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CNC Lathe Headstock Assembly

1

S.Ramesh Babu, 2S.Dhamotharan

1

Associate Prof., Dept. of Mechanical Engg.,

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Engineering, Coimbatore

E-mail: rathesh_28@yahoo.com

2

Asst. Prof., Dept. of Mechanical Engg.,

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Engineering, Coimbatore

Abstract-- This paper mainly analyses the issues of the the temperature data to the thermal error to predict the

temperature distributions of the headstock assembly of a CNC thermal errors [24] and successive regression analysis [5] is

lathe incorporating contact behavior. The thermal deformation is used to solve the coefficients of a polynomial thermal errors

due to the heat generation in the bearings, chucking cylinder and model. Ref. [6] revises the multivariable regression analysis

motor. Experiments were carried out on a slant bed 2 axis CNC by replacing the traditional optimization objective function

lathe for a period of 14 hours under a specified load cycle. Since

with a new one to build a robust thermal error model. In all

heat generated in the machine tool cannot be measured, the

temperatures at certain points on the machine structure are the modeling methods above, without single exception, the

usually measured and correlated with thermal errors. A finite temperature and thermal error data used are obtained from a

element model of the headstock assembly of a CNC lathe was lot of experiments, which are inevitably involved in the

developed without much structural simplification to obtain the studies of all kinds of advanced measurement technologies in

designed accuracy of the simulation results. The effect of order to make these collected data as accurate as possible. As

individual heat generation elements over the machine structure is a consequence, the laser ball bar [7], non contact laser

studied and analyzed. The results show that the simulation technique [8] and hemispherical ball bar [9] have been

results are satisfactory to replace the experimental results for developed to meet these increasing demands. Numerical

further studies.

computation is another important branch on studying machine

Index Term-- Thermal behavior, finite element method, tools thermal deformations.

transient thermal analysis It is such a hard work involving high costs to collect data

from experiments that the studies on replacing an experiment

1. INTRODUCTION with a simulation have become more and more significant in

CNC machine tools are becoming increasingly more this field. However, it has almost not been seen to simulate

popular because of their ability to machine geometrically the thermal deformation without structural simplifications

complex work-pieces efficiently and with higher dimensional that can make simulation results unreliable. This paper

accuracy. considers a CNC lathe headstock assembly as an example and

Improvement of the CNC machine tool accuracy is all explains how to simulate its thermal behavior as accurate as

the time the most important pursuit for researchers in possible incorporating contact behaviors. The simulation

precision manufacturing field. Errors that affect the machine results are verified by experiments on the same CNC lathe.

tool accuracy can be classified as (1) geometric errors, (2)

thermal errors and (3) cutting force-induced errors. Among 2. OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY

these errors, thermal errors account for 70 percent of the total 2.1 Objective

errors [1]. Spindle is the core component of a CNC machine The present work aims at developing a thermal model

tool, and also the important contributor to the total thermal of the headstock assembly so as to evaluate the temperature

errors due to the large amounts of heat from its high-speed distribution, which will be used in future for the prediction of

revolution. Hence, the studies on thermal deformations of the thermal deformation. The objectives are as follows,:

spindle are indispensable for reducing the total thermal To develop a finite element model of a CNC lathe

errors. headstock assembly.

Building a robust thermal error model is the first step for To determine the transient temperature distribution in

correcting the thermal errors. The mechanism causing the headstock assembly and validate the same by conducting

machine tool deformations is so complex that it is impractical experiments.

to theoretically derive an analytical expression as the thermal

error model by use of all initial conditions and operating 2.2 Methodology

conditions for a machine tool. As far as most modeling A CNC lathe headstock assembly with angular contact

methods are concerned, the thermal error models are all ball bearings 234416TN9 with inner diameter(ID) 80mm,

obtained by finding the best mapping relations between the outer diameter(OD) 125mm, double groove roller bearings

thermal errors and some thermal temperature changes at key NN3016KTN with ID 80mm, OD 115mm and NN3014KTN

points. For example, the neural networks technologies map with ID 70mm, OD 110mm is considered for the study. The

IJENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:14 No:06 100

cross-sectional details of headstock assembly are shown in mounted on machine structure. The temperature sensors

Fig.1. PT100 are attached to the machine structure by heat flow paste

and are insulated from the environment by foam. The details

of the positions where sensors are fixed are as follows,

T1 = Chucking cylinder of the spindle

T2 = Chucking cylinder oil box

T3 = Housing of the spindle motor

T4 = Bearing of the spindle, back

T5 = Bearing of the spindle, front

T6 = Lubricant cover of the spindle

T7 = Headstock

T8 = Bed underneath the spindle

T9 = Oil box, machine side

T10 = Coolant input close to the spindle

T11 = Bed close to the transformer

T12 = Bracket of the transformer

Fig. 1. Headstock assembly of the CNC lathe T13 = Bearing of the spindle motor

portion of the bed is considered for analysis. The transient

thermal behavior of CNC lathe headstock assembly is

predicted for free air cutting for a specified load cycle. The

transient temperature variation of the assembly, when it is

subjected to a load cycle of operation and subsequently the fall

in temperature is investigated. The temperature distribution of

the entire assembly is measured for the complete load cycle.

The distribution patterns at different speeds are then compared

with the experimental results for validation.

3. LOAD CYCLE OF OPERATION OF SPINDLE

The load cycle considered is based on the different

operations performed on the machine tool. The spindle is

operated at the given load cycle for about 14 hours as shown

in Fig. 2.

Fig. 3. Headstock assembly showing location of temperature sensors

because it represents the oil box of the chucking cylinder

which is placed outside the machine structure. The sensor

points were selected by accounting for all the heat sources in

the headstock assembly which include motor for driving the

spindle and bearings which support the spindle. The

temperature of machine tool bed which supports the entire

headstock assembly is also measured to study the propagation

of heat into the bed.

The transient temperature distribution is plotted in Fig. 4

Fig. 2. Load cycle of spindle

running the spindle motor at the specified load cycle for a

The load cycle chosen is of fluctuating type and the speed period of 14 hours and measuring the temperatures at various

of the spindle varies between 0 and 2800rpm. The spindle is to places. In this case, both the motors of Z-axis and the X-axis

run at a maximum speed of 2800rpm for 4hrs until the error at were switched off, so that the effect of heat sources in the

spindle nose reaches steady state, that is, there is no change in headstock assembly over the machine structure could be

error subsequently. The spindle is stopped from 4th hour to 6th improved.

hour and from 10hr30min to 14th hour. This is to study the From Fig. 4, it is found that the temperatures recorded

temperature variation in the machine structure due to using the sensors 1, 2, 3 and 13 reach a maximum when the

intermittent operation. spindle runs at 2800 rpm. This is because of their location

4. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT closer to heat generation sources such as bearings and motor.

Fig.3 shows the headstock assembly with a portion of the The sensor placed housing of the chucking cylinder recorded a

bed showing the location of thermal sensors which are maximum temperature of 70 C whereas the measured

IJENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:14 No:06 101

temperatures in the spindle bearings were found to be 45C where f0 is a factor related to bearing type and lubrication

and 40C respectively. This is because of the higher heat method, v0 is the kinematic viscosity of the lubricant (mm2/s).

generation in the chucking cylinder due to high pressure of oil The heat generated from the chucking cylinder ball

inside. The temperature at the front bearing is greater than that bearings (CC-B) and the heat generated due to the oil pressure

of the rear bearing inside the chucking cylinder is evaluated. With the help of

because the diameter is larger at the front than at the rear empirical equations, heat generations in spindle front ball

end. It is also found that the temperature rise directly depends bearing (FB-B), front roller bearing (FR-B) and spindle rear

on rotational speed of the spindle. But they are non-linearly

related. When the spindle is stopped for 2 hours as shown in

the load cycle,

Fig. 4. Temperatures at different sensor points roller bearing (RB-R) were estimated and shown in Fig.5.

Fig. 5. Heat generation rate of the bearings with speed

the temperature decreases significantly showing the From the above graph, it is clear that the maximum heat

sensitivity of the machine tool for internal heat generation. generation is at chucking cylinder and the lowest at spindle

rear bearing, whereas the heat generation at spindle front

5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE FIELD bearings are lesser than the chucking cylinder.

It is very difficult to get the analytical solution of the

temperature field because the heat flows towards all directions 5.2 Heat transfer coefficient

in which the temperature is lower inside the assembly. So the The heat transfer coefficient for convection is

finite element method is used to obtain the numerical solution investigated in [11, 12]. It is defined as

for temperature distribution. The numerical solution can h = (Nu x kfluid) / d

approximate the analytical solution very well as long as the (5)

structure is correctly and finely meshed. The reliability of the where kfluid is the thermal conductivity of the ambient air, Nu is

simulation results also depends on whether the boundary the Nusselt number. When convection occurs at outer surfaces

conditions such as the power of heat sources and heat transfer of a long cylinder, such as a shaft,d represents the diameter

coefficients are well defined. of the cylinder.

5.1 Heat generation

The major heat generation of the system is caused by

the cutting process and the friction between the balls and races

of the bearings [10]. Assuming that the majority of cutting

heat is taken away by coolant and chips, the heat generated by

bearings is the dominant cause of temperature change. The

heat generated by a bearing can be computed using

Hf = 1.047 10-4 nM

where Hf is the heat generated power (W), n is the rotating

speed of the bearing (rpm), M is the total frictional torque of

the bearing (N mm). The total frictional torque M consists of

two parts, one is the torque M1 due to applied load and the Fig. 6. Variation of Convective heat transfer coefficient with speed

other one is the torque M2 due to viscosity of lubricant. That is

M= M1 +M2, ------ (1) The Nusselt number Nu is computed from the Reynolds

where M1= f 1p1dm, ------ (2) number, Re, and the Prandtl number, Pr, based on different

where f1 is a factor related to the bearing type and load, p1 is convection conditions. For the present work, the following

the bearing preload (N), dm is the mean diameter of the bearing equation is used [13] :

(mm). Nu=0.133 x Re2/3 x Pr1/3, ...(6)

M2 = 10-7 f 0 (von)2/3dm3 if von2000 ------ (3) where Re = ufluid / fluid & Pr = cfluid fluid / k fluid

M2 = 16010-7f 0 dm3 if von<2000 ------ (4)

IJENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:14 No:06 102

where ufluid is the velocity, vfluid is the kinematic viscosity, cfluid

is the specific heat capacitance and fluid is the dynamic

viscosity of air.

This equation is valid for Re<4.3105, 0.7<Pr<670.

For free convection around stationary surfaces, h=9.7W/m2C

is used. Thermal loads and the coefficient of convection heat

transfer can be computed by the equations mentioned above.

When the spindle stops rotating, the convection form becomes

natural convection and the coefficient of convective heat

transfer is assumed to be 10W/(m2C) based on practical

experiences. Fig. 8. Temperature distribution of the headstock assembly with a portion of

bed

6. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

A comparison of temperature at RB-R, FB-B, FB-R and CC-B

The finite element method (FEM) is used to develop

bearings between the experimental and FEM results is made

a transient thermal model of the same to investigate the

for the complete load cycle and shown in Fig. 9, 10 & 11

transient temperature distribution of a CNC lathe headstock

respectively corresponding to the load cycle shown in Fig. 2.

assembly.

The model is discretised using 20-node hexahedron

thermal solid element (SOLID 187) with a single degree of

freedom, namely temperature, at each node. The 20-node

elements have compatible temperature shapes and are well

suited to model curved boundaries. The 20-node thermal

element is applicable to a 3-D, steady-state or transient

thermal analysis. It has tetrahedral, pyramid, prism options to

be used on critical corners during mesh generation.

40C is obtained in the rear bearing. The pattern of variation

of temperature predicted using FEM is found to be in close

agreement to that of experimental results. Temperature

distribution for the front bearing is shown in Fig. 10.

The finite element mesh for the entire headstock assembly of

CNC lathe with the contact behavioral property at the bearings

is as shown in Fig.7

6.1 Transient Thermal Analysis

Transient thermal analysis for the specified load cycle is

carried out on the headstock assembly. Fig.8 shows the

temperature distributions of the assembly with a portion of the

bed.

The maximum temperature at the front bearing is 46C which

is greater than the temperature at rear because the diameter of

the bearing is greater than the rear bearing. Fig. 11 shows the

temperatures at chucking cylinder.

IJENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:14 No:06 103

[9] Seung-Han Yang, Ki-Hoon Kim, Yong Kuk Park, Measurement of

spindle thermal errors in machine tool using hemispherical ball bar

test, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 44

(2004) 333340.

[10] T.A. Harris, Rolling Bearing Analysis. Wiley Sons, New York,

1991, pp. 540560

[11] B. Bossmanns, J.F. Tu, A thermal model for high speed motorized

spindles, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture

39(1999) 13451366

[12] H. Li, Y.C. Shin, Integrated dynamic thermo-mechanical modeling

of high speed spindles, Part1: model development, transactions of

the ASME, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 126

(2004) 148158.

[13] J.K. Choi, D.G. Lee, Thermal characteristics of the spindle bearing

system with a gear located on the bearing span, International

Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 38 (1998) 10171030.

Fig. 11. Comparison of temperature at chucking cylinder bearings

reached at the chucking cylinder, due to high pressure of the

oil used for holding the work rigidly.

7. CONCLUSION

The experiments were carried out on CNC lathe

under idle running and temperature at various sensible

positions on the headstock assembly is measured using PT100

sensors for the loadcycle. A finite element model for the

headstock assembly of a CNC lathe was built without much

structural simplification for the accuracy of the simulation

results. The temperature distribution of the same is obtained

by transient thermal analysis, using ANSYS. The temperature

rise of the assembly deflects the spindle nose away from the

tool center point. The maximum percentage error in

temperature predicted in rear bearing, front bearing and

chucking cylinder bearings are found to be 7.5%, 8.24% and

9% respectively. As the percentage of error lies in an

acceptable range the model would be used for the further

studies in determining the thermal deformation characteristics

and for compensations.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] D.A. Krulewich, Temperature integration model and measurement

point selection for thermally induced machine tool errors,

Mechatronics 8 (1998) 395412.

[2] N. Srinivasa, J.C. Ziegert, Automated measurement and

compensation of thermally induced error maps in machine tools,

Precision Engineering 19 (1996) 112132.

[3] P. Vanherck, J. Dehaes, M. Nuttin, Compensation of thermal

deformations in machine tools with neural nets, Computers in

Industry 19 (1996) 112132.

[4] J.S. CHEN, G. Chiou, Quick testing and modeling of

thermallyinduced errors of CNC machine tools, International

Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 35 (7) (1995) 1063

1074.

[5] Jin-Hyeon Lee, Seung-Han Yang, Statistical optimization and

assessment of a thermal error model for CNC machine tools,

International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 42 (2002)

147155.

[6] Jianguo Yang, Jingxia Yuan, Jun Ni, Thermal error mode analysis

and robust modeling for error compensation on a CNC turning

center, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 35

(1999) 13671381.

[7] Charles Wang Bob Griffin, A noncontact laser technique for

circular contouring accuracy measurement, Review of Scientific

Instruments 72 (2001) 15941596.

[8] N. Srinivasa, J.C. Ziegert, C.D. Mize, Spindle thermal drift

measurement using the laser ball bar, Precision Engineering 18

(1996) 118128.

IJENS

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