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YANBU TECHNICAL INSTITUTE

Mechanical Skills Department


Program: Diploma Certificate Instructor: Muhammad Rafique
Subject: MET 4402: Industrial Equipment Basics I Contact: rafiquem@rcyci.edu.
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Handout Module 8: Internal Combustion Engines Office : C2 B5 F3

HEAT ENGINE

It is a Thermo-Mechanical Machine that enables conversion of


chemical energy of fuel into useful shaft power.

Another look:

Air Fuel

Thermal Energy

Combustion Chamber
Mechanical Mechanism Mechanical Work

IC Engine Waste Energy


TYPES OF HEAT ENGINE

Heat engines are classified on the bases of location of combustion process.

Heat Engine

Internal External
Combustio Combustio
n n
Reciprocatin Reciprocatin
Rotory Rotary
g g
Open Open
Petrol Steam
Cycle Gas Cycle Gas
Engine Engine
Turbine Turbine
Wankel Diesel Striling Steam
Engine Engine Engine Turbine

1. Internal Combustion Engine: If the conversion of chemical energy (CE) into heat
energy (HE) and then the heat energy into mechanical energy (ME) in the same
machine, it is called Internal Combustion Engine.

Air
Power

CE HE ME

Fuel

2. External Combustion Engine: If the conversion of chemical energy (CE) into


heat energy (HE) and then the heat energy into mechanical energy (ME) in
different machines, it is called External Combustion Engine.

Air Power

CE HE HE ME

Fuel Boiler Steam Engine



IC ENGINE MECHANISMS
Chemical Energy
The different mechanisms enabling the energy conversion are as follows:

1. Combustion Chamber: It perform combustion Combustion


where the Chamber
chemical energy
of fuel is converted into heat energy as a result of chemical reaction of fuel
with air oxygen and then Thermal Energy
2. Cylinder Piston Mechanism: It converts heat energy into mechanical
energy Cylinder Piston Mechanism
3. Crank Mechanism: It converts the mechanical energy into shaft power

Mechanical Energy

Crank Shaft Mechanism

Shaft Power

Mechanism Energy Transformation


1 Combustion Chamber Chemical Energy into thermal energy
Thermalenergy into Mechanical
2 Cylinder-Piston Mechanism
Energy
3 Crank Shaft Mechanism Mechanical Energy into Shaft Power
TYPES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

The Internal Combustion Engines are classified on various bases. The very common bases
are

1. Type of Ignition
2. Mechanical Cycle
3. Type of Fuel
4. Method of Cooling
5. Number of Cylinders
6. Arrangement of Cylinders

INTERNAL
INTERNAL
COMBUSTION
COMBUSTION

ARRANGEME
ARRANGEME
IGNITION MECHANICAL
MECHANICAL COOLING NUMBER OF NT
FUEL
FUEL
METHOD
METHOD CYCLE METHOD
METHOD CYLINDERS
CYLINDERS OF
OF
CYLINDERS
CYLINDERS

COMPRESSIO
COMPRESSIO TWO
TWO STROKE
STROKE DIESEL
DIESEL AIR
AIR BASIC
BASIC
N IGNITION

SPARK
SPARK FOUR
FOUR MULTI-
PETROL
PETROL WATER
WATER
IGNITION
IGNITION STROKE
STROKE CYLINDER
CYLINDER

No Character Detail
1 Ignition Method Spark, Compression
2 Mechanical Cycle 2 Stroke, 4 Stroke
3 Fuel used Petrol, Diesel
4 Cooling Method Air, Water
5 Number of Cylinders 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, .
6 Arrangement of Horizontal, vertical. V, W,
cylinders Opposed, Radial etc
According to Type of Ignition

1. If the combustion process is started by the spark of fire, it is called Spark Ignition
Engine.
2. If the combustion process is started by the heat generated by compression of air, it
is called Compression Ignition Engine.

According to Mechanical Cycle

1. If the thermal cycle is completed in two strokes of the engine, it is called two stroke
engine.
2. If the thermal cycle is completed in four strokes of the engine, it is called four
stroke engine.

According to Type of Fuel

1. If the engine is using Diesel as fuel, it is called Diesel Engine.


2. If the engine is using Petrol as fuel, it is called Petrol Engine.

According to Cooling Method

1. If the engine is cooled by air flowing over and around the cylinder, it is called Air
Cooled Engine, e.g. motorcycles e.t.c.
2. If the engine is cooled by circulating water in jackets around the cylinder, it is
called Water Cooled Engine.

According to Number of Cylinders

1. If the engine consists of one cylinder, it is called Single Cylinder Engine.


2. If the engine consists of more than one cylinders, it is called Multi Cylinder Engine.
According to Arrangement of Cylinders

The engine may have various arrangements, as shown.

Radial
Inline or Straight
Single Cylinder

V Engine
W Engine

Opposite Engine
Opposed Piston
IC ENGINE NOMENCLATURE

ENGINE BASIC TERMS

1. BORE (D):
It is diameter of cylinder.
2. DEAD CENTERS:
These are locations on cylinder where piston reverses motion in cylinder at top and
bottom.

3. STROKE or STROKE LENGTH (


LS ):

It is distance between TDC and BDC


4. CLEARANCE LENGTH (
LC ):

It is distance between TDC and top of cylinder


5. DISPLACEMENT VOLUME (
V s ):

It is volume of cylinder from TDC to BDC.


2
V s= D LS
4

6. CLEARANCE VOLUME (
V c ):

It is volume of space between TDC and top of cylinder


2
V C= D LC
4

7. CYLINDER VOLUME:
V =V s+ V c

V
CR=
8. COMPRESSION RATIO (CR): Vc

9. CAPACITY:
It is volume of air taken in by the engine in its one cycle.
Capacity=V s Number of cylinders=V s n
BASE IC ENGINE

A base engine consists of single cylinder.

Two Stroke Basic Diesel Engine

There are several types of two stroke engines. A common example is the uniflow type
where ports are used to introduce air into the cylinder and a valve is used for the
exhaust.
Four Stroke Basic Diesel Engine

The basic engine


components have been
identified in the following
diagram, together with a
description and
explanation of each
component.

BASIC STRUCTURE OF ENGINE


An engine has many components which are essential for its operation.
These components of the engine can be described in the following groups:

Classification of Engine Parts

The engine parts are grouped in two classes:

Engine Block, Cylinder Head, Crank


Stationary Case, Cylinder Liners, Manifolds, Ports,
Parts Tappet Cover, Bearings, Oil Sump,
Daskets, Mufflers etc

Engine
Parts
ROTATING PARTS:
Crank Shaft, Fly Wheel, Camshaft,
Timing Gear, Valves,Crankshaft Gear
etc

Moving
Parts

RECIPROCATING PARTS:
Piston. Connecting rods, Gidgeon Pin,
Piston Rings,Valve tappets
Engine Block Components:
Roughly the parts are grouped as attached to Top, Bottom, Front and Rear on
engine block.

1 Timing belt cover 18 Oil pump 35 Dipstick tube


2 Timing belt cover back 19 Oil pump plug 36 Oil filler tube
plate 20 Plug and O ring 37 Oil filler cap
3 Thermostat outlet 21 Oil pressure relief valve 38 Sump plug
4 Camshaft cover spring 39 Oil sump
5 Coolant thermistor 22 Oil pressure relief valve 40 Oil sump gasket
6 Thermostat plunger 41 Front main bearing cap
7 Thermostat housing 23 Oil filter cartridge 42 Main bearing shells
8 Cylinder head 24 Timing belt tensioner 43 Intermediate main
9 Dowel 25 Water pump pulley bearing cap
10 Cylinder head stud long 26 Deflector 44 Centre main bearing cap
11 Cylinder head bolt 27 Water pump 45 Thrust washers
12 Cylinder head stud short 28 Cylinder block 46 Intermediate main
13 Spark plug 29 Cylinder head gasket bearing cap
14 Alternator/water pump 30 Knock sensor 47 Rear main bearing cap
belt 31 Crankshaft rear oil seal 48 Dowel
15 Crankshaft pulley 32 Gearbox adapter plate 49 Oil separator
16
17
Oil seal
Oil pressure switch
33
34
Crankshaft sensor
Dipstick
50 Oil strainer and O ring
Internal Engine Components:
1 Cam Shaft Assembly Cam shaft, Valve-Follower Assembly, Timing Belt
Assembly
2 Crank Shaft Crankshaft, Piston-Connecting Rod Assy, Crankshaft
Assembly Gear & Pulley Assy.

1 Timing belt tensioner 15 Connecting rod and piston 28 Connecting rod RH


2 Timing belt LH 29 Big-end bearing shell
3 Camshaft gear 16 Gudgeon pin 30 Pulley bolt
4 Camshaft front oil seal 17 Compression rings 31 Washer
5 Camshaft 18 Oil control ring 32 Crankshaft pulley
6 Camshaft rear oil seal 19 Piston 33 Gear flange
7 Tappet 20 Exhaust valve seat insert 34 Crankshaft gear
8 Shim 21 Inlet valve seat insert 35 Gear flange
9 Cotters 22 Valve guide 36 Pulley and gear key
10 Cup 23 Exhaust valve 37 Oil pump key
11 Spring 24 Inlet valve 38 Crankshaft
12 Valve stem seal 25 Crankshaft washers 39 Flywheel dowel
13 Seat 26 Main bearing shell 40 Connecting rod nut
14 Deflector 27 Connecting rod bolt 41 Connecting rod cap
WORKING OF IC ENGINE
Four Stroke Petrol Engine

1: Suction Stroke 2: Compression Stroke

3: Working Stroke 4: Exhaust Stroke


Four Stroke Diesel Engine

1: Suction Stroke 2: Compression Stroke

3: Working Stroke 4: Exhaust Stroke


Two Stroke Petrol Engine

STROKE 1: BDC to TDC

1-1: Transfer & Exhaust 1-2: Compression & Suction

STROKE 2: TDC to BDC


EXERCISE

1. Define heat engine and describe its types.


2. Classify Internal Combustion Engine.
3. During the expansion stroke of an IC Engine, the combustion
gases in the cylinder push the piston with an acceleration of 50
m/s2. If equivalent inertia of piston is 10kg and bore diameter is
150 mm, determine the pressure acting on piston.

4. For the basic diesel engine,

Bore (D) = 8 cm

LS
Stroke Length ( ) = 7

cm

LC
Clearance Length ( ) =

0.5 cm

Calculate the following,

Parameter Formula Calculation

1 2
V S= D LS
Stroke Volume [cm ]3
4

2 2
V C= D LC
Clearance Volume [cm3] 4

3 V T =V S +V C
Total Volume [cm3]

4 Compression VT
CR=
VC
Ratio
5 V =n V S
Capacity [cm3]
5. Identify the parts as identified on
the diagram.

Crankshaft
Piston
Big- End Bearing
Fuel Injector
Piston Rings
Valve
Connecting Rod (Con-rod)
Gudgeon Pin

6. Identify five major parts and describe their function on the Base
Engine.

7. Sketch shows internal side of engine, identify three major


assemblies and describe three parts in each assembly.

Assembly name Parts Names


1
2
3
8. Sketch shows external side of engine, identify five major
assemblies and describe three parts in each assembly.

Top
Front

Rear
Bottom