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4

DEFORMATION OF STATICALLY
DETERMINATE STRUCTURE

OBJECTIVES:
This chapter will discuss various methods for determining the
deflection and slope at specific points on determinate beam. The
methods include the Double Integration method and Macaulay
method. Also a graphical technique called the moment area
method.

3.1 Introduction

When the load applied on the beam, it is often helpful to sketch the
deflected shape before the slope or displacement at any point on a beam
can be determined.

This deflection diagram called as an elastic curve.

However it is necessary to know how the slope or displacement is


restricted at various types of supports. The zero slope and zero
displacement occur at all fixed supports and zero displacement occurs at
all pin and roller support. Figure 4.1 shows an example of the elastic
curve for loaded beams.

A B

y :displacement
y=? : slope
=?

Figure 4.1

Mechanics of Materials 115


The following equations can be used to determine the deflection of a
beam.

d4y
(1) EI = q( x ) Force-deflection equation
dx 4

d3y
(2) EI 3 = V ( x ) = q( x )dx + C1 Shear-deflection equation
dx

d2y
(3) EI 2 = M ( x ) = q( x )dx 2 + C1 x + C2 Bending moment-deflection
dx
equation

dy
EI = EI ( x ) = M ( x )dx + C3
(4) dx Slope-deflection equation
= q( x )d x + C1 x + C2 x + C3
3 2

EIy ( x ) = M ( x )dx 2 + C3 x + C4
(5) Deflection equation
= q( x )d x 4 + C1 x 3 + C2 x 2 + C3 x + C4

EI in all equation is referred as flexural rigidity.

Procedure for Analysis

1. Draw Free Body Diagram of System


2. Section beam, if necessary
3. Draw Free Body Diagram of each section
4. Use equation 1 if q(x) is known. Use equation 3 if M(x) is known
5. Integrate to solve for y(x)
6. Use boundary condition to solve the value of C.

Mechanics of Materials 116


To solve the problems using Double Integration and Macaulay Method, the
boundary condition(B.C) has to be identified;

1)
P

Identification of the boundary


condition is based on the shape
yA of the deflection.
At x = L, y = 0
A At x = L, dy/dx =0
x
L

2) w

A B (same for th e pointload)

L
x
Identification of the boundary
x=0 x=L condition is based on the shape
y=0 y=? y=0 of the deflection.
=? =? At x = 0, y = 0
At x = L, y = 0

3)
P
Identification of the boundary
condition is based on the shape
of the deflection.
At x = L, y = 0
At x = L+L1, y = 0
L L1

Mechanics of Materials 117


3.2 Slope and deflection using double integration method

EXAMPLE 4.1

The cantilevered beam with length, L shown in figure is subjected to a vertical


load, P at its end. Determine the maximum slope and deflection using double
integration method. EI is constant.

yA

A
x

Solution;

Identification of the boundary


condition is based on the shape
yA of the deflection.
At x = L, y = 0
A At x = L, dy/dx =0
x
L

P
= -Mx-P(x)

Mx = -Px
Mx
V
d2y
x EI =M
dx 2

Mechanics of Materials 118


Using the double integration;

d2y
EI = Px....................................(1)
dx 2

dy Px1+1 Px 2
EI = = + C1 ............( 2)
dx 1+1 2

Px 2+1 Px 3
EIy = + C1 x = + C1 x + C2 ...............(3)
2( 2 + 1) 6

Using the boundary condition;

dy
=0 at x=L y=0 at x=L
dx

Px 2 Px 3
from ( 2)...... + C1 = 0 from (3)...... + C1 x + C2 = 0
2 6
PL2 PL3
+ C1 = 0 + C1 L + C2 = 0
2 6
PL2 PL3 PL2
C1 = C2 = L
2 6 2
PL3
=
dy 3
Subs the result into (2) and (3) with =
dx

Px 2 PL2
EI = +
2 2

From (2) Px 2 PL2 1


= + x
2 2 EI
=
P 2
2 EI
[L x2 ]

Mechanics of Materials 119


Px 3 PL2 PL3
EIy = + ( x)
6 2 3

From (3)
y=
P
6
( x 3 + 3L2 x 2 L3 )x
1
EI
=
P
6 EI
[
x 3 + 3L2 x 2 L3]
Maximum slope and displacement occur at x = 0,

A =
P 2
2 EI
[ ]
L x 2 at x = 0 yA =
P
[ ]
x 3 + 3L2 x 2 L3 at x = 0
6 EI
PL2 PL3
= =
2 EI 3EI

EXAMPLE 4.2

Determine the slope and deflection at 1m and 3m from A for beam in the figure by
using the double integration method.

10kN/m

A B
C
2m 2m

Solution;
x=0 x=L Identification of the boundary
y=0 y=? y=0 condition is based on the shape
=? =? of the deflection.
At x = 0, y = 0
x =0 At x = 2, yAC = yCB
At x = 2, [dy/dx] AC=[dy/dx] CB
At x = 4, yCB = 0
Step 1: Determine the support reaction
V A + VB = 10( 2) = 20kN
+ M =0B

V A ( 4) 10( 2)(1) = 0
4V A = 20
V A = 5kN ,VB = 15kN

Mechanics of Materials 120


Step 2: Divide the beam into 2 sections

AC
= - MAC + 5(x)

MAC = 5x
MAC
x d2y
5 EI =M
dx 2
d2y
EI = 5 x ...................(1)
dx 2
dy 5 x 1+1
EI = + C1
dx 1 + 1
5x 2
= + C1 ...........( 2)
2
5 x 2+1
y= + C1 x + C 2
2( 2 + 1)

5x 3
= + C1 x + C 2 .........(3)
6

CB

= - MCB + 5(x)-10(x-2)[x-2]
10kN/m
2
A B
MCB = 5x-5(x-2)2
MCB
2
5 x d2y
EI =M
dx 2

d2y
EI 2
= 5 x 5( x 2) 2 ...................( 4)
dx

dy 5 x 1+1 5( x 2) 2+1
EI = + C3
dx 1 + 1 2 +1
5 x 2 5( x 2) 3
= + C3 ...........(5)
2 3

5 x 2+1 5( x 2) 3+1
y= + C3 x + C4
2( 2 + 1) 3(3 + 1)
5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
= + C3 x + C 4 .......(6)
6 12

Mechanics of Materials 121


Applying boundary condition;
at x = 0, y AC = 0
C 2 = 0......( a )
5x 3
from (3) = + C1 x + C 2
6
dy dy
at x = 2, [ ] AC = [ ]CB
dx dx
from ( 2)and (5);
C1 = C3 .....(b)
5x2
5x 5( x 2)
2 3
+ C1 = + C3
2 2 3

at x = 2, y AC = yCB

from (3)and (6);

5x 3 5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
+ C1 x + C 2 = + C3 x + C4
6 6 12
5( 2 3 ) 5( 2 3 )
+ 2C1 = + 2C3 + C 4
6 6
6.7 + 2C1 = 6.7 + 2C3 + C 4 2C1 = 2C3 + C 4 ...(c )

at x = 4, y CB = 0

5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
from (6) = + C3 x + C 4
6 12
5( 4 3 ) 5( 2 4 )
= + 4C3 + C 4
6 12
= 46.7 + 4C3 + C 4 4C3 + C 4 = 46.7...(d )

Solve the equation (a) to (c);

Substitute (b) into (c);


C1 = C3 .....(b)
2C1 = 2C3 + C 4 ...(c)
2C3 = 2C3 + C 4

C4 = 0

Mechanics of Materials 122


Substitute C4 into (d)
4C3 + C4 = 46.7...(d )
C3 = 11.68 = C1
dy
For segment AC, the slope, = and deflection,y are;
dx
5x 2 5x 3
EI = + C1 EIy = + C1 x + C 2
6
2
5x 3
5x 2 EIy AC = 11.68 x
EI AC = 11.68 6
2

dy
For segment CB, the slope, = and deflection,y are;
dx
5 x 2 5( x 2) 3 5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
EI = + C3 EIy = + C3 x + C4
2 3 6 12
5 x 2 5( x 2) 3 5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
EI CB = 11.68 EIy CB = 11.68 x
2 3 6 12

The slope and deflection at 1m from A, use the equation of AC;

5x 2
EI AC = 11.68
2
= -9.18 rad
EI

5x 3
EIy AC = 11.68 x
6
10.85
=
EI

The slope and deflection at 3m from A, use the equation of CB;

5 x 2 5( x 2) 3
EI CB = 11.68
2 3
9.15
= rad
EI

5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
EIy CB = 11.68 x
6 12
12.96
=
EI

Mechanics of Materials 123


EXERCISE 4.1

Determine the maximum deflection and slope at A by using the double integration
method.

15kN/m

A B

10m

[Ans: EIy = 4953, EI = 625 ]

EXERCISE 4.2

The cantilever beam is subjected to the point load at C.


a) Generate the equation for the elastic curve by using the double integration
method.
b) Find the maximum deflection and slope if L=3m and P = 10kN acted at
2m from A.

A C

[Ans: ymax = -46.67/EI]

3.3 Macaulay function

Double Integration Method is adequate for simple problems. If the loads


applied on a beam is more complex, it is difficult to generate the equation
because it is involved too many section.

This method named after W.H.Macaulay describe distributed loadings in


general form as;

Mechanics of Materials 124


Here, x represents the coordinate position of a point along the beam and a
is the location on the beam where a discontinuity occurs or the point
where a distributed loading begins. n is real number.

Note that the distributed loadings must extend all the way to the beams
right end to be valid.

EXAMPLE 4.3

Determine the deflection at x = 5m from the support A and the slope at point A for
the given beam shown below. Solve the problem by using the Macaulay Method.
Given E = 5 x 106 N/mm2 and I = 9x106 mm4.

5 kN
2 kN/m
10kNm

A C D E F B

2 2 2 2 2
(all in m)

Solution;

The loads cause the beam to deflect as shown in figure.

A B B.C; x = 0, y= 0
x = 10, y =0
x

The support reaction at A and B must be determined. Since the UDL in figure
does not extend to B as required, the superposition method can be used to
represent the same effect.

Mechanics of Materials 125


Mx

2kN
x

Cut the beam at last segment of FB. The beams moment is therefore;

x 4 x 6
= M X + 2( x ) + 10( x 2) 0 2( x 4) + 2( x 6) 5( x 8)
1

2 2

M X = 2( x ) + 10( x 2) 0 ( x 4) 2 + ( x 6) 2 5( x 8)1
d2y
EI = M X = 2( x ) + 10( x 2) 0 ( x 4) 2 + ( x 6) 2 5( x 8)1 ............(1)
dx 2
1
dy 2 x 2 10( x 2) ( x 4) 3 ( x 6) 3 5( x 8) 2
EI = + + + C1 ................( 2)
dx 2 1 3 3 2
2
2 x 3 10( x 2) ( x 4) 4 ( x 6) 4 5( x 8) 3
EIy = + + + C1 x + C2 ...........(3) 2
6 2 12 12 6

Solve the equation by using the boundary condition;

1) at x = 0, y=0;

Note that Macaulay function stated;


x a 0, so x a = 0
if
x a > 0, so x a = x a

From (3), C2 = 0

2) at x = 10, y = 0;
2
2 x 3 10( x 2) ( x 4) 4 ( x 6) 4 5( x 8) 3
EIy = + + + C1 x + 0
6 2 12 12 6
2
2(10) 3 10(8) (6) 4 ( 4) 4 5( 2) 3
= + + + C1 (10)
6 2 12 12 6
= 333.33 + 320 108 + 1.33 6.67 + 10C1

C1 = -54

Mechanics of Materials 126


Substitute C1 = -54 and C2 =0 into (2) and (3);
1
dy 2 x 2 10( x 2) ( x 4) 3 ( x 6) 3 5( x 8) 2
EI = + + 54
dx 2 1 3 3 2

2
2 x 3 10( x 2) ( x 4) 4 ( x 6) 4 5( x 8) 3
EIy = + + 54 x
6 2 12 12 6

Determine the deflection of beam at x = 5m from A;

2
2(5) 3 10(3) (1) 4
EIy = + + 0 0 54(5)
6 2 12
= 41.67 + 45 0.083 270
EIy = -183.41 kNm3

Given E = 5 x 106 N/mm2 and I = 9x106 mm4.

183.42 x1012
y= = 4.1mm
(5 x10 6 )(9 x10 6 )

-ve sign indicated that the direction of deflection is downward.

Determine the slope at point A;

x = 0, dy/dx =?;
1
dy 2 x 2 10( x 2) ( x 4) 3 ( x 6) 3 5( x 8) 2
EI = + + 54
dx 2 1 3 3 2

EI = 0 54 = 54

Given E = 5 x 106 N/mm2 and I = 9x106 mm4.

54 x103 Nm 2
y= 12 2 6 4
= 1.24 x10 3 rad
(5 x10 ) N / m (9 x10 )m

Mechanics of Materials 127


EXAMPLE 4.4

Determine the slope and deflection at 1m and 3m from A for beam in the figure by
using Macaulay method.

10kN/m

A B
C
2m 2m

Solution;
The loads cause the beam to deflect as shown in figure.

A B B.C; x = 0, y= 0
x = 4, y =0
x

The support reaction at A and B must be determined. Since the UDL in figure
does not extend to B as required, the superposition method can be used to
represent the same effect.

Mx

5kN x-2

Cut the beam at last segment of CB. The beams moment is therefore;

x 2
= M X + 5( x ) 10( x 2)
2
MX = 5( x ) 5( x 2) 2

d2y
EI 2
= M X = 5( x ) 5( x 2) 2 ............(1)
dx
dy 5 x 2 5( x 2) 3
EI = + C1 ............(2)
dx 2 3
5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
EIy = + C1 x + C2 ............(3)
6 12

Mechanics of Materials 128


Solve the equation by using the BC;
1) at x = 0, y = 0;

From (3), C2 = 0

2) at x = 4, y = 0;

5( 4) 3 5( 2) 4
EIy = + C1 ( 4) + 0
From (3); 6 12
= 53.33 6.67 + 4C1

C1 = -11.7

Substitute C1 = -11.7 and C2 =0 into (2) and (3);

dy 5 x 2 5( x 2) 3
EI = 11.7
dx 2 3

5 x 3 5( x 2) 4
EIy = 11.7 x
6 12

Determine the slope at 1m from A;

dy 5(1) 2
EI = 0 11.7
dx 2

9.2
= rad
EI

Determine the deflection at 3m from A;

5(3) 3 5(1) 4
EIy = 11.7(3) 13.02
6 12 y= m
EI
= 22.5 0.42 35.1

Compare the result to the previous example which is used the Double Integration
Method. Is the result similar?
It can be observed that x direction is also can be taken at the right section. How?

Mechanics of Materials 129


M 10kN/m

A B
C
x-2 2 Identification of the boundary
15kN condition is based on the shape
of the deflection.
x At x = 0, y = 0
At x = 4, y = 0

x ( x 2)
= M 15( x ) 1 + 10( x ) 10( x 2)
2 2
M = 15( x ) 5 x + 5( x 2)
1 2 2

d2y
EI = M = 15( x )1 5 x 2 + 5( x 2) 2 .......(1)
dx 2
dy 15 x 2 5 x 3 5( x 2) 3
EI = + + C1 .........( 2)
dx 2 3 3
15 x 3 5 x 4 5( x 2) 4
EIy = + + C1 x + C 2 ....(3)
6 12 12

Using boundary condition;

At x = 0, y = 0 substitute into (3);

15 x 3 5 x 4 5( x 2) 4
EIy = + + C1 x + C 2
6 12 12
5( 2) 4
0=00+ + 0 + C2
12
C2=0 -ve value is considered as 0

At x = 4, y = 0 substitute into (3);


15 x 3 5 x 4 5( x 2) 4
EIy = + + C1 x + C 2
6 12 12
15( 4) 3 5( 4) 4 5( 2) 4
0= + + 4C1
6 12 12
= 160 106.67 + 6.67 + 4C1

C1 = 15

Mechanics of Materials 130


Determine the slope and deflection at 1m and 3m from A

However when x is taken from B, the deflection is 1m from B.


x = 1m subs into equation (3);

15 x 3 5 x 4 5( x 2) 4
EIy = + 15 x
6 12 12
15(1) 3 5(1) 4 5( 1) 4
EIy = + 15(1)
6 12 12
= 2.5 0.42 + 0 15

13
y=
EI

The slope is 3m from B.

dy 15 x 2 5 x 3 5( x 2) 3
EI = + 15
dx 2 3 3
15(3) 2 5(3) 3 5(1) 3
= + 15
2 3 3
= 67.5 45 + 1.67 15

= -9.2/EI rad

EXERCISE 4.3

Determine the deflection at A and B for the beam given if EI = 1000kNm2.

10kN/m

A
B C
8kN

2m 1m

Mechanics of Materials 131


3.4 Moment Area Method

It is also can be defined as semi-graphical technique.

This method is suitable to calculate the slope of tangents or the vertical


deviation-deflection at selected points on a beam. It requires finding area
segments under the M/EI diagram on the elastic curve.

The method works well for M/EI diagrams composed of simple shapes
which produced by concentrated loads and couple moments.

The procedure for beam analysis using the moment area method can be
summarized as follows;
a) Calculate the support reactions
b) Draw the M/EI diagram
c) Select the reference tangent, t either
- a known point with zero slope
- determine tangential deviation of one support and the other
and finding the angle.

EXAMPLE 4.5

Determine the deflection and slope at point C for the steel beam in figure. Take E
= 200GPa and I = 17 x 106 mm4.
16kN

A C B

2m 4m 2m

Solution;

Calculate the support reaction.

VA = 4kN, VB = 12kN

Mechanics of Materials 132


Draw M/EI diagram. 16kN

MB
A C B
12
4 2m Take moment at B,
2 8 1 -32
= 1st :Consider point load;
y1 32 (-) = - MB - 16(2)
y1 = 8 MB = - 32kNm
(+)
y1 = 8/EI 2nd :Consider support reaction;
2
32 = - MB + 4(8)
y2 = 24/EI
MB = - 32kNm
Draw displacement diagram.
C

yC
tCA
yc = CC tCA Eqn 1
C tBA
tBA = Area of 2 Area of 1
EI

Eqn 2
Draw slope diagram.

A A C B

C
tBA
CA

8m

From the slope diagram;

The slope at A, A can be found using;


t BA
A = .Eqn 3
8

Mechanics of Materials 133


The slope at C, C can be found using;

C = A CA .. substitute Eqn 3 into C


t BA
= CA
8

From Eqn 2; Area of triangle

1 1 1 1 1 1
t BA = (8 )(32 ) (8 ) (2 )(32 ) (2 )
EI 2 3 EI 2 3

341 .33 21.33 Centroid of triangle from B


=
EI EI
320
= ( kNm 3 )
EI

From the displacement diagram, substitute tBA into CC ;

CC = 320 2 80
= = distance C from A
EI 8 EI
total span

1 1 1 5.33
tCA = (2 )(8 ) (2 ) =
EI 2 3 EI

Deflection at C;

yc = CC tCA

80 5.33 74.67
yC = = ( kNm 3 )
EI EI EI

74.67
yC = ( kNm 3 )
EI
74.67 x10 3
= = 0.022 m
(200 x10 9 )(17 x10 6 )
+ve sign indicated that deflection at C is directed downward.

Mechanics of Materials 134


Meanwhile CA is equivalent to the area under the M/EI diagram between
points A and C;

CA = (2 )
1 8 8
= kNm 2
2 EI EI

Slope at C;

Substitute CA and t BA into;

C = A CA
t BA
= CA
8
1 320 8 32
= = kNm 2
8 EI EI EI

32
= kNm 2
EI
32 x10 3
= = 0.0094 rad
(200 x10 9 )(17 x10 6 )

EXERCISE 4.4

Determine the deflection at point C using the moment area method.


Take E = 200GPa.

60kN
cross sectional area of
beam

250mm
A C B

3m 3m 3m 250mm

Mechanics of Materials 135


TUTORIAL 3

1)
A cantilever beam ABC with 6m span carries a uniformly distributed load
of 25kN/m along 3m span from end of A and point load of 15kN and 10kN
at point B and C, respectively.
a) Determine an expression for the deflection by considering x be any
distance from C.
b) Calculate the magnitude of deflection at 3m span from A.
c) Calculate the magnitude of maximum deflection of the beam.

Take Youngs Modulus, E = 200GN/m2.


Moment of Inertia, I= 35x10-5 m4.

(Solve the problems by using Macaulays Method)

2)
A beam AB as shown in figure below of span 8m is simply supported at
the ends. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 30kN/m over its entire
length and a concentrated load of 60kN at 3m from the support A. Using
Macaulays Method;

a) Determine the reactions at supports A and B.


b) Show that the deflection y throughout the beam is given by the
expression;

Mechanics of Materials 136


c) Determine the values of a and b using the appropriate boundary
conditions.
e) Find the deflection at point C of the beam. Take the Modulus of
Elasticity, E = 200x106 kN/m2 and moment of inertia, I = 80 x 10-4
m4.

3) A cantilever 12cm wide and 20cm deep is 2.5m long. What uniformly
distributed load should the beam carry to produce a deflection of 0.5cm at
the free end? Solve the problem by using Double Integration Method. Take
E = 2.1 x 106 kN/cm2.
12cm
W kN/m

A B
20cm

2.5m

4)
The figure shows a beam subjected to point load, distribution load and
moment. Given Modulus of Elasticity, E = 5 x 106 N/mm2 and inertia moment,
I = 9 x 106 mm4.
a) Calculate support reaction at A and B

b) Derive general equation of deflection and slope the beam using Mac
Caulay Method

c) Determine the deflection at mid point of span AB and point C

d) Determine the slope at point D

15kN/m 20kN
8kNm

C D

A B
5.0m 2.0m 2.0m

(FINAL EXAM SEM II 2007/2008 UTHM)

Mechanics of Materials 137


5) The cantilever beam shown in figure is fabricated from three 30 x 120mm
aluminum (E = 70GPa) bars as shown in figure. Solve the problem by
using Double Integration Method. Determine;
a) Radius of curvature of the beam.
b) Deflection at the left end of the beam.

All units in mm
20kN

1.2m 30
30 120
20kN
2m 30

120

6)
(a) Based on a cantilevered beam shown in figure, derive the equation related
to the slope and deflection using Double Integration Method.
PL2
(b) Show that the maximum slope at A is A = .
2 EI
PL3
(c) Prove that the maximum deflection at A is A = .
3EI

(d) Determine the moment of inertia, I for the cross section area.

(e) Calculate the maximum slope at A if P=50kN and L=3m. Given E =


200GPa.

(f) Determine the maximum deflection at A if P=50kN and L=3m. Given E =


200GPa.

A
B
vA

A
x

Mechanics of Materials 138


10

200

10

All units in mm

150

(FINAL EXAM SEM I 2007/2008 UTHM)

Mechanics of Materials 139