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Experiment 3: Heat Transfer

Laboratory Report
Byron Leander Tan, Chelsea Leigh Tan, Kyle Gabriel Tanchuling, Ma. Agatha Beatrice Uson,
Angelica Uy, Louise Erika Vargas

Department of Math and Physics


College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Espaa, Manila Philippines

Abstract the removal of heat by either forcing a fluid


over the surface forced convection or by the
The conduction of heat along a natural fluid motion due to density gradients
composite bar and to evaluate the overall near the surface free convection. The
heat transfer coefficient. This experiment efficiency of a bodys ability to transfer heat
focus on the heat conduction for the by convection to the surrounding
cylindrical metal bar arrangement. The environment is defined by the convective
experimental overall heat transfer heat transfer coefficient (h).
coefficient will be compared to the overall
heat transfer coefficient calculated. In this experiment, students are expected
to
I. Introduction
Determine the factors affecting the
Thermal conduction is the transfer of cooling rate of materials
heat energy in a material due to the
Determine the cooling constant
temperature gradient within it. It always takes
place from a region of higher temperature to II. Theory
a region of lower temperature. A solid is
chosen for the experiment of pure conduction The theory of heat transfer seeks to
because both liquids and gasses exhibit predict the energy transfer that may take
excessive convective heat transfer. For place between material bodies as a result of
practical situation, heat conduction occurs in temperature difference. This energy transfer
three dimensions, a complexity which often is defined as heat. The three modes by
requires extensive computation to analyze. which heat can be transferred from one
For experiment, a single dimensional place to another are conduction, convection
approach is required to demonstrate the basic and radiation. In conduction, heat is carried
law that relates rate of heat flow to by means of collisions between rapidly
temperature gradient and area. The removal moving molecules closer to the hot end of a
of heat from the surface of a body can be body of matter and the slower molecules
accomplished by conduction, convection, and closer to the cold end. Some of the kinetic
radiation. Convective heat transfer refers to energy of the fast molecules passes to the

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slow molecules, and as a result of successive how fast heat will flow. In general, thermal
collisions, heat flows through the body of conductivity is strongly temperature
matter from the hot end to the cold end. dependent. It has the units of watts per meter
Solids, liquids, and gases all conduct heat. per Kelvin. Heat transfer by conduction in a
Conduction is poorest in gases because their solid can be realized through the support of
molecules are relatively far apart and so phonons, electrons and photons. The
interacting less frequently than in solids and individual contributions of these carriers
liquids. Metals are the best conductors of widely depend on material and its
heat because some of their electrons are able temperature. Thermal conductivity is thus a
to move about relatively freely and can second order tensor, but in a material with
interact frequently by collisions. Without the cubic isotropy it reduces to a scalar. It is an
guard heater, cooler air surrounding the edge intensive property and is a function of both
of the main heater would be heated by pressure and temperature.
conduction and convection. Thus some of
the heat supplied to the main heater would The thermal resistance R of a layer of a
be carried away by the surrounding air. With material of thickness d and of thermal
the guard heater in place and adjusted to the conductivity k is given by
same temperature as the main heater, the air
in the gap between is maintained at the d
temperature of the main heater, so no heat is R=
k
lost at the edge of the main heater. All heat
lost from the main heater must flow into the
test slabs. The greater the value of R, the greater
the resistance to the flow of heat.
Rate of conduction
Q kA T III.Methodology
=
t d The room temperature was determined
first. To channel 1 of the interface, a
Qd temperature probe was then connected. The
And thus k= file 33 Newtons Law on Cooling from the
tA T
Physics with Computers folder was opened.
The water was then heated to exactly 60C
Where T = T1 T2, and k is the and then poured to a polished cup until it is
thermal conductivity of the material, is a 2/3 full. The cup was covered and a
measure of its ability to conduct heat. The SI temperature probe was inserted to the hole
unit of k is Wm-1K-1. on its cover, this is to determine the
temperature of the water inside the cup. In
Thermal conductivity: When the heat the computer, the collect to begin data
flow rate is involved, and the numerical collection was clicked and data was
value of the thermal conductivity indicates collected for 20 minutes. After gathering the

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data, the Logger Pro was then used to fit an
exponential function to the data by clicking Water in polished -22.38 57.44 51.25
on the curve fit button and choosing the cup
Natural Exponential function (y= A*exp (-
Water in blackened 66.89 -6.365 -300
Ct) +B) from the scrolling list. The Try fit
dull cup
was clicked to perform the fit, then Ok.
The variables x, y, A, B and C were then Water in Styrofoam 28.43 37.93 21.70
matched in the expression for Newtons law cup
on cooling. The value of B was compared
with the room temperature by computing the Black coffee in -178 236.2 88.14
% difference. The value of k from the graph silver cup
was determined and the procedure was
Coffee with creamer 42.11 26.13 7.15
repeated using equal amount of water at
in silver cup
60C using (a) a blackened dull cup (b)
Styrofoam cup (c) black coffee in silver cup Table 1 showed the cooling rates of
and (d) coffee with creamer in silver cup. different liquid sample in different cups. To,
The cooling rates were then compared. B, and the cooling rate were all obtained
from the Logger Pro. The % difference was
On the second activity, the cross computed using the equation (B-Room
sectional area of each of the rods making up Temperature)/ (Room Temperature) x 100%.
the conductometer was measured first. Equal
masses of the paraffin were then placed at The increasing cooling rate order was
the end of each rod making up the found to be water in Styrofoam cup, black
conductometer. The distance of the paraffin coffee in silver cup, water in blackened dull
from the other end of the rods was measured cup, coffee with creamer in silver cup, and
the distance was recorded as L. The initial water in silver cup. The cooling rate was
temperature of the rods was taken. The affected by the material that the cup was
conductometer was then heated using a made of.
candle and the time for each paraffin to melt
was observed and determined. The final Newton's Law of Cooling states that the
temperature of the rods was taken and the rate of change of the temperature of an
fastest metal to melt the paraffin was object is proportional to the difference
determined. between its own temperature and the
ambient temperature (i.e. the temperature of
IV. Results and Discussion its surroundings).

Room Temperature: 24C


As for the second activity for this
experiment, thermal conductivity of metals
Table 1. Cooling Rates
was tested. The order of the metal that easily
To B heated up (first to last): Iron, Brass,

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Aluminum, Copper. This was possible 3. Based on Newtons law on Cooling,
because of the increasing thermal can an object attain the temperature
conductivity of the metals. The lower the of its surroundings?
thermal conductivity, the easier the object
heats up. Yes, because the rate of cooling is
directly proportional to the
temperature difference between a
V. Conclusion
heated body and its surrounding.
VI. Applications
4. Why do we curl up whenever we feel
1. What are some factors affecting the cold?
cooling rate of a body?
We curl up whenever we feel cold
Temperature of the body, because there is more heat generated
temperature of the surroundings and when we curl up.
heat capacity of the body.
5. Why are fibrous substances good
2. You are served coffee in a restaurant insulators?
but you are not yet ready to drink it. if
It is explained by the intramolecular
you wanted to drink your coffee as hot
forces of the material used.
as possible, should you add creamer at
once or when you are ready to drink
coffee? Why? References

As you put creamer in the coffee, the [1] Value @ Amrita. Heat Transfer by
temperature of the coffee decreases Conduction. Retrieved February 20, 2017
since the temperature of the coffee is from http://vlab.amrita.edu/?
distributed to the creamer. You sub=1&brch=194&sim=801&cnt=1
should add the creamer at once.

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