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RIKEN Plant Breeding

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SPRING SCHOOL ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE
AND ITS APPLICATION
Hanoi, March 26-31, 2012

Experimental Research in Nuclear Structure:


Two neutron correlation in 6He (performed at RIKEN in 2004)
Search for a new doubly magic nucleus at the proton drip line
(planed to perform at GANIL in 2013)

Nguyen Tuan Khai


Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology

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Research on correlated two-nucleon systems in
6
He and 6Li nuclei

N.T.Khai1, 2, , T.Suda1, A.Yoshida1, T. Motobayashi1,


T.Ohnishi1, H.Takeda1, L.H.Khiem2, 3, P.Q.Hung4,
K.Ogata5, K.Kobayashi5, T.Suzuki5, A.Ozawa6,
Y.Takahashi7, I.Tanihata 7

1. Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Japan


2. Institute of Physics, VAST, Vietnam
3. Tokyo University, Japan
4. Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam
5. Saitama University, Japan
6. Tsukuba University, Japan

7. Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka


University, Japan

This study has been performed at


Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN,
Japan 3
presentation
1.Physics Motivation
2. Simulation and Optimization for
Experimental Geometry
3. Data Analysis and obtained results
4. Discussion and Conclusion

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1. Physics motivation
1.1 Interaction Cross Sections and Nuclear Radii of 6,7,8,9,11Li at 790
MeV/u by Prof. I. Tanihata (1985) at Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

Li isotopes was produced from fragmentation


6-9

of a primary beam 11B at 800 MeV/u

Li from fragmentation of 20Ne


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at 800 MeV/u

Fig. 1 Measurement of interaction cross


section using 5
transmission experiments
Two important results are obtained for 11Li isotope:
i. Large interaction cross section (~104060 mb)
ii. 9Li fragment (from fragmentation of 11Li) has narrow width in momentum
distribution (r = 234 MeV/c) lying on a wider distribution (w = 9512 MeV/c)

This leads to two consequences for 11Li

Small separation energy for 2 neutrons: 2n


~ 0.25 MeV

Large nuclear radius ~ 3.27 0.24 fm

I. Tanihata et al, Phys. Rew. Lett., Vol. 55, No.


24 (1985)2676
I. Tanihata et al, Phys. Lett. B289, (1992),
261.
I. Tanihata et al, Journal of Physics G22,
Fig. 2 Momentum distribution (1996), 157

of 9Li fragment 6
The obtained results suggest a cluster
structure for 11Li
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Li = 9Li-core + 2n: Halo neutron
. 2 valence neutrons are easy to be
separated from the nucleus.

I. Tanihata et al, Phys. Rew. Lett., Vol. 55, No. 24


(1985)2676
2n 9
Li-core I. Tanihata et al, Phys. Lett. B289, (1992), 261.
I. Tanihata et al, Journal of Physics G22, (1996),
157
Fig. 3 Halo structure of
11
Li

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1.2 Prediction of position of halo nuclei

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Fig. 4 Density
distribution Fig. 5 Correlation between
in 6He separation energy and
nuclear radii in halo neutron

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1.3 Goal of research: Nucleon-nucleon correlation in 6He (-2n)

How is 2N-correlation ?

6
Li
p n

Pn p
P
n n
4
He
P
P2n 4
He
Fig. 6 Li = + np
6
He
4

Fig. 7 Three-body structure of 6He 6


He
G.M. Ter-Akopian, Phys. Lett. B 426 (1988)
Yu Oganessian, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 82, No. 5(1999) di-neutron 10 cigar-like
1.4 Experimental method

. For d+p elastic scattering: increase of d/d at very backward scatt. angles is attributed to
nucleon exchange mechanism.

. One nucleon exchange (ONE) reaction is proposed to study N-N correlation

Co che trao doi


ONE
p
mechanism d
d p

Fig. 9. ONE mechanism for


backward d+p scattering
CM
(deg.)
Fig. 8. Differential cross-section for d+p elastic scattering
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K. Sekiguchi, Phys. Rew. C, Volume 65, 034003 (2002)
2. Method: One-Nucleon Exchange Reaction (ONE)
6
He + p d+n+ and 6
Li + p d+p+

Beam Target Reaction products

(d, Ed)

(, E)

(n, En)

(d, Ed)

(, E)
(p, Ep)

Fig. 10 Reaction mechanism for 6He+p and 6Li+p systems 12


Suppose that n-p pair in 6Li is in 13S1 state (T=0, l=0, S=1 and J=1)
and 2n pair in 6He is in 31So state (T=1, l=0, S=0 and j=0)

Fig. 11 Conservations of spin and isospin for p+d and p+nn


interactions 13
Simulation for kinematics characteristics of reaction products

1. 6He beam at 70 AMeV


At backward CM angles:
2. Slow-d
0o d 30o
10 Ed 30 MeV

3. High energy n, p
0o n 30
90 En 200 MeV

4. as spectator
5
E ~ 70 AMeV
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Fig. 12 Kinematics characteristics of reaction products
3. Experimental set-up

RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF)


6
He (6Li) secondary
beam at 70 AMeV 6.2 m 5o d 30o
TOF Slow-d 4o
p-target

Pl1 Pl2
HE-n, p
5o n, p 30o

ONE reaction is produced here


Fragment-separator (RIPS)

Be target
9

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C Primary Beam at 92 AMeV Fig. 13 Schematic view of Experimental set-up
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4. Data analysis procedure
Particle identification
Determination of kinematics characteristics of reaction products: Deuteron (Ed, d),
neutron (En, n) and alpha (E ,)
Reaction cross section

Experimental technique:
i. Time-of-flight (TOF) ~ Mass and velocity
HE-p, n
ii. Energy loss (E) ~ Charge number and energy

Design of measuring systems (detectors):

slow-d
1. Slow-d: two strip-arrays, Semi-
circular shape to determine d, 1cm- MWPC Beam
thick and 1.4 cm width to measure E,
35 cm from SHT to measure TOF
2. High energy p, n: Thick-plastic wall (10cm thick) to measure E, placed at 70 cm from
SHT to measure TOF
3. -particle: Three layer detectors of plastic scintilators (2, 4 and 2 cm) to measure E,
placed at 100 cm from SHT to measure TOF, MWPC (Multi-wire proportional 16 chamber) to
measure position
4.1 Interfered reactions
Fragmentation of beam particles

6
Li + p slow-d + 3He + d
6
He + p slow-d + 3He + nn

6
Li + p slow-p + n + 4He + p
6
He + p slow-p + n + 4He + n
ONE reaction
Q = -1.47 MeV
6
Li + p +p+d
1n-transfer reaction (two-step process) going through
unbound 5Li (or 5He) decaying into -particle and p (or n)
6
He + p +n+d
Q = 2.03 MeV
Q = -3.44 MeV
6
Li + p 5
Li + d +p+d
6
He + p 5
He + d +n+d
Q = 0.362 MeV
Two-step process

Main interference
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ONE Two-step
Ed (MeV) ~15 ~12
E(MeV/nucl.) ~70 ~80
Ep, n(MeV) ~130 ~85

Fig. 14 Identification for ONE and Two-step18reactions


Experimental set-up

RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF)


6
He (6Li) secondary
beam at 70 AMeV 6.2 m 5o d 30o
TOF Slow-d 4o
p-target

Pl1 Pl2
HE-n, p
5o n, p 30o

ONE reaction is produced here


Fragment-separator (RIPS)

Be target
9

12
C Primary Beam at 92 AMeV Fig. 13 Schematic view of Experimental set-up
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4.2 Beam
identification
For He-beam: impurities are 8,9Li
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For 6Li-beam: impurities are 4He, 7Be

6
Li
6
He
6
Li
4
He
6
He
8,9
Li
7
Be 4
He

E-F2 E-F3 E-F2 E-F3

8,9
Li
6
Li

4
He
6
He

E-F3 vs E-F2 TOF(F2-F3) vs E-F2 E-F3 vs E-F2 TOF(F2-F3) vs E-F2

Fig. 15. 6He-beam and impurities Fig. 16. 6Li-beam and impurities

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Beam energy

~ 74.6

TOFF2-F3(ns) EF2-F3(MeV/u) EF3-


SHT(MeV/u)
Fig. 17 Time-of-flight and energy spectra of 6Li beam

~ 70.5

TOFF2-F3(ns) EF2-F3(MeV/u) EF3-


SHT(MeV/u)
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Fig. 18 Time-of-flight and energy spectra of 6He beam
4.3 -particle identification by layer detectors

SIMULATION

E-layer3
E-layer2
Layers

MWPC

E-layer1 E-layer2

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
E-layer2

Fig. 19

E-layer3
p, d, 3H
Identification of -particles by 3
H, d, p Li
analyzing energy loss
6
3
He

correlation in layer detectors

E-layer2
E-layer1 22
4.4 Particle identification by strip detectors

TOF
slow-d

E-front strip E-rear strip

Strip detectors: 2 arrays Fig. 20 Simulation for PI by strips

1. Low energy particles (p, d, t,


TOF

3,4
He) stopping in front strips
2. Intermediate energy (p, d, t)
stopping in str.B
3. High energy (p, d, t)
4. He at low and high
3,4
E-front strip E-rear strip
energies.
Fig. 21 PI by strips using E23
TOF correlation
4.5 Proton and neutron identification by plastic wall

Plastic wall: 2 thick layers

E-front wall
B F

E-back wall
HE-p, n d
d
t d t
p d
p t t
p

TOF E-Front wall

Fig. 22: Particle identification using plastic wall

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4.6 One-Nucleon Exchange reaction (ONE) analysis

Coincidence analysis between slow-d HE-p for 6Li-beam


and slow-d HE-n for 6He-beam

Energy calibration for slow-d, particle and HE-p, HE-n

Separation of reaction of interest (ONE)

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Data Simulation

Fig. 23 Configurations of n-5Li and


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n-5He ?
Energy spectra of the reaction products

74.6
E (MeV/u)

Two-
s tep
ONE

Ed(MeV) E(MeV/u) EP(MeV)


Fig. 25 Energy spectra for slow-d, and HE-p for ONE
reaction
EP(MeV)

Fig. 24 Identification for


ONE and two-step
reactions based on E EP 74.6
correlation.
The energy difference for
Ed(MeV) E(MeV/u EP(MeV)
the protons plays very
)
Fig. 26 Energy spectra for slow-d, and p for two-step
important role.
process
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Consistent with
simulation

Fig. 27 Momentum distribution and angular


distribution of
alpha particles from ONE reaction

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DISCUSSIONS:
1. The angular dependence of the differential cross section (d/d): A raise of the cross sections
at backward CM angles, i.e. a similar tendency as that observed in the (d, p) elastic
scattering

Fig. 28. Differential cross-section for Fig. 29. Differential cross-section for
the ONE reaction with 6Li beam d+p elastic scattering
K. Sekiguchi, Phys. Rew. C, Volume
Shows a clear evidence for nucleon 65, 034003 (2002)
exchange mechanism at back ward
CM angles 29
It should be noted that in the studied ONE reactions, p( 6He,
4
He+n)d and p(6Li, 4He+p)d, the alpha core is a spectator and
the reaction kinematics is mainly analyzed based on interaction
of the n-n pair in 6He and the n-p pair in 6Li with the proton
target, in a similar scenario as the d + p elastic scattering. As
expected, no reasonable set of optical model parameters could
reproduce the cross section observed in the backward direction
at such a high incident energy. Therefore, this definitely means
that these deuterons are in fact the result of one-neutron
exchange bwt the nucleus and proton-target. As a consequence,
the obtained results made us possible to conclude about an
alpha-core and di-neutron structure in 6He nucleus which is
similar as the well-known structure of alpha core and correlated
n-p pair in 6Li, where the n-p pair plays as a deuteron bound
with the alpha core.

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2. The ratio of the reaction cross sections, Rexp = ONE[p(nn,d)n] /
ONE [p(pn,d)p], was determined 0.27 0.07.
This value is in a good agreement with our theoretical calculations
giving the cross section ratio (Rtheo) between 0.25 and 0.35. The
calculations have been performed under the plane wave impulse
approximation (PWIA) assuming the alpha-2N structure in wave
functions of the 6He and 6Li nuclei:
Rtheo = ONE [p(nn,d)n] / ONE [p(pn,d)p]
= Cnn2 [nn(p)]2 / Cpn2 [pn(p)]2
where nn(p) and pn(p) are the two-nucleon relative momentum
densities in 6He and 6Li at the accessed relative momentum.
Cnn and Cpn express the spin isospin Clebsch-Gordan (CG)
coefficients.
Cnn2 = |<nd||p(nn)>|2 and Cpn2 = |<pd||pd>|2 with = V(f.i)
(f.i), where and are spin and isospin operators, respectively.

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3. The experimental results obtained for
identification of the ONE reaction and two-
step process suggest that the two-step
reaction process may originate from the n-
5
Li and n-5He configurations.
This may be consistent with some previous
research: (i) The three-body 6He breakup
experiment at 240 MeV/u at GSI, where
they showed the larger cross section of
single-neutron knockout (-1n = 127 14
mb for C target and 320 90 mb for Pb
target) compared with two-neutron
knockout (-2n = 33 23 mb for C target
and 180 100 mb for Pb target) (T. Aumann at
al., Phys. Rev. C, Vol. 59, No. 3 (1999) 1252)

and (ii) The shell-model calculations of relevant spectroscopic


amplitudes (SA) predicted a large probability of the n - 5He
configuration (R. Wolski et al., Phys Lett. B 467, Yu. F. Smirnov et at., Phys.
Rev. C 15 (1977) 84) 32
5. Conclusions
We have used the ONE reaction to study nucleon-nucleon correlation in the cluster
nuclei 6Li and 6He. The obtained kinematics characteristics such as the energy and
scattering angle are consistent well with the close-correlated configuration of two
nucleon system.
The increase of the d/d at backward CM angles shows an evidence of nucleon
exchange mechanism in interaction between the correlated two-nucleon systems
and the proton target.
The ratio of the reaction cross sections, Rexp = ONE[p(nn,d)n] / ONE [p(pn,d)p],
was determined 0.27 0.07. This value is consistent with the theoretical
calculations giving Rtheo = 0.25 0.35
The appearance of the two-steps reactions going through the decay of unbound
nuclei 5Li and 5He was also identified. This process may be consistent with a
large probability of n-5Li and n-5He configurations

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The study on di-neutron elastic transfer in the 4He(6He, 6He)4He reaction has revealed
a small contribution (up to 15 %) of the P-wave part corresponding to the n - 5He
configuration, so called cigar-like, in the 6He wave function
D.T.Khoa et al., Phys. Lett. B 595 (2004) 193
The experiment on the three-body breakup of 6He at energy 240 AMeV at GSI showed
the larger cross section of single-neutron knockout (-1n = 127 14 mb for C target
and 320 90 mb for Pb target) compared with two-neutron knockout (-2n = 33
23 mb for C target and 180 100 mb for Pb target) [8]. The experiment concluded
about a large extent of the 5He ground-state resonance following single-neutron
knockout.
T. Aumann at al., Phys. Rev. C, Vol. 59, No. 3 (1999) 1252.
The shell-model calculations of relevant spectroscopic amplitudes (SA) predicted a
large probability of the n - 5He configuration
R. Wolski et al., Phys Lett. B 467, Yu. F. Smirnov et at., Phys. Rev. C 15 (1977) 84.
Our experimental results for identifying
the ONE reaction and two-step process

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Cross-section of ONE and two-step reactions

Y (counts)
=

I (beam particles)*N (target nuclei/cm2)*acceptance (%)*efficiency (%)* thres(%)


acceptance ~ 30% by Monte-Carlo simulation
efficiency ~ 100% for charged particles produced by 6Li(p, pd)4He reaction
~ 16% for neutron produced by 6He (p, nd)4He reaction
thres(%) ~ 100% for charge particle and 75% for neutron measurement by plastic wall (so
called threshold for neutron measurement see NN-exp_report2.doc)

For 6Li(p, pd)4He reaction For 6He(p, nd)4He reaction


(ONE) = 0.24 mb (ONE) = 0.027 mb
(two-step) = 0.59 mb (two-step) = 0.08 mb

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ONE

ONE

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40
Ht nhn Cu hnh Trng
thi

Li
6
+d 2S1

He
6
+ 2n 2SO

6
Li nhn3He
Ht 6
Li + t 2S1/2
6
He t+t 2S
6
Li l ht nhn bn c cu +1/2pn, nng lng lin kt cp np :
pn = E(4He) + E(1n) + E(1p) - E(6Li) = 2.424 + 8.071+ 7.289 -
14.086 = 3.75 MeV
V d: t th nghim Li(, 2) pn using 118 MeV-beam
6

Ht nhn 6He
1. Nng lng lin kt 2n:
2n = E(4He) + 2xE(1n) - E(6He) = 2.424 + 2x8.071 - 17.595 = 0.97 MeV

2. Phn r
Case 1: Ht nhn 6He phn r- tr thnh 6Li vi T1/2 ~ 800 ms (~ 100%)

Case 2: . Ht nhn 6He phn r- tr thnh 6Li trng thi kch thch o
(virtual state) 41
. Li phn r tip thnh + d
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SEARCH FOR A NEW DOUBLY MAGIC
NUCLEUS AT THE PROTON DRIP LINE

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Each telescope MUST2 is
composed by:
i. A first 300 m thick Si-
trip stage with an active
area of 9.8 x 9.8 cm2
consisting of 128 X
and 128Y strips. The
measurement of the E,
TOF and position is
realized by this Si-strip
detector.
ii. The second stage is 4.5
mm thick-Si(Li) layer to
measure the E
iii. The last one is a 4 cm
thick-CsI crystal detector

The experiment 8He (p, t)6He setup at GANIL

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22
Si:
Tritons passed to CsI and
were assumed to stop fully in
this detector. So, FWHM in
3.2 22
Si spectrum is wider than
E2+ =MeV
3.2 MeV g.s FWHM in 23Si

E2+ = 3.2 MeV

E vs for the 4 first telescopes

E vs for the 5th telescope at 0o

E2+ = 2 MeV

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Summing plot for the 5 telescopes: The acceptance increases from 45% up to 95%
- A configuration with 4 MUST2 is proposed to measure the light charge particles,
where:

- In order to increase the acceptance of the experiment, a 5 th MUST2 is suggested to put


at the beam direction (0o)

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