified in
(a) In the control surface flight load- 23.397(b).
ing condition, the airloads on movable (b) Each dual control system must be
surfaces and the corresponding deflec- designed to withstand the force of the
tions need not exceed those that would pilots applied together, in the same di-
result in flight from the application of rection, using individual pilot forces
any pilot force within the ranges speci- not less than 0.75 times those obtained
fied in paragraph (b) of this section. In under 23.395.
applying this criterion, the effects of [Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5145, Feb. 9, 1996]
control system boost and servo-mecha-
nisms, and the effects of tabs must be 23.405 Secondary control system.
considered. The automatic pilot effort Secondary controls, such as wheel
must be used for design if it alone can brakes, spoilers, and tab controls, must
produce higher control surface loads be designed for the maximum forces
than the human pilot. that a pilot is likely to apply to those
(b) The limit pilot forces and torques controls.
are as follows:
23.407 Trim tab effects.
Maximum forces
or torques for Minimum
The effects of trim tabs on the con-
design weight, trol surface design conditions must be
Control forces or
weight equal to torques 2 accounted for only where the surface
or less than
5,000 pounds 1 loads are limited by maximum pilot ef-
Aileron: fort. In these cases, the tabs are con-
Stick ................................ 67 lbs ................ 40 lbs. sidered to be deflected in the direction
Wheel 3 ............................ 50 D in.-lbs 4 ..... 40 D in.- that would assist the pilot. These de-
lbs.4 flections must correspond to the max-
Elevator: imum degree of out of trim expected
Stick ................................ 167 lbs .............. 100 lbs.
at the speed for the condition under
Wheel (symmetrical) ....... 200 lbs .............. 100 lbs.
Wheel (unsymmetrical) 5 ........................... 100 lbs. consideration.
Rudder ................................ 200 lbs .............. 150 lbs.
23.409 Tabs.
1 For design weight (W) more than 5,000 pounds, the speci-
fied maximum values must be increased linearly with weight Control surface tabs must be de-
to 1.18 times the specified values at a design weight of
12,500 pounds and for commuter category airplanes, the signed for the most severe combination
specified values must be increased linearly with weight to of airspeed and tab deflection likely to
1.35 times the specified values at a design weight of 19,000
pounds. be obtained within the flight envelope
2 If the design of any individual set of control systems or for any usable loading condition.
surfaces makes these specified minimum forces or torques in-
applicable, values corresponding to the present hinge mo-
ments obtained under 23.415, but not less than 0.6 of the 23.415 Ground gust conditions.
specified minimum forces or torques, may be used.
3 The critical parts of the aileron control system must also (a) The control system must be inves-
be designed for a single tangential force with a limit value of tigated as follows for control surface
1.25 times the couple force determined from the above cri-
teria. loads due to ground gusts and taxiing
4 D=wheel diameter (inches). downwind:
5 The unsymmetrical force must be applied at one of the
normal handgrip points on the control wheel.
(1) If an investigation of the control
system for ground gust loads is not re-
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as quired by paragraph (a)(2) of this sec-
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13, tion, but the applicant elects to design
1969; Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, 1976; a part of the control system of these
Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1829, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. loads, these loads need only be carried
2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993] from control surface horns through the

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23.421 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

nearest stops or gust locks and their HORIZONTAL STABILIZING AND


supporting structures. BALANCING SURFACES
(2) If pilot forces less than the mini-
mums specified in 23.397(b) are used 23.421 Balancing loads.
for design, the effects of surface loads (a) A horizontal surface balancing
due to ground gusts and taxiing down- load is a load necessary to maintain
wind must be investigated for the en- equilibrium in any specified flight con-
tire control system according to the dition with no pitching acceleration.
formula: (b) Horizontal balancing surfaces
must be designed for the balancing
H=K c S q loads occurring at any point on the
where limit maneuvering envelope and in the
H=limit hinge moment (ft.-lbs.); flap conditions specified in 23.345.
c=mean chord of the control surface aft of [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
the hinge line (ft.); amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13,
S=area of control surface aft of the hinge 1969; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 352, Jan. 3, 1991]
line (sq. ft.);
q=dynamic pressure (p.s.f.) based on a design 23.423 Maneuvering loads.
speed not less than 14.6 (W/S) + 14.6 (f.p.s.)
where W/S=wing loading at design max- Each horizontal surface and its sup-
imum weight, except that the design speed porting structure, and the main wing
need not exceed 88 (f.p.s.); of a canard or tandem wing configura-
K=limit hinge moment factor for ground tion, if that surface has pitch control,
gusts derived in paragraph (b) of this sec- must be designed for the maneuvering
tion. (For ailerons and elevators, a positive loads imposed by the following condi-
value of K indicates a moment tending to tions:
depress the surface and a negative value of (a) A sudden movement of the pitch-
K indicates a moment tending to raise the ing control, at the speed VA, to the
surface).
maximum aft movement, and the max-
(b) The limit hinge moment factor K imum forward movement, as limited by
for ground gusts must be derived as fol- the control stops, or pilot effort,
lows: whichever is critical.
(b) A sudden aft movement of the
Surface K Position of controls pitching control at speeds above VA,
(a) Aileron ......... 0.75 Control column locked lashed in
followed by a forward movement of the
mid-position. pitching control resulting in the fol-
(b) Aileron ......... 0.50 Ailerons at full throw; + moment lowing combinations of normal and an-
on one aileron, moment on gular acceleration:
the other.
(c) Elevator ....... 0.75 (c) Elevator full up (). Normal Angular acceleration
(d) Elevator ....... ............ (d) Elevator full down (+). Condition accelera- (radian/sec2)
(e) Rudder ......... 0.75 (e) Rudder in neutral. tion (n)
(f) Rudder .......... ............ (f) Rudder at full throw.
Nose-up pitching ........ 1.0 +39nmV(nm1.5)
Nose-down ptiching .... nm 39nmV(nm1.5)
(c) At all weights between the empty
weight and the maximum weight de- where
clared for tie-down stated in the appro- (1) nm=positive limit maneuvering
priate manual, any declared tie-down load factor used in the design of the
points and surrounding structure, con- airplane; and
trol system, surfaces and associated (2) V=initial speed in knots.
gust locks, must be designed to with- The conditions in this paragraph in-
stand the limit load conditions that volve loads corresponding to the loads
exist when the airplane is tied down that may occur in a checked maneu-
and that result from wind speeds of up ver (a maneuver in which the pitching
to 65 knots horizontally from any di- control is suddenly displaced in one di-
rection. rection and then suddenly moved in the
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as opposite direction). The deflections and
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089, Aug. 13, timing of the checked maneuver
1969; Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993; must avoid exceeding the limit maneu-
Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5145, Feb. 9, 1996] vering load factor. The total horizontal

206

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.441

surface load for both nose-up and nose- 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads.
down pitching conditions is the sum of (a) Horizontal surfaces other than
the balancing loads at V and the speci- main wing and their supporting struc-
fied value of the normal load factor n, ture must be designed for unsymmet-
plus the maneuvering load increment rical loads arising from yawing and
due to the specified value of the angu- slipstream effects, in combination with
lar acceleration. the loads prescribed for the flight con-
[Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991; 56 FR ditions set forth in 23.421 through
5455, Feb. 11, 1991] 23.425.
(b) In the absence of more rational
23.425 Gust loads. data for airplanes that are conven-
(a) Each horizontal surface, other tional in regard to location of engines,
than a main wing, must be designed for wings, horizontal surfaces other than
loads resulting from main wing, and fuselage shape:
(1) Gust velocities specified in (1) 100 percent of the maximum load-
23.333(c) with flaps retracted; and ing from the symmetrical flight condi-
(2) Positive and negative gusts of 25 tions may be assumed on the surface
f.p.s. nominal intensity at VF cor- on one side of the plane of symmetry;
responding to the flight conditions and
specified in 23.345(a)(2). (2) The following percentage of that
(b) [Reserved] loading must be applied to the opposite
(c) When determining the total load side:
on the horizontal surfaces for the con- Percent=10010 (n1), where n is the spec-
ditions specified in paragraph (a) of ified positive maneuvering load factor, but
this section, the initial balancing loads this value may not be more than 80 percent.
for steady unaccelerated flight at the (c) For airplanes that are not conven-
pertinent design speeds VF, VC, and VD tional (such as airplanes with hori-
must first be determined. The incre- zontal surfaces other than main wing
mental load resulting from the gusts having appreciable dihedral or sup-
must be added to the initial balancing ported by the vertical tail surfaces) the
load to obtain the total load. surfaces and supporting structures
(d) In the absence of a more rational must be designed for combined vertical
analysis, the incremental load due to and horizontal surface loads resulting
the gust must be computed as follows from each prescribed flight condition
only on airplane configurations with taken separately.
aft-mounted, horizontal surfaces, un-
[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31820, Nov. 19, 1973, as
less its use elsewhere is shown to be
amended by Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3,
conservative: 1991]

K g U de Va ht S ht d VERTICAL SURFACES
L ht = 1
498 d 23.441 Maneuvering loads.
where (a) At speeds up to VA, the vertical
DLht=Incremental horizontal tailload (lbs.); surfaces must be designed to withstand
Kg=Gust alleviation factor defined in 23.341; the following conditions. In computing
Ude=Derived gust velocity (f.p.s.); the loads, the yawing velocity may be
V=Airplane equivalent speed (knots); assumed to be zero:
aht=Slope of aft horizontal lift curve (per ra- (1) With the airplane in unacceler-
dian) ated flight at zero yaw, it is assumed
Sht=Area of aft horizontal lift surface (ft2); that the rudder control is suddenly dis-
and placed to the maximum deflection, as
limited by the control stops or by limit
d pilot forces.
1 = Downwash factor
d (2) With the rudder deflected as speci-
fied in paragraph (a)(1) of this section,
EC28SE91.003</MATH>

[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as it is assumed that the airplane yaws to
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13089 Aug. 13, the overswing sideslip angle. In lieu of
1969; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991] a rational analysis, an overswing angle

207
EC28SE91.002</MATH>

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23.441 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

equal to 1.5 times the static sideslip (1) The airplane must be yawed to the
angle of paragraph (a)(3) of this section largest attainable steady state sideslip
may be assumed. angle, with the rudder at maximum de-
(3) A yaw angle of 15 degrees with the flection caused by any one of the fol-
rudder control maintained in the neu- lowing:
tral position (except as limited by pilot (i) Control surface stops;
strength). (ii) Maximum available booster ef-
(b) For commuter category airplanes,
fort;
the loads imposed by the following ad-
(iii) Maximum pilot rudder force as
ditional maneuver must be substan-
tiated at speeds from VA to VD/MD. shown below:
When computing the tail loads

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.441

(2) The rudder must be suddenly dis- (c) The yaw angles specified in para-
placed from the maximum deflection to graph (a)(3) of this section may be re-
the neutral position. duced if the yaw angle chosen for a par-
ticular speed cannot be exceeded in

209
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23.443 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(1) Steady slip conditions; V=Equivalent airspeed (knots).


(2) Uncoordinated rolls from steep [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13, 1969, as
banks; or amended by Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1830, Jan. 15,
(3) Sudden failure of the critical en- 1987; 52 FR 7262, Mar. 9, 1987; Amdt. 2324, 52
gine with delayed corrective action. FR 34745, Sept. 14, 1987; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR
353, Jan. 3, 1991; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as 9, 1996]
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13,
1969; Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, 1973; 23.445 Outboard fins or winglets.
Amdt. 2328, 47 FR 13315, Mar. 29, 1982; Amdt.
2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991; Amdt. 2348, 61 (a) If outboard fins or winglets are in-
FR 5145, Feb. 9, 1996] cluded on the horizontal surfaces or
wings, the horizontal surfaces or wings
23.443 Gust loads. must be designed for their maximum
load in combination with loads induced
(a) Vertical surfaces must be de-
by the fins or winglets and moments or
signed to withstand, in unaccelerated forces exerted on the horizontal sur-
flight at speed VC, lateral gusts of the faces or wings by the fins or winglets.
values prescribed for VC in 23.333(c).
(b) If outboard fins or winglets ex-
(b) In addition, for commuter cat- tend above and below the horizontal
egory airplanes, the airplane is as- surface, the critical vertical surface
sumed to encounter derived gusts nor- loading (the load per unit area as de-
mal to the plane of symmetry while in termined under 23.441 and 23.443)
unaccelerated flight at VB, VC, VD, and must be applied to
VF. The derived gusts and airplane (1) The part of the vertical surfaces
speeds corresponding to these condi- above the horizontal surface with 80
tions, as determined by 23.341 and percent of that loading applied to the
23.345, must be investigated. The shape part below the horizontal surface; and
of the gust must be as specified in
(2) The part of the vertical surfaces
23.333(c)(2)(i).
below the horizontal surface with 80
(c) In the absence of a more rational percent of that loading applied to the
analysis, the gust load must be com- part above the horizontal surface.
puted as follows: (c) The end plate effects of outboard
fins or winglets must be taken into ac-
K gt U de V a vt S vt
L vt = count in applying the yawing condi-
tions of 23.441 and 23.443 to the
498 vertical surfaces in paragraph (b) of
Where this section.
Lvt=Vertical surface loads (lbs.); (d) When rational methods are used
for computing loads, the maneuvering
0.88 gt
k gt = = gust alleviation factor; loads of 23.441 on the vertical surfaces
5.3 + gt and the one-g horizontal surface load,
including induced loads on the hori-
2 zontal surface and moments or forces
2W K exerted on the horizontal surfaces by
gt = = lateral massratio; the vertical surfaces, must be applied
c t g a vt S vt l vt simultaneously for the structural load-
Ude=Derived gust velocity (f.p.s.); ing condition.
r=Air density (slugs/cu.ft.);
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
W=the applicable weight of the airplane in amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19,
the particular load case (lbs.); 1973; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991]
ER09FE96.002</MATH>

Svt=Area of vertical surface (ft.2);


ct=Mean geometric chord of vertical surface AILERONS AND SPECIAL DEVICES
(ft.);
avt=Lift curve slope of vertical surface (per 23.455 Ailerons.
radian);
K=Radius of gyration in yaw (ft.); (a) The ailerons must be designed for
ER09FE96.001</MATH>

lvt=Distance from airplane c.g. to lift center the loads to which they are subjected
of vertical surface (ft.); (1) In the neutral position during
g=Acceleration due to gravity (ft./sec.2); and symmetrical flight conditions; and

210
ER09FE96.000</MATH>

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.477

(2) By the following deflections (ex- maximum weight and the design land-
cept as limited by pilot effort), during ing weight; or
unsymmetrical flight conditions: (2) The design maximum weight less
(i) Sudden maximum displacement of the weight of 25 percent of the total
the aileron control at VA. Suitable al- fuel capacity.
lowance may be made for control sys- (c) The design landing weight of a
tem deflections. multiengine airplane may be less than
(ii) Sufficient deflection at VC, where that allowed under paragraph (b) of
VC is more than VA, to produce a rate this section if
of roll not less than obtained in para- (1) The airplane meets the one-en-
graph (a)(2)(i) of this section. gine-inoperative climb requirements of
(iii) Sufficient deflection at VD to 23.67(b)(1) or (c); and
produce a rate of roll not less than one- (2) Compliance is shown with the fuel
third of that obtained in paragraph jettisoning system requirements of
(a)(2)(i) of this section. 23.1001.
(b) [Reserved] (d) The selected limit vertical inertia
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as load factor at the center of gravity of
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13, the airplane for the ground load condi-
1969; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991] tions prescribed in this subpart may
not be less than that which would be
23.459 Special devices. obtained when landing with a descent
The loading for special devices using velocity (V), in feet per second, equal
aerodynamic surfaces (such as slots to 4.4 (W/S)14, except that this velocity
and spoilers) must be determined from need not be more than 10 feet per sec-
test data. ond and may not be less than seven
feet per second.
GROUND LOADS (e) Wing lift not exceeding two-thirds
of the weight of the airplane may be
23.471 General. assumed to exist throughout the land-
The limit ground loads specified in ing impact and to act through the cen-
this subpart are considered to be exter- ter of gravity. The ground reaction
nal loads and inertia forces that act load factor may be equal to the inertia
upon an airplane structure. In each load factor minus the ratio of the
specified ground load condition, the ex- above assumed wing lift to the airplane
ternal reactions must be placed in weight.
equilibrium with the linear and angu- (f) If energy absorption tests are
lar inertia forces in a rational or con- made to determine the limit load fac-
servative manner. tor corresponding to the required limit
descent velocities, these tests must be
23.473 Ground load conditions and made under 23.723(a).
assumptions. (g) No inertia load factor used for de-
(a) The ground load requirements of sign purposes may be less than 2.67, nor
this subpart must be complied with at may the limit ground reaction load fac-
the design maximum weight except tor be less than 2.0 at design maximum
that 23.479, 23.481, and 23.483 may be weight, unless these lower values will
complied with at a design landing not be exceeded in taxiing at speeds up
weight (the highest weight for landing to takeoff speed over terrain as rough
conditions at the maximum descent ve- as that expected in service.
locity) allowed under paragraphs (b) [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
and (c) of this section. amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13,
(b) The design landing weight may be 1969; Amdt. 2328, 47 FR 13315, Mar. 29, 1982;
as low as Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt.
(1) 95 percent of the maximum weight 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]
if the minimum fuel capacity is enough
for at least one-half hour of operation 23.477 Landing gear arrangement.
at maximum continuous power plus a Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the
capacity equal to a fuel weight which conditions in appendix C, apply to air-
is the difference between the design planes with conventional arrangements

211

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23.479 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

of main and nose gear, or main and tail sponse, an airplane lift equal to the
gear. weight of the airplane may be assumed.

23.479 Level landing conditions. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20,
(a) For a level landing, the airplane 1976; Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993]
is assumed to be in the following atti-
tudes: 23.481 Tail down landing conditions.
(1) For airplanes with tail wheels, a (a) For a tail down landing, the air-
normal level flight attitude. plane is assumed to be in the following
(2) For airplanes with nose wheels, attitudes:
attitudes in which (1) For airplanes with tail wheels, an
(i) The nose and main wheels contact attitude in which the main and tail
the ground simultaneously; and wheels contact the ground simulta-
(ii) The main wheels contact the neously.
ground and the nose wheel is just clear (2) For airplanes with nose wheels, a
of the ground. stalling attitude, or the maximum
The attitude used in paragraph (a)(2)(i) angle allowing ground clearance by
of this section may be used in the anal- each part of the airplane, whichever is
ysis required under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) less.
of this section. (b) For airplanes with either tail or
(b) When investigating landing condi- nose wheels, ground reactions are as-
tions, the drag components simulating sumed to be vertical, with the wheels
the forces required to accelerate the up to speed before the maximum
tires and wheels up to the landing vertical load is attained.
speed (spin-up) must be properly com-
bined with the corresponding instanta- 23.483 One-wheel landing conditions.
neous vertical ground reactions, and For the one-wheel landing condition,
the forward-acting horizontal loads re- the airplane is assumed to be in the
sulting from rapid reduction of the level attitude and to contact the
spin-up drag loads (spring-back) must ground on one side of the main landing
be combined with vertical ground reac- gear. In this attitude, the ground reac-
tions at the instant of the peak for- tions must be the same as those ob-
ward load, assuming wing lift and a tained on that side under 23.479.
tire-sliding coefficient of friction of 0.8.
However, the drag loads may not be 23.485 Side load conditions.
less than 25 percent of the maximum
vertical ground reactions (neglecting (a) For the side load condition, the
wing lift). airplane is assumed to be in a level at-
titude with only the main wheels con-
(c) In the absence of specific tests or
tacting the ground and with the shock
a more rational analysis for deter-
mining the wheel spin-up and spring- absorbers and tires in their static posi-
back loads for landing conditions, the tions.
method set forth in appendix D of this (b) The limit vertical load factor
part must be used. If appendix D of this must be 1.33, with the vertical ground
part is used, the drag components used reaction divided equally between the
for design must not be less than those main wheels.
given by appendix C of this part. (c) The limit side inertia factor must
(d) For airplanes with tip tanks or be 0.83, with the side ground reaction
large overhung masses (such as turbo- divided between the main wheels so
propeller or jet engines) supported by that
the wing, the tip tanks and the struc- (1) 0.5 (W) is acting inboard on one
ture supporting the tanks or overhung side; and
masses must be designed for the effects (2) 0.33 (W) is acting outboard on the
of dynamic responses under the level other side.
landing conditions of either paragraph (d) The side loads prescribed in para-
(a)(1) or (a)(2)(ii) of this section. In graph (c) of this section are assumed to
evaluating the effects of dynamic re- be applied at the ground contact point

212

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.499

and the drag loads may be assumed to (1) Suitable design loads must be es-
be zero. tablished for the tail wheel, bumper, or
energy absorption device; and
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, (2) The supporting structure of the
1993] tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorp-
tion device must be designed to with-
23.493 Braked roll conditions. stand the loads established in para-
graph (c)(1) of this section.
Under braked roll conditions, with
the shock absorbers and tires in their [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
static positions, the following apply: amended by Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9,
(a) The limit vertical load factor 1996]
must be 1.33.
23.499 Supplementary conditions for
(b) The attitudes and ground con- nose wheels.
tacts must be those described in 23.479
for level landings. In determining the ground loads on
(c) A drag reaction equal to the nose wheels and affected supporting
vertical reaction at the wheel multi- structures, and assuming that the
plied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8 shock absorbers and tires are in their
must be applied at the ground contact static positions, the following condi-
point of each wheel with brakes, except tions must be met:
that the drag reaction need not exceed (a) For aft loads, the limit force com-
the maximum value based on limiting ponents at the axle must be
brake torque. (1) A vertical component of 2.25 times
the static load on the wheel; and
23.497 Supplementary conditions for (2) A drag component of 0.8 times the
tail wheels. vertical load.
In determining the ground loads on (b) For forward loads, the limit force
the tail wheel and affected supporting components at the axle must be
structures, the following apply: (1) A vertical component of 2.25 times
(a) For the obstruction load, the the static load on the wheel; and
limit ground reaction obtained in the (2) A forward component of 0.4 times
tail down landing condition is assumed the vertical load.
to act up and aft through the axle at 45 (c) For side loads, the limit force
degrees. The shock absorber and tire components at ground contact must
may be assumed to be in their static be
positions. (1) A vertical component of 2.25 times
(b) For the side load, a limit vertical the static load on the wheel; and
ground reaction equal to the static (2) A side component of 0.7 times the
load on the tail wheel, in combination vertical load.
with a side component of equal mag- (d) For airplanes with a steerable
nitude, is assumed. In addition nose wheel that is controlled by hy-
(1) If a swivel is used, the tail wheel draulic or other power, at design take-
is assumed to be swiveled 90 degrees to off weight with the nose wheel in any
the airplane longitudinal axis with the steerable position, the application of
resultant ground load passing through 1.33 times the full steering torque com-
the axle; bined with a vertical reaction equal to
(2) If a lock, steering device, or shim- 1.33 times the maximum static reaction
my damper is used, the tail wheel is on the nose gear must be assumed.
also assumed to be in the trailing posi- However, if a torque limiting device is
tion with the side load acting at the installed, the steering torque can be re-
ground contact point; and duced to the maximum value allowed
(3) The shock absorber and tire are by that device.
assumed to be in their static positions. (e) For airplanes with a steerable
(c) If a tail wheel, bumper, or an en- nose wheel that has a direct mechan-
ergy absorption device is provided to ical connection to the rudder pedals,
show compliance with 23.925(b), the the mechanism must be designed to
following apply: withstand the steering torque for the

213

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23.505 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

maximum pilot forces specified in and their immediate attaching struc-


23.397(b). ture.
(a) The towing loads specified in
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9,
paragraph (d) of this section must be
1996] considered separately. These loads
must be applied at the towing fittings
23.505 Supplementary conditions for and must act parallel to the ground. In
skiplanes. addition:
In determining ground loads for ski- (1) A vertical load factor equal to 1.0
planes, and assuming that the airplane must be considered acting at the center
is resting on the ground with one main of gravity; and
ski frozen at rest and the other skis (2) The shock struts and tires must
free to slide, a limit side force equal to be in there static positions.
0.036 times the design maximum weight (b) For towing points not on the
must be applied near the tail assembly, landing gear but near the plane of sym-
with a factor of safety of 1. metry of the airplane, the drag and
side tow load components specified for
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13, 1969] the auxiliary gear apply. For towing
points located outboard of the main
23.507 Jacking loads. gear, the drag and side tow load compo-
(a) The airplane must be designed for nents specified for the main gear apply.
the loads developed when the aircraft Where the specified angle of swivel
is supported on jacks at the design cannot be reached, the maximum ob-
maximum weight assuming the fol- tainable angle must be used.
lowing load factors for landing gear (c) The towing loads specified in
jacking points at a three-point attitude paragraph (d) of this section must be
and for primary flight structure jack- reacted as follows:
ing points in the level attitude: (1) The side component of the towing
(1) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times load at the main gear must be reacted
the static reactions. by a side force at the static ground line
(2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of the wheel to which the load is ap-
of 0.4 times the vertical static reac- plied.
tions. (2) The towing loads at the auxiliary
(b) The horizontal loads at the jack gear and the drag components of the
points must be reacted by inertia towing loads at the main gear must be
forces so as to result in no change in reacted as follows:
the direction of the resultant loads at (i) A reaction with a maximum value
the jack points. equal to the vertical reaction must be
(c) The horizontal loads must be con- applied at the axle of the wheel to
sidered in all combinations with the which the load is applied. Enough air-
vertical load. plane inertia to achieve equilibrium
must be applied.
[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, 1973] (ii) The loads must be reacted by air-
plane inertia.
23.509 Towing loads. (d) The prescribed towing loads are as
The towing loads of this section must follows, where W is the design max-
be applied to the design of tow fittings imum weight:
Load
Tow point Position
Magnitude No. Direction

Main gear ............................... .......................................................... 0.225W 1 Forward, parallel to drag axis.


2 Forward, at 30 to drag axis.
3 Aft, parallel to drag axis.
4 Aft, at 30 to drag axis.

Auxiliary gear ......................... Swiveled forward ............................. 0.3W 5 Forward.


6 Aft.
Swiveled aft ..................................... 0.3W 7 Forward.
8 Aft.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.525

Load
Tow point Position
Magnitude No. Direction

Swiveled 45 from forward .............. 0.15W 9 Forward, in plane of wheel.


10 Aft, in plane of wheel.
Swiveled 45 from aft ...................... 0.15W 11 Forward, in plane of wheel.
12 Aft, in plane of wheel.

[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, 1973] (b) Unless the applicant makes a ra-
tional analysis of the water loads,
23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical 23.523 through 23.537 apply.
loads on multiple-wheel units.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
(a) Pivoting loads. The airplane is as-
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6,
sumed to pivot about on side of the 1993; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]
main gear with
(1) The brakes on the pivoting unit 23.523 Design weights and center of
locked; and gravity positions.
(2) Loads corresponding to a limit (a) Design weights. The water load re-
vertical load factor of 1, and coefficient quirements must be met at each oper-
of friction of 0.8 applied to the main ating weight up to the design landing
gear and its supporting structure. weight except that, for the takeoff con-
(b) Unequal tire loads. The loads es- dition prescribed in 23.531, the design
tablished under 23.471 through 23.483 water takeoff weight (the maximum
must be applied in turn, in a 60/40 per- weight for water taxi and takeoff run)
cent distribution, to the dual wheels must be used.
and tires in each dual wheel landing (b) Center of gravity positions. The
gear unit. critical centers of gravity within the
(c) Deflated tire loads. For the deflated limits for which certification is re-
tire condition quested must be considered to reach
(1) 60 percent of the loads established maximum design loads for each part of
under 23.471 through 23.483 must be the seaplane structure.
applied in turn to each wheel in a land-
ing gear unit; and [Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993]
(2) 60 percent of the limit drag and 23.525 Application of loads.
side loads, and 100 percent of the limit
vertical load established under 23.485 (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, the
and 23.493 or lesser vertical load ob- seaplane as a whole is assumed to be
tained under paragraph (c)(1) of this subjected to the loads corresponding to
section, must be applied in turn to the load factors specified in 23.527.
each wheel in the dual wheel landing (b) In applying the loads resulting
gear unit. from the load factors prescribed in
23.527, the loads may be distributed
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13, 1969] over the hull or main float bottom (in
order to avoid excessive local shear
WATER LOADS
loads and bending moments at the lo-
23.521 Water load conditions. cation of water load application) using
pressures not less than those pre-
(a) The structure of seaplanes and scribed in 23.533(c).
amphibians must be designed for water
(c) For twin float seaplanes, each
loads developed during takeoff and
float must be treated as an equivalent
landing with the seaplane in any atti-
hull on a fictitious seaplane with a
tude likely to occur in normal oper-
weight equal to one-half the weight of
ation at appropriate forward and sink-
the twin float seaplane.
ing velocities under the most severe
(d) Except in the takeoff condition of
sea conditions likely to be encoun-
23.531, the aerodynamic lift on the
tered.

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23.527 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

seaplane during the impact is assumed factor K1 may be reduced at the bow
to be 23 of the weight of the seaplane. and stern to 0.8 of the value shown in
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42161, Aug. 6, 1993; 58
figure 2 of appendix I of this part. This
FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993] reduction applies only to the design of
the carrythrough and seaplane struc-
23.527 Hull and main float load fac- ture.
tors. [Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42161, Aug. 6, 1993; 58
(a) Water reaction load factors nw FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993]
must be computed in the following
manner: 23.529 Hull and main float landing
(1) For the step landing case conditions.
(a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern
C1VSO 2 landing. For symmetrical step, bow,
nw = and stern landings, the limit water re-
Tan 23 W 13 action load factors are those computed
under 23.527. In addition
(2) For the bow and stern landing (1) For symmetrical step landings,
cases the resultant water load must be ap-
plied at the keel, through the center of
gravity, and must be directed per-
C1VSO 2 K1
nw = pendicularly to the keel line;
3
(1 + rx 2 )
2 1 2
(2) For symmetrical bow landings,
Tan W
3 3
the resultant water load must be ap-
plied at the keel, one-fifth of the longi-
(b) The following values are used: tudinal distance from the bow to the
(1) nw=water reaction load factor step, and must be directed perpendicu-
(that is, the water reaction divided by larly to the keel line; and
seaplane weight). (3) For symmetrical stern landings,
(2) C1=empirical seaplane operations the resultant water load must be ap-
factor equal to 0.012 (except that this plied at the keel, at a point 85 percent
factor may not be less than that nec- of the longitudinal distance from the
essary to obtain the minimum value of step to the stern post, and must be di-
step load factor of 2.33). rected perpendicularly to the keel line.
(3) VSO=seaplane stalling speed in (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and
knots with flaps extended in the appro- single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical
priate landing position and with no step, bow, and stern landing conditions
slipstream effect. must be investigated. In addition
(4) b=Angle of dead rise at the longi- (1) The loading for each condition
tudinal station at which the load fac- consists of an upward component and a
tor is being determined in accordance side component equal, respectively, to
with figure 1 of appendix I of this part. 0.75 and 0.25 tan b times the resultant
(5) W=seaplane landing weight in load in the corresponding symmetrical
pounds. landing condition; and
(6) K1=empirical hull station weigh- (2) The point of application and di-
ing factor, in accordance with figure 2 rection of the upward component of the
of appendix I of this part. load is the same as that in the sym-
(7) rx=ratio of distance, measured metrical condition, and the point of ap-
parallel to hull reference axis, from the plication of the side component is at
center of gravity of the seaplane to the the same longitudinal station as the
hull longitudinal station at which the upward component but is directed in-
load factor is being computed to the ra- ward perpendicularly to the plane of
dius of gyration in pitch of the sea- symmetry at a point midway between
plane, the hull reference axis being a the keel and chine lines.
straight line, in the plane of sym- (c) Unsymmetrical landing; twin float
metry, tangential to the keel at the seaplanes. The unsymmetrical loading
main step. consists of an upward load at the step
EC28SE91.005</MATH>

(c) For a twin float seaplane, because of each float of 0.75 and a side load of
of the effect of flexibility of the attach- 0.25 tan b at one float times the step
ment of the floats to the seaplane, the landing load reached under 23.527. The

216
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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.533

side load is directed inboard, per- Pk=pressure (p.s.i.) at the keel;


pendicularly to the plane of symmetry C2=0.00213;
midway between the keel and chine K2=hull station weighing factor, in accord-
ance with figure 2 of appendix I of this
lines of the float, at the same longitu- part;
dinal station as the upward load. VS1=seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the de-
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42161, Aug. 6, 1993] sign water takeoff weight with flaps ex-
tended in the appropriate takeoff position;
23.531 Hull and main float takeoff and
bK=angle of dead rise at keel, in accordance
condition.
with figure 1 of appendix I of this part.
For the wing and its attachment to
(2) For a flared bottom, the pressure
the hull or main float
at the beginning of the flare is the
(a) The aerodynamic wing lift is as-
same as that for an unflared bottom,
sumed to be zero; and
and the pressure between the chine and
(b) A downward inertia load, cor-
the beginning of the flare varies lin-
responding to a load factor computed
early, in accordance with figure 3 of ap-
from the following formula, must be pendix I of this part. The pressure dis-
applied: tribution is the same as that prescribed
in paragraph (b)(1) of this section for
C TO VS12
n= an unflared bottom except that the
Tan 23 W 13 pressure at the chine is computed as
follows:

Where C 3 K 2 VS12
n=inertia load factor; Pch =
CTO=empirical seaplane operations factor Tan
equal to 0.004; where
VS1=seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the de-
sign takeoff weight with the flaps extended Pch=pressure (p.s.i.) at the chine;
C3=0.0016;
in the appropriate takeoff position;
K2=hull station weighing factor, in accord-
b=angle of dead rise at the main step (de-
ance with figure 2 of appendix I of this
grees); and
part;
W=design water takeoff weight in pounds.
VS1=seaplane stalling speed (knots) at the de-
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42161, Aug. 6, 1993] sign water takeoff weight with flaps ex-
tended in the appropriate takeoff position;
23.533 Hull and main float bottom and
pressures. b=angle of dead rise at appropriate station.
(a) General. The hull and main float The area over which these pressures
structure, including frames and bulk- are applied must simulate pressures oc-
heads, stringers, and bottom plating, curring during high localized impacts
must be designed under this section. on the hull or float, but need not ex-
(b) Local pressures. For the design of tend over an area that would induce
the bottom plating and stringers and critical stresses in the frames or in the
their attachments to the supporting overall structure.
structure, the following pressure dis- (c) Distributed pressures. For the de-
tributions must be applied: sign of the frames, keel, and chine
(1) For an unflared bottom, the pres- structure, the following pressure dis- EC28SE91.009</MATH>

sure at the chine is 0.75 times the pres- tributions apply:


sure at the keel, and the pressures be- (1) Symmetrical pressures are com-
tween the keel and chine vary linearly, puted as follows:
in accordance with figure 3 of appendix
C 4 K 2 VSO 2
EC28SE91.008</MATH>

I of this part. The pressure at the keel


(p.s.i.) is computed as follows: P=
Tan
C 2 K 2 VS12 where

PK = P=pressure (p.s.i.);
C4=0.078 C1 (with C1 computed under 23.527);
Tan k
EC28SE91.007</MATH>

K2=hull station weighing factor, determined


in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of
where this part;

217
EC28SE91.006</MATH>

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23.535 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)
VS0=seaplane stalling speed (knots) with bs=angle of dead rise at a station 34 of the
landing flaps extended in the appropriate distance from the bow to the step, but need
position and with no slipstream effect; and not be less than 15 degrees; and
b=angle of dead rise at appropriate station. ry=ratio of the lateral distance between the
center of gravity and the plane of sym-
(2) The unsymmetrical pressure dis- metry of the float to the radius of gyration
tribution consists of the pressures pre- in roll.
scribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this sec-
(c) Bow loading. The resultant limit
tion on one side of the hull or main
load must be applied in the plane of
float centerline and one-half of that
symmetry of the float at a point one-
pressure on the other side of the hull or
fourth of the distance from the bow to
main float centerline, in accordance
the step and must be perpendicular to
with figure 3 of appendix I of this part.
the tangent to the keel line at that
(3) These pressures are uniform and point. The magnitude of the resultant
must be applied simultaneously over load is that specified in paragraph (b)
the entire hull or main float bottom. of this section.
The loads obtained must be carried
(d) Unsymmetrical step loading. The re-
into the sidewall structure of the hull
sultant water load consists of a compo-
proper, but need not be transmitted in
nent equal to 0.75 times the load speci-
a fore and aft direction as shear and
fied in paragraph (a) of this section and
bending loads.
a side component equal to 0.025 tan b
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42161, Aug. 6, 1993; 58 times the load specified in paragraph
FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993] (b) of this section. The side load must
be applied perpendicularly to the plane
23.535 Auxiliary float loads. of symmetry of the float at a point
(a) General. Auxiliary floats and their midway between the keel and the
attachments and supporting structures chine.
must be designed for the conditions (e) Unsymmetrical bow loading. The re-
prescribed in this section. In the cases sultant water load consists of a compo-
specified in paragraphs (b) through (e) nent equal to 0.75 times the load speci-
of this section, the prescribed water fied in paragraph (b) of this section and
loads may be distributed over the float a side component equal to 0.25 tan b
bottom to avoid excessive local loads, times the load specified in paragraph
using bottom pressures not less than (c) of this section. The side load must
those prescribed in paragraph (g) of be applied perpendicularly to the plane
this section. of symmetry at a point midway be-
(b) Step loading. The resultant water tween the keel and the chine.
load must be applied in the plane of (f) Immersed float condition. The re-
symmetry of the float at a point three- sultant load must be applied at the
fourths of the distance from the bow to centroid of the cross section of the
the step and must be perpendicular to float at a point one-third of the dis-
the keel. The resultant limit load is tance from the bow to the step. The
computed as follows, except that the limit load components are as follows:
value of L need not exceed three times
the weight of the displaced water when vertical = PgV
the float is completely submerged: 2
2
2 C X PV 3 (KVSO )
C 5 VSO W 2 3 aft =
L= 2 2
( )
2
Tan S 1 + ry
3 2 3
2
3 2
C Y PV (KVSO )
where side =
L=limit load (lbs.); 2
C5=0.0053; where
VS0=seaplane stalling speed (knots) with P=mass density of water (slugs/ft.3)
EC28SE91.011</MATH>

landing flaps extended in the appropriate V=volume of float (ft.3);


position and with no slipstream effect; CX=coefficient of drag force, equal to 0.133;
W=seaplane design landing weight in pounds; Cy=coefficient of side force, equal to 0.106;

218
EC28SE91.010</MATH>

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.561
K=0.8, except that lower values may be used (c) Each airplane with retractable
if it is shown that the floats are incapable landing gear must be designed to pro-
of submerging at a speed of 0.8 Vso in nor-
tect each occupant in a landing
mal operations;
Vso=seaplane stalling speed (knots) with (1) With the wheels retracted;
landing flaps extended in the appropriate (2) With moderate descent velocity;
position and with no slipstream effect; and and
g=acceleration due to gravity (ft/sec2). (3) Assuming, in the absence of a
(g) Float bottom pressures. The float more rational analysis
bottom pressures must be established (i) A downward ultimate inertia force
under 23.533, except that the value of of 3 g; and
K2 in the formulae may be taken as 1.0. (ii) A coefficient of friction of 0.5 at
The angle of dead rise to be used in de- the ground.
termining the float bottom pressures is (d) If it is not established that a
set forth in paragraph (b) of this sec- turnover is unlikely during an emer-
tion. gency landing, the structure must be
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42162, Aug. 6, 1993; 58 designed to protect the occupants in a
FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993] complete turnover as follows:
(1) The likelihood of a turnover may
23.537 Seawing loads.
be shown by an analysis assuming the
Seawing design loads must be based following conditions
on applicable test data. (i) The most adverse combination of
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42163, Aug. 6, 1993] weight and center of gravity position;
(ii) Longitudinal load factor of 9.0g;
EMERGENCY LANDING CONDITIONS (iii) Vertical load factor of 1.0g; and
23.561 General. (iv) For airplanes with tricycle land-
ing gear, the nose wheel strut failed
(a) The airplane, although it may be
with the nose contacting the ground.
damaged in emergency landing condi-
tions, must be designed as prescribed in (i) Maximum weight;
this section to protect each occupant (ii) Most forward center of gravity
under those conditions. position;
(b) The structure must be designed to (iii) Longitudinal load factor of 9.0g;
give each occupant every reasonable (iv) Vertical load factor of 1.0g; and
chance of escaping serious injury (v) For airplanes with tricycle land-
when ing gear, the nose wheel strut failed
(1) Proper use is made of the seats, with the nose contacting the ground.
safety belts, and shoulder harnesses (2) For determining the loads to be
provided for in the design; applied to the inverted airplane after a
(2) The occupant experiences the turnover, an upward ultimate inertia
static inertia loads corresponding to load factor of 3.0g and a coefficient of
the following ultimate load factors friction with the ground of 0.5 must be
(i) Upward, 3.0g for normal, utility, used.
and commuter category airplanes, or
(e) Except as provided in 23.787(c),
4.5g for acrobatic category airplanes;
(ii) Forward, 9.0g; the supporting structure must be de-
(iii) Sideward, 1.5g; and signed to restrain, under loads up to
(iv) Downward, 6.0g when certifi- those specified in paragraph (b)(3) of
cation to the emergency exit provi- this section, each item of mass that
sions of 23.807(d)(4) is requested; and could injure an occupant if it came
(3) The items of mass within the loose in a minor crash landing.
cabin, that could injure an occupant, [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
experience the static inertia loads cor- amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13,
responding to the following ultimate 1969; Amdt. 2324, 52 FR 34745, Sept. 14, 1987;
load factors Amdt. 2336, 53 FR 30812, Aug. 15, 1988; Amdt.
(i) Upward, 3.0g; 2346, 59 FR 25772, May 17, 1994; Amdt. 2348,
(ii) Forward, 18.0g; and 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]
(iii) Sideward, 4.5g.

219

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23.562 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

23.562 Emergency landing dynamic tion must occur in not more than 0.05
conditions. seconds after impact and must reach a
(a) Each seat/restraint system for use minimum of 26g. For all other seat/re-
in a normal, utility, or acrobatic cat- straint systems, peak deceleration
egory airplane must be designed to pro- must occur in not more than 0.06 sec-
tect each occupant during an emer- onds after impact and must reach a
gency landing when minimum of 21g.
(1) Proper use is made of seats, safety (3) To account for floor warpage, the
belts, and shoulder harnesses provided floor rails or attachment devices used
for in the design; and to attach the seat/restraint system to
(2) The occupant is exposed to the the airframe structure must be pre-
loads resulting from the conditions loaded to misalign with respect to each
prescribed in this section. other by at least 10 degrees vertically
(b) Except for those seat/restraint (i.e., pitch out of parallel) and one of
systems that are required to meet the rails or attachment devices must
paragraph (d) of this section, each seat/ be preloaded to misalign by 10 degrees
restraint system for crew or passenger in roll prior to conducting the test de-
occupancy in a normal, utility, or acro- fined by paragraph (b)(2) of this sec-
batic category airplane, must success- tion.
fully complete dynamic tests or be (c) Compliance with the following re-
demonstrated by rational analysis sup- quirements must be shown during the
ported by dynamic tests, in accordance dynamic tests conducted in accordance
with each of the following conditions. with paragraph (b) of this section:
These tests must be conducted with an (1) The seat/restraint system must
occupant simulated by an restrain the ATD although seat/re-
anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) straint system components may experi-
defined by 49 CFR Part 572, Subpart B, ence deformation, elongation, displace-
or an FAA-approved equivalent, with a ment, or crushing intended as part of
nominal weight of 170 pounds and seat- the design.
ed in the normal upright position. (2) The attachment between the seat/
(1) For the first test, the change in restraint system and the test fixture
velocity may not be less than 31 feet must remain intact, although the seat
per second. The seat/restraint system structure may have deformed.
must be oriented in its nominal posi- (3) Each shoulder harness strap must
tion with respect to the airplane and remain on the ATDs shoulder during
with the horizontal plane of the air- the impact.
(4) The safety belt must remain on
plane pitched up 60 degrees, with no
the ATDs pelvis during the impact.
yaw, relative to the impact vector. For
(5) The results of the dynamic tests
seat/restraint systems to be installed
must show that the occupant is pro-
in the first row of the airplane, peak
tected from serious head injury.
deceleration must occur in not more
(i) When contact with adjacent seats,
than 0.05 seconds after impact and
structure, or other items in the cabin
must reach a minimum of 19g. For all
can occur, protection must be provided
other seat/restraint systems, peak de-
so that the head impact does not ex-
celeration must occur in not more than
ceed a head injury criteria (HIC) of
0.06 seconds after impact and must
1,000.
reach a minimum of 15g.
(ii) The value of HIC is defined as
(2) For the second test, the change in
velocity may not be less than 42 feet
per second. The seat/restraint system t2
2.5

HIC = ( t 2 t 1 )
1
must be oriented in its nominal posi-
a(t)dt
( 2 1 ) t1
t t
Max
tion with respect to the airplane and
with the vertical plane of the airplane
yawed 10 degrees, with no pitch, rel- Where:
ative to the impact vector in a direc- t1 is the initial integration time, expressed
tion that results in the greatest load in seconds, t2 is the final integration time,
on the shoulder harness. For seat/re- expressed in seconds, (t2 t1) is the time
straint systems to be installed in the duration of the major head impact, ex-
first row of the airplane, peak decelera- pressed in seconds, and a(t) is the resultant

220
EC28SE91.012</MATH>

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.572
deceleration at the center of gravity of the where
head form expressed as a multiple of g gp=The peak deceleration calculated in ac-
(units of gravity). cordance with paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this
(iii) Compliance with the HIC limit section
tr=The rise time (in seconds) to the peak de-
must be demonstrated by measuring
celeration.
the head impact during dynamic test-
ing as prescribed in paragraphs (b)(1) (e) An alternate approach that
and (b)(2) of this section or by a sepa- achieves an equivalent, or greater,
rate showing of compliance with the level of occupant protection to that re-
head injury criteria using test or anal- quired by this section may be used if
ysis procedures. substantiated on a rational basis.
(6) Loads in individual shoulder har- [Amdt. 2336, 53 FR 30812, Aug. 15, 1988, as
ness straps may not exceed 1,750 amended by Amdt. 2344, 58 FR 38639, July 19,
pounds. If dual straps are used for re- 1993; Amdt. 2350, 61 FR 5192, Feb. 9, 1996]
taining the upper torso, the total strap
loads may not exceed 2,000 pounds. FATIGUE EVALUATION
(7) The compression load measured
between the pelvis and the lumbar 23.571 Metallic pressurized cabin
spine of the ATD may not exceed 1,500 structures.
pounds. For normal, utility, and acrobatic
(d) For all single-engine airplanes category airplanes, the strength, detail
with a VSO of more than 61 knots at design, and fabrication of the metallic
maximum weight, and those multien- structure of the pressure cabin must be
gine airplanes of 6,000 pounds or less evaluated under one of the following:
maximum weight with a VSO of more (a) A fatigue strength investigation
than 61 knots at maximum weight that in which the structure is shown by
do not comply with 23.67(a)(1); tests, or by analysis supported by test
(1) The ultimate load factors of evidence, to be able to withstand the
23.561(b) must be increased by multi- repeated loads of variable magnitude
plying the load factors by the square of expected in service; or
the ratio of the increased stall speed to (b) A fail safe strength investigation,
61 knots. The increased ultimate load in which it is shown by analysis, tests,
factors need not exceed the values or both that catastrophic failure of the
reached at a VS0 of 79 knots. The up- structure is not probable after fatigue
ward ultimate load factor for acrobatic failure, or obvious partial failure, of a
category airplanes need not exceed principal structural element, and that
5.0g. the remaining structures are able to
(2) The seat/restraint system test re- withstand a static ultimate load factor
quired by paragraph (b)(1) of this sec- of 75 percent of the limit load factor at
tion must be conducted in accordance VC, considering the combined effects of
with the following criteria: normal operating pressures, expected
(i) The change in velocity may not be external aerodynamic pressures, and
less than 31 feet per second. flight loads. These loads must be mul-
(ii)(A) The peak deceleration (gp) of tiplied by a factor of 1.15 unless the dy-
19g and 15g must be increased and mul- namic effects of failure under static
tiplied by the square of the ratio of the load are otherwise considered.
increased stall speed to 61 knots: (c) The damage tolerance evaluation
gp=19.0 (VS0/61)2 or gp=15.0 (VS0/61)2 of 23.573(b).
(B) The peak deceleration need not [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
exceed the value reached at a VS0 of 79 amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19,
knots. 1973; Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42163, Aug. 6, 1993;
Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]
(iii) The peak deceleration must
occur in not more than time (tr), which 23.572 Metallic wing, empennage,
must be computed as follows: and associated structures.
31 .96 (a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic
tr = =
( )
category airplanes, the strength, detail
32.2 g p gp design, and fabrication of those parts
of the airframe structure whose failure

221
EC28SE91.013</MATH>

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23.573 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

would be catastrophic must be evalu- moveable control surfaces and their at-
ated under one of the following unless taching structure fuselage, and pres-
it is shown that the structure, oper- sure cabin using the damage-tolerance
ating stress level, materials and ex- criteria prescribed in paragraphs (a)(1)
pected uses are comparable, from a fa- through (a)(4) of this section unless
tigue standpoint, to a similar design shown to be impractical. If the appli-
that has had extensive satisfactory cant establishes that damage-tolerance
service experience: criteria is impractical for a particular
(1) A fatigue strength investigation structure, the structure must be evalu-
in which the structure is shown by ated in accordance with paragraphs
tests, or by analysis supported by test (a)(1) and (a)(6) of this section. Where
evidence, to be able to withstand the bonded joints are used, the structure
repeated loads of variable magnitude must also be evaluated in accordance
expected in service; or with paragraph (a)(5) of this section.
(2) A fail-safe strength investigation
The effects of material variability and
in which it is shown by analysis, tests,
environmental conditions on the
or both, that catastrophic failure of
strength and durability properties of
the structure is not probable after fa-
the composite materials must be ac-
tigue failure, or obvious partial failure,
of a principal structural element, and counted for in the evaluations required
that the remaining structure is able to by this section.
withstand a static ultimate load factor (1) It must be demonstrated by tests,
of 75 percent of the critical limit load or by analysis supported by tests, that
factor at Vc. These loads must be mul- the structure is capable of carrying ul-
tiplied by a factor of 1.15 unless the dy- timate load with damage up to the
namic effects of failure under static threshold of detectability considering
load are otherwise considered. the inspection procedures employed.
(3) The damage tolerance evaluation (2) The growth rate or no-growth of
of 23.573(b). damage that may occur from fatigue,
(b) Each evaluation required by this corrosion, manufacturing flaws or im-
section must pact damage, under repeated loads ex-
(1) Include typical loading spectra pected in service, must be established
(e.g. taxi, ground-air-ground cycles, by tests or analysis supported by tests.
maneuver, gust); (3) The structure must be shown by
(2) Account for any significant effects residual strength tests, or analysis sup-
due to the mutual influence of aero- ported by residual strength tests, to be
dynamic surfaces; and able to withstand critical limit flight
(3) Consider any significant effects loads, considered as ultimate loads,
from propeller slipstream loading, and with the extent of detectable damage
buffet from vortex impingements. consistent with the results of the dam-
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13090, Aug. 13, 1969, as age tolerance evaluations. For pressur-
amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, ized cabins, the following loads must be
1973; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1830, Jan. 15, 1987; withstood:
Amdt. 2338, 54 FR 39511, Sept. 26, 1989; Amdt. (i) Critical limit flight loads with the
2345, 58 FR 42163, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt. 2348, 61
FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]
combined effects of normal operating
pressure and expected external aero-
23.573 Damage tolerance and fatigue dynamic pressures.
evaluation of structure. (ii) The expected external aero-
(a) Composite airframe structure. Com- dynamic pressures in 1g flight com-
posite airframe structure must be eval- bined with a cabin differential pressure
uated under this paragraph instead of equal to 1.1 times the normal operating
23.571 and 23.572. The applicant must differential pressure without any other
evaluate the composite airframe struc- load.
ture, the failure of which would result (4) The damage growth, between ini-
in catastrophic loss of the airplane, in tial detectability and the value se-
each wing (including canards, tandem lected for residual strength demonstra-
wings, and winglets), empennage, their tions, factored to obtain inspection in-
carrythrough and attaching structure, tervals, must allow development of an

222

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.574

inspection program suitable for appli- ability and subsequent growth under
cation by operation and maintenance repeated loads. The residual strength
personnel. evaluation must show that the remain-
(5) For any bonded joint, the failure ing structure is able to withstand crit-
of which would result in catastrophic ical limit flight loads, considered as ul-
loss of the airplane, the limit load ca- timate, with the extent of detectable
pacity must be substantiated by one of damage consistent with the results of
the following methods the damage tolerance evaluations. For
(i) The maximum disbonds of each pressurized cabins, the following load
bonded joint consistent with the capa- must be withstood:
bility to withstand the loads in para-
(1) The normal operating differential
graph (a)(3) of this section must be de-
pressure combined with the expected
termined by analysis, tests, or both.
Disbonds of each bonded joint greater external aerodynamic pressures applied
than this must be prevented by design simultaneously with the flight loading
features; or conditions specified in this part, and
(ii) Proof testing must be conducted (2) The expected external aero-
on each production article that will dynamic pressures in 1g flight com-
apply the critical limit design load to bined with a cabin differential pressure
each critical bonded joint; or equal to 1.1 times the normal operating
(iii) Repeatable and reliable non-de- differential pressure without any other
structive inspection techniques must load.
be established that ensure the strength
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42163, Aug. 6, 1993; 58
of each joint. FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993, as amended by Amdt.
(6) Structural components for which 2348, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]
the damage tolerance method is shown
to be impractical must be shown by 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and
component fatigue tests, or analysis fatigue evaluation of commuter cat-
supported by tests, to be able to with- egory airplanes.
stand the repeated loads of variable
For commuter category airplanes
magnitude expected in service. Suffi-
cient component, subcomponent, ele- (a) Metallic damage tolerance. An eval-
ment, or coupon tests must be done to uation of the strength, detail design,
establish the fatigue scatter factor and and fabrication must show that cata-
the environmental effects. Damage up strophic failure due to fatigue, corro-
to the threshold of detectability and sion, defects, or damage will be avoided
ultimate load residual strength capa- throughout the operational life of the
bility must be considered in the dem- airplane. This evaluation must be con-
onstration. ducted in accordance with the provi-
(b) Metallic airframe structure. If the sions of 23.573, except as specified in
applicant elects to use 23.571(a)(3) or paragraph (b) of this section, for each
23.572(a)(3), then the damage tolerance part of the structure that could con-
evaluation must include a determina- tribute to a catastrophic failure.
tion of the probable locations and (b) Fatigue (safe-life) evaluation. Com-
modes of damage due to fatigue, corro- pliance with the damage tolerance re-
sion, or accidental damage. The deter- quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
mination must be by analysis sup- tion is not required if the applicant es-
ported by test evidence and, if avail- tablishes that the application of those
able, service experience. Damage at requirements is impractical for a par-
multiple sites due to fatigue must be
ticular structure. This structure must
included where the design is such that
be shown, by analysis supported by test
this type of damage can be expected to
evidence, to be able to withstand the
occur. The evaluation must incor-
porate repeated load and static anal- repeated loads of variable magnitude
yses supported by test evidence. The expected during its service life without
extent of damage for residual strength detectable cracks. Appropriate safe-life
evaluation at any time within the scatter factors must be applied.
operational life of the airplane must be [Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996]
consistent with the initial detect-

223

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23.575 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

23.575 Inspections and other proce- 23.607 Fasteners.


dures.
(a) Each removable fastener must in-
Each inspection or other procedure, corporate two retaining devices if the
based on an evaluation required by loss of such fastener would preclude
23.571, 23.572, 23.573 or 23.574, must be continued safe flight and landing.
established to prevent catastrophic (b) Fasteners and their locking de-
failure and must be included in the vices must not be adversely affected by
Limitations Section of the Instructions the environmental conditions associ-
for Continued Airworthiness required ated with the particular installation.
by 23.1529. (c) No self-locking nut may be used
[Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] on any bolt subject to rotation in oper-
ation unless a non-friction locking de-
vice is used in addition to the self-lock-
Subpart DDesign and ing device.
Construction
[Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996]
23.601 General.
23.609 Protection of structure.
The suitability of each questionable
design detail and part having an impor- Each part of the structure must
tant bearing on safety in operations, (a) Be suitably protected against de-
must be established by tests. terioration or loss of strength in serv-
ice due to any cause, including
23.603 Materials and workmanship. (1) Weathering;
(a) The suitability and durability of (2) Corrosion; and
materials used for parts, the failure of (3) Abrasion; and
which could adversely affect safety, (b) Have adequate provisions for ven-
must tilation and drainage.
(1) Be established by experience or
tests; 23.611 Accessibility provisions.
(2) Meet approved specifications that For each part that requires mainte-
ensure their having the strength and nance, inspection, or other servicing,
other properties assumed in the design appropriate means must be incor-
data; and porated into the aircraft design to
(3) Take into account the effects of allow such servicing to be accom-
environmental conditions, such as tem- plished.
perature and humidity, expected in
[Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996]
service.
(b) Workmanship must be of a high 23.613 Material strength properties
standard. and design values.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (a) Material strength properties must
amended by Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, be based on enough tests of material
1976; Amdt. 2323, 43 FR 50592, Oct. 10, 1978] meeting specifications to establish de-
sign values on a statistical basis.
23.605 Fabrication methods.
(b) Design values must be chosen to
(a) The methods of fabrication used minimize the probability of structural
must produce consistently sound struc- failure due to material variability. Ex-
tures. If a fabrication process (such as cept as provided in paragraph (e) of
gluing, spot welding, or heat-treating) this section, compliance with this
requires close control to reach this ob- paragraph must be shown by selecting
jective, the process must be performed design values that ensure material
under an approved process specifica- strength with the following prob-
tion. ability:
(b) Each new aircraft fabrication (1) Where applied loads are eventu-
method must be substantiated by a ally distributed through a single mem-
test program. ber within an assembly, the failure of
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 which would result in loss of structural
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23 integrity of the component; 99 percent
23, 43 FR 50592, Oct. 10, 1978] probability with 95 percent confidence.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.621

(2) For redundant structure, in which fluid systems and do not support struc-
the failure of individual elements tural loads.
would result in applied loads being (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The
safely distributed to other load car- casting factors specified in paragraphs
rying members; 90 percent probability (c) and (d) of this section
with 95 percent confidence. (1) Need not exceed 1.25 with respect
(c) The effects of temperature on al- to bearing stresses regardless of the
lowable stresses used for design in an method of inspection used; and
essential component or structure must (2) Need not be used with respect to
be considered where thermal effects are the bearing surfaces of a part whose
significant under normal operating bearing factor is larger than the appli-
conditions. cable casting factor.
(d) The design of the structure must (c) Critical castings. For each casting
minimize the probability of cata- whose failure would preclude continued
strophic fatigue failure, particularly at safe flight and landing of the airplane
points of stress concentration. or result in serious injury to occu-
(e) Design values greater than the pants, the following apply:
guaranteed minimums required by this (1) Each critical casting must ei-
section may be used where only guar- ther
anteed minimum values are normally (i) Have a casting factor of not less
allowed if a premium selection of than 1.25 and receive 100 percent in-
the material is made in which a speci- spection by visual, radiographic, and
men of each individual item is tested either magnetic particle, penetrant or
before use to determine that the actual other approved equivalent non-destruc-
strength properties of that particular tive inspection method; or
item will equal or exceed those used in (ii) Have a casting factor of not less
design. than 2.0 and receive 100 percent visual
inspection and 100 percent approved
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
non-destructive inspection. When an
23, 43 FR 50592, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 2345, 58 approved quality control procedure is
FR 42163, Aug. 6, 1993] established and an acceptable statis-
tical analysis supports reduction, non-
23.619 Special factors. destructive inspection may be reduced
The factor of safety prescribed in from 100 percent, and applied on a sam-
23.303 must be multiplied by the high- pling basis.
est pertinent special factors of safety (2) For each critical casting with a
prescribed in 23.621 through 23.625 for casting factor less than 1.50, three sam-
each part of the structure whose ple castings must be static tested and
strength is shown to meet
(a) Uncertain; (i) The strength requirements of
(b) Likely to deteriorate in service 23.305 at an ultimate load cor-
before normal replacement; or responding to a casting factor of 1.25;
(c) Subject to appreciable variability and
because of uncertainties in manufac- (ii) The deformation requirements of
turing processes or inspection methods. 23.305 at a load of 1.15 times the limit
load.
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13, 1969] (3) Examples of these castings are
structural attachment fittings, parts of
23.621 Casting factors. flight control systems, control surface
(a) General. The factors, tests, and in- hinges and balance weight attach-
spections specified in paragraphs (b) ments, seat, berth, safety belt, and fuel
through (d) of this section must be ap- and oil tank supports and attachments,
plied in addition to those necessary to and cabin pressure valves.
establish foundry quality control. The (d) Non-critical castings. For each
inspections must meet approved speci- casting other than those specified in
fications. Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this paragraph (c) or (e) of this section, the
section apply to any structural cast- following apply:
ings except castings that are pressure (1) Except as provided in paragraphs
tested as parts of hydraulic or other (d)(2) and (3) of this section, the casting

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23.623 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

factors and corresponding inspections (a) For each fitting whose strength is
must meet the following table: not proven by limit and ultimate load
tests in which actual stress conditions
Casting factor Inspection
are simulated in the fitting and sur-
2.0 or more .................... 100 percent visual. rounding structures, a fitting factor of
Less than 2.0 but more 100 percent visual, and magnetic at least 1.15 must be applied to each
than 1.5. particle or penetrant or equiva-
lent nondestructive inspection
part of
methods. (1) The fitting;
1.25 through 1.50 .......... 100 percent visual, magnetic par- (2) The means of attachment; and
ticle or penetrant, and radio-
graphic, or approved equivalent
(3) The bearing on the joined mem-
nondestructive inspection meth- bers.
ods. (b) No fitting factor need be used for
joint designs based on comprehensive
(2) The percentage of castings in- test data (such as continuous joints in
spected by nonvisual methods may be metal plating, welded joints, and scarf
reduced below that specified in sub- joints in wood).
paragraph (d)(1) of this section when an (c) For each integral fitting, the part
approved quality control procedure is must be treated as a fitting up to the
established. point at which the section properties
(3) For castings procured to a speci- become typical of the member.
fication that guarantees the mechan- (d) For each seat, berth, safety belt,
ical properties of the material in the and harness, its attachment to the
casting and provides for demonstration structure must be shown, by analysis,
of these properties by test of coupons tests, or both, to be able to withstand
cut from the castings on a sampling the inertia forces prescribed in 23.561
basis multiplied by a fitting factor of 1.33.
(i) A casting factor of 1.0 may be
used; and [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13,
(ii) The castings must be inspected as
1969]
provided in paragraph (d)(1) of this sec-
tion for casting factors of 1.25 through 23.627 Fatigue strength.
1.50 and tested under paragraph (c)(2)
of this section. The structure must be designed, as
(e) Non-structural castings. Castings far as practicable, to avoid points of
used for non-structural purposes do not stress concentration where variable
require evaluation, testing or close in- stresses above the fatigue limit are
spection. likely to occur in normal service.

[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as 23.629 Flutter.


amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42164, Aug. 6,
1993]
(a) It must be shown by the methods
of paragraph (b) and either paragraph
23.623 Bearing factors. (c) or (d) of this section, that the air-
plane is free from flutter, control re-
(a) Each part that has clearance (free
versal, and divergence for any condi-
fit), and that is subject to pounding or
tion of operation within the limit V-n
vibration, must have a bearing factor
envelope and at all speeds up to the
large enough to provide for the effects
speed specified for the selected method.
of normal relative motion.
In addition
(b) For control surface hinges and
(1) Adequate tolerances must be es-
control system joints, compliance with
tablished for quantities which affect
the factors prescribed in 23.657 and
flutter, including speed, damping, mass
23.693, respectively, meets paragraph
balance, and control system stiffness;
(a) of this section.
and
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13, 1969] (2) The natural frequencies of main
structural components must be deter-
23.625 Fitting factors. mined by vibration tests or other ap-
For each fitting (a part or terminal proved methods.
used to join one structural member to (b) Flight flutter tests must be made
another), the following apply: to show that the airplane is free from

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.641

flutter, control reversal and divergence damping variations appropriate to the


and to show that particular configuration.
(1) Proper and adequate attempts to (f) Freedom from flutter, control re-
induce flutter have been made within versal, and divergence up to VD/MD
the speed range up to VD; must be shown as follows:
(2) The vibratory response of the (1) For airplanes that meet the cri-
structure during the test indicates teria of paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(3)
freedom from flutter; of this section, after the failure, mal-
(3) A proper margin of damping exists function, or disconnection of any single
at VD; and element in any tab control system.
(4) There is no large and rapid reduc- (2) For airplanes other than those de-
tion in damping as VD is approached. scribed in paragraph (f)(1) of this sec-
(c) Any rational analysis used to pre- tion, after the failure, malfunction, or
dict freedom from flutter, control re- disconnection of any single element in
versal and divergence must cover all the primary flight control system, any
speeds up to 1.2 VD. tab control system, or any flutter
(d) Compliance with the rigidity and damper.
mass balance criteria (pages 412), in (g) For airplanes showing compliance
Airframe and Equipment Engineering with the fail-safe criteria of 23.571
Report No. 45 (as corrected) Sim- and 23.572, the airplane must be shown
plified Flutter Prevention Criteria
by analysis to be free from flutter up
(published by the Federal Aviation Ad-
to VD/MD after fatigue failure, or obvi-
ministration) may be accomplished to
ous partial failure, of a principal struc-
show that the airplane is free from
tural element.
flutter, control reversal, or divergence
if (h) For airplanes showing compliance
(1) VD/MD for the airplane is less than with the damage tolerance criteria of
260 knots (EAS) and less than Mach 0.5, 23.573, the airplane must be shown by
(2) The wing and aileron flutter pre- analysis to be free from flutter up to
vention criteria, as represented by the VD/MD with the extent of damage for
wing torsional stiffness and aileron which residual strength is dem-
balance criteria, are limited in use to onstrated.
airplanes without large mass con- (i) For modifications to the type de-
centrations (such as engines, floats, or sign that could affect the flutter char-
fuel tanks in outer wing panels) along acteristics, compliance with paragraph
the wing span, and (a) of this section must be shown, ex-
(3) The airplane cept that analysis based on previously
(i) Does not have a T-tail or other un- approved data may be used alone to
conventional tail configurations; show freedom from flutter, control re-
(ii) Does not have unusual mass dis- versal and divergence, for all speeds up
tributions or other unconventional de- to the speed specified for the selected
sign features that affect the applica- method.
bility of the criteria, and [Amdt. 2323, 43 FR 50592, Oct. 30, 1978, as
(iii) Has fixed-fin and fixed-stabilizer amended by Amdt. 2331, 49 FR 46867, Nov. 28,
surfaces. 1984; Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42164, Aug. 6, 1993; 58
(e) For turbopropeller-powered air- FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5148,
planes, the dynamic evaluation must Feb. 9, 1996]
include
(1) Whirl mode degree of freedom WINGS
which takes into account the stability
of the plane of rotation of the propeller 23.641 Proof of strength.
and significant elastic, inertial, and The strength of stressed-skin wings
aerodynamic forces, and must be proven by load tests or by
(2) Propeller, engine, engine mount, combined structural analysis and load
and airplane structure stiffness and tests.

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23.651 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

CONTROL SURFACES (b) Controls must be arranged and


identified to provide for convenience in
23.651 Proof of strength. operation and to prevent the possi-
(a) Limit load tests of control sur- bility of confusion and subsequent in-
faces are required. These tests must in- advertent operation.
clude the horn or fitting to which the
control system is attached. 23.672 Stability augmentation and
(b) In structural analyses, rigging automatic and power-operated sys-
loads due to wire bracing must be ac- tems.
counted for in a rational or conserv- If the functioning of stability aug-
ative manner. mentation or other automatic or
23.655 Installation. power-operated systems is necessary to
show compliance with the flight char-
(a) Movable surfaces must be in- acteristics requirements of this part,
stalled so that there is no interference such systems must comply with 23.671
between any surfaces, their bracing, or
and the following:
adjacent fixed structure, when one sur-
face is held in its most critical clear- (a) A warning, which is clearly dis-
ance positions and the others are oper- tinguishable to the pilot under ex-
ated through their full movement. pected flight conditions without re-
(b) If an adjustable stabilizer is used, quiring the pilots attention, must be
it must have stops that will limit its provided for any failure in the stability
range of travel to that allowing safe augmentation system or in any other
flight and landing. automatic or power-operated system
that could result in an unsafe condi-
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42164, Aug. 6,
tion if the pilot was not aware of the
1993] failure. Warning systems must not ac-
tivate the control system.
23.657 Hinges. (b) The design of the stability aug-
(a) Control surface hinges, except mentation system or of any other auto-
ball and roller bearing hinges, must matic or power-operated system must
have a factor of safety of not less than permit initial counteraction of failures
6.67 with respect to the ultimate bear- without requiring exceptional pilot
ing strength of the softest material skill or strength, by either the deacti-
used as a bearing. vation of the system or a failed portion
(b) For ball or roller bearing hinges, thereof, or by overriding the failure by
the approved rating of the bearing may movement of the flight controls in the
not be exceeded. normal sense.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (c) It must be shown that, after any
amended by Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, single failure of the stability aug-
1996] mentation system or any other auto-
matic or power-operated system
23.659 Mass balance.
(1) The airplane is safely controllable
The supporting structure and the at- when the failure or malfunction occurs
tachment of concentrated mass bal- at any speed or altitude within the ap-
ance weights used on control surfaces proved operating limitations that is
must be designed for critical for the type of failure being
(a) 24 g normal to the plane of the considered;
control surface;
(2) The controllability and maneuver-
(b) 12 g fore and aft; and
(c) 12 g parallel to the hinge line. ability requirements of this part are
met within a practical operational
CONTROL SYSTEMS flight envelope (for example, speed, al-
titude, normal acceleration, and air-
23.671 General. plane configuration) that is described
(a) Each control must operate easily, in the Airplane Flight Manual (AFM);
smoothly, and positively enough to and
allow proper performance of its func- (3) The trim, stability, and stall char-
tions. acteristics are not impaired below a

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.681

level needed to permit continued safe (2) For multiengine airplanes, the
flight and landing. longitudinal and directional trimming
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42164, Aug. 6, 1993]
devices.
(c) Tab controls must be irreversible
23.673 Primary flight controls. unless the tab is properly balanced and
Primary flight controls are those has no unsafe flutter characteristics.
used by the pilot for the immediate Irreversible tab systems must have
control of pitch, roll, and yaw. adequate rigidity and reliability in the
portion of the system from the tab to
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as the attachment of the irreversible unit
amended by Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9,
to the airplane structure.
1996]
(d) It must be demonstrated that the
23.675 Stops. airplane is safely controllable and that
(a) Each control system must have the pilot can perform all maneuvers
stops that positively limit the range of and operations necessary to effect a
motion of each movable aerodynamic safe landing following any probable
surface controlled by the system. powered trim system runaway that
(b) Each stop must be located so that reasonably might be expected in serv-
wear, slackness, or takeup adjustments ice, allowing for appropriate time
will not adversely affect the control delay after pilot recognition of the
characteristics of the airplane because trim system runaway. The demonstra-
of a change in the range of surface tion must be conducted at critical air-
travel. plane weights and center of gravity po-
(c) Each stop must be able to with- sitions.
stand any loads corresponding to the [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
design conditions for the control sys- amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13,
tem. 1969; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1830, Jan. 15, 1987;
Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991; Amdt. 23
[Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, 1976] 49, 61 FR 5165, Feb. 9, 1996]
23.677 Trim systems.
23.679 Control system locks.
(a) Proper precautions must be taken
to prevent inadvertent, improper, or If there is a device to lock the con-
abrupt trim tab operation. There must trol system on the ground or water:
be means near the trim control to indi- (a) There must be a means to
cate to the pilot the direction of trim (1) Give unmistakable warning to the
control movement relative to airplane pilot when lock is engaged; or
motion. In addition, there must be (2) Automatically disengage the de-
means to indicate to the pilot the posi- vice when the pilot operates the pri-
tion of the trim device with respect to mary flight controls in a normal man-
both the range of adjustment and, in ner.
the case of lateral and directional (b) The device must be installed to
trim, the neutral position. This means limit the operation of the airplane so
must be visible to the pilot and must that, when the device is engaged, the
be located and designed to prevent con- pilot receives unmistakable warning at
fusion. The pitch trim indicator must the start of the takeoff.
be clearly marked with a position or (c) The device must have a means to
range within which it has been dem- preclude the possibility of it becoming
onstrated that take-off is safe for all inadvertently engaged in flight.
center of gravity positions and each
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42164, Aug. 6, 1993]
flap position approved for takeoff.
(b) Trimming devices must be de-
23.681 Limit load static tests.
signed so that, when any one con-
necting or transmitting element in the (a) Compliance with the limit load
primary flight control system fails, requirements of this part must be
adequate control for safe flight and shown by tests in which
landing is available with (1) The direction of the test loads
(1) For single-engine airplanes, the produces the most severe loading in the
longitudinal trimming devices; or control system; and

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23.683 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(2) Each fitting, pulley, and bracket tablished by tests simulating service
used in attaching the system to the conditions unless failure of the spring
main structure is included. will not cause flutter or unsafe flight
(b) Compliance must be shown (by characteristics.
analyses or individual load tests) with
the special factor requirements for 23.689 Cable systems.
control system joints subject to angu- (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turn-
lar motion. buckle, splice, and pulley used must
meet approved specifications. In addi-
23.683 Operation tests. tion
(a) It must be shown by operation (1) No cable smaller than 18 inch di-
tests that, when the controls are oper- ameter may be used in primary control
ated from the pilot compartment with systems;
the system loaded as prescribed in (2) Each cable system must be de-
paragraph (b) of this section, the sys- signed so that there will be no haz-
tem is free from ardous change in cable tension
(1) Jamming; throughout the range of travel under
(2) Excessive friction; and operating conditions and temperature
(3) Excessive deflection. variations; and
(b) The prescribed test loads are (3) There must be means for visual
(1) For the entire system, loads cor- inspection at each fairlead, pulley, ter-
responding to the limit airloads on the minal, and turnbuckle.
appropriate surface, or the limit pilot (b) Each kind and size of pulley must
forces in 23.397(b), whichever are less; correspond to the cable with which it is
and used. Each pulley must have closely
(2) For secondary controls, loads not fitted guards to prevent the cables
less than those corresponding to the from being misplaced or fouled, even
maximum pilot effort established when slack. Each pulley must lie in the
under 23.405. plane passing through the cable so that
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as the cable does not rub against the pul-
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13, ley flange.
1969] (c) Fairleads must be installed so
that they do not cause a change in
23.685 Control system details. cable direction of more than three de-
(a) Each detail of each control sys- grees.
tem must be designed and installed to (d) Clevis pins subject to load or mo-
prevent jamming, chafing, and inter- tion and retained only by cotter pins
ference from cargo, passengers, loose may not be used in the control system.
objects, or the freezing of moisture. (e) Turnbuckles must be attached to
(b) There must be means in the cock- parts having angular motion in a man-
pit to prevent the entry of foreign ob- ner that will positively prevent binding
jects into places where they would jam throughout the range of travel.
the system. (f) Tab control cables are not part of
(c) There must be means to prevent the primary control system and may be
the slapping of cables or tubes against less than 18 inch diameter in airplanes
other parts. that are safely controllable with the
(d) Each element of the flight control tabs in the most adverse positions.
system must have design features, or [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
must be distinctively and permanently amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13,
marked, to minimize the possibility of 1969]
incorrect assembly that could result in
malfunctioning of the control system. 23.691 Artificial stall barrier system.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as If the function of an artificial stall
amended by Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, barrier, for example, stick pusher, is
1976] used to show compliance with
23.201(c), the system must comply
23.687 Spring devices. with the following:
The reliability of any spring device (a) With the system adjusted for op-
used in the control system must be es- eration, the plus and minus airspeeds

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.699

at which downward pitching control could result from a failure at airspeeds


will be provided must be established. above the selected stall speed.
(b) Considering the plus and minus [Doc. No. 27806, 61 FR 5165, Feb. 9, 1996]
airspeed tolerances established by
paragraph (a) of this section, an air- 23.693 Joints.
speed must be selected for the activa-
tion of the downward pitching control Control system joints (in push-pull
systems) that are subject to angular
that provides a safe margin above any
motion, except those in ball and roller
airspeed at which any unsatisfactory
bearing systems, must have a special
stall characteristics occur.
factor of safety of not less than 3.33
(c) In addition to the stall warning with respect to the ultimate bearing
required 23.07, a warning that is clear- strength of the softest material used as
ly distinguishable to the pilot under all a bearing. This factor may be reduced
expected flight conditions without re- to 2.0 for joints in cable control sys-
quiring the pilots attention, must be tems. For ball or roller bearings, the
provided for faults that would prevent approved ratings may not be exceeded.
the system from providing the required
pitching motion. 23.697 Wing flap controls.
(d) Each system must be designed so (a) Each wing flap control must be
that the artificial stall barrier can be designed so that, when the flap has
quickly and positively disengaged by been placed in any position upon which
the pilots to prevent unwanted down- compliance with the performance re-
ward pitching of the airplane by a quirements of this part is based, the
quick release (emergency) control that flap will not move from that position
meets the requirements of 23.1329(b). unless the control is adjusted or is
(e) A preflight check of the complete moved by the automatic operation of a
system must be established and the flap load limiting device.
procedure for this check made avail- (b) The rate of movement of the flaps
able in the Airplane Flight Manual in response to the operation of the pi-
(AFM). Preflight checks that are crit- lots control or automatic device must
ical to the safety of the airplane must give satisfactory flight and perform-
be included in the limitations section ance characteristics under steady or
of the AFM. changing conditions of airspeed, engine
(f) For those airplanes whose design power, and attitude.
includes an autopilot system: (c) If compliance with 23.145(b)(3)
(1) A quick release (emergency) con- necessitates wing flap retraction to po-
trol installed in accordance with sitions that are not fully retracted, the
23.1329(b) may be used to meet the re- wing flap control lever settings cor-
quirements of paragraph (d), of this responding to those positions must be
section, and positively located such that a definite
(2) The pitch servo for that system change of direction of movement of the
may be used to provide the stall down- lever is necessary to select settings be-
ward pitching motion. yond those settings.
(g) In showing compliance with [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
23.1309, the system must be evaluated amended by Amdt. 2349, 61 FR 5165, Feb. 9,
to determine the effect that any an- 1996]
nounced or unannounced failure may
have on the continued safe flight and 23.699 Wing flap position indicator.
landing of the airplane or the ability of There must be a wing flap position
the crew to cope with any adverse con- indicator for
ditions that may result from such fail- (a) Flap installations with only the
ures. This evaluation must consider retracted and fully extended position,
the hazards that would result from the unless
airplanes flight characteristics if the (1) A direct operating mechanism
system was not provided, and the haz- provides a sense of feel and position
ard that may result from unwanted (such as when a mechanical linkage is
downward pitching motion, which employed); or

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23.701 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(2) The flap position is readily deter- proved takeoff position, a takeoff
mined without seriously detracting warning system must be installed and
from other piloting duties under any meet the following requirements:
flight condition, day or night; and (a) The system must provide to the
(b) Flap installation with inter- pilots an aural warning that is auto-
mediate flap positions if matically activated during the initial
(1) Any flap position other than re- portion of the takeoff role if the air-
tracted or fully extended is used to plane is in a configuration that would
show compliance with the performance not allow a safe takeoff. The warning
requirements of this part; and must continue until
(2) The flap installation does not (1) The configuration is changed to
meet the requirements of paragraph allow safe takeoff, or
(a)(1) of this section. (2) Action is taken by the pilot to
23.701 Flap interconnection. abandon the takeoff roll.
(b) The means used to activate the
(a) The main wing flaps and related system must function properly for all
movable surfaces as a system must authorized takeoff power settings and
(1) Be synchronized by a mechanical procedures and throughout the ranges
interconnection between the movable of takeoff weights, altitudes, and tem-
flap surfaces that is independent of the peratures for which certification is re-
flap drive system; or by an approved quested.
equivalent means; or
(2) Be designed so that the occur- [Doc. No. 27806, 61 FR 5166, Feb. 9, 1996]
rence of any failure of the flap system
that would result in an unsafe flight LANDING GEAR
characteristic of the airplane is ex-
tremely improbable; or 23.721 General.
(b) The airplane must be shown to For commuter category airplanes
have safe flight characteristics with that have a passenger seating configu-
any combination of extreme positions ration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 or
of individual movable surfaces (me- more, the following general require-
chanically interconnected surfaces are ments for the landing gear apply:
to be considered as a single surface). (a) The main landing-gear system
(c) If an interconnection is used in must be designed so that if it fails due
multiengine airplanes, it must be de- to overloads during takeoff and landing
signed to account for the (assuming the overloads to act in the
unsummetrical loads resulting from upward and aft directions), the failure
flight with the engines on one side of mode is not likely to cause the spillage
the plane of symmetry inoperative and of enough fuel from any part of the fuel
the remaining engines at takeoff system to consitute a fire hazard.
power. For single-engine airplanes, and (b) Each airplane must be designed so
multiengine airplanes with no slip- that, with the airplane under control,
stream effects on the flaps, it may be it can be landed on a paved runway
assumed that 100 percent of the critical with any one or more landing-gear legs
air load acts on one side and 70 percent not extended without sustaining a
on the other. structural component failure that is
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as likely to cause the spillage of enough
amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, fuel to consitute a fire hazard.
1973; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 353, Jan. 3, 1991; 56 (c) Compliance with the provisions of
FR 5455, Feb. 11, 1991; Amdt. 2349, 61 FR 5165, this section may be shown by analysis
Feb. 9, 1996] or tests, or both.
23.703 Takeoff warning system. [Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1830, Jan. 15, 1987]
For commuter category airplanes,
unless it can be shown that a lift or 23.723 Shock absorption tests.
longitudinal trim device that affects (a) It must be shown that the limit
the takeoff performance of the aircraft load factors selected for design in ac-
would not give an unsafe takeoff con- cordance with 23.473 for takeoff and
figuration when selection out of an ap- landing weights, respectively, will not

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.727

be exceeded. This must be shown by en- the center of gravity and exerts a force of
ergy absorption tests except that anal- 1.0 g downward and 0.33 g forward; and
ysis based on tests conducted on a L= the ratio of the assumed wing lift to the
airplane weight, but not more than 0.667.
landing gear system with identical en-
ergy absorption characteristics may be (c) The limit inertia load factor must
used for increases in previously ap- be determined in a rational or conserv-
proved takeoff and landing weights. ative manner, during the drop test,
(b) The landing gear may not fail, but using a landing gear unit attitude, and
may yield, in a test showing its reserve applied drag loads, that represent the
energy absorption capacity, simulating landing conditions.
a descent velocity of 1.2 times the limit (d) The value of d used in the com-
descent velocity, assuming wing lift putation of We in paragraph (b) of this
equal to the weight of the airplane. section may not exceed the value actu-
ally obtained in the drop test.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 (e) The limit inertia load factor must
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
23, 43 FR 50593, Oct. 30, 1978; Amdt. 2349, 61
be determined from the drop test in
FR 5166, Feb. 9, 1996] paragraph (b) of this section according
to the following formula:
23.725 Limit drop tests.
We
(a) If compliance with 23.723(a) is n = nj +L
shown by free drop tests, these tests W
must be made on the complete air- where
plane, or on units consisting of wheel, nj=the load factor developed in the drop test
tire, and shock absorber, in their prop- (that is, the acceleration (dv/dt) in gs re-
er relation, from free drop heights not corded in the drop test) plus 1.0; and
less than those determined by the fol- We, W, and L are the same as in the drop test
lowing formula: computation.
h (inches)=3.6 (W/S) 12 (f) The value of n determined in ac-
cordance with paragraph (e) may not
However, the free drop height may not be more than the limit inertia load fac-
be less than 9.2 inches and need not be tor used in the landing conditions in
more than 18.7 inches. 23.473.
(b) If the effect of wing lift is pro- [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
vided for in free drop tests, the landing amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13,
gear must be dropped with an effective 1969; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996]
weight equal to
23.726 Ground load dynamic tests.

We =W
[h + (1 L) d ] (a) If compliance with the ground
load requirements of 23.479 through
(h + d ) 23.483 is shown dynamically by drop
where test, one drop test must be conducted
We=the effective weight to be used in the that meets 23.725 except that the drop
drop test (lbs.); height must be
h=specified free drop height (inches); (1) 2.25 times the drop height pre-
d=deflection under impact of the tire (at the scribed in 23.725(a); or
approved inflation pressure) plus the (2) Sufficient to develop 1.5 times the
vertical component of the axle travel rel- limit load factor.
ative to the drop mass (inches); (b) The critical landing condition for
W=WM for main gear units (lbs), equal to the
each of the design conditions specified
static weight on that unit with the air-
plane in the level attitude (with the nose in 23.479 through 23.483 must be used
wheel clear in the case of nose wheel type for proof of strength.
airplanes); [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13, 1969]
W=WT for tail gear units (lbs.), equal to the
static weight on the tail unit with the air- 23.727 Reserve energy absorption
plane in the tail-down attitude; drop test.
W=WN for nose wheel units lbs.), equal to the
EC28SE91.015</MATH>

vertical component of the static reaction (a) If compliance with the reserve en-
that would exist at the nose wheel, assum- ergy absorption requirement in
ing that the mass of the airplane acts at 23.723(b) is shown by free drop tests,

233
EC28SE91.014</MATH>

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23.729 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

the drop height may not be less than pilot that each gear is secured in the
1.44 times that specified in 23.725. extended (or retracted) position. If
(b) If the effect of wing lift is pro- switches are used, they must be located
vided for, the units must be dropped and coupled to the landing gear me-
with an effective mass equal to We=Wh/ chanical system in a manner that pre-
(h+d), when the symbols and other de- vents an erroneous indication of either
tails are the same as in 23.725. down and locked if each gear is not
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as in the fully extended position, or up
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13, and locked if each landing gear is not
1969] in the fully retracted position.
(f) Landing gear warning. For land-
23.729 Landing gear extension and
retraction system. planes, the following aural or equally
effective landing gear warning devices
(a) General. For airplanes with re- must be provided:
tractable landing gear, the following
(1) A device that functions continu-
apply:
ously when one or more throttles are
(1) Each landing gear retracting
closed beyond the power settings nor-
mechanism and its supporting struc-
ture must be designed for maximum mally used for landing approach if the
flight load factors with the gear re- landing gear is not fully extended and
tracted and must be designed for the locked. A throttle stop may not be
combination of friction, inertia, brake used in place of an aural device. If
torque, and air loads, occurring during there is a manual shutoff for the warn-
retraction at any airspeed up to 1.6 VS1 ing device prescribed in this paragraph,
with flaps retracted, and for any load the warning system must be designed
factor up to those specified in 23.345 so that when the warning has been sus-
for the flaps-extended condition. pended after one or more throttles are
(2) The landing gear and retracting closed, subsequent retardation of any
mechanism, including the wheel well throttle to, or beyond, the position for
doors, must withstand flight loads, in- normal landing approach will activate
cluding loads resulting from all yawing the warning device.
conditions specified in 23.351, with the (2) A device that functions continu-
landing gear extended at any speed up ously when the wing flaps are extended
to at least 1.6 VS1 with the flaps re- beyond the maximum approach flap po-
tracted. sition, using a normal landing proce-
(b) Landing gear lock. There must be dure, if the landing gear is not fully ex-
positive means (other than the use of tended and locked. There may not be a
hydraulic pressure) to keep the landing manual shutoff for this warning device.
gear extended. The flap position sensing unit may be
(c) Emergency operation. For a land- installed at any suitable location. The
plane having retractable landing gear system for this device may use any
that cannot be extended manually,
part of the system (including the aural
there must be means to extend the
warning device) for the device required
landing gear in the event of either
in paragraph (f)(1) of this section.
(1) Any reasonably probable failure in
the normal landing gear operation sys- (g) Equipment located in the landing
tem; or gear bay. If the landing gear bay is used
(2) Any reasonably probable failure in as the location for equipment other
a power source that would prevent the than the landing gear, that equipment
operation of the normal landing gear must be designed and installed to mini-
operation system. mize damage from items such as a tire
(d) Operation test. The proper func- burst, or rocks, water, and slush that
tioning of the retracting mechanism may enter the landing gear bay.
must be shown by operation tests. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
(e) Position indicator. If a retractable amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13091, Aug. 13,
landing gear is used, there must be a 1969; Amdt. 2321, 43 FR 2318, Jan. 1978; Amdt.
landing gear position indicator (as well 2326, 45 FR 60171, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 2345,
as necessary switches to actuate the 58 FR 42164, Aug. 6, 1993; Amdt. 2349, 61 FR
indicator) or other means to inform the 5166, Feb. 9, 1996]

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.735

23.731 Wheels. the tire and any part of the structure


of systems.
(a) The maximum static load rating
of each wheel may not be less than the [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
corresponding static ground reaction amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13,
1969; Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, 1976;
with Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6, 1993]
(1) Design maximum weight; and
(2) Critical center of gravity. 23.735 Brakes.
(b) The maximum limit load rating of (a) Brakes must be provided. The
each wheel must equal or exceed the landing brake kinetic energy capacity
maximum radial limit load determined rating of each main wheel brake assem-
under the applicable ground load re- bly must not be less than the kinetic
quirements of this part. energy absorption requirements deter-
mined under either of the following
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
methods:
amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6,
1993]
(1) The brake kinetic energy absorp-
tion requirements must be based on a
23.733 Tires. conservative rational analysis of the
sequence of events expected during
(a) Each landing gear wheel must landing at the design landing weight.
have a tire whose approved tire ratings (2) Instead of a rational analysis, the
(static and dynamic) are not exceed- kinetic energy absorption require-
ed ments for each main wheel brake as-
(1) By a load on each main wheel tire) sembly may be derived from the fol-
to be compared to the static rating ap- lowing formula:
proved for such tires) equal to the cor- KE=0.0443 WV2/N
responding static ground reaction
under the design maximum weight and where
critical center of gravity; and KE=Kinetic energy per wheel (ft.-lb.);
W=Design landing weight (lb.);
(2) By a load on nose wheel tires (to V=Airplane speed in knots. V must be not
be compared with the dynamic rating less than VS, the poweroff stalling speed
approved for such tires) equal to the re- of the airplane at sea level, at the design
action obtained at the nose wheel, as- landing weight, and in the landing configu-
suming the mass of the airplane to be ration; and
concentrated at the most critical cen- N=Number of main wheels with brakes.
ter of gravity and exerting a force of (b) Brakes must be able to prevent
1.0 W downward and 0.31 W forward the wheels from rolling on a paved run-
(where W is the design maximum way with takeoff power on the critical
weight), with the reactions distributed engine, but need not prevent movement
to the nose and main wheels by the of the airplane with wheels locked.
principles of statics and with the drag (c) During the landing distance deter-
reaction at the ground applied only at mination required by 23.75, the pres-
wheels with brakes. sure on the wheel braking system must
(b) If specially constructed tires are not exceed the pressure specified by the
brake manufacturer.
used, the wheels must be plainly and
(d) If antiskid devices are installed,
conspicuously marked to that effect.
the devices and associated systems
The markings must include the make, must be designed so that no single
size, number of plies, and identification probable malfunction or failure will re-
marking of the proper tire. sult in a hazardous loss of braking abil-
(c) Each tire installed on a retract- ity or directional control of the air-
able landing gear system must, at the plane.
maximum size of the tire type expected (e) In addition, for commuter cat-
in service, have a clearance to sur- egory airplanes, the rejected takeoff
rounding structure and systems that is brake kinetic energy capacity rating of
adequate to prevent contact between each main wheel brake assembly must

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23.737 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

not be less than the kinetic energy ab- (2) Enough watertight compartments
sorption requirements determined to provide reasonable assurance that
under either of the following methods the seaplane or amphibian will stay
(1) The brake kinetic energy absorp- afloat without capsizing if any two
tion requirements must be based on a compartments of any main float are
conservative rational analysis of the flooded.
sequence of events expected during a (b) Each main float must contain at
rejected takeoff at the design takeoff least four watertight compartments
weight. approximately equal in volume.
(2) Instead of a rational analysis, the
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
kinetic energy absorption require- amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6,
ments for each main wheel brake as- 1993]
sembly may be derived from the fol-
lowing formula 23.753 Main float design.
KE=0.0443 WV2N Each seaplane main float must meet
the requirements of 23.521.
where,
KE=Kinetic energy per wheel (ft.-lbs.); [Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6, 1993]
W=Design takeoff weight (lbs.);
V=Ground speed, in knots, associated with 23.755 Hulls.
the maximum value of V1 selected in ac- (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or am-
cordance with 23.51(c)(1);
phibian of 1,500 pounds or more max-
N=Number of main wheels with brakes.
imum weight must have watertight
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, 1969, as compartments designed and arranged
amended by Amdt. 2324, 44 FR 68742, Nov. 29, so that the hull auxiliary floats, and
1979; Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 354, Jan. 3, 1991;
Amdt. 2349, 61 FR 5166, Feb. 9, 1996]
tires (if used), will keep the airplane
afloat without capsizing in fresh water
23.737 Skis. when
(1) For airplanes of 5,000 pounds or
The maximum limit load rating for
more maximum weight, any two adja-
each ski must equal or exceed the max-
cent compartments are flooded; and
imum limit load determined under the
(2) For airplanes of 1,500 pounds up
applicable ground load requirements of
to, but not including, 5,000 pounds max-
this part.
imum weight, any single compartment
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6, 1993] is flooded.
(b) Watertight doors in bulkheads
23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. may be used for communication be-
(a) If nose/tail wheel steering is in- tween compartments.
stalled, it must be demonstrated that [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
its use does not require exceptional amended by Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6,
pilot skill during takeoff and landing, 1993; Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996]
in crosswinds, or in the event of an en-
gine failure; or its use must be limited 23.757 Auxiliary floats.
to low speed maneuvering. Auxiliary floats must be arranged so
(b) Movement of the pilots steering that, when completely submerged in
control must not interfere with the re- fresh water, they provide a righting
traction or extension of the landing moment of at least 1.5 times the upset-
gear. ting moment caused by the seaplane or
[Doc. No. 27806, 61 FR 5166, Feb. 9, 1996] amphibian being tilted.

FLOATS AND HULLS PERSONNEL AND CARGO


ACCOMMODATIONS
23.751 Main float buoyancy.
(a) Each main float must have 23.771 Pilot compartment.
(1) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess For each pilot compartment
of the buoyancy required by that float (a) The compartment and its equip-
to support its portion of the maximum ment must allow each pilot to perform
weight of the seaplane or amphibian in his duties without unreasonable con-
fresh water; and centration or fatigue;

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.775

(b) Where the flight crew are sepa- 23.775 Windshields and windows.
rated from the passengers by a parti- (a) The internal panels of windshields
tion, an opening or openable window or and windows must be constructed of a
door must be provided to facilitate nonsplintering material, such as non-
communication between flight crew splintering safety glass.
and the passengers; and (b) The design of windshields, win-
(c) The aerodynamic controls listed dows, and canopies in pressurized air-
in 23.779, excluding cables and control planes must be based on factors pecu-
rods, must be located with respect to liar to high altitude operation, includ-
the propellers so that no part of the ing
pilot or the controls lies in the region (1) The effects of continuous and cy-
between the plane of rotation of any clic pressurization loadings;
inboard propeller and the surface gen- (2) The inherent characteristics of
erated by a line passing through the the material used; and
center of the propeller hub making an (3) The effects of temperatures and
temperature gradients.
angle of 5 degrees forward or aft of the
(c) On pressurized airplanes, if cer-
plane of rotation of the propeller. tification for operation up to and in-
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as cluding 25,000 feet is requested, an en-
amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, closure canopy including a representa-
1973] tive part of the installation must be
subjected to special tests to account
23.773 Pilot compartment view. for the combined effects of continuous
(a) Each pilot compartment must and cyclic pressurization loadings and
be flight loads, or compliance with the
(1) Arranged with sufficiently exten- fail-safe requirements of paragraph (d)
of this section must be shown.
sive, clear and undistorted view to en-
(d) If certification for operation
able the pilot to safely taxi, takeoff,
above 25,000 feet is requested the wind-
approach, land, and perform any ma- shields, window panels, and canopies
neuvers within the operating limita- must be strong enough to withstand
tions of the airplane. the maximum cabin pressure differen-
(2) Free from glare and reflections tial loads combined with critical aero-
that could interfere with the pilots vi- dynamic pressure and temperature ef-
sion. Compliance must be shown in all fects, after failure of any load-carrying
operations for which certification is re- element of the windshield, window
quested; and panel, or canopy.
(3) Designed so that each pilot is pro- (e) The windshield and side windows
tected from the elements so that mod- forward of the pilots back when the
erate rain conditions do not unduly im- pilot is seated in the normal flight po-
pair the pilots view of the flight path sition must have a luminous transmit-
in normal flight and while landing. tance value of not less than 70 percent.
(b) Each pilot compartment must (f) Unless operation in known or fore-
have a means to either remove or pre- cast icing conditions is prohibited by
vent the formation of fog or frost on an operating limitations, a means must be
provided to prevent or to clear accumu-
area of the internal portion of the
lations of ice from the windshield so
windshield and side windows suffi-
that the pilot has adequate view for
ciently large to provide the view speci- taxi, takeoff, approach, landing, and to
fied in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. perform any maneuvers within the op-
Compliance must be shown under all erating limitations of the airplane.
expected external and internal ambient (g) In the event of any probable sin-
operating conditions, unless it can be gle failure, a transparency heating sys-
shown that the windshield and side tem must be incapable of raising the
windows can be easily cleared by the temperature of any windshield or win-
pilot without interruption of moral dow to a point where there would be
pilot duties. (1) Structural failure that adversely
affects the integrity of the cabin; or
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6, 1993]
(2) There would be a danger of fire.

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23.777 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(h) In addition, for commuter cat- one inch higher or longer to make
egory airplanes, the following applies: them more prominent than propeller
(1) Windshield panes directly in front (rpm control) or mixture controls. Car-
of the pilots in the normal conduct of buretor heat or alternate air control
their duties, and the supporting struc- must be to the left of the throttle or at
tures for these panes, must withstand, least eight inches from the mixture
without penetration, the impact of a control when located other than on a
two-pound bird when the velocity of pedestal. Carburetor heat or alternate
the airplane (relative to the bird along air control, when located on a pedestal
the airplanes flight path) is equal to must be aft or below the power (thrust)
the airplanes maximum approach flap lever. Supercharger controls must be
speed. located below or aft of the propeller
(2) The windshield panels in front of controls. Airplanes with tandem seat-
the pilots must be arranged so that, as- ing or single-place airplanes may uti-
suming the loss of vision through any lize control locations on the left side of
one panel, one or more panels remain the cabin compartment; however, loca-
available for use by a pilot seated at a
tion order from left to right must be
pilot station to permit continued safe
power (thrust) lever, propeller (rpm
flight and landing.
control) and mixture control.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (e) Identical powerplant controls for
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, each engine must be located to prevent
1969; Amdt. 2345, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6, 1993; 58
confusion as to the engines they con-
FR 51970, Oct. 5, 1993; Amdt. 2349, 61 FR 5166,
Feb. 9, 1996] trol.
(1) Conventional multiengine power-
23.777 Cockpit controls. plant controls must be located so that
(a) Each cockpit control must be lo- the left control(s) operates the left en-
cated and (except where its function is gines(s) and the right control(s) oper-
obvious) identified to provide conven- ates the right engine(s).
ient operation and to prevent confusion (2) On twin-engine airplanes with
and inadvertent operation. front and rear engine locations (tan-
(b) The controls must be located and dem), the left powerplant controls
arranged so that the pilot, when seat- must operate the front engine and the
ed, has full and unrestricted movement right powerplant controls must operate
of each control without interference the rear engine.
from either his clothing or the cockpit (f) Wing flap and auxiliary lift device
structure. controls must be located
(c) Powerplant controls must be lo- (1) Centrally, or to the right of the
cated pedestal or powerplant throttle control
(1) For multiengine airplanes, on the centerline; and
pedestal or overhead at or near the (2) Far enough away from the landing
center of the cockpit; gear control to avoid confusion.
(2) For single and tandem seated sin-
(g) The landing gear control must be
gle-engine airplanes, on the left side
located to the left of the throttle cen-
console or instrument panel;
terline or pedestal centerline.
(3) For other single-engine airplanes
at or near the center of the cockpit, on (h) Each fuel feed selector control
the pedestal, instrument panel, or must comply with 23.995 and be lo-
overhead; and cated and arranged so that the pilot
(4) For airplanes, with side-by-side can see and reach it without moving
pilot seats and with two sets of power- any seat or primary flight control
plant controls, on left and right con- when his seat is at any position in
soles. which it can be placed.
(d) The control location order from (1) For a mechanical fuel selector:
left to right must be power (thrust) (i) The indication of the selected fuel
lever, propeller (rpm control), and mix- valve position must be by means of a
ture control (condition lever and fuel pointer and must provide positive iden-
cutoff for turbine-powered airplanes). tification and feel (detent, etc.) of the
Power (thrust) levers must be at least selected position.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.781

(ii) The position indicator pointer Motion and effect


must be located at the part of the han-
dle that is the maximum dimension of Trim tabs Switch motion or mechan-
(or equiv- ical rotation of control
the handle measured from the center of alent). to produce similar rota-
rotation. tion of the airplane
(2) For electrical or electronic fuel about an axis parallel to
selector: the axis control. Axis of
(i) Digital controls or electrical roll trim control may be
displaced to accommo-
switches must be properly labelled.
date comfortable actu-
(ii) Means must be provided to indi- ation by the pilot. For
cate to the flight crew the tank or single-engine airplanes,
function selected. Selector switch posi- direction of pilots hand
tion is not acceptable as a means of in- movement must be in
dication. The off or closed posi- the same sense as air-
plane response for rud-
tion must be indicated in red. der trim if only a por-
(3) If the fuel valve selector handle or tion of a rotational ele-
electrical or digital selection is also a ment is accessible.
fuel shut-off selector, the off position (b) Powerplant and auxiliary con-
marking must be colored red. If a sepa- trols:
rate emergency shut-off means is pro-
vided, it also must be colored red. Motion and effect
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (1) Powerplant
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, controls:
1969; Amdt. 2333, 51 FR 26656, July 24, 1986; Power Forward to increase for-
Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996] (thrust) ward thrust and rear-
lever. ward to increase rear-
23.779 Motion and effect of cockpit ward thrust.
controls. Propellers .. Forward to increase rpm.
Mixture ...... Forward or upward for
Cockpit controls must be designed so rich.
that they operate in accordance with Fuel ........... Forward for open.
the following movement and actuation: Carburetor, Forward or upward for
air heat cold.
(a) Aerodynamic controls:
or alter-
nate air.
Motion and effect Supercharge- Forward or upward for low
r. blower.
(1) Primary con- Turbosuper- Forward, upward, or
trols: chargers. clockwise to increase
Aileron ...... Right (clockwise) for right pressure.
wing down. Rotary con- Clockwise from off to full
Elevator ..... Rearward for nose up. trols. on.
Rudder ....... Right pedal forward for (2) Auxiliary
nose right. controls:
(2) Secondary Fuel tank Right for right tanks, left
controls: selector. for left tanks.
Flaps (or Forward or up for flaps up Landing Down to extend.
auxiliary or auxiliary device gear.
lift de- stowed; rearward or Speed Aft to extend.
vices). down for flaps down or brakes.
auxiliary device de-
ployed. [Amdt. 2333, 51 FR 26656, July 24, 1986, as
amended by Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9,
1996]

23.781 Cockpit control knob shape.


(a) Flap and landing gear control
knobs must conform to the general
shapes (but not necessarily the exact
sizes or specific proportions) in the fol-
lowing figure:

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23.781 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.783

(b) Powerplant control knobs must disk or any other potential hazard so
conform to the general shapes (but not as to endanger persons using the door.
necessarily the exact sizes or specific (c) Each external passenger or crew
proportions) in the following figure: door must comply with the following
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 requirements:
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23 (1) There must be a means to lock
33, 51 FR 26657, July 24, 1986] and safeguard the door against inad-
vertent opening during flight by per-
23.783 Doors. sons, by cargo, or as a result of me-
(a) Each closed cabin with passenger chanical failure.
accommodations must have at least (2) The door must be openable from
one adequate and easily accessible ex- the inside and the outside when the in-
ternal door. ternal locking mechanism is in the
(b) Passenger doors must not be lo- locked position.
cated with respect to any propeller

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23.785 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(3) There must be a means of opening (3) There must be a visual warning
which is simple and obvious and is ar- means to signal a flight crewmember if
ranged and marked inside and outside the external door is not fully closed
so that the door can be readily located, and locked. The means must be de-
unlocked, and opened, even in dark- signed so that any failure, or combina-
ness. tion of failures, that would result in an
(4) The door must meet the marking erroneous closed and locked indication
requirements of 23.811 of this part. is improbable for doors for which the
(5) The door must be reasonably free initial opening movement is not in-
from jamming as a result of fuselage ward.
deformation in an emergency landing. (f) In addition, for commuter cat-
(6) Auxiliary locking devices that are egory airplanes, the following require-
actuated externally to the airplane ments apply:
may be used but such devices must be (1) Each passenger entry door must
overridden by the normal internal qualify as a floor level emergency exit.
opening means. This exit must have a rectangular
opening of not less than 24 inches wide
(d) In addition, each external pas-
by 48 inches high, with corner radii not
senger or crew door, for a commuter
greater than one-third the width of the
category airplane, must comply with
exit.
the following requirements:
(2) If an integral stair is installed at
(1) Each door must be openable from a passenger entry door, the stair must
both the inside and outside, even be designed so that, when subjected to
though persons may be crowded the inertia loads resulting from the ul-
against the door on the inside of the timate static load factors in
airplane. 23.561(b)(2) and following the collapse
(2) If inward opening doors are used, of one or more legs of the landing gear,
there must be a means to prevent occu- it will not reduce the effectiveness of
pants from crowding against the door emergency egress through the pas-
to the extent that would interfere with senger entry door.
opening the door. (g) If lavatory doors are installed,
(3) Auxiliary locking devices may be they must be designed to preclude an
used. occupant from becoming trapped inside
(e) Each external door on a com- the lavatory. If a locking mechanism is
muter category airplane, each external installed, it must be capable of being
door forward of any engine or propeller unlocked from outside of the lavatory.
on a normal, utility, or acrobatic cat-
egory airplane, and each door of the [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
pressure vessel on a pressurized air- 36, 53 FR 30813, Aug. 15, 1988; Amdt. 2346, 59
plane must comply with the following FR 25772, May 17, 1994; Amdt. 2349, 61 FR
requirements: 5166, Feb. 9, 1996]
(1) There must be a means to lock
and safeguard each external door, in- 23.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety
cluding cargo and service type doors, belts, and shoulder harnesses.
against inadvertent opening in flight, There must be a seat or berth for
by persons, by cargo, or as a result of each occupant that meets the fol-
mechanical failure or failure of a single lowing:
structural element, either during or (a) Each seat/restraint system and
after closure. the supporting structure must be de-
(2) There must be a provision for di- signed to support occupants weighing
rect visual inspection of the locking at least 215 pounds when subjected to
mechanism to determine if the exter- the maximum load factors cor-
nal door, for which the initial opening responding to the specified flight and
movement is not inward, is fully closed ground load conditions, as defined in
and locked. The provisions must be dis- the approved operating envelope of the
cernible, under operating lighting con- airplane. In addition, these loads must
ditions, by a crewmember using a be multiplied by a factor of 1.33 in de-
flashlight or an equivalent lighting termining the strength of all fittings
source. and the attachment of

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.785

(1) Each seat to the structure; and (i) The cabin area surrounding each
(2) Each safety belt and shoulder har- seat, including the structure, interior
ness to the seat or structure. walls, instrument panel, control wheel,
(b) Each forward-facing or aft-facing pedals, and seats within striking dis-
seat/restraint system in normal, util- tance of the occupants head or torso
ity, or acrobatic category airplanes (with the restraint system fastened)
must consist of a seat, a safety belt, must be free of potentially injurious
and a shoulder harness, with a metal- objects, sharp edges, protuberances,
to-metal latching device, that are de- and hard surfaces. If energy absorbing
signed to provide the occupant protec- designs or devices are used to meet this
tion provisions required in 23.562. requirement, they must protect the oc-
Other seat orientations must provide cupant from serious injury when the
the same level of occupant protection occupant is subjected to the inertia
as a forward-facing or aft-facing seat loads resulting from the ultimate stat-
with a safety belt and a shoulder har- ic load factors prescribed in
ness, and must provide the protection 23.561(b)(2) of this part, or they must
provisions of 23.562. comply with the occupant protection
(c) For commuter category airplanes, provisions of 23.562 of this part, as re-
each seat and the supporting structure quired in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this
must be designed for occupants weigh- section.
(j) Each seat track must be fitted
ing at least 170 pounds when subjected
with stops to prevent the seat from
to the inertia loads resulting from the
sliding off the track.
ultimate static load factors prescribed
(k) Each seat/restraint system may
in 23.561(b)(2) of this part. Each occu-
use design features, such as crushing or
pant must be protected from serious
separation of certain components, to
head injury when subjected to the iner-
reduce occupant loads when showing
tia loads resulting from these load fac-
compliance with the requirements of
tors by a safety belt and shoulder har-
23.562 of this part; otherwise, the sys-
ness, with a metal-to-metal latching
tem must remain intact.
device, for the front seats and a safety
(l) For the purposes of this section, a
belt, or a safety belt and shoulder har-
front seat is a seat located at a flight
ness, with a metal-to-metal latching
crewmember station or any seat lo-
device, for each seat other than the
cated alongside such a seat.
front seats.
(m) Each berth, or provisions for a
(d) Each restraint system must have litter, installed parallel to the longitu-
a single-point release for occupant dinal axis of the airplane, must be de-
evacuation. signed so that the forward part has a
(e) The restraint system for each padded end-board, canvas diaphragm,
crewmember must allow the crew- or equivalent means that can with-
member, when seated with the safety stand the load reactions from a 215-
belt and shoulder harness fastened, to pound occupant when subjected to the
perform all functions necessary for inertia loads resulting from the ulti-
flight operations. mate static load factors of 23.561(b)(2)
(f) Each pilot seat must be designed of this part. In addition
for the reactions resulting from the ap- (1) Each berth or litter must have an
plication of pilot forces to the primary occupant restraint system and may not
flight controls as prescribed in 23.395 have corners or other parts likely to
of this part. cause serious injury to a person occu-
(g) There must be a means to secure pying it during emergency landing con-
each safety belt and shoulder harness, ditions; and
when not in use, to prevent inter- (2) Occupant restraint system attach-
ference with the operation of the air- ments for the berth or litter must
plane and with rapid occupant egress in withstand the inertia loads resulting
an emergency. from the ultimate static load factors of
(h) Unless otherwise placarded, each 23.561(b)(2) of this part.
seat in a utility or acrobatic category (n) Proof of compliance with the stat-
airplane must be designed to accommo- ic strength requirements of this sec-
date an occupant wearing a parachute. tion for seats and berths approved as

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23.787 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

part of the type design and for seat and other occupants seats or where the
berth installations may be shown by flightcrew members compartment is
(1) Structural analysis, if the struc- separated from the passenger compart-
ture conforms to conventional airplane ment, there must be at least one illu-
types for which existing methods of minated sign (using either letters or
analysis are known to be reliable; symbols) notifying all passengers when
(2) A combination of structural anal- seat belts should be fastened. Signs
ysis and static load tests to limit load; that notify when seat belts should be
or fastened must:
(3) Static load tests to ultimate (a) When illuminated, be legible to
loads. each person seated in the passenger
[Amdt. 2336, 53 FR 30813, Aug. 15, 1988; Amdt. compartment under all probable light-
2336, 54 FR 50737, Dec. 11, 1989; Amdt. 2349, ing conditions; and
61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996] (b) Be installed so that a flightcrew
member can, when seated at the
23.787 Baggage and cargo compart-
ments. flightcrew members station, turn the
illumination on and off.
(a) Each baggage and cargo compart-
ment must: [Doc. No. 27806, 61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996]
(1) Be designed for its placarded max-
imum weight of contents and for the 23.803 Emergency evacuation.
critical load distributions at the appro- (a) For commuter category airplanes,
priate maximum load factors cor- an evacuation demonstration must be
responding to the flight and ground conducted utilizing the maximum
load conditions of this part. number of occupants for which certifi-
(2) Have means to prevent the con- cation is desired. The demonstration
tents of any compartment from becom- must be conducted under simulated
ing a hazard by shifting, and to protect night conditions using only the emer-
any controls, wiring, lines, equipment gency exits on the most critical side of
or accessories whose damage or failure the airplane. The participants must be
would affect safe operations. representative of average airline pas-
(3) Have a means to protect occu- sengers with no prior practice or re-
pants from injury by the contents of hearsal for the demonstration. Evacu-
any compartment, located aft of the
ation must be completed within 90 sec-
occupants and separated by structure,
onds.
when the ultimate forward inertial
load factor is 9g and assuming the max- (b) In addition, when certification to
imum allowed baggage or cargo weight the emergency exit provisions of
for the compartment. 23.807(d)(4) is requested, only the
(b) Designs that provide for baggage emergency lighting system required by
or cargo to be carried in the same com- 23.812 may be used to provide cabin in-
partment as passengers must have a terior illumination during the evacu-
means to protect the occupants from ation demonstration required in para-
injury when the baggage or cargo is graph (a) of this section.
subjected to the inertial loads result- [Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1987, as
ing from the ultimate static load fac- amended by Amdt. 2346, 59 FR 25773, May 17,
tors of 23.561(b)(3), assuming the max- 1994]
imum allowed baggage or cargo weight
for the compartment. 23.805 Flightcrew emergency exits.
(c) For airplanes that are used only For airplanes where the proximity of
for the carriage of cargo, the flightcrew the passenger emergency exits to the
emergency exits must meet the re- flightcrew area does not offer a conven-
quirements of 23.807 under any cargo ient and readily accessible means of
loading conditions. evacuation for the flightcrew, the fol-
[Doc. No. 27806, 61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996] lowing apply:
(a) There must be either one emer-
23.791 Passenger information signs. gency exit on each side of the airplane,
For those airplanes in which the or a top hatch emergency exit, in the
flightcrew members cannot observe the flightcrew area;

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.807

(b) Each emergency exit must be lo- must be designed to be overridden by


cated to allow rapid evacuation of the the normal internal opening means.
crew and have a size and shape of at The inside handles of emergency exits
least a 19- by 20-inch unobstructed rec- that open outward must be adequately
tangular opening; and protected against inadvertent oper-
(c) For each emergency exit that is ation. In addition, each emergency exit
not less than six feet from the ground, must
an assisting means must be provided. (1) Be readily accessible, requiring no
The assisting means may be a rope or exceptional agility to be used in emer-
any other means demonstrated to be gencies;
suitable for the purpose. If the assist- (2) Have a method of opening that is
ing means is a rope, or an approved de- simple and obvious;
vice equivalent to a rope, it must be (3) Be arranged and marked for easy
(1) Attached to the fuselage structure location and operation, even in dark-
at or above the top of the emergency ness;
exit opening or, for a device at a pilots
(4) Have reasonable provisions
emergency exit window, at another ap-
proved location if the stowed device, or against jamming by fuselage deforma-
its attachment, would reduce the pi- tion; and
lots view; and (5) In the case of acrobatic category
(2) Able (with its attachment) to airplanes, allow each occupant to aban-
withstand a 400-pound static load. don the airplane at any speed between
VSO and VD; and
[Doc. No. 26324, 59 FR 25773, May 17, 1994] (6) In the case of utility category air-
23.807 Emergency exits. planes certificated for spinning, allow
each occupant to abandon the airplane
(a) Number and location. Emergency at the highest speed likely to be
exits must be located to allow escape achieved in the maneuver for which the
without crowding in any probable airplane is certificated.
crash attitude. The airplane must have (c) Tests. The proper functioning of
at least the following emergency exits: each emergency exit must be shown by
(1) For all airplanes with a seating
tests.
capacity of two or more, excluding air-
planes with canopies, at least one (d) Doors and exits. In addition, for
emergency exit on the opposite side of commuter category airplanes, the fol-
the cabin from the main door specified lowing requirements apply:
in 23.783 of this part. (1) In addition to the passenger entry
(2) [Reserved] door
(3) If the pilot compartment is sepa- (i) For an airplane with a total pas-
rated from the cabin by a door that is senger seating capacity of 15 or fewer,
likely to block the pilots escape in a an emergency exit, as defined in para-
minor crash, there must be an exit in graph (b) of this section, is required on
the pilots compartment. The number each side of the cabin; and
of exits required by paragraph (a)(1) of (ii) For an airplane with a total pas-
this section must then be separately senger seating capacity of 16 through
determined for the passenger compart- 19, three emergency exits, as defined in
ment, using the seating capacity of paragraph (b) of this section, are re-
that compartment. quired with one on the same side as the
(4) Emergency exits must not be lo- passenger entry door and two on the
cated with respect to any propeller side opposite the door.
disk or any other potential hazard so (2) A means must be provided to lock
as to endanger persons using that exit. each emergency exit and to safeguard
(b) Type and operation. Emergency against its opening in flight, either in-
exits must be movable windows, panels, advertently by persons or as a result of
canopies, or external doors, openable mechanical failure. In addition, a
from both inside and outside the air- means for direct visual inspection of
plane, that provide a clear and unob- the locking mechanism must be pro-
structed opening large enough to admit vided to determine that each emer-
a 19-by-26-inch ellipse. Auxiliary lock- gency exit for which the initial opening
ing devices used to secure the airplane movement is outward is fully locked.

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23.811 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(3) Each required emergency exit, ex- greater than one-third the width of the
cept floor level exits, must be located exit.
over the wing or, if not less than six [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
feet from the ground, must be provided amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13,
with an acceptable means to assist the 1969; Amdt. 2310, 36 FR 2864, Feb. 11, 1971;
occupants to descend to the ground. Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt.
Emergency exits must be distributed as 2336, 53 FR 30814, Aug. 15, 1988; 53 FR 34194,
uniformly as practical, taking into ac- Sept. 2, 1988; Amdt. 2346, 59 FR 25773, May
17, 1994; Amdt. 2349, 61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996]
count passenger seating configuration.
(4) Unless the applicant has complied 23.811 Emergency exit marking.
with paragraph (d)(1) of this section,
(a) Each emergency exit and external
there must be an emergency exit on
door in the passenger compartment
the side of the cabin opposite the pas-
must be externally marked and readily
senger entry door, provided that identifiable from outside the airplane
(i) For an airplane having a pas- by
senger seating configuration of nine or (1) A conspicuous visual identifica-
fewer, the emergency exit has a rectan- tion scheme; and
gular opening measuring not less than (2) A permanent decal or placard on
19 inches by 26 inches high with corner or adjacent to the emergency exit
radii not greater than one-third the which shows the means of opening the
width of the exit, located over the emergency exit, including any special
wing, with a step up inside the airplane instructions, if applicable.
of not more than 29 inches and a step (b) In addition, for commuter cat-
down outside the airplane of not more egory airplanes, these exits and doors
than 36 inches; must be internally marked with the
(ii) For an airplane having a pas- word exit by a sign which has white
senger seating configuration of 10 to 19 letters 1 inch high on a red background
passengers, the emergency exit has a 2 inches high, be self-illuminated or
rectangular opening measuring not less independently, internally electrically
than 20 inches wide by 36 inches high, illuminated, and have a minimum
with corner radii not greater than one- brightness of at least 160 micro-
third the width of the exit, and with a lamberts. The color may be reversed if
step up inside the airplane of not more the passenger compartment illumina-
than 20 inches. If the exit is located tion is essentially the same.
over the wing, the step down outside (c) In addition, when certification to
the airplane may not exceed 27 inches; the emergency exit provisions of
and 23.807(d)(4) is requested, the following
(iii) The airplane complies with the apply:
additional requirements of (1) Each emergency exit, its means of
access, and its means of opening, must
23.561(b)(2)(iv), 23.803(b), 23.811(c),
be conspicuously marked;
23.812, 23.813(b), and 23.815.
(2) The identity and location of each
(e) For multiengine airplanes, ditch-
emergency exit must be recognizable
ing emergency exits must be provided from a distance equal to the width of
in accordance with the following re- the cabin;
quirements, unless the emergency exits (3) Means must be provided to assist
required by paragraph (a) or (d) of this occupants in locating the emergency
section already comply with them: exits in conditions of dense smoke;
(1) One exit above the waterline on (4) The location of the operating han-
each side of the airplane having the di- dle and instructions for opening each
mensions specified in paragraph (b) or emergency exit from inside the air-
(d) of this section, as applicable; and plane must be shown by marking that
(2) If side exits cannot be above the is readable from a distance of 30 inches;
waterline, there must be a readily ac- (5) Each passenger entry door oper-
cessible overhead hatch emergency exit ating handle must
that has a rectangular opening meas- (i) Be self-illuminated with an initial
uring not less than 20 inches wide by 36 brightness of at least 160 micro-
inches long, with corner radii not lamberts; or

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.812

(ii) Be conspicuously located and well ing system is independent of the power
illuminated by the emergency lighting supply to the main lighting system.
even in conditions of occupant crowd- (b) There must be a crew warning
ing at the door; light that illuminates in the cockpit
(6) Each passenger entry door with a when power is on in the airplane and
locking mechanism that is released by the emergency lighting control device
rotary motion of the handle must be is not armed.
marked (c) The emergency lights must be op-
(i) With a red arrow, with a shaft of erable manually from the flightcrew
at least three-fourths of an inch wide station and be provided with automatic
and a head twice the width of the shaft, activation. The cockpit control device
extending along at least 70 degrees of must have on, off, and armed
arc at a radius approximately equal to positions so that, when armed in the
three-fourths of the handle length; cockpit, the lights will operate by
(ii) So that the center line of the exit automatic activation.
handle is within one inch of the pro- (d) There must be a means to safe-
jected point of the arrow when the han- guard against inadvertent operation of
dle has reached full travel and has re- the cockpit control device from the
leased the locking mechanism; armed or on positions.
(iii) With the word open in red let- (e) The cockpit control device must
ters, one inch high, placed horizontally have provisions to allow the emergency
near the head of the arrow; and lighting system to be armed or acti-
(7) In addition to the requirements of vated at any time that it may be need-
paragraph (a) of this section, the exter- ed.
nal marking of each emergency exit (f) When armed, the emergency light-
must ing system must activate and remain
(i) Include a 2-inch colorband out- lighted when
lining the exit; and (1) The normal electrical power of
the airplane is lost; or
(ii) Have a color contrast that is
(2) The airplane is subjected to an
readily distinguishable from the sur-
impact that results in a deceleration in
rounding fuselage surface. The contrast
excess of 2g and a velocity change in
must be such that if the reflectance of
excess of 3.5 feet-per-second, acting
the darker color is 15 percent or less,
along the longitudinal axis of the air-
the reflectance of the lighter color
plane; or
must be at least 45 percent. Reflec-
(3) Any other emergency condition
tance is the ratio of the luminous flux
exists where automatic activation of
reflected by a body to the luminous
the emergency lighting is necessary to
flux it receives. When the reflectance
aid with occupant evacuation.
of the darker color is greater than 15
(g) The emergency lighting system
percent, at least a 30 percent difference
must be capable of being turned off and
between its reflectance and the reflec-
reset by the flightcrew after automatic
tance of the lighter color must be pro-
activation.
vided.
(h) The emergency lighting system
[Amdt. 2336, 53 FR 30814, Aug. 15, 1988; 53 FR must provide internal lighting, includ-
34194, Sept. 2, 1988, as amended by Amdt. 23 ing
46, 59 FR 25773, May 17, 1994] (1) Illuminated emergency exit mark-
ing and locating signs, including those
23.812 Emergency lighting. required in 23.811(b);
When certification to the emergency (2) Sources of general illumination in
exit provisions of 23.807(d)(4) is re- the cabin that provide an average illu-
quested, the following apply: mination of not less than 0.05 foot-can-
(a) An emergency lighting system, dle and an illumination at any point of
independent of the main cabin lighting not less than 0.01 foot-candle when
system, must be installed. However, measured along the center line of the
the source of general cabin illumina- main passenger aisle(s) and at the seat
tion may be common to both the emer- armrest height; and
gency and main lighting systems if the (3) Floor proximity emergency escape
power supply to the emergency light- path marking that provides emergency

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23.813 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

evacuation guidance for the airplane assistance in evacuation of passengers


occupants when all sources of illumina- without reducing the unobstructed
tion more than 4 feet above the cabin width of the passageway below 20
aisle floor are totally obscured. inches.
(i) The energy supply to each emer- (3) If it is necessary to pass through
gency lighting unit must provide the a passageway between passenger com-
required level of illumination for at partments to reach a required emer-
least 10 minutes at the critical ambient gency exit from any seat in the pas-
conditions after activation of the senger cabin, the passageway must be
emergency lighting system. unobstructed; however, curtains may
(j) If rechargeable batteries are used be used if they allow free entry
as the energy supply for the emergency
through the passageway.
lighting system, they may be re-
charged from the main electrical power (4) No door may be installed in any
system of the airplane provided the partition between passenger compart-
charging circuit is designed to preclude ments unless that door has a means to
inadvertent battery discharge into the latch it in the open position. The latch-
charging circuit faults. If the emer- ing means must be able to withstand
gency lighting system does not include the loads imposed upon it by the door
a charging circuit, battery condition when the door is subjected to the iner-
monitors are required. tia loads resulting from the ultimate
(k) Components of the emergency static load factors prescribed in
lighting system, including batteries, 23.561(b)(2).
wiring, relays, lamps, and switches, (5) If it is necessary to pass through
must be capable of normal operation a doorway separating the passenger
after being subjected to the inertia cabin from other areas to reach a re-
forces resulting from the ultimate load quired emergency exit from any pas-
factors prescribed in 23.561(b)(2). senger seat, the door must have a
(l) The emergency lighting system means to latch it in the open position.
must be designed so that after any sin- The latching means must be able to
gle transverse vertical separation of withstand the loads imposed upon it by
the fuselage during a crash landing: the door when the door is subjected to
(1) At least 75 percent of all elec- the inertia loads resulting from the ul-
trically illuminated emergency lights timate static load factors prescribed in
required by this section remain opera- 23.561(b)(2).
tive; and
(2) Each electrically illuminated exit [Amdt. 2336, 53 FR 30815, Aug. 15, 1988, as
sign required by 23.811 (b) and (c) re- amended by Amdt. 2346, 59 FR 25774, May 17,
mains operative, except those that are 1994]
directly damaged by the fuselage sepa-
ration. 23.815 Width of aisle.

[Doc. No. 26324, 59 FR 25774, May 17, 1994]


(a) Except as provided in paragraph
(b) of this section, for commuter cat-
23.813 Emergency exit access. egory airplanes, the width of the main
(a) For commuter category airplanes, passenger aisle at any point between
access to window-type emergency exits seats must equal or exceed the values
may not be obstructed by seats or seat in the following table:
backs. Minimum main passenger aisle width
(b) In addition, when certification to Number of pas-
senger seats Less than 25 25 inches and
the emergency exit provisions of inches from floor more from floor
23.807(d)(4) is requested, the following
emergency exit access must be pro- 10 through 19 ....... 9 inches ................ 15 inches.
vided:
(1) The passageway leading from the (b) When certification to the emer-
aisle to the passenger entry door must gency exist provisions of 23.807(d)(4) is
be unobstructed and at least 20 inches requested, the main passenger aisle
wide. width at any point between the seats
(2) There must be enough space next must equal or exceed the following val-
to the passenger entry door to allow ues:

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.843

Minimum main passenger large enough so that the failure of any


aisle width (inches) one valve would not cause an appre-
Number of passenger seats ciable rise in the pressure differential.
Less than 25 inches
25 inches and more The pressure differential is positive
from floor from floor
when the internal pressure is greater
10 or fewer ................................ 1 12 15 than the external.
11 through 19 ............................ 12 20
(2) Two reverse pressure differential
1 A narrower width not less than 9 inches may be approved
relief valves (or their equivalent) to
when substantiated by tests found necessary by the
Administrator. automatically prevent a negative pres-
sure differential that would damage
[Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1987, as the structure. However, one valve is
amended by Amdt. 2346, 59 FR 25774, May 17, enough if it is of a design that reason-
1994] ably precludes its malfunctioning.
(3) A means by which the pressure
23.831 Ventilation.
differential can be rapidly equalized.
(a) Each passenger and crew compart- (4) An automatic or manual regulator
ment must be suitably ventilated. Car- for controlling the intake or exhaust
bon monoxide concentration may not airflow, or both, for maintaining the
exceed one part in 20,000 parts of air. required internal pressures and airflow
(b) For pressurized airplanes, the rates.
ventilating air in the flightcrew and (5) Instruments to indicate to the
passenger compartments must be free pilot the pressure differential, the
of harmful or hazardous concentrations cabin pressure altitude, and the rate of
of gases and vapors in normal oper- change of cabin pressure altitude.
ations and in the event of reasonably (6) Warning indication at the pilot
probable failures or malfunctioning of station to indicate when the safe or
the ventilating, heating, pressuriza- preset pressure differential is exceeded
tion, or other systems and equipment. and when a cabin pressure altitude of
If accumulation of hazardous quan- 10,000 feet is exceeded.
tities of smoke in the cockpit area is (7) A warning placard for the pilot if
reasonably probable, smoke evacuation the structure is not designed for pres-
must be readily accomplished starting sure differentials up to the maximum
with full pressurization and without relief valve setting in combination
depressurizing beyond safe limits. with landing loads.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 (8) A means to stop rotation of the
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23 compressor or to divert airflow from
34, 52 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. 2342, 56 the cabin if continued rotation of an
FR 354, Jan. 3, 1991] engine-driven cabin compressor or con-
PRESSURIZATION tinued flow of any compressor bleed air
will create a hazard if a malfunction
23.841 Pressurized cabins. occurs.
(a) If certification for operation over [Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31822, Nov. 19, 1973, as
25,000 feet is requested, the airplane amended by Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20,
must be able to maintain a cabin pres- 1976; Amdt. 2349, 61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996]
sure altitude of not more than 15,000
23.843 Pressurization tests.
feet in event of any probable failure or
malfunction in the pressurization sys- (a) Strength test. The complete pres-
tem. surized cabin, including doors, win-
(b) Pressurized cabins must have at dows, canopy, and valves, must be test-
least the following valves, controls, ed as a pressure vessel for the pressure
and indicators, for controlling cabin differential specified in 23.365(d).
pressure: (b) Functional tests. The following
(1) Two pressure relief valves to auto- functional tests must be performed:
matically limit the positive pressure (1) Tests of the functioning and ca-
differential to a predetermined value pacity of the positive and negative
at the maximum rate of flow delivered pressure differential valves, and of the
by the pressure source. The combined emergency release valve, to simulate
capacity of the relief valves must be the effects of closed regulator valves.

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23.851 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(2) Tests of the pressurization system (1) There must be an adequate num-
to show proper functioning under each ber of self-contained, removable ash-
possible condition of pressure, tem- trays; and
perature, and moisture, up to the max- (2) Where the crew compartment is
imum altitude for which certification separated from the passenger compart-
is requested. ment, there must be at least one illu-
(3) Flight tests, to show the perform- minated sign (using either letters or
ance of the pressure supply, pressure symbols) notifying all passengers when
and flow regulators, indicators, and smoking is prohibited. Signs which no-
warning signals, in steady and stepped tify when smoking is prohibited must
climbs and descents at rates cor- (i) When illuminated, be legible to
responding to the maximum attainable each passenger seated in the passenger
within the operating limitations of the cabin under all probable lighting condi-
airplane, up to the maximum altitude tions; and
for which certification is requested. (ii) Be so constructed that the crew
(4) Tests of each door and emergency can turn the illumination on and off;
exit, to show that they operate prop- and
erly after being subjected to the flight (d) In addition, for commuter cat-
tests prescribed in paragraph (b)(3) of egory airplanes the following require-
this section. ments apply:
(1) Each disposal receptacle for tow-
FIRE PROTECTION els, paper, or waste must be fully en-
23.851 Fire extinguishers. closed and constructed of at least fire
resistant materials and must contain
(a) There must be at least one hand fires likely to occur in it under normal
fire extinguisher for use in the pilot use. The ability of the disposal recep-
compartment that is located within tacle to contain those fires under all
easy access of the pilot while seated. probable conditions of wear, misalign-
(b) There must be at least one hand ment, and ventilation expected in serv-
fire extinguisher located conveniently ice must be demonstrated by test. A
in the passenger compartment placard containing the legible words
(1) Of each airplane accommodating No Cigarette Disposal must be lo-
more than 6 passengers; and cated on or near each disposal recep-
(2) Of each commuter category air- tacle door.
plane. (2) Lavatories must have No Smok-
(c) For hand fire extinguishers, the ing or No Smoking in Lavatory
following apply: placards located conspicuously on each
(1) The type and quantity of each ex- side of the entry door and self-con-
tinguishing agent used must be appro- tained, removable ashtrays located
priate to the kinds of fire likely to conspicuously on or near the entry side
occur where that agent is to be used. of each lavatory door, except that one
(2) Each extinguisher for use in a per- ashtray may serve more than one lava-
sonnel compartment must be designed tory door if it can be seen from the
to minimize the hazard of toxic gas cabin side of each lavatory door served.
concentrations. The placards must have red letters at
least 12 inch high on a white back-
[Doc. No. 26269, 58 FR 42165, Aug. 6, 1993] ground at least 1 inch high (a No
Smoking symbol may be included on
23.853 Passenger and crew compart- the placard).
ment interiors.
(3) Materials (including finishes or
For each compartment to be used by decorative surfaces applied to the ma-
the crew or passengers: terials) used in each compartment oc-
(a) The materials must be at least cupied by the crew or passengers must
flame-resistant; meet the following test criteria as ap-
(b) [Reserved] plicable:
(c) If smoking is to be prohibited, (i) Interior ceiling panels, interior
there must be a placard so stating, and wall panels, partitions, galley struc-
if smoking is to be allowed ture, large cabinet walls, structural

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.853

flooring, and materials used in the con- cargo and baggage tiedown equipment,
struction of stowage compartments including containers, bins, pallets, etc.,
(other than underseat stowage com- used in passenger or crew compart-
partments and compartments for stow- ments, may not have an average burn
ing small items such as magazines and rate greater than 2.5 inches per minute
maps) must be self-extinguishing when when tested horizontally in accordance
tested vertically in accordance with with the applicable portions of appen-
the applicable portions of appendix F dix F of this part or by other approved
of this part or by other equivalent equivalent methods.
methods. The average burn length may
(v) Except for electrical wire cable
not exceed 6 inches and the average
flame time after removal of the flame insulation, and for small parts (such as
source may not exceed 15 seconds. knobs, handles, rollers, fasteners, clips,
Drippings from the test specimen may grommets, rub strips, pulleys, and
not continue to flame for more than an small electrical parts) that the Admin-
average of 3 seconds after falling. istrator finds would not contribute sig-
(ii) Floor covering, textiles (includ- nificantly to the propagation of a fire,
ing draperies and upholstery), seat materials in items not specified in
cushions, padding, decorative and non- paragraphs (d)(3)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of
decorative coated fabrics, leather, this section may not have a burn rate
trays and galley furnishings, electrical greater than 4.0 inches per minute
conduit, thermal and acoustical insula- when tested horizontally in accordance
tion and insulation covering, air duct- with the applicable portions of appen-
ing, joint and edge covering, cargo dix F of this part or by other approved
compartment liners, insulation blan- equivalent methods.
kets, cargo covers and transparencies, (e) Lines, tanks, or equipment con-
molded and thermoformed parts, air taining fuel, oil, or other flammable
ducting joints, and trim strips (decora-
fluids may not be installed in such
tive and chafing), that are constructed
compartments unless adequately
of materials not covered in paragraph
(d)(3)(iv) of this section must be self ex- shielded, isolated, or otherwise pro-
tinguishing when tested vertically in tected so that any breakage or failure
accordance with the applicable por- of such an item would not create a haz-
tions of appendix F of this part or ard.
other approved equivalent methods. (f) Airplane materials located on the
The average burn length may not ex- cabin side of the firewall must be self-
ceed 8 inches and the average flame extinguishing or be located at such a
time after removal of the flame source distance from the firewall, or otherwise
may not exceed 15 seconds. Drippings protected, so that ignition will not
from the test specimen may not con- occur if the firewall is subjected to a
tinue to flame for more than an aver- flame temperature of not less than
age of 5 seconds after falling. 2,000 degrees F for 15 minutes. For self-
(iii) Motion picture film must be extinguishing materials (except elec-
safety film meeting the Standard Spec- trical wire and cable insulation and
ifications for Safety Photographic small parts that the Administrator
Film PH1.25 (available from the Amer- finds would not contribute signifi-
ican National Standards Institute, 1430 cantly to the propagation of a fire), a
Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018) or an vertifical self-extinguishing test must
FAA approved equivalent. If the film be conducted in accordance with appen-
travels through ducts, the ducts must
dix F of this part or an equivalent
meet the requirements of paragraph
method approved by the Adminis-
(d)(3)(ii) of this section.
(iv) Acrylic windows and signs, parts trator. The average burn length of the
constructed in whole or in part of elas- material may not exceed 6 inches and
tomeric materials, edge-lighted instru- the average flame time after removal
ment assemblies consisting of two or of the flame source may not exceed 15
more instruments in a common hous- seconds. Drippings from the material
ing, seatbelts, shoulder harnesses, and test specimen may not continue to

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23.855 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

flame for more than an average of 3 cordance with the applicable provisions
seconds after falling. of 23.1182 through 23.1191 and 23.1203:
(1) The region surrounding the heat-
[Amdt. 2314, 23 FR 31822, Nov. 19, 1973, as
amended by Amdt. 2323, 43 FR 50593, Oct. 30, er, if this region contains any flam-
1978; Amdt. 2325, 45 FR 7755, Feb. 4, 1980; mable fluid system components (ex-
Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1831, Jan. 15, 1987] cluding the heater fuel system) that
could
23.855 Cargo and baggage compart- (i) Be damaged by heater malfunc-
ment fire protection. tioning; or
(a) Sources of heat within each cargo (ii) Allow flammable fluids or vapors
and baggage compartment that are ca- to reach the heater in case of leakage.
pable of igniting the compartment con- (2) The region surrounding the heat-
tents must be shielded and insulated to er, if the heater fuel system has fit-
prevent such ignition. tings that, if they leaked, would allow
(b) Each cargo and baggage compart- fuel vapor to enter this region.
ment must be constructed of materials (3) The part of the ventilating air
that meet the appropriate provisions of passage that surrounds the combustion
23.853(d)(3). chamber.
(c) In addition, for commuter cat- (b) Ventilating air ducts. Each ven-
egory airplanes, each cargo and bag- tilating air duct passing through any
gage compartment must: fire region must be fireproof. In addi-
(1) Be located where the presence of a tion
fire would be easily discovered by the (1) Unless isolation is provided by
pilots when seated at their duty sta- fireproof valves or by equally effective
tion, or it must be equipped with a means, the ventilating air duct down-
smoke or fire detector system to give a stream of each heater must be fireproof
warning at the pilots station, and pro- for a distance great enough to ensure
vide sufficient access to enable a pilot that any fire originating in the heater
to effectively reach any part of the can be contained in the duct; and
compartment with the contents of a (2) Each part of any ventilating duct
hand held fire extinguisher, or passing through any region having a
(2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire flammable fluid system must be con-
detector system to give a warning at structed or isolated from that system
the pilots station and have ceiling and so that the malfunctioning of any com-
sidewall liners and floor panels con- ponent of that system cannot intro-
structed of materials that have been duce flammable fluids or vapors into
subjected to and meet the 45 degree the ventilating airstream.
angle test of appendix F of this part. (c) Combustion air ducts. Each com-
The flame may not penetrate (pass bustion air duct must be fireproof for a
through) the material during applica- distance great enough to prevent dam-
tion of the flame or subsequent to its age from backfiring or reverse flame
removal. The average flame time after propagation. In addition
removal of the flame source may not (1) No combustion air duct may have
exceed 15 seconds, and the average glow a common opening with the ventilating
time may not exceed 10 seconds. The airstream unless flames from backfires
compartment must be constructed to or reverse burning cannot enter the
provide fire protection that is not less ventilating airstream under any oper-
than that required of its individual ating condition, including reverse flow
panels; or or malfunctioning of the heater or its
associated components; and
(3) Be constructed and sealed to con-
(2) No combustion air duct may re-
tain any fire within the compartment.
strict the prompt relief of any backfire
[Doc. No. 27806, 61 FR 5167, Feb. 9, 1996] that, if so restricted, could cause heat-
er failure.
23.859 Combustion heater fire pro- (d) Heater controls: general. Provision
tection. must be made to prevent the hazardous
(a) Combustion heater fire regions. The accumulation of water or ice on or in
following combustion heater fire re- any heater control component, control
gions must be protected from fire in ac- system tubing, or safety control.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.863

(e) Heater safety controls. (1) Each (h) Heater fuel systems. Each heater
combustion heater must have the fol- fuel system must meet each power-
lowing safety controls: plant fuel system requirement affect-
(i) Means independent of the compo- ing safe heater operation. Each heater
nents for the normal continuous con- fuel system component within the ven-
trol of air temperature, airflow, and tilating airstream must be protected
fuel flow must be provided to auto- by shrouds so that no leakage from
matically shut off the ignition and fuel those components can enter the ven-
supply to that heater at a point remote tilating airstream.
from that heater when any of the fol- (i) Drains. There must be means to
lowing occurs: safely drain fuel that might accumu-
(A) The heater exchanger tempera- late within the combustion chamber or
ture exceeds safe limits. the heater exchanger. In addition
(B) The ventilating air temperature (1) Each part of any drain that oper-
exceeds safe limits. ates at high temperatures must be pro-
(C) The combustion airflow becomes tected in the same manner as heater
inadequate for safe operation. exhausts; and
(D) The ventilating airflow becomes (2) Each drain must be protected
inadequate for safe operation. from hazardous ice accumulation under
(ii) Means to warn the crew when any any operating condition.
heater whose heat output is essential [Amdt. 2327, 45 FR 70387, Oct. 23, 1980]
for safe operation has been shut off by
the automatic means prescribed in 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protec-
paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section. tion.
(2) The means for complying with (a) In each area where flammable
paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section for fluids or vapors might escape by leak-
any individual heater must age of a fluid system, there must be
(i) Be independent of components means to minimize the probability of
serving any other heater whose heat ignition of the fluids and vapors, and
output is essential for safe operations; the resultant hazard if ignition does
and occur.
(ii) Keep the heater off until re- (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of
started by the crew. this section must be shown by analysis
(f) Air intakes. Each combustion and or tests, and the following factors must
ventilating air intake must be located be considered:
so that no flammable fluids or vapors (1) Possible sources and paths of fluid
can enter the heater system under any leakage, and means of detecting leak-
operating condition age.
(1) During normal operation; or (2) Flammability characteristics of
(2) As a result of the malfunctioning fluids, including effects of any combus-
of any other component. tible or absorbing materials.
(g) Heater exhaust. Heater exhaust (3) Possible ignition sources, includ-
systems must meet the provisions of ing electrical faults, overheating of
23.1121 and 23.1123. In addition, there equipment, and malfunctioning of pro-
must be provisions in the design of the tective devices.
heater exhaust system to safely expel (4) Means available for controlling or
the products of combustion to prevent extinguishing a fire, such as stopping
the occurrence of flow of fluids, shutting down equip-
(1) Fuel leakage from the exhaust to ment, fireproof containment, or use of
surrounding compartments; extinguishing agents.
(2) Exhaust gas impingement on sur- (5) Ability of airplane components
rounding equipment or structure; that are critical to safety of flight to
(3) Ignition of flammable fluids by withstand fire and heat.
the exhaust, if the exhaust is in a com- (c) If action by the flight crew is re-
partment containing flammable fluid quired to prevent or counteract a fluid
lines; and fire (e.g. equipment shutdown or actu-
(4) Restrictions in the exhaust sys- ation of a fire extinguisher), quick act-
tem to relieve backfires that, if so re- ing means must be provided to alert
stricted, could cause heater failure. the crew.

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23.865 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(d) Each area where flammable fluids Subpart EPowerplant


or vapors might escape by leakage of a
fluid system must be identified and de- GENERAL
fined.
23.901 Installation.
[Amdt. 2323, 43 FR 50593, Oct. 30, 1978]
(a) For the purpose of this part, the
23.865 Fire protection of flight con- airplane powerplant installation in-
trols, engine mounts, and other cludes each component that
flight structure. (1) Is necessary for propulsion; and
(2) Affects the safety of the major
Flight controls, engine mounts, and
propulsive units.
other flight structure located in des-
(b) Each powerplant installation
ignated fire zones, or in adjacent areas
must be constructed and arranged to
that would be subjected to the effects
(1) Ensure safe operation to the max-
of fire in the designated fire zones, imum altitude for which approval is re-
must be constructed of fireproof mate- quested.
rial or be shielded so that they are ca- (2) Be accessible for necessary inspec-
pable of withstanding the effects of a tions and maintenance.
fire. Engine vibration isolators must (c) Engine cowls and nacelles must be
incorporate suitable features to ensure easily removable or openable by the
that the engine is retained if the non- pilot to provide adequate access to and
fireproof portions of the isolators dete- exposure of the engine compartment
riorate from the effects of a fire. for preflight checks.
[Doc. No. 27805, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996] (d) Each turbine engine installation
must be constructed and arranged to
ELECTRICAL BONDING AND LIGHTNING (1) Result in carcass vibration char-
PROTECTION acteristics that do not exceed those es-
tablished during the type certification
23.867 Electrical bonding and protec- of the engine.
tion against lightning and static (2) Ensure that the capability of the
electricity. installed engine to withstand the in-
(a) The airplane must be protected gestion of rain, hail, ice, and birds into
against catastrophic effects from light- the engine inlet is not less than the ca-
ning. pability established for the engine
(b) For metallic components, compli- itself under 23.903(a)(2).
ance with paragraph (a) of this section (e) The installation must comply
may be shown by with
(1) Bonding the components properly (1) The instructions provided under
to the airframe; or the engine type certificate and the pro-
(2) Designing the components so that peller type certificate.
a strike will not endanger the airplane. (2) The applicable provisions of this
(c) For nonmetallic components, subpart.
compliance with paragraph (a) of this (f) Each auxiliary power unit instal-
lation must meet the applicable por-
section may be shown by
tions of this part.
(1) Designing the components to min-
imize the effect of a strike; or [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
(2) Incorporating acceptable means of amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13,
diverting the resulting electrical cur- 1969; Amdt. 2318, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977;
Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6846, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt.
rent so as not to endanger the airplane. 2334, 52 FR 1832, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. 2334, 52
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, 1969] FR 34745, Sept. 14, 1987; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR
18970, Apr. 9, 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136,
MISCELLANEOUS Feb. 9, 1996; Amdt. 2353, 63 FR 14797, Mar. 26,
1998]
23.871 Leveling means.
23.903 Engines.
There must be means for determining
(a) Engine type certificate. (1) Each en-
when the airplane is in a level position
gine must have a type certificate and
on the ground.
must meet the applicable requirements
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, 1969] of part 34 of this chapter.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.903

(2) Each turbine engine and its in- chanical damage to the engine or air-
stallation must comply with one of the plane, as a result of starting the engine
following: in any conditions in which starting is
(i) Sections 33.76, 33.77 and 33.78 of to be permitted, is reduced to a min-
this chapter in effect on December 13, imum. Any techniques and associated
2000, or as subsequently amended; or limitations for engine starting must be
(ii) Sections 33.77 and 33.78 of this established and included in the Air-
chapter in effect on April 30, 1998, or as plane Flight Manual, approved manual
subsequently amended before Decem- material, or applicable operating plac-
ber 13, 2000; or ards. Means must be provided for
(iii) Section 33.77 of this chapter in (i) Restarting any engine of a multi-
effect on October 31, 1974, or as subse- engine airplane in flight, and
quently amended before April 30, 1998, (ii) Stopping any engine in flight,
unless that engines foreign object in- after engine failure, if continued en-
gestion service history has resulted in gine rotation would cause a hazard to
an unsafe condition; or the airplane.
(iv) Be shown to have a foreign object (2) In addition, for commuter cat-
ingestion service history in similar in- egory airplanes, the following apply:
stallation locations which has not re- (i) Each component of the stopping
sulted in any unsafe condition. system on the engine side of the fire-
NOTE: 33.77 of this chapter in effect on Oc- wall that might be exposed to fire must
tober 31, 1974, was published in 14 CFR parts be at least fire resistant.
1 to 59, Revised as of January 1, 1975. See 39 (ii) If hydraulic propeller feathering
FR 35467, October 1, 1974. systems are used for this purpose, the
(b) Turbine engine installations. For feathering lines must be at least fire
turbine engine installations resistant under the operating condi-
(1) Design precautions must be taken tions that may be expected to exist
to minimize the hazards to the airplane during feathering.
in the event of an engine rotor failure (e) Starting and stopping (turbine en-
or of a fire originating inside the en- gine). Turbine engine installations
gine which burns through the engine must comply with the following:
case. (1) The design of the installation
(2) The powerplant systems associ- must be such that risk of fire or me-
ated with engine control devices, sys- chanical damage to the engine or the
tems, and instrumentation must be de- airplane, as a result of starting the en-
signed to give reasonable assurance gine in any conditions in which start-
that those operating limitations that ing is to be permitted, is reduced to a
adversely affect turbine rotor struc- minimum. Any techniques and associ-
tural integrity will not be exceeded in ated limitations must be established
service. and included in the Airplane Flight
(c) Engine isolation. The powerplants Manual, approved manual material, or
must be arranged and isolated from applicable operating placards.
each other to allow operation, in at (2) There must be means for stopping
least one configuration, so that the combustion within any engine and for
failure or malfunction of any engine, or stopping the rotation of any engine if
the failure or malfunction (including continued rotation would cause a haz-
destruction by fire in the engine com- ard to the airplane. Each component of
partment) of any system that can af- the engine stopping system located in
fect an engine (other than a fuel tank any fire zone must be fire resistant. If
if only one fuel tank is installed), will hydraulic propeller feathering systems
not: are used for stopping the engine, the
(1) Prevent the continued safe oper- hydraulic feathering lines or hoses
ation of the remaining engines; or must be fire resistant.
(2) Require immediate action by any (3) It must be possible to restart an
crewmember for continued safe oper- engine in flight. Any techniques and
ation of the remaining engines. associated limitations must be estab-
(d) Starting and stopping (piston en- lished and included in the Airplane
gine). (1) The design of the installation Flight Manual, approved manual mate-
must be such that risk of fire or me- rial, or applicable operating placards.

255

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23.904 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(4) It must be demonstrated in flight propeller disc during any operating


that when restarting engines following condition must be suitably protected
a false start, all fuel or vapor is dis- to prevent ice formation, or it must be
charged in such a way that it does not shown that any ice shed into the pro-
constitute a fire hazard. peller disc will not create a hazardous
(f) Restart envelope. An altitude and condition.
airspeed envelope must be established (f) Each pusher propeller must be
for the airplane for in-flight engine re- marked so that the disc is conspicuous
starting and each installed engine under normal daylight ground condi-
must have a restart capability within tions.
that envelope. (g) If the engine exhaust gases are
(g) Restart capability. For turbine en- discharged into the pusher propeller
gine powered airplanes, if the min- disc, it must be shown by tests, or
imum windmilling speed of the en- analysis supported by tests, that the
gines, following the in-flight shutdown propeller is capable of continuous safe
of all engines, is insufficient to provide operation.
the necessary electrical power for en- (h) All engine cowling, access doors,
gine ignition, a power source inde- and other removable items must be de-
pendent of the engine-driven electrical signed to ensure that they will not sep-
power generating system must be pro- arate from the airplane and contact
vided to permit in-flight engine igni- the pusher propeller.
tion for restarting.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31822, Nov. 19, 1973, as amended by Amdt. 2326, 45 FR 60171, Sept.
amended by Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, 11, 1980; Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23, 1984;
1976; Amdt. 2326, 45 FR 60171, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18970, Apr. 9, 1993]
Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt.
2334, 52 FR 1832, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. 2340, 55 23.907 Propeller vibration.
FR 32861, Aug. 10, 1990; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR
18970, Apr. 9, 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, (a) Each propeller other than a con-
Feb. 9, 1996; Amdt. 2353, 63 FR 14798, Mar. 26, ventional fixed-pitch wooden propeller
1998; Amdt. 2354, 65 FR 55854, Sept. 14, 2000; must be shown to have vibration
Amdt. 2354, 68 FR 75391, Dec. 31, 2003] stresses, in normal operating condi-
tions, that do not exceed values that
23.904 Automatic power reserve sys- have been shown by the propeller man-
tem. ufacturer to be safe for continuous op-
If installed, an automatic power re- eration. This must be shown by
serve (APR) system that automatically (1) Measurement of stresses through
advances the power or thrust on the op- direct testing of the propeller;
erating engine(s), when any engine (2) Comparison with similar installa-
fails during takeoff, must comply with tions for which these measurements
appendix H of this part. have been made; or
[Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18970, Apr. 9, 1993] (3) Any other acceptable test method
or service experience that proves the
23.905 Propellers. safety of the installation.
(a) Each propeller must have a type (b) Proof of safe vibration character-
certificate. istics for any type of propeller, except
(b) Engine power and propeller shaft for conventional, fixed-pitch, wood pro-
rotational speed may not exceed the pellers must be shown where necessary.
limits for which the propeller is certifi- [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
cated. FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
(c) Each featherable propeller must 51, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996]
have a means to unfeather it in flight.
(d) Each component of the propeller 23.909 Turbocharger systems.
blade pitch control system must meet (a) Each turbocharger must be ap-
the requirements of 35.42 of this chap- proved under the engine type certifi-
ter. cate or it must be shown that the tur-
(e) All areas of the airplane forward bocharger system, while in its normal
of the pusher propeller that are likely engine installation and operating in
to accumulate and shed ice into the the engine environment

256

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.929

(1) Can withstand, without defect, an each propeller and the ground with the
endurance test of 150 hours that meets landing gear statically deflected and in
the applicable requirements of 33.49 of the level, normal takeoff, or taxing at-
this subchapter; and titude, whichever is most critical. In
(2) Will have no adverse effect upon addition, for each airplane with con-
the engine. ventional landing gear struts using
(b) Control system malfunctions, vi- fluid or mechanical means for absorb-
brations, and abnormal speeds and ing landing shocks, there must be posi-
temperatures expected in service may tive clearance between the propeller
not damage the turbocharger com- and the ground in the level takeoff at-
pressor or turbine. titude with the critical tire completely
(c) Each turbocharger case must be deflated and the corresponding landing
able to contain fragments of a com- gear strut bottomed. Positive clear-
pressor or turbine that fails at the ance for airplanes using leaf spring
highest speed that is obtainable with struts is shown with a deflection cor-
normal speed control devices inoper- responding to 1.5g.
ative. (b) Aft-mounted propellers. In addition
(d) Each intercooler installation, to the clearances specified in para-
where provided, must comply with the graph (a) of this section, an airplane
following with an aft mounted propeller must be
(1) The mounting provisions of the designed such that the propeller will
intercooler must be designed to with- not contact the runway surface when
stand the loads imposed on the system; the airplane is in the maximum pitch
(2) It must be shown that, under the attitude attainable during normal
installed vibration environment, the takeoffs and landings.
intercooler will not fail in a manner al-
(c) Water clearance. There must be a
lowing portions of the intercooler to be
clearance of at least 18 inches between
ingested by the engine; and
each propeller and the water, unless
(3) Airflow through the intercooler
compliance with 23.239 can be shown
must not discharge directly on any air-
with a lesser clearance.
plane component (e.g., windshield) un-
less such discharge is shown to cause (d) Structural clearance. There must
no hazard to the airplane under all op- be
erating conditions. (1) At least one inch radial clearance
(e) Engine power, cooling character- between the blade tips and the airplane
istics, operating limits, and procedures structure, plus any additional radial
affected by the turbocharger system in- clearance necessary to prevent harmful
stallations must be evaluated. Turbo- vibration;
charger operating procedures and limi- (2) At least one-half inch longitudinal
tations must be included in the Air- clearance between the propeller blades
plane Flight Manual in accordance or cuffs and stationary parts of the air-
with 23.1581. plane; and
(3) Positive clearance between other
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13092, Aug. 13, 1969, as
rotating parts of the propeller or spin-
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18970, Apr. 9,
1993] ner and stationary parts of the air-
plane.
23.925 Propeller clearance.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
Unless smaller clearances are sub- amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9,
stantiated, propeller clearances, with 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996;
the airplane at the most adverse com- Amdt. 2348, 61 FR 5148, Feb. 9, 1996]
bination of weight and center of grav-
ity, and with the propeller in the most 23.929 Engine installation ice protec-
adverse pitch position, may not be less tion.
than the following: Propellers (except wooden propellers)
(a) Ground clearance. There must be a and other components of complete en-
clearance of at least seven inches (for gine installations must be protected
each airplane with nose wheel landing against the accumulation of ice as nec-
gear) or nine inches (for each airplane essary to enable satisfactory func-
with tail wheel landing gear) between tioning without appreciable loss of

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23.933 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

thrust when operated in the icing con- flight, low-pitch position. The analysis
ditions for which certification is re- may include or be supported by the
quested. analysis made to show compliance with
[Amdt. 2314, 33 FR 31822, Nov. 19, 1973, as
35.21 for the type certification of the
amended by Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, propeller and associated installation
1996] components. Credit will be given for
pertinent analysis and testing com-
23.933 Reversing systems. pleted by the engine and propeller
(a) For turbojet and turbofan reversing manufacturers.
systems. (1) Each system intended for [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9, 1993, as
ground operation only must be de- amended by Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9,
signed so that, during any reversal in 1996]
flight, the engine will produce no more
than flight idle thrust. In addition, it 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine
must be shown by analysis or test, or thrust reverser systems tests.
both, that Thrust reverser systems of turbojet
(i) Each operable reverser can be re- or turbofan engines must meet the re-
stored to the forward thrust position; quirements of 33.97 of this chapter or
or it must be demonstrated by tests that
(ii) The airplane is capable of contin- engine operation and vibratory levels
ued safe flight and landing under any are not affected.
possible position of the thrust reverser.
(2) Each system intended for in-flight [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9, 1993]
use must be designed so that no unsafe 23.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting
condition will result during normal op- systems.
eration of the system, or from any fail-
ure, or likely combination of failures, (a) Turbopropeller-powered airplane
of the reversing system under any op- propeller-drag limiting systems must
erating condition including ground op- be designed so that no single failure or
eration. Failure of structural elements malfunction of any of the systems dur-
need not be considered if the prob- ing normal or emergency operation re-
ability of this type of failure is ex- sults in propeller drag in excess of that
tremely remote. for which the airplane was designed
(3) Each system must have a means under the structural requirements of
to prevent the engine from producing this part. Failure of structural ele-
more than idle thrust when the revers- ments of the drag limiting systems
ing system malfunctions; except that it need not be considered if the prob-
may produce any greater thrust that is ability of this kind of failure is ex-
shown to allow directional control to tremely remote.
be maintained, with aerodynamic (b) As used in this section, drag lim-
means alone, under the most critical iting systems include manual or auto-
reversing condition expected in oper- matic devices that, when actuated
ation. after engine power loss, can move the
(b) For propeller reversing systems. (1) propeller blades toward the feather po-
Each system must be designed so that sition to reduce windmilling drag to a
no single failure, likely combination of safe level.
failures or malfunction of the system [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093, Aug. 13, 1969, as
will result in unwanted reverse thrust amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9,
under any operating condition. Failure 1993]
of structural elements need not be con-
sidered if the probability of this type of 23.939 Powerplant operating charac-
failure is extremely remote. teristics.
(2) Compliance with paragraph (b)(1) (a) Turbine engine powerplant oper-
of this section must be shown by fail- ating characteristics must be inves-
ure analysis, or testing, or both, for tigated in flight to determine that no
propeller systems that allow the pro- adverse characteristics (such as stall,
peller blades to move from the flight surge, or flameout) are present, to a
low-pitch position to a position that is hazardous degree, during normal and
substantially less than the normal emergency operation within the range

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.954

of operating limitations of the airplane range with fuel initially saturated with
and of the engine. water at 80 F and having 0.75cc of free
(b) Turbocharged reciprocating en- water per gallon added and cooled to
gine operating characteristics must be the most critical condition for icing
investigated in flight to assure that no likely to be encountered in operation.
adverse characteristics, as a result of (d) Each fuel system for a turbine en-
an inadvertent overboost, surge, flood- gine powered airplane must meet the
ing, or vapor lock, are present during applicable fuel venting requirements of
normal or emergency operation of the part 34 of this chapter.
engine(s) throughout the range of oper-
[Amdt. 2315, 39 FR 35459, Oct. 1, 1974, as
ating limitations of both airplane and
amended by Amdt. 2340, 55 FR 32861, Aug. 10,
engine. 1990; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9, 1993]
(c) For turbine engines, the air inlet
system must not, as a result of airflow 23.953 Fuel system independence.
distortion during normal operation,
cause vibration harmful to the engine. (a) Each fuel system for a multien-
gine airplane must be arranged so that,
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093 Aug. 13, 1969, as in at least one system configuration,
amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31823, Nov. 19, the failure of any one component
1973; Amdt. 2318, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977;
(other than a fuel tank) will not result
Amdt. 2342, 56 FR 354, Jan. 3, 1991]
in the loss of power of more than one
23.943 Negative acceleration. engine or require immediate action by
the pilot to prevent the loss of power of
No hazardous malfunction of an en-
more than one engine.
gine, an auxiliary power unit approved
(b) If a single fuel tank (or series of
for use in flight, or any component or
fuel tanks interconnected to function
system associated with the powerplant
as a single fuel tank) is used on a
or auxiliary power unit may occur
multiengine airplane, the following
when the airplane is operated at the
must be provided:
negative accelerations within the
(1) Independent tank outlets for each
flight envelopes prescribed in 23.333.
engine, each incorporating a shut-off
This must be shown for the greatest
valve at the tank. This shutoff valve
value and duration of the acceleration
may also serve as the fire wall shutoff
expected in service.
valve required if the line between the
[Amdt. 2318, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977, as valve and the engine compartment does
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9, not contain more than one quart of
1993] fuel (or any greater amount shown to
FUEL SYSTEM be safe) that can escape into the engine
compartment.
23.951 General. (2) At least two vents arranged to
minimize the probability of both vents
(a) Each fuel system must be con-
becoming obstructed simultaneously.
structed and arranged to ensure fuel
flow at a rate and pressure established (3) Filler caps designed to minimize
for proper engine and auxiliary power the probability of incorrect installa-
unit functioning under each likely op- tion or inflight loss.
erating condition, including any ma- (4) A fuel system in which those parts
neuver for which certification is re- of the system from each tank outlet to
quested and during which the engine or any engine are independent of each
auxiliary power unit is permitted to be part of the system supplying fuel to
in operation. any other engine.
(b) Each fuel system must be ar- [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
ranged so that amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093 Aug. 13,
(1) No fuel pump can draw fuel from 1969; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9, 1993]
more than one tank at a time; or
(2) There are means to prevent intro- 23.954 Fuel system lightning protec-
ducing air into the system. tion.
(c) Each fuel system for a turbine en- The fuel system must be designed
gine must be capable of sustained oper- and arranged to prevent the ignition of
ation throughout its flow and pressure fuel vapor within the system by

259

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23.955 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

(a) Direct lightning strikes to areas (3) The fuel pressure, with main and
having a high probability of stroke at- emergency pumps operating simulta-
tachment; neously, must not exceed the fuel inlet
(b) Swept lightning strokes on areas pressure limits of the engine unless it
where swept strokes are highly prob- can be shown that no adverse effect oc-
able; and curs.
(c) Corona or streamering at fuel (d) Auxiliary fuel systems and fuel
vent outlets. transfer systems. Paragraphs (b), (c), and
(f) of this section apply to each auxil-
[Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093, Aug. 13, 1969]
iary and transfer system, except that
23.955 Fuel flow. (1) The required fuel flow rate must
be established upon the basis of max-
(a) General. The ability of the fuel imum continuous power and engine ro-
system to provide fuel at the rates tational speed, instead of takeoff power
specified in this section and at a pres- and fuel consumption; and
sure sufficient for proper engine oper- (2) If there is a placard providing op-
ation must be shown in the attitude erating instructions, a lesser flow rate
that is most critical with respect to may be used for transferring fuel from
fuel feed and quantity of unusable fuel. any auxiliary tank into a larger main
These conditions may be simulated in a tank. This lesser flow rate must be ade-
suitable mockup. In addition quate to maintain engine maximum
(1) The quantity of fuel in the tank continuous power but the flow rate
may not exceed the amount established must not overfill the main tank at
as the unusable fuel supply for that lower engine powers.
tank under 23.959(a) plus that quan- (e) Multiple fuel tanks. For recipro-
tity necessary to show compliance with cating engines that are supplied with
this section. fuel from more than one tank, if engine
(2) If there is a fuel flowmeter, it power loss becomes apparent due to
must be blocked during the flow test fuel depletion from the tank selected,
and the fuel must flow through the it must be possible after switching to
meter or its bypass. any full tank, in level flight, to obtain
(3) If there is a flowmeter without a 75 percent maximum continuous power
bypass, it must not have any probable on that engine in not more than
failure mode that would restrict fuel (1) 10 seconds for naturally aspirated
flow below the level required for this single-engine airplanes;
fuel demonstration. (2) 20 seconds for turbocharged sin-
(4) The fuel flow must include that gle-engine airplanes, provided that 75
flow necessary for vapor return flow, percent maximum continuous natu-
jet pump drive flow, and for all other rally aspirated power is regained with-
purposes for which fuel is used. in 10 seconds; or
(b) Gravity systems. The fuel flow rate (3) 20 seconds for multiengine air-
for gravity systems (main and reserve planes.
supply) must be 150 percent of the (f) Turbine engine fuel systems. Each
takeoff fuel consumption of the engine. turbine engine fuel system must pro-
(c) Pump systems. The fuel flow rate vide at least 100 percent of the fuel flow
for each pump system (main and re- required by the engine under each in-
serve supply) for each reciprocating en- tended operation condition and maneu-
gine must be 125 percent of the fuel ver. The conditions may be simulated
flow required by the engine at the max- in a suitable mockup. This flow must
imum takeoff power approved under (1) Be shown with the airplane in the
this part. most adverse fuel feed condition (with
(1) This flow rate is required for each respect to altitudes, attitudes, and
main pump and each emergency pump, other conditions) that is expected in
and must be available when the pump operation; and
is operating as it would during takeoff; (2) For multiengine airplanes, not-
(2) For each hand-operated pump, withstanding the lower flow rate al-
this rate must occur at not more than lowed by paragraph (d) of this section,
60 complete cycles (120 single strokes) be automatically uninterrupted with
per minute. respect to any engine until all the fuel

260

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.965

scheduled for use by that engine has that tank. Fuel system component fail-
been consumed. In addition ures need not be considered.
(i) For the purposes of this section, (b) The effect on the usable fuel
fuel scheduled for use by that engine quantity as a result of a failure of any
means all fuel in any tank intended for pump shall be determined.
use by a specific engine. [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093, Aug. 13, 1969, as
(ii) The fuel system design must amended by Amdt. 2318, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17,
clearly indicate the engine for which 1977; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996]
fuel in any tank is scheduled.
(iii) Compliance with this paragraph 23.961 Fuel system hot weather oper-
must require no pilot action after com- ation.
pletion of the engine starting phase of Each fuel system must be free from
operations. vapor lock when using fuel at its crit-
(3) For single-engine airplanes, re- ical temperature, with respect to vapor
quire no pilot action after completion formation, when operating the airplane
of the engine starting phase of oper- in all critical operating and environ-
ations unless means are provided that mental conditions for which approval
unmistakenly alert the pilot to take is requested. For turbine fuel, the ini-
any needed action at least five minutes tial temperature must be 110 F, 0 ,
prior to the needed action; such pilot +5 F or the maximum outside air tem-
action must not cause any change in perature for which approval is re-
engine operation; and such pilot action quested, whichever is more critical.
must not distract pilot attention from
essential flight duties during any phase [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18972, Apr. 9, 1993; 58
FR 27060, May 6, 1993]
of operations for which the airplane is
approved. 23.963 Fuel tanks: General.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as (a) Each fuel tank must be able to
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093, Aug. 13, withstand, without failure, the vibra-
1969; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18971, Apr. 9, 1993; tion, inertia, fluid, and structural loads
Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996]
that it may be subjected to in oper-
23.957 Flow between interconnected ation.
tanks. (b) Each flexible fuel tank liner must
be shown to be suitable for the par-
(a) It must be impossible, in a grav-
ticular application.
ity feed system with interconnected
(c) Each integral fuel tank must have
tank outlets, for enough fuel to flow
adequate facilities for interior inspec-
between the tanks to cause an overflow tion and repair.
of fuel from any tank vent under the (d) The total usable capacity of the
conditions in 23.959, except that full fuel tanks must be enough for at least
tanks must be used. one-half hour of operation at maximum
(b) If fuel can be pumped from one continuous power.
tank to another in flight, the fuel tank (e) Each fuel quantity indicator must
vents and the fuel transfer system be adjusted, as specified in 23.1337(b),
must be designed so that no structural to account for the unusable fuel supply
damage to any airplane component can determined under 23.959(a).
occur because of overfilling of any
tank. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt 23
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as 34, 52 FR 1832, Jan. 15, 1987; Amdt. 2343, 58
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18972, Apr. 9, FR 18972, Apr. 9, 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136,
1993] Feb. 9, 1996]

23.959 Unusable fuel supply. 23.965 Fuel tank tests.


(a) The unusable fuel supply for each (a) Each fuel tank must be able to
tank must be established as not less withstand the following pressures with-
than that quantity at which the first out failure or leakage:
evidence of malfunctioning occurs (1) For each conventional metal tank
under the most adverse fuel feed condi- and nonmetallic tank with walls not
tion occurring under each intended op- supported by the airplane structure, a
eration and flight maneuver involving pressure of 3.5 p.s.i., or that pressure

261

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23.967 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

developed during maximum ultimate of vibration must be the test fre-


acceleration with a full tank, which- quency.
ever is greater. (iii) If more than one frequency of vi-
(2) For each integral tank, the pres- bration resulting from any rpm within
sure developed during the maximum the normal operating range of engine
limit acceleration of the airplane with or propeller speeds is critical, the most
a full tank, with simultaneous applica- critical of these frequencies must be
tion of the critical limit structural the test frequency.
loads. (4) Under paragraph (b)(3) (ii) and (iii)
(3) For each nonmetallic tank with of this section, the time of test must be
walls supported by the airplane struc- adjusted to accomplish the same num-
ture and constructed in an acceptable ber of vibration cycles that would be
manner using acceptable basic tank accomplished in 25 hours at the fre-
material, and with actual or simulated quency specified in paragraph (b)(3)(i)
support conditions, a pressure of 2 p.s.i. of this section.
for the first tank of a specific design. (5) During the test, the tank assem-
The supporting structure must be de- bly must be rocked at a rate of 16 to 20
signed for the critical loads occurring complete cycles per minute, through
in the flight or landing strength condi- an angle of 15 on either side of the hor-
tions combined with the fuel pressure izontal (30 total), about an axis par-
loads resulting from the corresponding allel to the axis of the fuselage, for 25
accelerations. hours.
(c) Each integral tank using methods
(b) Each fuel tank with large, unsup-
of construction and sealing not pre-
ported, or unstiffened flat sur-
viously proven to be adequate by test
faces,whose failure or deformation
data or service experience must be able
could cause fuel leakage, must be able
to withstand the vibration test speci-
to withstand the following test without
fied in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of
leakage, failure, or excessive deforma-
this section.
tion of the tank walls:
(d) Each tank with a nonmetallic
(1) Each complete tank assembly and liner must be subjected to the sloshing
its support must be vibration tested test outlined in paragraph (b)(5) of this
while mounted to simulate the actual section, with the fuel at room tempera-
installation. ture. In addition, a specimen liner of
(2) Except as specified in paragraph the same basic construction as that to
(b)(4) of this section, the tank assembly be used in the airplane must, when in-
must be vibrated for 25 hours at a total stalled in a suitable test tank, with-
displacement of not less than 132 of an stand the sloshing test with fuel at a
inch (unless another displacement is temperature of 110 F.
substantiated) while 23 filled with
water or other suitable test fluid. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18972, Apr. 9,
(3) The test frequency of vibration
1993; Amdt. 2343, 61 FR 253, Jan. 4, 1996;
must be as follows: Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, Feb. 9, 1996]
(i) If no frequency of vibration result-
ing from any rpm within the normal 23.967 Fuel tank installation.
operating range of engine or propeller (a) Each fuel tank must be supported
speeds is critical, the test frequency of so that tank loads are not con-
vibration is: centrated. In addition
(A) The number of cycles per minute (1) There must be pads, if necessary,
obtained by multiplying the maximum to prevent chafing between each tank
continuous propeller speed in rpm by and its supports;
0.9 for propeller-driven airplanes, and (2) Padding must be nonabsorbent or
(B) For non-propeller driven air- treated to prevent the absorption of
planes the test frequency of vibration fuel;
is 2,000 cycles per minute. (3) If a flexible tank liner is used, it
(ii) If only one frequency of vibration must be supported so that it is not re-
resulting from any rpm within the nor- quired to withstand fluid loads;
mal operating range of engine or pro- (4) Interior surfaces adjacent to the
peller speeds is critical, that frequency liner must be smooth and free from

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.971

projections that could cause wear, un- (ii) The most critical landing gear leg
less collapsed and the other landing gear
(i) Provisions are made for protection legs extended.
of the liner at those points; or In showing compliance with paragraph
(ii) The construction of the liner (e)(2) of this section, the tearing away
itself provides such protection; and of an engine mount must be considered
(5) A positive pressure must be main- unless all the engines are installed
tained within the vapor space of each above the wing or on the tail or fuse-
bladder cell under any condition of op- lage of the airplane.
eration, except for a particular condi-
tion for which it is shown that a zero [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
or negative pressure will not cause the amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13903, Aug. 13,
bladder cell to collapse; and 1969; Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31823, Nov. 19, 1973;
Amdt. 2318, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt.
(6) Syphoning of fuel (other than 2326, 45 FR 60171, Sept. 11, 1980; Amdt. 2336,
minor spillage) or collapse of bladder 53 FR 30815, Aug. 15, 1988; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR
fuel cells may not result from improper 18972, Apr. 9, 1993]
securing or loss of the fuel filler cap.
(b) Each tank compartment must be 23.969 Fuel tank expansion space.
ventilated and drained to prevent the
Each fuel tank must have an expan-
accumulation of flammable fluids or
sion space of not less than two percent
vapors. Each compartment adjacent to
a tank that is an integral part of the of the tank capacity, unless the tank
airplane structure must also be venti- vent discharges clear of the airplane
lated and drained. (in which case no expansion space is re-
(c) No fuel tank may be on the engine quired). It must be impossible to fill
side of the firewall. There must be at the expansion space inadvertently with
least one-half inch of clearance be- the airplane in the normal ground atti-
tween the fuel tank and the firewall. tude.
No part of the engine nacelle skin that
lies immediately behind a major air 23.971 Fuel tank sump.
opening from the engine compartment (a) Each fuel tank must have a drain-
may act as the wall of an integral able sump with an effective capacity,
tank. in the normal ground and flight atti-
(d) Each fuel tank must be isolated tudes, of 0.25 percent of the tank capac-
from personnel compartments by a ity, or 116 gallon, whichever is greater.
fume-proof and fuel-proof enclosure (b) Each fuel tank must allow drain-
that is vented and drained to the exte- age of any hazardous quantity of water
rior of the airplane. The required en- from any part of the tank to its sump
closure must sustain any personnel with the airplane in the normal ground
compartment pressurization loads attitude.
without permanent deformation or fail- (c) Each reciprocating engine fuel
ure under the conditions of 23.365 and system must have a sediment bowl or
23.843 of this part. A bladder-type fuel chamber that is accessible for drain-
cell, if used, must have a retaining
age; has a capacity of 1 ounce for every
shell at least equivalent to a metal fuel
20 gallons of fuel tank capacity; and
tank in structural integrity.
each fuel tank outlet is located so that,
(e) Fuel tanks must be designed, lo-
in the normal flight attitude, water
cated, and installed so as to retain fuel:
will drain from all parts of the tank ex-
(1) When subjected to the inertia
cept the sump to the sediment bowl or
loads resulting from the ultimate stat-
chamber.
ic load factors prescribed in
23.561(b)(2) of this part; and (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and
sediment chamber drain required by
(2) Under conditions likely to occur
when the airplane lands on a paved paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this sec-
runway at a normal landing speed tion must comply with the drain provi-
under each of the following conditions: sions of 23.999(b)(1) and (b)(2).
(i) The airplane in a normal landing [Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18972, Apr. 9, 1993; 58
attitude and its landing gear retracted. FR 27060, May 6, 1993]

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23.973 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

23.973 Fuel tank filler connection. age is provided. Any drain valve in-
(a) Each fuel tank filler connection stalled must be accessible for drainage;
must be marked as prescribed in (6) No vent may terminate at a point
23.1557(c). where the discharge of fuel from the
(b) Spilled fuel must be prevented vent outlet will constitute a fire haz-
from entering the fuel tank compart- ard or from which fumes may enter
ment or any part of the airplane other personnel compartments; and
than the tank itself. (7) Vents must be arranged to pre-
(c) Each filler cap must provide a vent the loss of fuel, except fuel dis-
fuel-tight seal for the main filler open- charged because of thermal expansion,
ing. However, there may be small open- when the airplane is parked in any di-
ings in the fuel tank cap for venting rection on a ramp having a one-percent
purposes or for the purpose of allowing slope.
passage of a fuel gauge through the cap (b) Each carburetor with vapor elimi-
provided such openings comply with nation connections and each fuel injec-
the requirements of 23.975(a). tion engine employing vapor return
(d) Each fuel filling point, except provisions must have a separate vent
pressure fueling connection points, line to lead vapors back to the top of
must have a provision for electrically one of the fuel tanks. If there is more
bonding the airplane to ground fueling than one tank and it is necessary to
equipment. use these tanks in a definite sequence
(e) For airplanes with engines requir- for any reason, the vapor vent line
ing gasoline as the only permissible must lead back to the fuel tank to be
fuel, the inside diameter of the fuel used first, unless the relative capac-
filler opening must be no larger than ities of the tanks are such that return
2.36 inches. to another tank is preferable.
(f) For airplanes with turbine en- (c) For acrobatic category airplanes,
gines, the inside diameter of the fuel excessive loss of fuel during acrobatic
filler opening must be no smaller than maneuvers, including short periods of
2.95 inches. inverted flight, must be prevented. It
must be impossible for fuel to siphon
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
from the vent when normal flight has
FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
18, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt. 2343, 58 been resumed after any acrobatic ma-
FR 18972, Apr. 9, 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136, neuver for which certification is re-
Feb. 9, 1996] quested.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30
23.975 Fuel tank vents and carbu- FR 258, Jan. 9, 1965, as amended by Amdt. 23
retor vapor vents. 18, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt. 2329, 49
(a) Each fuel tank must be vented FR 6847, Feb. 23, 1984; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR
from the top part of the expansion 18973, Apr. 9, 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5136,
space. In addition Feb. 9, 1996]
(1) Each vent outlet must be located
and constructed in a manner that mini- 23.977 Fuel tank outlet.
mizes the possibility of its being ob- (a) There must be a fuel strainer for
structed by ice or other foreign matter; the fuel tank outlet or for the booster
(2) Each vent must be constructed to pump. This strainer must
prevent siphoning of fuel during nor- (1) For reciprocating engine powered
mal operation; airplanes, have 8 to 16 meshes per inch;
(3) The venting capacity must allow and
the rapid relief of excessive differences (2) For turbine engine powered air-
of pressure between the interior and planes, prevent the passage of any ob-
exterior of the tank; ject that could restrict fuel flow or
(4) Airspaces of tanks with inter- damage any fuel system component.
connected outlets must be inter- (b) The clear area of each fuel tank
connected; outlet strainer must be at least five
(5) There may be no point in any vent times the area of the outlet line.
line where moisture can accumulate (c) The diameter of each strainer
with the airplane in either the ground must be at least that of the fuel tank
or level flight attitudes, unless drain- outlet.

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.993

(d) Each strainer must be accessible of this section), is a main pump. In ad-
for inspection and cleaning. dition
[Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55465, Dec. 20, 1976, as (i) There must be at least one main
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, pump for each turbine engine;
1993] (ii) The power supply for the main
pump for each engine must be inde-
23.979 Pressure fueling systems. pendent of the power supply for each
For pressure fueling systems, the fol- main pump for any other engine; and
lowing apply: (iii) For each main pump, provision
(a) Each pressure fueling system fuel must be made to allow the bypass of
manifold connection must have means each positive displacement fuel pump
to prevent the escape of hazardous other than a fuel injection pump ap-
quantities of fuel from the system if proved as part of the engine.
the fuel entry valve fails. (b) Emergency pumps. There must be
(b) An automatic shutoff means must an emergency pump immediately avail-
be provided to prevent the quantity of able to supply fuel to the engine if any
fuel in each tank from exceeding the main pump (other than a fuel injection
maximum quantity approved for that pump approved as part of an engine)
tank. This means must fails. The power supply for each emer-
(1) Allow checking for proper shutoff gency pump must be independent of the
operation before each fueling of the power supply for each corresponding
tank; and main pump.
(2) For commuter category airplanes, (c) Warning means. If both the main
indicate at each fueling station, a fail- pump and emergency pump operate
ure of the shutoff means to stop the continuously, there must be a means to
fuel flow at the maximum quantity ap- indicate to the appropriate flight crew-
proved for that tank. members a malfunction of either pump.
(c) A means must be provided to pre- (d) Operation of any fuel pump may
vent damage to the fuel system in the not affect engine operation so as to
event of failure of the automatic shut- create a hazard, regardless of the en-
off means prescribed in paragraph (b) gine power or thrust setting or the
of this section. functional status of any other fuel
(d) All parts of the fuel system up to pump.
the tank which are subjected to fueling
pressures must have a proof pressure of [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
1.33 times, and an ultimate pressure of amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13093, Aug. 13,
at least 2.0 times, the surge pressure 1969; Amdt. 2326, 45 FR 60171, Sept. 11, 1980;
Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993]
likely to occur during fueling.
[Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31823, Nov. 19, 1973, as 23.993 Fuel system lines and fittings.
amended by Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5137, Feb. 9,
(a) Each fuel line must be installed
1996]
and supported to prevent excessive vi-
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS bration and to withstand loads due to
fuel pressure and accelerated flight
23.991 Fuel pumps. conditions.
(a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the (b) Each fuel line connected to com-
following apply: ponents of the airplane between which
(1) For reciprocating engine installa- relative motion could exist must have
tions having fuel pumps to supply fuel provisions for flexibility.
to the engine, at least one pump for (c) Each flexible connection in fuel
each engine must be directly driven by lines that may be under pressure and
the engine and must meet 23.955. This subjected to axial loading must use
pump is a main pump. flexible hose assemblies.
(2) For turbine engine installations, (d) Each flexible hose must be shown
each fuel pump required for proper en- to be suitable for the particular appli-
gine operation, or required to meet the cation.
fuel system requirements of this sub- (e) No flexible hose that might be ad-
part (other than those in paragraph (b) versely affected by exposure to high

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23.994 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

temperatures may be used where exces- through the OFF position when
sive temperatures will exist during op- changing from one tank to another.
eration or after engine shutdown. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31823, Nov. 19,
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1973; Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55465, Dec. 20, 1976;
1993] Amdt. 2318, 42 FR 15041, Mar. 17, 1977; Amdt.
2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23, 1984]
23.994 Fuel system components.
23.997 Fuel strainer or filter.
Fuel system components in an engine
There must be a fuel strainer or filter
nacelle or in the fuselage must be pro-
between the fuel tank outlet and the
tected from damage which could result inlet of either the fuel metering device
in spillage of enough fuel to constitute or an engine driven positive displace-
a fire hazard as a result of a wheels-up ment pump, whichever is nearer the
landing on a paved runway. fuel tank outlet. This fuel strainer or
[Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23, 1984] filter must
(a) Be accessible for draining and
23.995 Fuel valves and controls. cleaning and must incorporate a screen
or element which is easily removable;
(a) There must be a means to allow
(b) Have a sediment trap and drain
appropriate flight crew members to
except that it need not have a drain if
rapidly shut off, in flight, the fuel to
the strainer or filter is easily remov-
each engine individually. able for drain purposes;
(b) No shutoff valve may be on the (c) Be mounted so that its weight is
engine side of any firewall. In addition, not supported by the connecting lines
there must be means to or by the inlet or outlet connections of
(1) Guard against inadvertent oper- the strainer or filter itself, unless ade-
ation of each shutoff valve; and quate strength margins under all load-
(2) Allow appropriate flight crew ing conditions are provided in the lines
members to reopen each valve rapidly and connections; and
after it has been closed. (d) Have the capacity (with respect to
(c) Each valve and fuel system con- operating limitations established for
trol must be supported so that loads re- the engine) to ensure that engine fuel
sulting from its operation or from ac- system functioning is not impaired,
celerated flight conditions are not with the fuel contaminated to a degree
transmitted to the lines connected to (with respect to particle size and den-
the valve. sity) that is greater than that estab-
(d) Each valve and fuel system con- lished for the engine during its type
trol must be installed so that gravity certification.
and vibration will not affect the se- (e) In addition, for commuter cat-
lected position. egory airplanes, unless means are pro-
vided in the fuel system to prevent the
(e) Each fuel valve handle and its
accumulation of ice on the filter, a
connections to the valve mechanism means must be provided to automati-
must have design features that mini- cally maintain the fuel flow if ice clog-
mize the possibility of incorrect instal- ging of the filter occurs.
lation.
(f) Each check valve must be con- [Amdt. 2315, 39 FR 35459, Oct. 1, 1974, as
amended by Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23,
structed, or otherwise incorporate pro-
1984; Amdt. 2334, 52 FR 1832, Jan. 15, 1987;
visions, to preclude incorrect assembly Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993]
or connection of the valve.
(g) Fuel tank selector valves must 23.999 Fuel system drains.
(1) Require a separate and distinct (a) There must be at least one drain
action to place the selector in the to allow safe drainage of the entire fuel
OFF position; and system with the airplane in its normal
(2) Have the tank selector positions ground attitude.
located in such a manner that it is im- (b) Each drain required by paragraph
possible for the selector to pass (a) of this section and 23.971 must

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.1011

(1) Discharge clear of all parts of the (4) The jettisoning operation does not
airplane; adversely affect the controllability of
(2) Have a drain valve the airplane.
(i) That has manual or automatic (d) For reciprocating engine powered
means for positive locking in the airplanes, the jettisoning system must
closed position; be designed so that it is not possible to
(ii) That is readily accessible; jettison the fuel in the tanks used for
(iii) That can be easily opened and takeoff and landing below the level al-
closed; lowing 45 minutes flight at 75 percent
(iv) That allows the fuel to be caught
maximum continuous power. However,
for examination;
if there is an auxiliary control inde-
(v) That can be observed for proper
pendent of the main jettisoning con-
closing; and
(vi) That is either located or pro- trol, the system may be designed to
tected to prevent fuel spillage in the jettison all the fuel.
event of a landing with landing gear re- (e) For turbine engine powered air-
tracted. planes, the jettisoning system must be
designed so that it is not possible to
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as jettison fuel in the tanks used for
amended by Amdt. 2317, 41 FR 55465, Dec. 20,
1976; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993]
takeoff and landing below the level al-
lowing climb from sea level to 10,000
23.1001 Fuel jettisoning system. feet and thereafter allowing 45 minutes
(a) If the design landing weight is cruise at a speed for maximum range.
less than that permitted under the re- (f) The fuel jettisoning valve must be
quirements of 23.473(b), the airplane designed to allow flight crewmembers
must have a fuel jettisoning system in- to close the valve during any part of
stalled that is able to jettison enough the jettisoning operation.
fuel to bring the maximum weight (g) Unless it is shown that using any
down to the design landing weight. The means (including flaps, slots, and slats)
average rate of fuel jettisoning must be for changing the airflow across or
at least 1 percent of the maximum around the wings does not adversely af-
weight per minute, except that the fect fuel jettisoning, there must be a
time required to jettison the fuel need placard, adjacent to the jettisoning
not be less than 10 minutes. control, to warn flight crewmembers
(b) Fuel jettisoning must be dem- against jettisoning fuel while the
onstrated at maximum weight with means that change the airflow are
flaps and landing gear up and in being used.
(1) A power-off glide at 1.4 VS1; (h) The fuel jettisoning system must
(2) A climb, at the speed at which the be designed so that any reasonably
one-engine-inoperative enroute climb probable single malfunction in the sys-
data have been established in accord- tem will not result in a hazardous con-
ance with 23.69(b), with the critical dition due to unsymmetrical jetti-
engine inoperative and the remaining soning of, or inability to jettison, fuel.
engines at maximum continuous
power; and [Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13094, Aug. 13, 1969, as
(3) Level flight at 1.4 VS1, if the re- amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9,
sults of the tests in the conditions 1993; Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5137, Feb. 9, 1996]
specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of
OIL SYSTEM
this section show that this condition
could be critical. 23.1011 General.
(c) During the flight tests prescribed
in paragraph (b) of this section, it must (a) For oil systems and components
be shown that that have been approved under the en-
(1) The fuel jettisoning system and gine airworthiness requirements and
its operation are free from fire hazard; where those requirements are equal to
(2) The fuel discharges clear of any or more severe than the corresponding
part of the airplane; requirements of subpart E of this part,
(3) Fuel or fumes do not enter any that approval need not be duplicated.
parts of the airplane; and Where the requirements of subpart E of

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23.1013 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

this part are more severe, substan- must have provisions for fitting a
tiation must be shown to the require- drain.
ments of subpart E of this part. (d) Vent. Oil tanks must be vented as
(b) Each engine must have an inde- follows:
pendent oil system that can supply it (1) Each oil tank must be vented to
with an appropriate quantity of oil at a the engine from the top part of the ex-
temperature not above that safe for pansion space so that the vent connec-
continuous operation. tion is not covered by oil under any
(c) The usable oil tank capacity may normal flight condition.
not be less than the product of the en- (2) Oil tank vents must be arranged
durance of the airplane under critical so that condensed water vapor that
operating conditions and the maximum might freeze and obstruct the line can-
oil consumption of the engine under not accumulate at any point.
the same conditions, plus a suitable (3) For acrobatic category airplanes,
margin to ensure adequate circulation there must be means to prevent haz-
and cooling. ardous loss of oil during acrobatic ma-
(d) For an oil system without an oil neuvers, including short periods of in-
transfer system, only the usable oil verted flight.
tank capacity may be considered. The (e) Outlet. No oil tank outlet may be
amount of oil in the engine oil lines, enclosed by any screen or guard that
the oil radiator, and the feathering re- would reduce the flow of oil below a
serve, may not be considered. safe value at any operating tempera-
(e) If an oil transfer system is used,
ture. No oil tank outlet diameter may
and the transfer pump can pump some
be less than the diameter of the engine
of the oil in the transfer lines into the
oil pump inlet. Each oil tank used with
main engine oil tanks, the amount of
a turbine engine must have means to
oil in these lines that can be pumped
prevent entrance into the tank itself,
by the transfer pump may be included
or into the tank outlet, of any object
in the oil capacity.
that might obstruct the flow of oil
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as through the system. There must be a
amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, shutoff valve at the outlet of each oil
1993] tank used with a turbine engine, unless
the external portion of the oil system
23.1013 Oil tanks.
(including oil tank supports) is fire-
(a) Installation. Each oil tank must be proof.
installed to (f) Flexible liners. Each flexible oil
(1) Meet the requirements of 23.967 tank liner must be of an acceptable
(a) and (b); and kind.
(2) Withstand any vibration, inertia, (g) Each oil tank filler cap of an oil
and fluid loads expected in operation. tank that is used with an engine must
(b) Expansion space. Oil tank expan- provide an oiltight seal.
sion space must be provided so that
(1) Each oil tank used with a recipro- [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
cating engine has an expansion space of amended by Amdt. 2315, 39 FR 35459 Oct. 1,
not less than the greater of 10 percent 1974; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993;
Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5137, Feb. 9, 1996]
of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and
each oil tank used with a turbine en- 23.1015 Oil tank tests.
gine has an expansion space of not less
than 10 percent of the tank capacity; Each oil tank must be tested under
and 23.965, except that
(2) It is impossible to fill the expan- (a) The applied pressure must be five
sion space inadvertently with the air- p.s.i. for the tank construction instead
plane in the normal ground attitude. of the pressures specified in 23.965(a);
(c) Filler connection. Each oil tank (b) For a tank with a nonmetallic
filler connection must be marked as liner the test fluid must be oil rather
specified in 23.1557(c). Each recessed than fuel as specified in 23.965(d), and
oil tank filler connection of an oil tank the slosh test on a specimen liner must
used with a turbine engine, that can re- be conducted with the oil at 250 F.;
tain any appreciable quantity of oil, and

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.1027

(c) For pressurized tanks used with a lished for the engine for its type cer-
turbine engine, the test pressure may tification.
not be less than 5 p.s.i. plus the max- (3) The oil strainer or filter, unless it
imum operating pressure of the tank. is installed at an oil tank outlet, must
incorporate a means to indicate con-
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 2315, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, tamination before it reaches the capac-
1974] ity established in accordance with
paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
23.1017 Oil lines and fittings. (4) The bypass of a strainer or filter
(a) Oil lines. Oil lines must meet must be constructed and installed so
23.993 and must accommodate a flow that the release of collected contami-
of oil at a rate and pressure adequate nants is minimized by appropriate lo-
for proper engine functioning under cation of the bypass to ensure that col-
any normal operating condition. lected contaminants are not in the by-
(b) Breather lines. Breather lines must pass flow path.
be arranged so that (5) An oil strainer or filter that has
(1) Condensed water vapor or oil that no bypass, except one that is installed
might freeze and obstruct the line can- at an oil tank outlet, must have a
not accumulate at any point; means to connect it to the warning
(2) The breather discharge will not system required in 23.1305(c)(9).
constitute a fire hazard if foaming oc- (b) Each oil strainer or filter in a
curs, or cause emitted oil to strike the powerplant installation using recipro-
pilots windshield; cating engines must be constructed and
(3) The breather does not discharge installed so that oil will flow at the
into the engine air induction system; normal rate through the rest of the
and system with the strainer or filter ele-
ment completely blocked.
(4) For acrobatic category airplanes,
there is no excessive loss of oil from [Amdt. 2315, 39 FR 35460, Oct. 1, 1974, as
the breather during acrobatic maneu- amended by Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23,
vers, including short periods of in- 1984; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993]
verted flight.
(5) The breather outlet is protected 23.1021 Oil system drains.
against blockage by ice or foreign mat- A drain (or drains) must be provided
ter. to allow safe drainage of the oil sys-
tem. Each drain must
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13094, Aug. 13,
(a) Be accessible;
1969; Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31823, Nov. 19, 1973] (b) Have drain valves, or other clo-
sures, employing manual or automatic
23.1019 Oil strainer or filter. shut-off means for positive locking in
the closed position; and
(a) Each turbine engine installation
(c) Be located or protected to prevent
must incorporate an oil strainer or fil-
inadvertent operation.
ter through which all of the engine oil
flows and which meets the following re- [Amdt. 2329, 49 FR 6847, Feb. 23, 1984, as
quirements: amended by Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9,
(1) Each oil strainer or filter that has 1993]
a bypass, must be constructed and in-
23.1023 Oil radiators.
stalled so that oil will flow at the nor-
mal rate through the rest of the sys- Each oil radiator and its supporting
tem with the strainer or filter com- structures must be able to withstand
pletely blocked. the vibration, inertia, and oil pressure
(2) The oil strainer or filter must loads to which it would be subjected in
have the capacity (with respect to op- operation.
erating limitations established for the
engine) to ensure that engine oil sys- 23.1027 Propeller feathering system.
tem functioning is not impaired when (a) If the propeller feathering system
the oil is contaminated to a degree uses engine oil and that oil supply can
(with respect to particle size and den- become depleted due to failure of any
sity) that is greater than that estab- part of the oil system, a means must be

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23.1041 14 CFR Ch. I (1104 Edition)

incorporated to reserve enough oil to operation with the turbocharger is re-


operate the feathering system. quested.
(b) The amount of reserved oil must (5) For a reciprocating engine, the
be enough to accomplish feathering mixture settings must be the leanest
and must be available only to the recommended for climb.
feathering pump. (b) Maximum ambient atmospheric tem-
(c) The ability of the system to ac- perature. A maximum ambient atmos-
complish feathering with the reserved pheric temperature corresponding to
oil must be shown. sea level conditions of at least 100 de-
(d) Provision must be made to pre- grees F must be established. The as-
vent sludge or other foreign matter sumed temperature lapse rate is 3.6 de-
from affecting the safe operation of the grees F per thousand feet of altitude
propeller feathering system. above sea level until a temperature of
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as 69.7 degrees F is reached, above which
amended by Amdt. 2314, 38 FR 31823, Nov. 19, altitude the temperature is considered
1973; Amdt. 2343, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993] constant at 69.7 degrees F. However,
for winterization installations, the ap-
COOLING plicant may select a maximum ambi-
ent atmospheric temperature cor-
23.1041 General. responding to sea level conditions of
The powerplant and auxiliary power less than 100 degrees F.
unit cooling provisions must maintain (c) Correction factor (except cylinder
the temperatures of powerplant compo- barrels). Temperatures of engine fluids
nents and engine fluids, and auxiliary and powerplant components (except
power unit components and fluids with- cylinder barrels) for which temperature
in the limits established for those com- limits are established, must be cor-
ponents and fluids under the most ad- rected by adding to them the difference
verse ground, water, and flight oper- between the maximum ambient atmos-
ations to the maximum altitude and pheric temperature for the relevant al-
maximum ambient atmospheric tem- titude for which approval has been re-
perature conditions for which approval quested and the temperature of the am-
is requested, and after normal engine bient air at the time of the first occur-
and auxiliary power unit shutdown. rence of the maximum fluid or compo-
[Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18973, Apr. 9, 1993, as nent temperature recorded during the
amended by Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5137, Feb. 9, cooling test.
1996] (d) Correction factor for cylinder barrel
temperatures. Cylinder barrel tempera-
23.1043 Cooling tests. tures must be corrected by adding to
(a) General. Compliance with 23.1041 them 0.7 times the difference between
must be shown on the basis of tests, for the maximum ambient atmospheric
which the following apply: temperature for the relevant altitude
(1) If the tests are conducted under for which approval has been requested
ambient atmospheric temperature con- and the temperature of the ambient air
ditions deviating from the maximum at the time of the first occurrence of
for which approval is requested, the re- the maximum cylinder barrel tempera-
corded powerplant temperatures must ture recorded during the cooling test.
be corrected under paragraphs (c) and [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as
(d) of this section, unless a more ra- amended by Amdt. 237, 34 FR 13094, Aug. 13,
tional correction method is applicable. 1969; Amdt. 2321, 43 FR 2319, Jan. 16, 1978;
(2) No corrected temperature deter- Amdt. 2351, 61 FR 5137, Feb. 9, 1996]
mined under paragraph (a)(1) of this
section may exceed established limits. 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for
(3) The fuel used during the cooling turbine engine powered airplanes.
tests must be of the minimum grade (a) Compliance with 23.1041 must be
approved for the engine. shown for all phases of operation. The
(4) For turbocharged engines, each airplane must be flown in the configu-
turbocharger must be operated through rations, at the speeds, and following
that part of the climb profile for which the procedures recommended in the

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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 23.1061

Airplane Flight Manual for the rel- (2) There are pads or other isolation
evant stage of flight, that correspond means between the tank and its sup-
to the applicable performance require- ports to prevent chafing.
ments that are critical to cooling. (3) Pads or any other isolation means
(b) Temperatures must be stabilized that is used must be nonabsorbent or
under the conditions from which entry must be treated to prevent absorption
is made into each stage of flight being of flammable fluids; and
investigated, unless the entry condi- (4) No air or vapor can be trapped in
tion normally is not one during which any part of the system, except the
component and engine fluid tempera- coolant tank expansion space, during
tures would stabilize (in which case, filling or during operation.
operation through the full entry condi- (b) Coolant tank. The tank capacity
tion must be conducted before entry must be at least one gallon, plus 10 per-
into the stage of flight being inves- cent of the cooling system capacity. In
tigated in order to allow temperatures addition
to reach their natural levels at the
(1) Each coolant tank must be able to
time of entry). The takeoff cooling test
withstand the vibration, inertia, and
must be preceded by a period during
fluid loads to which it may be sub-
which the powerplant component and