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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

This is a study that delves on using modern technology as instructional devices in

teaching Mathematics in relation to the academic performance of Grades V and VI pupils

of Rafael Palma Elementary School in Calamba City, Laguna. In view of the rapid

advancement of modern technology, it is about time that the countrys public schools

should also be at par with the rest of the world in utilizing modern technology as

instructional devices or tools for the countrys public schools.

Education is the most basic requirement to succeed in life. This is why a lot of

parents put so much importance to the education of their children nowadays. One can

readily see the great concern of parents in sending their children to school, from the

different public and private elementary schools in the country.

Education in the Philippines has gone a long way and has undergone several

stages of development from the early settlers or pre-Spanish period, the American period,

post-American times and up to the present. And this is also true in the teaching of

Mathematics in Philippine schools today that continues to undergo improvements in

order to enhance learning by children and to promote quality education among Filipino

students (Florido, 2010). .

The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish times was formal,

with schools run by religious organizations offering elementary, secondary and tertiary

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levels of education that was focused on the Christian Doctrines and the Spanish language

as the medium of instruction of schools. The Americans brought many changes in their 45

years of reign in the country. The Commonwealth provided free education in public

schools all over the country, in accordance with the 1935 constitution, with education that

emphasized Filipino nationalism (Calderon, 2004) using English as the medium of

instruction.

It is generally held that Mathematics is, to most Filipino students, a complex

subject. The tendency for most students is to consider the subject boring, thus, creating a

lack of interest in the topics being discussed. This poses a great challenge to teachers and

educators, especially in the elementary and intermediate levels, wherein a good study

habit and a firm grasp of the basic concepts of Mathematics should be developed

(Galvez, 2009).

Some students become very good in mathematics while others falter. Some show

great interests to the subject while others get turned off and find it boring to death. This

poses a great challenge to teachers, specifically, Grade I teachers who are tasked to

educate young minds of 7-year old first graders on the nuances of numeracy or

mathematics. The success or failure of the pupils hinges on the effectiveness of the

teacher in getting the pupils interested in the subject.

One main problem in the effective teaching of mathematics uncovered by most

studies is the presence of multiple factors affecting education. Teacher quality is a very

important factor. There are two countries that do well in education: Finland, which uses

mother tongue and Singapore, which uses English as medium of instruction.

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Both countries do well because of highly qualified teachers. These two countries

demonstrate what the most important factor is. What medium of instruction is used

appears to be inconsequential if the teachers are highly qualified (DepEd K to 12, 2012).

Padre (2010) said everybody agrees that Philippine education is in a state of crisis.

This is why President Simeon Benigno C/ Aquino IIIs agenda of increasing the basic

education cycle from the current 10 years to 12 years, a plan that he referred to as the

enhanced K+12 basic education program, is now being implemented. It is envisioned

that by 2016, when President Aquino ends his term of office, the countrys educational

system shall have been improved considerably.

With the advancement of technology, there is now a great need to also utilize

information and communication technology (ICT) in order for the country to improve its

education system. The use of technology in education could significantly aid students in

performing their school-related tasks. And with the utilization of technology, including

mobile devices such as laptops and tablet computers, the learning process for the students

become more fun and conducive due to the user-interactivity and appealing visuals

present in these learning tools (Calleja, 2011)..

In the Philippines, President Benigno Aquino announced during the launch of the

countrys K -12 curriculums that the government eyes the use of tablet computers in

public schools in lieu of traditional textbooks (Enterprise Innovation, 2012). Furthermore,

there exist various programs by the government, non-government organizations and

private corporations in the Philippines that aim to provide one laptop computer per child.

With the presence of laptop (Calleja, 201; Department of Education, 2013).

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In the classrooms, students become more engaged and involved in school-related

activities (Oquias, 2011). Students benefit from utilizing computers in their education by

making school work easier; likewise, the instructors benefit from the usage of technology

in teaching. Gone are the days when instructors need to write out the topics on the

chalkboard, prepare a Manila paper to display a text or show flash cards for Math drills.

Presenting topics today to students is as easy as a click on the keyboard, as the

text or illustration immediately unfolds onscreen in a slideshow presentation (Labro,

2008). This not only makes preparing visual aids for class more efficient and less time-

consuming, but it also helps keep the flow of discussion inside the classroom more

interesting and more engaging to the students.

The modern classroom now requires the use of computers, the internet and mobile

devices practically in every school activity. With this idea in mind, the Department of

Education has planned to modernize the Philippine classrooms in line with its K to 12

program. Today, education at all levels is gearing towards a computer-centric learning

environment. Through the implementation of technology inside the classroom, teachers

and students can yield positive results within the learning environment and true-to-life

situation (Macasaet, 2013).

Education is a life-long process therefore anytime anywhere access to it is the

need. Information explosion is an ever increasing phenomena therefore there is need to

get access to this information. Education should meet the needs of variety of learners and

therefore IT is important in meeting this need It is a requirement of the society that the

individuals should posses technological literacy.

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We need to increase access and bring down the cost of education to meet the

challenges of illiteracy and poverty-IT is the answer

Modern technology is important for Filipino students. The continuing

developments in information technology (IT) also affects education. The pace of change

brought about by new technologies has had a significant effect on the way people live,

work, and play worldwide. New and emerging technologies challenge the traditional

process of teaching and learning, and the way education is managed. Information

technology, while an important area of study in its own right, is having a major impact

across all curriculum areas. Easy worldwide communication provides instant access to a

vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills. Rapid communication,

plus increased access to IT in the home, at work, and in educational establishments, could

mean that learning becomes a truly lifelong activityan activity in which the pace of

technological change forces constant evaluation of the learning process itself (Calleja,

2011).

In the era of modern technology. IT aids plenty of resources to enhance the

teaching skills and learning ability. With the help of IT now it is easy to provide audio

visual education. The learning resources are being widened. Now with this vivid and vast

technique as part of the IT curriculum, learners are encouraged to regard computers as

tools to be used in all aspects of their studies. In particular, they need to make use of the

new multimedia technologies to communicate ideas, describe projects, and order

information in their work.

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Audio-Visual Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials

that involve sight, sound, or both, for educational purposes. Among the devices used are

still and motion pictures, filmstrips, television, transparencies, audiotapes, records,

teaching machines, computers, and videodiscs. The growth of audio-visual education has

reflected developments in both technology and learning theory.

In particular, they need to make use of the new multimedia technologies to

communicate ideas, describe projects, and order information in their work. This requires

them to select the medium best suited to conveying their message, to structure

information in a hierarchical manner, and to link together information to produce a

multidimensional document (Macasaet, 2013).

There are so many advantages of using modern technology as instructional

devices in the classroom. Thus, the researcher is undertaking the study to find out how

modern technology devices can promote the academic performance of Grades 5 and 6

pupils in Mathematics.

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Theoretical Framework

Jean Piaget says (in Stigler & Hiebert, 2009; McLeod, 2009) that The principle

of education in the schools should be creating new men and women who are capable of

doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done.

In Piagets Cognitive Development Theory, seven year olds belong to the

Concrete Operations stage of development (7-11 years old). In this stage, the childs

thinking appears to be stabiiz3d in the sense that internal actions and perceptual schemes

are beginning to be organized into logical operational systems. Children begin to acquire

the ability to think of the consequences of actions rather than learning through trial and

error. All the logical implications of any one belief are also present and available for the

childs thought processes.

The concrete operations stage corresponds to the elementary school years. By this

time, children begin to learn symbols, systems and concepts. They begin to acquire such

concepts as time, shape, distance, size and spatial relationships. They learn to add,

subtract, classify order, apply certain principles or relationships between things or evens,

and apply rules to their conduct. Childrens thinking becomes more logical and

systematic. Although they are now able to reason by analogy situations which cannot be

dealt with through direct experiences, these children cannot yet apply such logic to

problems that are primarily hypothetical and verbal.

On the other hand, McKenzie (2008) postulated that quality teaching is one

aspect of a larger system, since there is a dynamic and complicated interplay between the

social aspects of learning and the specific classroom experiences offered.

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Some students enter school ready to learn most days. Others arrive distracted,

hungry and unsettled. An effective teacher does whatever possible to create conditions

that engage the full spectrum of students, but it is not always possible to counter the

negative currents and influences contributed by a harsh or disturbing external culture.

Siemens (2011) confirm that behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism are the

three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional

environments. These theories, however, were developed in a time when learning was not

impacted through technology. Over the last twenty years, technology has reorganized

how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn. Learning needs and theories that

describe learning principles and processes should be reflective of underlying social

environments.

He added that a central tenet of most learning theories is that learning occurs

inside a person. Learning theories are concerned with the actual process of learning, not

with the value of what is being learned. Including technology and connection making as

learning activities begins to move learning theories into a digital age. We can no longer

personally experience and acquire learning that we need to act. A network can simply be

defined as connections between entities. Computer networks, power grids, and social

networks all function on the simple principle that people, groups, systems, nodes, entities

can be connected to create an integrated whole. Alterations within the network have

ripple effects on the whole.

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On the part of Delgado (2012) he postulated that teachers want to use more

technology in the classroom and the kids seem to really enjoy it and are excited about

using it. Those interested in embracing technology need to educate themselves on whats

out there.

Delgado (2012) pointed out that any level-headed educator would agree that

children must be able to use technology to be competitive in the workplace after

graduation. With all the trends and advancements in technology no one can argue that

we will go backwards from here. But he says he does not foresee technology replacing

passionate teachers educating their students as he simply see it as an important tool to

help the education process and prepare students for the future.

Conceptual Framework

Based on the theories presented and problems posed in the study, the researcher

has designed the conceptual paradigm of the same study as shown on Figure 1. The

studys focus is limited to the Rafael Palma Elementary Schools utilization of modern

technology as instructional devices .in teaching Mathematics to Grades 5 and 6 pupils in

the said school. Thus, the input and independent variables of the study are the Rafael Pala

Elementary School, its Mathematics Teachers and Grades 5 and 6 pupils of the same

school.

The study assesses the implementation or use of modern technology as

instructional devices through the utilization of a survey questionnaire and interview by

the researcher to the respondents of the study that include the Mathematics Teachers

themselves and randomly selected Grades 5 an 6 pupils.

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This is the process adopted by the researcher for the study that also serves as

the intervening variable of the investigation.

The output, or dependent variables of the study are the practice or adoption of the

Mathematics Teacher of Modern Technology as Instructional Devices in the teaching of

Mathematics to the pupils, the advantages and effects of the adoption of modern

technology in classroom instruction to the academic performance of the same pupils, and

a proposed action plan on the effective utilization of modern technology as instructional

devices in the teaching of Mathematics to \Grades 5 and 6 pupipls..

INPUT PROCE OUTPU


Rafael SS T
Palma
Element Prepared Adoption by
ary Survey Math
Questionnaire Teachers of
School
Modern
Interview Technology
Math as
Teachers Instructional
Modern
Devices
Technology
Grades 5
and 6 Advantages
Instructional and Effects to
Pupils Devices in Academic
Teaching Performance
Modern Mathematics of Grades 5
Technolo FEEDBA and 6 Pupils
gy Proposed

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

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Statement of the Problem

The study attempts to assess modern technology as instructional devices in the

teaching of Mathematics and its effects on the academic performance of Grades 5 and 6

pupils of the Rafael Palma Elementary school in Calamba City, Laguna.

It, specifically sought to answer the following questions:

1. How effective are the following gadgets of modern technology as instructional

devices in the teaching of Mathematics, as assessed by the teachers and pupils:


1.1 Tablets
1.2 LCD (Projector)
1.3 E-Textbook (Electronic Textbook)
1.4 Laptop
2. What differences can be identified between the assessments of the two sets of

respondents on the use of Modern Technology in teaching Mathematics?


3. What is the academic performance of pupil respondents in Math during the school

year 2015-2016?
4. How is the assessed effectiveness of Modern Technology in teaching Mathematics

related to the academic performance of the pupil respondents?


5. What Action Plan can be proposed to enhance a more effective use of modern

technology for the improvement of academic performance of the pupils?

Hypothesis of the Study

1. There are no significant differences that were identified between the assessments

of the two sets of respondents on the use of Modern Technology in teaching

Mathematics.

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Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study is an assessment of the adoption or utilization of modern technology as

instructional devices in the teaching of Mathematics at the Rafael Plama Elementary

School in Calamba City, Laguna.

This study, however, is limited only on the use of tablets, LCD (projector), TV

(Monitor) and Laptop as instructional devices in the classrooms teaching Mathematics to

Grades 5 and 6 at the Rafael Palma Elementary School.

It covers the present state of the use of modern technology as instructional devices

in teaching Mathematics in the said school, as well as the general perceptions of both the

Math teachers and randomly selected Grades 5 and 6 pupils of the same school.

In view of the limitations of the researcher, the study will be focused on the

analysis or evaluation of the said issues for the researcher to come up a Proposed Action

Plan on how to make the use of Modern Technology as instructional devices to enhance

the academic performance of Grades 5 and 6 pupil in their Mathematics subject.

Significance of the Study

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The study is of significant importance to the country in view of the Filipinos

desire to be competitive in the present world of globalization, as well as in the ASEAN

integration..

Rafael Palma Elementary School and Department of Education. The findings

of the study could be of great significance to the Rafael Palma Elementary school,

education officials and other stakeholders of the Philippine education system. It could be

a big help to the DepEd in the evaluation of its policies and programs on the use of

modern technology in local public schools that will truly promote the learning and

development of students.

Teachers. Through this study, they may fully understand their roles and functions

as partners in the learning and education of their students. It may help and assist the

faculty to achieve standards of competence in their respective field of specialization.

Pupils/Students. Findings of the study could mean better delivery of service to

the pupils or students. It may create conducive and more effective classroom instruction

that will redound to effective learning and academic success of the elementary and

secondary public school students.

The Community. This study could enlighten the people in the community for

them to realize and understand the importance of modern technology in providing good

or quality education to their children. It may lead them to be receptive and become more

active in promoting success of their children in learning their lessons for their childrens

academic development.

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Researchers. The results or findings of the study could probably be useful to

other researchers as their reference in their future research and study about the use of

modern technology in the advancement of education. And this study could help enrich the

body of literature and studies in the field of education management in the Philippines.

Definition of Terms

The operational definition of terms is provided to guide readers in understanding


the study.

Connectivity. It refers to Internet access that connects individual computer

terminals. Computers. Mobile devices and computer networks to internet enabling users

to access Internet services, such as emails and other internet services.

Curriculum integration. It refers to the use of technology that involves the

infusion of technology as a tool to enhance the learning in a content area or

multidisciplinary setting achieved when students are able to select technology tools to

help them obtain information in a timely manner, analyze and synthesize the information,

and present it professionally.

Digital Classroom. It refers to a classroom where the teacher and students make

use of digital resources and digital tools like tablets, e-textbooks and other modern tools

for a variety of purposes including research, texts, and multimedia.

Electronic-Textbook or e-Textbook. It is an educational or instructional book in

digital form that more and more affluent students use, like their laptops and smartphones

on a daily basis, e-textbooks are increasingly taking the place of printed books

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Information and Communications Technology (ICT). It is an umbrella term

that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television,

cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so

on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as

videoconferencing and distance learning.

Integrative learning. It refers to ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic,

integrative approach to teaching and learning.

Laptop. It refers to a portable computer, usually battery-powered, small enough

to rest on the user's lap and having a screen that closes over the keyboard like a lid.

LCD Projector. It refers to Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) which is a type of

video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat

surface. It is a modern equivalent of the slide projector or overhead projector.

Policy Paper. In this study, it refers to a thoroughly researched analysis that

defines the problem or issue at hand about Philippine educaiton, describes its background

and provides a balanced assessment of options that policy makers could pursue to resolve

the problem. The paper should conclude with a recommended course of action for policy

makers.

Tablet PC. It is a portable computer, general purpose computer that uses a touch

screen as its primary input device.

Teacher in a self-contained classroom. Teaches all or most academic subjects to

the same group of students all or most of the day.

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Technology. It refers to information technology such as computers, devices that

can be attached to computers (e.g., LCD projector, interactive whiteboard, digital

camera), networks (e.g., Internet, local networks), and computer software.

Technology Integration. It is the use of technology tools[ in general content areas

in education in order to allow students to apply computer and technology skills to

learning and problem-solving.

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Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the readings of the researcher that provide basis and

guidance to the researcher in undertaking the study. This, specifically focuses on the

thematic review of related literature and related studies and synthesis of the investigation.

Learning Mathematics

Learning does not mean simply receiving and remembering a transmitted

message. Educational research offers compelling evidence that students learn

mathematics well only when they construct their own mathematical understanding

according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics or NCTM (2006). When

educators begin to see learning as knowledge construction, they change their thinking

about curriculum, instruction, and assessment, developing more powerful approaches to

connecting thinking and mathematics and designing more mathematically significant

instructional learning experiences. Such learning experiences are:

Hands-on, involving students in really doing mathematics - experimenting first-

hand with physical objects in the environment and having concrete experience

before learning abstract mathematical concepts.


Minds-on, focusing on the core concepts and critical thinking processes needed

for students to create and re-create mathematical concepts and relationships in

their own minds.

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Authentic, allowing students to explore, discover, discuss, and meaningfully

construct mathematical concepts and relationships in contexts that involve real-

world problems and projects that are relevant and interesting to the learner .

All students are actively engaged in meaningful, hands-on, minds-on, and

authentic, learning experiences in mathematics. The NCTM (2006) has carefully

articulated five general goals for all students:

1. They learn to value mathematics

2. They become confident in their ability to do mathematics

3. They become mathematical problem solvers

4. They learn to communicate mathematically

5. They learn to reason mathematically

The NCTM (2006) added that all teachers are involved in ongoing learning and

professional development and working to improve their practice by providing hands-on,

minds-on, and authentic learning experiences for all students.

All administrators are exercising instructional leadership in articulating a unifying

vision of mathematics teaching and learning. They also support and encourage

mathematics teachers who are working together and with other teachers and community

members to help provide mathematically significant learning experiences for all students.

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All parents and community members are meaningfully engaged in helping the

school community rethink the learning and teaching of mathematics; making decisions

about the instructional approach and program; providing resources for supporting this

new vision of teaching and learning; and modeling this new vision in their direct

interactions with students.

Seefeldt and Galper (2008) reiterated the principle elaborated by the NCTM

earlier that Mathematics learning builds on the curiosity and enthusiasm of children and

grows naturally from their experience.

They cited and strongly supported claims of the National Association for the

Education of Young Children or NAEYC and the National Council of Teachers of

Mathematics or NCTM that high-quality mathematics education for 3- to -6 year old

children should enhance childrens natural interest in mathematics and their disposition to

use it to make some of their physical and social worlds.

Mathematical experience enhance childrens future interest because they


are meaningful to the young children, engaging them in first hand learning in their
here-and-no world; they encourage children to initiate some of their own learning;
they are age-appropriate; and they have meaning and integrity in terms of their
content (NCTM, 2006).

As to science, arts and other content areas, problem solving is key to the

mathematics curriculum (Seefeldt, 2005). In order to become mathematical problem

solvers, children must have problems to solve and topics to investigate. This is where the

teacher comes in as she builds upon childrens interest and makes suggestions for their

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work. The child is encouraged to identify a problem or does so spontaneously, creates a

plan, reaches a solution and reflects on it.

Basing mathematical learning on their firsthand experiences puts children in

charge and become more interested in learning mathematics.

Bullard (2010) shares and supports what Seefeldt and

Galper (2008) said and remarked that while interacting in a well-

developed math center, children have the opportunity to learn about

the mathematical standards as defined by the National Council of

Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).

In addition, children in the early childhood years need to develop math process

skills including problem solving, reasoning, communicating, connecting, and

representing (NCTM, 2006). These process skills transcend mathematics, involving

lifelong skills that children need to be successful in all areas of their lives. For example,

in early childhood classrooms we can find many examples where children need to use

problem-solving skills (planning a fair way to share a toy with a friend, determining a

way to keep a tower of blocks from falling, or keeping a pool of water from sinking into

the sand). We will explore each of these math processes in more depth.

Modern Technology Age

On the other hand, Van Roekel (2015). says that if our children are to excel

in a fast-changing, global society, we must harness the modern technology resources they

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need to function in a digital age. We must remember our commitment to their future as

we set priorities and establish policies on their behalf.

Van Roekel (2015) pointed out that great strides have been made in infusing

technology into schools and into the instructional process. School districts have invested

heavily in the infra-structures required to accommodate computers and the Internet. They

have commandeered resources to purchase software and technical support for students

and staff, and they have mandated professional development for educators and

administrators. Some have even established curriculum standards for technology to

ensure that students achieve a certain level of competency before they graduate.

Van Roekel (2015) said that although schools have made progress in bringing

computers and the Internet to students and staff, greater access is still needed in order for

technology to become a reliable tool for teaching and learning. Studies continue to

document that the availability and quality of technology is woefully inadequate in most

classrooms, and most educators report their classroom is not the main location in the

school where their students use computers.

Computer maintenance and upgrades are also a challenge in many schools.

Educators working in urban schools who have relied on the federal e-rate funda

program which provides discounts to assist public schools and libraries to obtain

affordable telecommunications and Internet accessstill must seek other resources to

help upgrade software and to provide maintenance and support for their computers.

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Educators in senior high schools, particularly in urban areas, need greater technical

support to help set up and use technology in their classrooms (Van Roekel (2015)..

Experts agree, according to Van Roekel (2015), that maintenance capabilities and

technical personnel make up a large part of the school technology budget, but most often

is not given the proper attention during the planning phase of bringing technology in.

Although educators do get technology training, most do not feel prepared to use

technology for instructional purposes, especially for individualized instruction. Educators

in urban and rural schools are much less likely than suburban educators to feel adequately

trained.

Some technology advocates believe technology training should be emphasized

much earlier, during teacher education programs, but only 19 states have technology

requirements as part of the licensing requirements. Experts further believe that teachers

should know how to use technology to deliver alternative kinds of pedagogy, such as

inquiry learning, models, and simulations to help students develop higher-order thinking

skills. Students utilize technology to become more involved in the construction of their

knowledge rather than having all information flow from their teachers. However, such

uses still are not common, and the technology standards that are in place for students or

teachers are not being applied. Of the 48 states with technology standards for students,

only four test students on their knowledge of technology.

Van Roekel (2015) added that Clearly, the full integration of technology into

teaching and learning is a multistep process that goes well beyond buying equipment and

offering basic technology training.

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In recent years, according to Chen (2015), the technology investment in public

schools, ranging from K-12 institutions, has grown astronomically. According to Equity

Review research, in 1998 alone, the level of spending on educational technology at the

national level was estimated at over $5 billion, and it has grown each year in the last

decade.

While each schools budget is diverse and unique, programs have been

implemented to balance the rising costs of technology and education, aiming to provide

all students with equitable access to a learning environment with modern and interacting

equipment.

Chen (2015) mentioned the Resource Guide to Federal Funding for Technology in

Public Schools, a five year, $2 billion dollar grant was established in 1998 to provide

support at both the state and local level for meeting national technology goals. National

goals for all public schools include: modern computers, high quality educational

software, trained teachers, and affordable connections to the Internet.

To further support the successful fruition of this goal, the Technology Literacy

Challenge Fund was launched in 1997, with over $200 million dollars in fundingthis

later doubled to $425 million by 1998. The millions of dollars in funds were dispersed to

all fifty states, where local communities and public schools were to collaborate to

integrate technology into teaching

In order to provide students with access to the constantly evolving technologies,

NEA is working to support the implementation of devices such as laptops and pocket

PCs, digital cameras and microscopes, Web-based video equipment, graphing calculators,

and even weather-tracking devices. By integrating these tools, NEA hopes to foster the

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opportunity for students to become responsible and savvy users and purveyors of

information. They need to need how to collaborate successfully across miles and

cultures. (Chen, 2015).

Modern Technology in Philippine Schools

In the Philippines, Oquias (2011) claimed that President Benigno Aquino

announced during the launch of the countrys K -12 curriculums that the government eyes

the use of tablet computers in public schools in lieu of traditional textbooks. Furthermore,

there exist various programs by the government, non-government organizations and

private corporations in the Philippines that aim to provide one laptop computer per child.

With the presence of laptop in the classrooms, students become more engaged and

involved in school-related activities in the classrooms, students become more engaged

and involved in school-related activities.

Students benefit from utilizing computers in their education by making school

work easier; likewise, the instructors benefit from the usage of technology in teaching.

Gone are the days when instructors need to write out the topics on the chalkboard,

prepare a Manila paper to display a text or show flash cards for Math drills. Now,

presenting topics to students is as easy as a click on the keyboard, as the text or

illustration immediately unfolds onscreen in a slideshow presentation, according to

Labro (2008).

Macasaet says (2013) that the use of technology in education has significantly

aided students in performing their school-related tasks. With the utilization of mobile

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devices such as laptops and tablet computers, the learning process for the students

become more fun and conducive due to the user-interactivity and appealing visuals

present in these learning tools. As of 2012, 95 percent of public high schools have

computer labs, but only 57 percent have access to the internet. For public elementary

schools, however, only 4 percent are equipped with e-Classroom packages.

Consequently, according to Calleja (2011), the Department of Education had

employed a project in which all public schools in the country be connected to the

internet). DepEd Secretary Armin Luistro maintains that its not enough that we merely

continue building classrooms and toilets The real revolution in education which has

long-term effects can only be done through information technology.

This not only makes preparing visual aids for class more efficient and less time-

consuming, but it also helps keep the flow of discussion inside the classroom more

interesting and more engaging to the students.

The modern classroom now requires the use of computers, the internet and mobile

devices practically in every school activity. With this idea in mind, the Department of

Education has planned to modernize the Philippine classrooms in line with its K to 12

program. Today, education at all levels is gearing towards a computer-centric learning

environment. Through the implementation of technology inside the classroom, teachers

and students can yield positive results within the learning environment and true-to-life

situations (Macasaet, 2013).

Philippine Government Policy on the Use of Technology in Public Schools

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The Philippines through the Department of Education or DepEd, introduced th

Five-Year Information and Communication Technology for Education Strategic Plan

(DepED ICT4E Strategic Plan) of 2008.

Given the current situation, the Department of Education (DepEd) had to address

the needs of the countrys educational system to adopt technology tools. Thus, DepEd has

to consider the following policy gaps with regard to the adoption of Information and

Communication Technology (ICT) in Philippine public schools (Flor, 2015)

Policy Gap 1--An Expanded Definition of ICT--Taking a cue from UN agencies,

the ICT for education in the Philippines should adopt an expanded liberal definition of

ICT inclusive of both low-end and high-end technologies, digital and analog devices.

Policy Gap 2.--An Appropriate Use Policy--With the adoption of the above

definition, what logically follows is an Appropriate Use Policy that sets efficient and

effective utilization guidelines for ICTs with due consideration given to technological,

ethical, proprietary and humanistic issues. The Policy should be considerate of the

primary, secondary and higher order impact of specific technologies to be employed on

individual stakeholder groups as well as communities. The use of technology should be

guided by practicality, cost effectiveness and sustainability

In order to facilitate the utilization of technology in Philippine public schools the

Department of Education has issued the following Department Orders (DOs):

DO 121, s. 2010 - Updating the Technical Specifications of ICT Equipment and


Internet Access Services

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This DepEd Order is issued to update as of November 4, 2010 the technical specifications

of the different ICT Equipment and Internet Access Services stated in DepEd Order No.

28, s. 2009.

DO 113, s. 2009 - Guidelines for the Transfer of Funds for the DepEd Internet
Connectivity Project (DICP)

The Department has launched the DepED Internet Connectivity Project (DICP) through

DepED Order No. 50, s. 2009 entitled Launching the DepED Internet Connectivity

Project and Directing All Public High Schools to Subscribe to Internet Connectivity

Services.

DO 105, s. 2009 - Guidelines in Managing the Proper Use of Internet Services in all
Administrative Offices and Schools

Recently, the Department of Education has issued DepED Order No. 50, s. 2009 entitled

Launching the DepED Internet Connectivity Project and Directing All Public High

Schools to Subscribe to Internet Connectivity Services aimed at providing Internet

access to all public secondary schools. With this development, teachers and students will

have unlimited learning resources. And for administrative offices, the Internet can be

used for research, study, communication and service purposes.

DO 78, s. 2009 - Guidelines on the Implementation and Operationalization of the


Regional ICT Tech-Voc High Schools Effective School Year 2009-2010

In support to the main objectives of the ICT4E Program and Strengthened Technical-

Vocational Education Program of the Department, the Regional ICT Tech-Voc High

Schools shall be opened to serve as the Center of Excellence in ICT.

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DO 63, s. 2009 - Guidelines for the Implementation of the Electronic Updating of
DepEd PSIPOP

The Department of Education (DepED) is required to prepare the Plantilla of Personnel

(POP) using the Personal Services Itemization (PSI) prepared by the Department of

Budget and Management (DBM) as basis.

The PSIPOP serves as the primary data source for manpower information and as basis

for determining the Personal Services (PS) budgetary requirements of DepED.

DO 62, s. 2009 - Guidelines in Managing Existing Multimedia Materials in Schools

The Commission on Audit (COA) released their findings of underutilized and unutilized

multimedia materials that were donated to various schools nationwide. In order to address

the said issue, the Information and Communication Technology Unit (ICTU) under the

Office of the Director, Technical Service prepared these guidelines.

DO 57, s. 2009 - Addendum to DepEd Order No, 28, s. 2009 (Guidelines in Accepting
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Equipment and Internet
Access Services for Classroom Instruction and Administrative Use)

The Advisory on Standard Minimum Specifications of ICT Equipment (Enclosure No.

2) of DepED Order No. 28, s. 2009 may be used as basis for specifying the minimum

technical specifications needed by the DepED field offices for procurement purposes.

DO 52, s. 2009 - Requiring All Regional/Division Offices to Avail Internet


Subscription and Dissemination of Updated Official DepEd Email Addresses
for Regional and Division Offices

In order to improve DepEDs communication services, all regional/division offices are

required to avail internet subscription using MOOE funds. For offices with two (2) or

more computers connected in the Local Area Network (LAN), the required Committed

28
Information Rate (CIR), the guaranteed internet speed is 128 kbps. The type of

connection can be wired or fixed wireless.

DO 50, s. 2009 - Launching the DepEd Internet Connectivity Project and Directing
All Public High Schools to Subscribe to Internet Connectivity Services

The Department is launching the DepED Internet Connectivity Project (DICP) in line

with the Presidential Directives (Enclosure No. 1) to provide the Public Secondary

Schools an internet access.

DO 28, s. 2009 - Guidelines in Accepting Information and Communication


Technology (ICT) Equipment and Internet Access Services for Classroom
Instruction and Administrative Use

Our schools through the years have been recipients of various Information and

Communication Technology equipment/peripherals. To complement/ supplement the

coverage of the DepED Computerization Program priority should be given to ICT

Equipment and Internet Access.

DO 39, s. 2015 - Extension of the Deadline for Learner Information System (LIS)
and Enhanced Basic Education Information System (EBEIS) Updating for
Beginning of School Year (BOSY) 2015-2016

In reference to DepEd Order No. 26, s. 2015 entitled Learner Information System (LIS)

and Enhanced Basic Education Information System (EBEIS) Updating for Beginning of

School Year (BOSY) 2015-2016, the Department of Education (DepEd) issues this Order.

DO 26, s. 2015 - Learner Information System (LIS) and Enhanced Basic Education
Information System (EBEIS) Updating for Beginning of School Year (BOSY)
2015-2016

29
To establish accurate and reliable registries of learners and schools which will ensure

availability of data and information needed for planning and budgeting, allocation of

resources and setting operational targets to provide access to compete quality basic

education, the Department of Education (DepEd) has implemented the Enhanced Basic

Education Information System (EBEIS) and Learner Information System (LIS).

DO 76, s. 2011 - National Adoption and Implementation of the Learning Resources


Management and Development System (LRMDS)

The Department of Education (DepEd) advocates the adoption and implementation of the

Learning Resources Management and Development System (LRMDS) pursuant to the

implementing rules and regulations of Republic Act No. 9155.

DO 68, s. 2011 - Implementing Guidelines on the Operation of the Enhanced-Basic


Education Information System (E-BEIS)

For the information and guidance of all concerned, the Department of Education (DepEd)

hereby issues the enclosed Implementing Guidelines on the Operation of the Enhanced-

Basic Education Information System (E-BEIS).

DO 46, s. 2011 - Revised Guidelines on the Implementation of the DepEd Internet


Connectivity Project (DICP)

The Department of Education (DepEd) has launched the DepEd Internet Connectivity

Project (DICP) pursuant to DepEd Order No. 50, s. 2009 entitled, Launching the DepEd

Internet Connectivity Project and Directing All Public High Schools to Subscribe to

Internet Connectivity Services. This shall complement the deployment of ICT

equipment to the secondary schools.

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DO 39, s. 2011 - Organization of an Enhanced-Basic Education Information System
(E-BEIS) Implementation Management Team (IMT)

The Enhanced-Basic Education Information System (E-BEIS) is a web-based system that

maintains a database of public and private schools education statistics.

The system was developed due to the urgent need to improve the collection of data from

schools and streamline data management processes.

DO 36, s. 2011 - DepEd Policy on Repair and Maintenance of Computer Units That
are Out of Warranty

This is to direct all high schools with non-working computer units that are out of

warranty to communicate with identified Technical-Vocational (Tech-Voc) Schools

nearest to their schools with the capability to provide repair a and maintenance of said

DepEd equipment.

DO 26, s. 2011 - Guidelines on the Implementation of THE Approved Project


Proposals of the Enhanced-Work (E-WORK) Model Schools at the
Elementary Level

The Department of Education (DepEd) through the Bureau of Elementary Education

(BEE issued the DepEd Memorandum No. 458, s. 2009 entitled Strengthening the

Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum in the Elementary

Schools.

ICT Integration in Philippine Schools

Abcede (2009) of the Department of Education presented these highlights of the

integration of ICT in the Philippines' educational system at the UNESCO in Bangkok/

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She specifically touched on the policies on the use of Information and Communication

Technology or ICT in Education of the country.

She presented the Philippines Department of Education (DepEd) policies on the

use of ICT as follows:

1. Technology must be studied first as a separate subject, then applied in other

learning areas as a tool for learning how to learn.

2. The application of computer skills to the other learning areas is a curriculum

policy that stems from the principle that teaching-learning must not be textbook-driven,

and educational processes should take advantage of technological developments,

including the application of ICT in teaching and learning, where appropriate.

3. An education modernization program will equip schools with facilities,

equipment, materials and skills and introduce new learning and delivery systems

necessary to capitalize on recent technological developments.

Abcede (2009) claimed that since 1996, an annual appropriation has been

provided for the procurement of computer hardware, software and courseware for

teacher-training. In calendar year 2002, this allocation amounted to P 155 million (US$

3.1 million).

The bulk of investment requirements for implementing ICT in education comes

from government funding. However, the DepEd involves other government agencies,

local governments and the private sector to finance various components of building up a

program in ICT in education.

32
To fast-track the connectivity of schools, DepEd is undertaking Project LINK,

which will upgrade computer resources in schools to allow access to the Internet and give

training to teachers on the use of the Internet for research and distance learning. The

government will finance a large part of the cost for this project.

The costs of connectivity will carried out by the local businesses and the

operation and maintenance costs shouldered by city and municipality governments.

The goal of the Philippine Education Technology Master Plan is to deliver quality

education that is accessible to all through the use of IT and other innovative technologies.

Under this framework, the DepEd is implementing an ICT Plan for Basic Education,

which has the following objectives:

To provide the physical infrastructure and necessary technical support to make

ICT accessible and useful to students, teachers, administrators and school support

staff;

To develop teacher competence in the use of ICT and in the design, production

and use of ICT-based instructional materials;

To ensure access to the latest developments in ICT and to support research and

development;

To undertake a curriculum improvement that would integrate technology with the

different learning areas; and

To promote the use of appropriate and innovative technologies in education and

training.

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The Philippine Education Technology Master Plan has the following operational

targets by the year 2009 (Abcede):

All public secondary schools shall be provided with an appropriate educational

technology package;

75% of public secondary schools shall have a computer laboratory room equipped

with basic multimedia equipment;

All public secondary schools shall have an electronic library system;

75% of public secondary schools teachers shall have been trained in basic

computer skills and the use of the Internet and computer-aided instruction; and

All learning areas of the curriculum shall be able to integrate the application of

ICT, where appropriate.

Vision for ICT (Information Communication Technology) in


Education
The countrys Vision for ICT in Education states that Following the overall

vision of the Department of Education (DepED), our vision is 21st Century Education

For All Filipinos, Anytime, Anywhere. This means an ICT-enabled education system that

transforms students into dynamic life-long learners and values-centered, productive and

responsible citizens (Department of Education, 2008).

ICT plays a major role in creating a new and improved model of teaching and

learning where education happens anytime, anywhere. To achieve this vision, we will

continue to use ICT to:

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revitalize our schools to make them into dynamic, collaborative

and innovative learning institutions where students can become

more motivated, inquisitive and creative learners. link up our

students with the vast networked world of knowledge and

information to enable them to acquire a broad knowledge base and

a global outlook and provide them with the resources for the

development of a creative mind;


develop in our students skills and capabilities to critically and

intelligently seek, absorb, analyse, manage and present

information;
create new knowledge and products; and
develop in our students habits of self-learning to nurture the

attitude and capability for lifelong learning.

In order to achieve our vision within the next five years, we aim to:

completely integrate ICT into the curriculum, which includes the

development of multimedia instructional materials, and ICT

enabled assessment;
intensify competency based professional development programs;
establish the necessary ICT infrastructure and applications.
develop processes and systems that ensure efficient, transparent

and effective governance.

The said Plan focuses on the following thrusts:

Restructuring the curriculum to integrate the application of ICT to teaching and

learning;

35
Improving the delivery support system of basic education so that it includes the

use of ICT as a component of multi-channel learning;

Generating funds through non-traditional financing schemes; and

Retooling human resources at different levels involving sub-systems (Central

office, field offices, and schools) and focusing on the different components of

basic education.

Present situation of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in education


Developing information communication technology (ICT) curriculum standards for

K-12 schools in the country


Current ICT integration in education remains a large task. For example, student-

computer ratios and teacher-computer ratios can be improved. The education system as a

whole lacks infrastructure for connectivity and access to technologies. While most of the

teacher training institutions (TEIs) have incorporated computer courses into their

curriculum as a requirement for graduation, computer literacy is not a requirement for

teacher certification/licensure. Partly due to this reason, in-service training is generally

limited to basic computer literacy. Therefore, there is a need for more training on

integrating ICT into the curriculum.

Fortunately, more government funds are being channelled into ICT for education.

Private sector and foreign donors are increasing their support for this agenda. There is a

need to consolidate these efforts and help to ensure that the Philippines will realize its

ICT4E goals

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ICT was introduced at the elementary level as a subject called Home Economics

and Livelihood Education (HELE) and in the secondary level as Technology and Home

Economics (THE). In the majority of cases, ICT materials (software, multimedia) are

used to supplement instruction.

These materials may be produced by teachers themselves (as in the case of

animated PowerPoint presentations) or ready-to-use courseware, either purchased from

abroad, or leased to the school as part of the hardware. Currently, there is no integration

of the application of ICT with textbooks (Abcede, 2009).

Since year 2000, it has been the policy of the DepEd to give preference to the

hiring of teachers who are computer literate; most teacher-training institutions offer

computer education as a required course.

Usually, public schools send a few teachers to computer literacy training, who

would then pass on the training of peer teachers. Private schools usually hire ICT service

providers to give training to their teachers.

Public school teachers handling THE classes receive training on ICT. Since 1997,

the DepEd has intensified the provision of ICT training to teachers of English, Science,

Mathematics and THE.

There has been some private sector support for teacher training. Intel and

Microsoft have a current program called Intel Teach to the Future program which targets

to teach 1,000 teachers on the condition that each teacher would train 20 others. Other

training programs for teachers are funded by other private organizations.

37
Eighty-one percent (81%) of schools have no access to the Internet. The schools

in Metro Manila, the Philippines capital, have the greatest access to the Internet, but the

incidence of connectivity decreases as one goes northwards and southwards throughout

the archipelago.

The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) conducted a survey of

schools that gathered baseline data on schools Mathematics and Science teachers and the

extent of the schools use of ICT for instruction and other purposes. The survey, which

covered 4,310 public schools, used the following indicators:

The percentage of computers used for instruction and the percentage of computers

used for administrative work,

The percentage of classes (by subject types) that use computers in instruction,

The percentage of schools that engage an outside technician to maintain the

computer system

Percentage of schools with telephone lines

Observation of teacher and student practice

Interviews of innovative teachers on practices (teacher and student) related to

innovation, problems, solutions and prospects for sustaining and continuing

innovation.

Implementation Plan of ICT in education

38
The Enhanced Curriculum: The overall curricular goals outlined in BEC remain

valid. ICT is simply a tool to more effectively and efficiently achieve these goals.

However, to be able to effectively use this tool, students, teachers, school managers and

administrators should achieve a certain level of competence in the use of ICT. ICT

Learning targets for students have been identified in the following six areas:

Basic operations and concepts


Social, ethical and human issues
ICT for Producing
ICT for Communicating
ICT for Researching
ICT for Problem-solving

Students will acquire these skills, attributes and knowledge progressively across

the formal years of schooling. ICT will be embedded across the curriculum and will be

perceived and used as a new approach to teaching and learning.

Competency standards for ALS learners and Technical-Vocational High School

Students have also been developed for this ICT4E Strategic Plan. The use of ICT in

teaching and learning must be accompanied by a corresponding enhancement of the

school curriculum. However, in the initial stages of this Strategic Plan, it is suggested that

ICT be integrated within the existing curriculum. Therefore, it is envisaged that

curriculum reform will proceed by two stages; (1) enhancing the level of awareness and

use of ICT in the existing curriculum and (2) full integration of ICT in the enriched

curriculum.

39
Multimedia Instructional Materials Development: Already, various independent

initiatives within DepED have developed customized teaching and learning digital

content tied to the curriculum. These materials are being collated and are available for use

by teachers through the DepED website.

However, access to existing digital content remains limited and creating a

comprehensive inventory of these materials continues to be a challenge.

In anticipation of the more widespread use of Multimedia Instructional Materials

(MIM), a sector-wide Digital Content Development and Usability Framework has been

drafted. In the course of this plans implementation, DepED will intensify the

development and acquisition of MIM as supplement to, not as a replacement of, existing

(printed) instructional materials ICT-enabled Assessment DepED through BESRA is

developing an Assessment Framework which requires a reconceptualization of the

national assessment system of the Department. This framework entails a range of actions

that include development of assessment standards, tests and other instruments, conduct of

training and advocacy programs and the formalization of assessment roles and

responsibilities. Dovetailing with this major initiative, ICT will have the dual role of

being one of the areas to be assessed and enabling the efficient and effective

implementation of the assessment program.

The goals and outcomes of this plan are well articulated and will serve as the

basis for the indicators in the actual instruments that will assess ICT integration and

competencies. But more importantly, a sound approach in the use of ICT in assessment

will open up new possibilities in the menu of available assessment methods. ICT can

40
greatly improve assessment planning, collecting and analyzing of data and recording and

reporting of findings. The main goal would be to lessen the reliance on traditional pen-

and-paper tests and conduct a multi-dimensional portfolio assessment of the learner.

Competency

Standards and Professional Development: In order to realize this ICT4E master

plan, ICT competency standards for teachers, education managers, school officials and

non-teaching personnel/administrative staff shall be developed and adopted. A

Competency Standards is a document that specifies in a structured format how people

should perform a job or work role.

Organizations use competency standards: Competency standards attempt to

capture the various dimensions that, when taken together, account for 'competent'

performance. It is envisaged that this Strategic Plan will bring all schools, teachers,

Educational Managers, School Administrators as well as Non-Teaching

Personnel/Administrative Personnel to certain threshold levels of ICT provision and

skills. Levels of provision for elementary, primary, secondary schools and alternative

learning systems have been suggested. Enterprise Architecture

In the first year of its implementation, DepED will design and implement an

Enterprise Architecture (EA) to guide the development of interoperable ICT systems in

the Department. This EA would define the various hardware and systems for pedagogy

and professional development as well as governance and management.

41
The following principles shall guide the design and will be promoted by the

DepED EA:

Interoperable
User-centric
Sustainable
Flexible

Collaborative EA Administration and Management: The DepED EA would help

achieve efficiency and effectiveness in operations. Through it, the DepED will establish

an integrated service network that ensures efficient, transparent and effective governance

and management. This relies on timely access to information, knowledge and funding.

The EA would prescribe systems that would minimize the burden of data collection and

reporting from key school personnel to allow them to focus on their critical tasks in

pedagogy.

Among the systems that will be developed, in the order of priority, are:
School-based Information Management System (includes raw data

on enrollment, assets, number of teachers, etc)


Enterprise Learning Management System,
Human Resource Information System that interfaces w/ GSIS,

PhilHealth, BIR, DBM, banks, etc,


Resources Management System
Performance Management System Globalized Service Support
Executive Information System (enhanced BEIS) with

Geographical Information System (GIS EA Pedagogy

42
In terms of pedagogy, the EA will allow the deployment of new modes of delivery

envisioned by this ICT4E strategic plan. It shall pave the way for more collaborative and

learner-centered pedagogy.

The EA will help fulfill the goal of providing anytime, anywhere 21st century

education for all. It is envisaged that this ICT4E Strategic Plan will bring all schools and

teachers to certain threshold levels of ICT provision and skills. This will directly aid our

students in acquiring 21st century skills.

During the five-year period, the Department will provide a threshold minimum to

public schools and would serve as the minimum requirement for private schools.

Governance ICT Governance means specifying the decision rights and accountability

framework to encourage desirable behavior in the use of ICT. ICT Governance

determines who makes the final decisions on ICT in DepED. It is distinct from ICT

management which is the process of making and implementing final decisions on ICT.

The DepEd will adopt an ICT Governance Framework in order to: 1) properly

evaluate the ICT in the context of the Departments needs and challenges; 2) set the

direction of proposed ICT plans and policies; and 3) the monitor the performance of plans

and conformance with policies.

The DepED ICT governance framework will be comprised of 1) a set of

principles, 2) decision-making hierarchy and 3) tailor-made suite of reporting and

monitoring processes. DepED has taken an initial step in setting up an ICT governance

framework in DepEd Order 1 s 2007.

43
Within the first year of this plans implementation it will have a working ICT

Governance Framework. This ICT4E strategic plan recognizes the important role of

DepED senior officials in ICT governance.

DepED is committed to ensuring that this ICT4E Plan is based on sound

technology and efficient processes. To ensure this, a dedicated unit led by the DepED

CIO is necessary. ICT coordinators shall serve as de facto CTO at their level.

Strengthening Schools and the Communitys Role

The successful integration of ICT into the Philippine education system will

require a coordinated and comprehensive approach. DepED will lead in developing,

implementing and coordinating all activities towards achieving our vision. DepEDs

coordinating role includes planning and sustaining investment strategies to achieve our

vision and facilitating collaboration between all key stakeholders.

To achieve this, DepED, will play a key role in coordination which will include

planning and sustaining investment strategies to achieve our vision and facilitating

collaboration between all key stakeholders which includes school administrators,

teachers, students, parents, the private sector and other community bodies.

(a) Parents: In alignment with school-based management (SBM), it is recognized

that parents will play a vital role in encouraging and guiding their children

towards the achievement of 21st century skills. They are also the most important

support mechanism for the success of SBM.


(b) Tertiary institutions: Tertiary institutions are well situated to be models of ICT

implementation and use for schools. Many university departments and research

44
groups have conducted successful programs, so that they areable to provide

support and advice to schools.


(c) The private sector: DepED sees the private sector as an important partner in

the implementation of this ICT4E strategy. Thus, it will continue to encourage the

private sector to become involved in helping schools achieve the strategic thrusts

of this Plan.
(d) Community centers: Local community facilities such as Community eCenters

and local Internet Cafes will play an important role in overcoming the digital

divide. Equity of access is an issue facing many Philippine students. While there

are plans to increase the number of computers and access to ICT in each school,

schools should continue to seek alternative ICT access for their students. This

may include establishing an agreement with local Internet Cafes, providing

students with vouchers to use in the cafes and where possible, making use of

public internet access points.


(e) Local government units: With the implementation of SBM, the role of LGUs

in school operations becomes increasingly important. They can provide

significant resources that will enable schools to achieve the goals articulated in

this plan. Strong relationships between LGUs and all public schools in its area of

responsibility may be the key to achieving sustainable ICT-enabled schools.

Advantages in Utilizing Modern Technology in Learning

Delgado (2012) claimed that the school of 10 years ago looks very different from

schools today in the Philippines. Also, students are being inundated with technology at a

very young age and the transition has already begun.

45
Education of the future will be delivered with current information delivered

through traditional teaching methods and fantastic technological tools. There are several

advantages we gain from using technology to educate people and are the following:

Equality: School districts across the country are not created equal. There

is so much disparity in educational resources depending on the wealth, or

lack thereof, depending on certain areas. Students using technology in low

income districts gain significant skills and advantages in the learning

process. Using the same technology is an equalizer for disadvantaged

students.

Future: The world is moving towards technology at a breakneck pace.

Educators have a responsibility to introduce, encourage, and help students

master technology, as well as subjects, as it applies to school and the

future. Technology will be used in every aspect of the professional lives of

current students. So upon graduation, whether the next step is college or

career, technology will be used daily.

Mobile: Using technology the classroom can be taken anywhere. With all

the knowledge and resources contained and deliverable on demand in a

mobile device, students can learn at home or in the field. Mobile

technology allows for greater collaboration between students promoting

strong foundations in group work.

46
Motivation: Technology tracks and reports students progress instantly.

Students can get instant feedback for hundreds of data points as to their

condition.

This feedback provides instant motivation to improve performance.

Students who use technology are motivated to improve performance.

Social: This runs along the same lines as motivation. Creating a social

element to educational technology can allow for healthy competition

amongst peers both in the same classroom and across the country.

Performing well and earning badges to gain virtual social status is of the

heart of many social applications today.

Savings: The savings which result from using technology can come in

many facets. On a basic level technology can replace infrastructure.

Desks, books, lab equipment and other items are a heavy cost burden on

schools everywhere. Technology and devices can help save on these costs.

In addition geographically isolated or economically disadvantaged

children can benefit from access to online software or resources which

would be cost prohibitive without technology.

Updates: Some students are using 10 year old textbooks in school.

Updating textbooks can cost lots of money and do significant damage to

budgets. On the other hand, updating software and educational content is

not as expensive or cumbersome. With the help of technology course

47
curriculum can reflect real world data. In some applications students can

be exposed to real-time information.

Assessments: Assessing students performance can be done instantly with

technology. Its more than just test scores, simply understanding students

grasp of the subject in real time can be done on tablets in classrooms.

A classroom could be questioned with a multiple-choice problem.

Students could then input their answer and the feedback score is instantly

given to the student and teacher. Corrections can be made long before

examinations.

Global: Students and classrooms or even schools can be connected to

anyone in the world instantly. Devices coupled with the Internet can allow

for a free way to communicate globally. The chance to understand

international or different cultural perspectives on the same topic is

incredible.

Convenience: Having children carry heavy backpacks, text books, and

binders isnt very efficient. A new lightweight laptop weighs less than 5

pounds and can have an internal storage capability of more than 2 million

illustrated pages. In addition to an internal hard drive, access to the

Internet can provide an almost unlimited source of information.

Ergonomic issues and back pain are a real problem in children. These

conditions can lead to chronic problems throughout adulthood.

48
Studies on the Use of Modern Technology in Schools

The National Education Association of the United States (2008) revealed a study

on the utilization of technology in American public schools. It was found out in the study

that over the past decade, the public education system has made great strides in infusing

technology into the administration of schools and into the instructional process itself.

School districts have invested heavily in the infrastructures required to accommodate

computers and the Internet, commandeered resources to purchase software and technical

support for students and staff, and mandated professional development for educators and

administrators. Some have even established curriculum standards to ensure that students

achieve a certain level of technological competency before they graduate.

Yet, despite these significant investments of resources and time, the debate on

education technology is still largely unresolved. Mounting evidence shows that

technology improves efficiency among educators and increases motivation in students.

However, the effect of technology on student achievement is not well documented. One

of the reasons for this shortage of information is that the uneven distribution of

technology and professional development in school districts and even inside school

buildings presents a challenge for measuring the broad-scale impact of technology on

student achievement. Most studies showing positive outcomes have been limited in scope

and have included only small populations of students and educators.

The study broadens the scope of our knowledge about the distribution of

technology and emphasizes the need for education policymakers and administrators to

49
remain committed to the implementation of technology in schools. This study further

emphasizes the need for all educators and students to have equal opportunities to use

technology for the greatest benefit to teaching and learning. Issues related to staff training

and use of technology are explored extensively, as are the types of technologies and

frequencies that educators require students to use different technologies. By exploring

these particular issues, we are better able to observe the potential impact of technology on

student achievement.

The findings of the study revealed that although all educators and students in

public schools have some access to computers and the Internet, we have few assurances

that they are able to use technology effectively for teaching and learning. This report

describes the current state of technology in public schools and classrooms, as reported

directly by classroom teachers and instructional assistants who use technology at school

for administrative tasks, research and communications, instructional preparation and

planning, individualized lesson design, and other tasks related to their role in teaching

and learning.

The findings for various demographic groupings also highlight the disparities

found in different community types, school levels, and career stages of educators on their

technology and support. In addition, recommendations are offered to help guide

policymakers in all levels of administration toward ensuring that educators and students

have adequate opportunities to use technology effectively as an instructional tool.

An extensive study on the use of technology in U.S. Public Schools was reported

by Gray, Thomas, Lewis and Tice (2010). .According to them, the National Center for

Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, and

50
reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a

congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics

on the condition of education in the United States; conduct and publish reports and

specialized analyses of the meaning and significance of such statistics; assist state and

local education agencies in improving their statistical systems; and review and report on

education activities in foreign countries.

NCES activities are designed to address high-priority education data needs;

provide consistent, reliable, complete, and accurate indicators of education status and

trends; and report timely, useful, and high-quality data to the U.S. Department of

Education, the Congress, the states, other education policymakers, practitioners, data

users, and the general public. Unless specifically noted, all information contained herein

is in the public domain

The report provides national data on the availability and use of educational

technology among teachers in public elementary and secondary schools during the winter

and spring of 2009. The data are the results of a national teacher-level survey that is one

of a set that includes district, school, and teacher surveys on educational technology.

NCES in the Institute of Education Sciences conducted this FRSS survey during

the 200809 school year, with collection of sampling lists starting in September 2008 and

collection of teacher surveys starting in January 2009. FRSS is a survey system designed

to collect small amounts of issue-oriented data from a nationally representative sample of

districts, schools, or teachers with minimal burden on respondents and within a relatively

short period of time. For this survey, 2,005 public schools in the 50 states and the District

of Columbia were asked to provide sampling lists of full-time teachers. Questionnaires

51
were mailed to 4,133 teachers selected from these sampling lists. The unweighted and

weighted list collection response rates were 80percent and 81 percent, respectively. The

unweighted and weighted teacher response rates were both 79 percent, resulting in

overall response rates of 64 percent (unweighted) and 65 percent (weighted).

The survey weights were adjusted for list collection and questionnaire

nonresponse, and the data were then weighted to yield national estimates that represent

all full-time teachers in regular public elementary and secondary schools in the United

States. The results of a nonresponse bias analysis conducted for the survey to inform the

nonresponse weight adjustments, along with additional details about the survey

methodology, response rates, and data reliability,

The following are the key findings on teachers use of educational technology in

public schools during the winter and spring of 2009.

Ninety-seven percent of teachers had one or more computers located in the

classroom every day, while 54 percent could bring computers into the classroom.

Internet access was available for 93 percent of the computers located in the

classroom every day and for 96 percent of the computers that could be brought

into the classroom. The ratio of students to computers in the classroom every day

was 5.3 to 1.
Teachers reported that they or their students used computers in the classroom

during instructional time often (40 percent) or sometimes (29 percent). Teachers

reported that they or their students used computers in other locations in the school

during instructional time often (29 percent) or sometimes (43 percent).

52
Teachers reported having the following technology devices either available as

needed or in the classroom every day: LCD (liquid crystal display) or DLP

(digital light processing) projectors (36 and 48 percent, respectively), interactive

whiteboards (28 and 23 percent, respectively), and digital cameras (64 and 14

percent, respectively). Of the teachers with the device available, the percentage

that used it sometimes or often for instruction was 72 percent for LCD or DLP

projectors, 57 percent for interactive whiteboards, and 49 percent for digital

cameras.
Teachers indicated that a system on their school or district network was available

for entering or viewing the following: grades (94 percent), attendance records (93

percent), and results of student assessments (90 percent). Of the teachers with one

of these systems available, the percentage using it sometimes or often was 92

percent (grades), 90 percent (attendance records), and 75 percent (student

assessments).
Ninety-seven percent of teachers reported having remote access to school email,

and of these teachers, 85 percent used this remote access sometimes or often

(table 5). Eighty-one percent of teachers had remote access to student data, and of

these teachers, 61 percent used this type of access sometimes or often.


Teachers sometimes or often used the following for instructional or administrative

purposes: word processing software (96 percent), spreadsheets and graphing

programs (61 percent), software for managing student records (80 percent),

software for making presentations (63 percent), and the Internet (94 percent).
Results differed by low and high poverty concentration of the school 6 for the

percentage of teachers that reported their students used educational technology

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sometimes or often during classes to prepare written text (66 and 56 percent,

respectively), learn or practice basic skills (61 and 83 percent, respectively), and

6. Poverty concentration is based on the percent of students eligible for free or

reduced-price lunch (less than 35 percent and 75 percent or morereferred to as

low and high poverty, respectively). 4 develop and present multimedia

presentations (47 and 36 percent, respectively). Percentages are based on the

teachers reporting that the activity applied to their students.


Differences were found among low and high poverty schools for the percentage of

teachers who sometimes or often did the following: used email or list-serve to

send out group updates or information to parents (69 percent compared to 39

percent) or to students (30 percent compared to 17 percent), used email to address

individual concerns with parents (92 percent compared to 48 percent) or with

students (38 percent compared to 19 percent), used a course or teacher web page

to communicate with parents (47 percent compared to 30 percent) or with students

(36 percent compared to 18 percent).


The percentage of teachers that reported that the following activities prepared

them (to a moderate or major extent) to make effective use of educational

technology for instruction are 61 percent for professional development activities,

61 percent for training provided by school staff responsible for technology

support and/or integration, and 78 percent for independent learning.


The percentage of teachers that reported spending the following number of hours

in professional development activities for educational technology during the 12

months prior to completing the survey was 13 percent for none 53 percent for 1 to

8 hours 18 percent for 9 to16 hours, 9 percent for 17 to 32 hours, and 7 percent for

33 or more hours

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Of the teachers who participated in technology-related professional development

during the 12 months prior to completing the survey, 81 percent agreed that it

met my goals and needs, 88 percent agreed that it supported the goals and

standards of my state, district, and school, 87 percent agreed that it applied to

technology available in my school, and 83 percent agreed that it was available

at convenient times and places.

Emerging New Technologies

Emerging new technologies are showing great promises to enhancement of

education today and in the future Popescu, Popescu and Popescu. (2012) of the

University of Bucharest (Romania) conducted a study on the many changes confronting

Romanian education, such as human computer interaction. In their opinion, education has

a central place in the development of creating and maintaining a modern contemporary

society. Nowadays, more than ever, human capital is considered to be one of the most

important assets of the society we live in and lifelong learning programs come to support

higher education and its major role for human resources development.

It is a fact that Romania has reformed higher education as a consequence of

competition pressure during the integration into the European Union, also willing to play

a key role in the educational system in the future.

They evaluated the stage of development of the e-learning system in Romania,

compared to other EU Member States, in the perspective of the newly voted Education

law on the tenth of January 2011. Their r research started with a part of literature review

that analysis the state of e-learning in the world and then continued with profound

comparisons based on official statistics that we have considered as essential to our work.

55
Their findings showed that Romanias indicators in the matter of e-learning, which even

though are not at the level of other EU countries, proof an increasing interest in the field

of Human Computer Interaction

The Romanian education is confronting itself for many years with many changes

involving the need to reform and restructure the Romanian Education system in order to

create a clear and comparable system with the ones that already exist in the European

Union and all over the world. The intention isto create a better system centered on the

individual and in time able to generate prosperity and better results. The human computer

interaction is at the beginning here in terms of education, but we believe that in the next

years there will be made considerable efforts to generate a better educational system with

the help of human computer interaction.

Emerging Technologies on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

Iachello and Hong (2007).undertook a study with the purpose (1) to summarize

research on the topic of privacy in HumanComputer Interaction (HCI), outlining current

approaches, results, and trends. Practitioners and researchers can draw upon this review

when working on topics related to privacy in the context of HCI and CSCW; and (2) to

chart future research trends and of pointing out areas of research that are timely but

lagging. There study was based on a comprehensive analysis of published academic and

industrial literature spanning three decades, and on the experience of both ourselves and

of many of our colleagues. In their survey they primarily drew on the research literature

in HCI, CSCW, and other branches of Computer Science.

56
They found out that in the past ten years, privacy has become a mainstream topic in HCI

research, as attested by the growing number of surveys, studies, and experiments in this

area. In this article, we presented a survey of this rich and diverse landscape, describing

some of the legal foundations and historical aspects of privacy, sketching out an overview

of the body of knowledge with respect to designing, implementing, and evaluating

privacy-affecting systems, and charting many directions for future work.

They believe that the strong interest in and growth of this field is a response to

legitimate concerns arising from the introduction of new technologies, and is, overall, a

positive development. However, under-standing privacy requires HCI practitioners to

expand their field of view from traditional HCI domains such as social psychology and

cognitive science, to a broader picture which includes economics and law.

They concluded with a list of five challenges facing the field today, that must be

tackled to advance the current state of the art in this field:

1. The development of better interaction techniques and standard defaults that users

can easily understand.


2. The development of stronger analysis techniques and survey tools.
3. The documentation of the effectiveness of design tools, and the creation of a

privacy toolbox.
4. The development of organizational support for managing personal data.
5. The development of a rigorous theory of acceptance dynamics of users,

specifically related to privacy.

Peslak (2005), on the other hand revealed a study indicating that up to 50 % of the

effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development.

But he said little study has been performed on the inclusion of important inter-face and

human-computer interaction topics into a current information technology related

57
curriculum. This is particularly the IS (Information Systems) discipline has shown little

interest in identifying and clarifying those topics and techniques that should be included

in its curriculum.

The study reviewed the literature in all areas of computing and information

systems and sciences to determine importance of human-computer interaction and define

interface topics that are generally regarded as most important for technology students.

A review of classic, pedagogical and current HCI (human-computer interaction)

literature is performed in this work. Within the broad category of HCI two major

subcategories emerge. People and Process. Within these subcategories, twelve specific

topic areas are identified. The topics are Interface Requirements, Interface and GUI

(Graphical User Interface) Design, Interface Analysis, Assessment and Evaluation,

Design Psychology, Human Behavior and Abilities, Implementation, Collaboration,

Communications, and Teamwork, Costs/Benefits, Testing, Prototyping, and Disability.

Each of these areas is vitally important to the future system designer.

Fetaji, Majlinda, Suzana Loskoskas, Bekim Fetaji and Mirlinda Ebibi. (2007)

found in their study that to design a good, efficient and ease-to-use user-friendly interface

for an e-learning environment as a computer-based system, several issues have to be

considered.

In the human-computer interaction literature is reviewed as well as technological

issues like interaction styles are analyzed and advantages and disadvantages are

58
determined searching for higher bandwidth communication between human and

computer and better "fit" between a human and a computer.

They concluded that in order to design a good human computer interaction, we

have to appropriately choose the type of interface and interaction style to fit with the

class of users it is designed whereas the human factors must be taken in consideration.

Thereby, they recommended the following: to investigate the advantages and

disadvantages of interaction styles and interface types that best support the activities and

styles of learning of users the system is aimed at; to choose the type of interface and

interaction styles that best supports the system goals; to choose the interaction styles that

are compatible to user attributes and that support the users needs, which means to choose

the styles that are more advantageous for aimed users (for example, in a system for

learning and practicing programming, direct manipulation style is more advantageous

which are stressed in more detail in section 3.1); and to define the user class that the

system is designed for, where the human factors must be taken in consideration.

Incorporating HCI design principles, so we can ensure better design guidance for screen

layout, menu organization, or color usage according to users attributes. They

recommended similar human-computer interaction design to similar solutions.

Philippine Studies on the Use of Modern Technology in Schools

On the other hand, Rosales (2012) confirmed the extensive use of technology in

American public schools by citing a study to this effect.

He declared that public school educators today are bridging the digital divide

unlike ever before with 90 percent of school districts using electronic white boards in

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almost every district school, 64 percent of districts providing schools with wireless

Internet access, and more than 60 percent of districts using document cameras.

Rosales cited a new survey by MCH Strategic Data, 54 percent of U.S. school

districts surveyed use tablet computers and e-readers or both with an additional 10

percent expressing plans to purchase the devices in the next year or two. This finding

makes tablet computers and e-readers the fastest growing of the technologies surveyed.

The data was obtained during telephone interviews with representatives from 34

percent of public school districts (5,146 districts). These districts represent almost 34

percent of public school students nationwide. He claims that MCH conducts studies

involving K-12 and early childhood education school programs, and other social

institutions.

The survey found that digital tools available to teachers and students today are

endless as teachers can access social media, e-mail, video teleconferencing and all types

of digital innovations.

According to the survey, 47 percent of school districts use distance learning in

some capacity, while only 21 percent have Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) programs in

which students use their own devices in the classroom. Cloud computing and Student

Response Systems (SRS) clickers were also present in about 50 percent of districts

surveyed. Incorporating SRS clickers, e-readers, smartphones, and laptops as teaching

tools is important in reaching todays students who have grown up with most of these

digital devices.

In todays classroom, a teachers ability to connect with students has become

much easier with the use of technology and there is no turning back. Teachers can use the

60
flipped mastery classroom style of teaching where students watch online video lectures

at home on their own time. Class time is reserved for solving math equations

independently, in small peer groups, or one-on-one with a teacher. A teacher can create

her videos with the SMART recorder on her SMART board.

The flipped style incorporates the technology into the learning process. It is now

the trend in American public schools and the use of digital technology in classroom has

shown results; such as in the first year, math exam scores improved by nine percent and

the number of failures decreased progressively each quarter.

The Philippine Constitution specifically provided provisions for the teaching and

development of science and technology in the countrys schools. Constitutional

provisions on science and technology are contained in the following sections of the 1987

Constitution. Sections 10 to Section 13, Article XIV, are provisions that specifically

promote the utilization of science and technology in Philippine schools.

On the other hand, Bonifacio (2014) discovered in his own study that Integrating

Information and Communication Technology or ICT into teaching and learning has

become a great concern for many educators in developing countries like the Philippines.

ICT must be used and taught in powerful and meaningful ways. With its rapid

development, educators should find ways to integrate technology in the learning process.

ICT should not drive education, rather, educational goals and needs must drive its use in

schools. Targeting holistic growth for learners is a crucial factor in realizing the need to

develop ICT curriculum standards for K-12 schools in the Philippines.

61
Bonifacio (2014) believes that developing these standards is a decision making

process that will dictate how Filipino students will acquire ICT concepts and skills to

help them achieve the greater benefits of learning.

He concluded that ICTs can be used to improve the quality of learning. They can

promote learner motivation, mastery of basic concepts, and the development of higher

order thinking and lifelong learning skills. However, ICT is complex and confusing, and

it deeply encroaches on the processes of education. Lack of vision, lack of consensus and

lack of policy on how to integrate ICT in education consistently, are not very helpful

either. ICTs, cannot by themselves resolve educational problems in the developing world,

as such problems are rooted in well entrenched issues of poverty, social inequality, and

uneven development.

What ICTs as educational tools can do, if they are used prudently, is enable

developing countries to expand access to and raise the quality of education. Prudence

requires careful consideration of the interacting issues that underpin ICT use in the

school, policy and politics, infrastructure development, human capacity, language and

content, culture, equity, cost, and not least, curriculum and pedagogy Motivation,

innovation and sustainability of development programs depend on the kind of leadership

that exists. Educational leaders are effective when they are able to influence members of

the organization to believe what they believe.

Resistance is often encountered when change is introduced. Yet, it takes a good

leader to plan, persuade and perform actions that will allow the different functions to

collaborate, share resources and work together to achieve a common goal.

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Technological leadership is a crucial component in order to develop and

implement ICT curriculum standards. Teachers attitude, skills and acceptability of

utilizing ICT pose as an apparent obstruction, however, the support coming from school

principals and administrators and the government to innovate, monitor and sustain good

practices is a major contributor to the success of implementing these standards.

Developing ICT curriculum standards for K-12 schools in the Philippines seems

to be a long decision process, yet the urgency to do it should be realized now as

technology is becoming more and more crucial in the lives of Filipinos as they follow the

path of economic growth and strengthening of a nation. The researcher believes that the

first step is to accept the need to formulate these standards, know and prepare for the

challenges ahead, have the will to pursue it by utilizing whatever resources are available,

and be able to carry on the appropriateness, effectiveness and sustainability of ICT

integration in schools, keeping in mind that its success lies in the hands of Filipino

educators who are committed to make their education system work in the midst of many

barriers to learning.

Effectiveness of the Department of Education (DepEd) in utilizing modern


information technology in public school education in the country

Rodriquez (2008), Head of the Information and Communications Technology

Services section of the South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organization

(SEAMEO) Regional Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology (INNOTECH),

Philippines revealed a survey commissioned in 2002 by the Philippine Senate Committee

on Education, Arts and Culture to the South-East Asian Ministers of Education

Organization Regional Centre for Educational Innovation and Technology (SEAMEO

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INNOTECH), examined the ICT infrastructure of elementary and secondary schools in

the Philippines.

Some of the survey findings, according to Rodriguez (2008), are as follows:

Two-thirds, or 66.07 percent, of the 36,368 schools surveyed have

electricity. The regions with the highest electricity supply are the highly

industrialized regions of Luzon namely: National Capital Region (NCR),

Region I, Region III and Region IV;


Of the schools surveyed, 5,217 (14.28 percent) indicated they have

computers. Only 726 (2 percent) have access to the Internet.


4,866 (13.3 percent) of the schools surveyed have access to landline

telephones.
The most common audio-visual and multimedia equipment in schools are

traditional media equipment. Specifically, these are: radio-cassette players

(42.22 percent of all schools); television (26.80 percent of all schools);

and VHS players (17.19 percent of all schools).


Schools in provinces in Mindanao (Regions IX, X, XI, XII, CARAGA and

ARMM) have the lowest incidence of computers.


Only one out of every seven schools has teachers who are computer

literate.
More schools have computer-literate teachers (6,632 or 18.24 percent)

than have computers (5,217 or 14.28 percent).



In the survey, 27,042 school heads (74.36 percent) indicated they had

received no training on any topic related to ICT in the past five years. The

remaining 4,774 school heads (13.13 percent) indicated they had received

some sort of ICT training.

The survey also examined the level of computer training provided at schools:

64
While in the majority of private elementary schools computer training

starts at grade 2, in public elementary schools introduction to basic

computer operations starts in grade 4, if computers are available.


At high school, computer training is for further skills enhancement as an

area of study in Technology and Home Economics (THE).

Challenges faced by the implementation of ICT in education Philippine public


schools

In the interim, the Undersecretary for Programs will oversee the implementation

of this Strategic Plan with support from a fully-staffed ICT TC and the Information and

Communication Technology UnitTechnical Service (ICTU-TS). In this, the

Undersecretary for Programs will be guided by the targets and outcomes as outlined in

the Plan.

It is underscored that all DepED units will be responsible for the implementation

of this ICT4E Strategic Plan. With the adoption of the DepED ICT Governance

Framework, management of this plan will be transferred to the appropriate office.

The DepED EA would help achieve efficiency and effectiveness in operations.

Through it, the DepED will establish an integrated service network that ensures efficient,

transparent and effective governance and management. This relies on timely access to

information, knowledge and funding.

65
The EA would prescribe systems that would minimize the burden of data

collection and reporting from key school personnel to allow them to focus on their critical

tasks in pedagogy.

ICT Governance means specifying the decision rights and accountability

framework to encourage desirable behavior in the use of ICT. ICT Governance

determines who makes the final decisions on ICT in DepED. It is distinct from ICT

management which is the process of making and implementing final decisions on ICT.

The successful integration of ICT into the Philippine education system will

require a coordinated and comprehensive approach. DepED will lead in developing,

implementing and coordinating all activities towards achieving our vision. DepEDs

coordinating role includes planning and sustaining investment strategies to achieve our

vision and facilitating collaboration between all key stakeholders.

To achieve this, DepED, will play a key role in coordination which will include

planning and sustaining investment strategies to achieve our vision and facilitating

collaboration between all key 6 stakeholders which includes school administrators,

teachers, students, parents, the private sector and other community bodies.

With the implementation of SBM, the role of LGUs in school operations becomes

increasingly important. They can provide significant resources that will enable schools to

achieve the goals articulated in this plan. Strong relationships between LGUs and all

public schools in its area of responsibility may be the key to achieving sustainable ICT-

enabled schools.

66
Problems Encountered in the Implementation of the ICT Plan

The following were identified as key problem areas for implementing ICT in

basic education:

Teachers fear of the technology;

School principals closed mindset to and non-appreciation of ICT in education;

Constraints of the annual Education Budget;

Maintenance of ICT resources and lack of technical staff;

Sustainability; and

Limited availability of education software and courseware.

Santos (2012) reported that Vibal and Microsoft, in cooperation with the

Department of Education (DepEd), have partnered to create a new kind of classroom set

to enter the digital era. This is to have a classroom without chalk and blackboard, manila

paper, cartolinas, one-fourth sheets of paper, pencils, erasers, and attendance sheets

The leading Philippine educational materials publisher Vibal Publishing House

Inc. and international computer software company Microsoft have not only imagined it,

they are working on making that a reality. They are making this possible through the

introduction of e-textbooks that can be accessed by students on tablet computers.

A child becomes smarter when he or she uses a digital device and consumes

digital material. Santos revealed this was supported by a study conducted by the United

67
Nations who found that students exhibited better performance because of the highly

visual and multimedia content that tablets can show to students.

E-textbooks will have multimedia features like educational videos, full-color

pictures, instructional audio content, customizable text, interactive quizzes, online

connectivity allowing external links to resource websites, study tips, and many more.

Teachers will be able to use the annotated teachers edition of the e-textbooks that

includes a lesson guide, answer keys, and teaching tips to help the teacher guide the

students in using the e-textbooks. Schools in Korea utilize tablet PCs for students while

teachers use intelligent white boards,. A survey of UNESCO rated Koreans as the most

intelligent digital readers because they know how to search for online content and adapt

new skills especially in using technology, Santos (2012).

Technology tools do not only improve the learning process of the students but

also the teaching process of the teachers. Microsoft offers various digital tools for

teachers and school administrators that are 60 to 80 percent (discounted) compared to

commercial pricing.

As of the 2010-2011 school year, there were 38,351 public elementary schools

and 7,268 public high schools, the latest figures obtained from the DepEd website

showed. On the other hand, there were 7,613 private elementary schools and 5,682

private high schools.

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Through all the partnerships and investments being poured by Microsoft into the

education sector of the Philippines, classrooms, regardless of whether in a private or

public school, might one day find no need for chalks and blackboards. A digital

classroom will no longer be something that is left to the imagination.

From the foregoing it can be construed that the state of educational technology in

the Philippines could be described promising. A great divide still exists between the

haves and the have-nots; that is, those academic institutions who have access to updated

and state-of-the-art technology and those who dont. This disparity runs parallel to the

private and public schools polarity.

For public institutions, the presence of internet is far from ubiquitous, even at the

tertiary level. Very few state universities and colleges offer wireless internet access to

their students. The number of computers of these schools can hardly accommodate the

entire faculty, let alone the student body. Not to mention, system requirements of their

existing computers are close to obsolete.

Relevant Local Studies on Teaching Math

Improving the effectiveness of teaching strategies for mathematics in the

elementary schools has been the subject of many studies in the country also. And

teaching Mathematics could have been more effective with the use of modern technology

69
but as the studies show, most teachers relied on the traditional methods or strategies in

teaching the subject.

One of this is Project ISICON (Improving Skills in Computing Numbers) that was

created and implemented by the Masantol District, Division of Pampanga to promote

good quality education in the District. It ws implemented in 2000 for the public

elementary schools in the said district.

Improving skills in computing numbers (ISICON) was the subject of a study

conducted by Bautista (2005) in Palimpe Elementary School Division of Pampanga. and

the study of Bautista covered SY 2001-2002 and SY 2002-2003. For SY 2001-2002,

Bautista found out that for Group I pupils the fast learners performance level was 77.63

or 78%. In descriptive interpretation, this means that pupils Need Improvement in

answering most of the problems involving basic operations. After two (2) years of the

Project ISICON implementation in SY 2003-2004, Group I pupils is good with a mean of

88.83 or 88.8%. They were very good in the posttest with an overall score of 90.35 or

90%. But he lamented the non-adoption of modern technology in teaching in the school.

Teacher respondents assumed the different factors affecting the implementation of

Project ISICON as follows:

a) As to objectives, they strongly agree that the aim or objectives of the project

was relevant to the learner with a mean of 4.50 and they agreed the objectives

are stated in term of the target users with a mean of 4.29.

b) Bautista found the improvement of proficiency level of the pupils in Group II

is poor because of their attitude towards Mathematics. First, they do not read

70
and analyze problems before answering them. . Second, the pupils found it

uneasy to solve problems involving basic operations, They feel uncomfortable

with numbers and figures. These attitudes of students to mathematics affected

their performance in the subject.

Bautista (2005) further discovered that pupils in Palimpe Elementary School in

the Division of Pampanga found Addition easy with a mean of 2.29; Subtraction as less

difficulty with a mean of 3.00; Multiplication and Division as difficult with means of 3.5

and 3.57. She found it that problems that affected Project ISICON in the same

elementary school are: absenteeism (3.46), weather disturbances (3.5), lack of interest on

the subject (3.79), lack of support and follow-up from parents (4.0), sometimes seminars

and meetings attended by teachers (3.57), and coaching other pupils for a contest (2.56).

The effective methodologies or methods of teaching used by mathematics

teachers in the same school are as follow: Bell and Buzzer and puzzle and games with

means of 3.5 and 3.64, respectively; Damath and Step One are moderately effective with

means of 3.29 and 3.42, respectively..

Teaching-learning processes utilized by mathematics teachers that they found

effective materials in teaching the subject are: Window Cards with a mean of 3.5m

Flashcards (3.49) counter like sticks, and Stones and plastic toys (3.0), place value chart

(3.12). Respondent teachers of the school revealed that pictures are moderately effective

in teaching mathematics with a mean of 2.80.

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Utilizing time limit in answering mathematics problems showed that in addition,

the pupils were faster with a mean of 4.07; moderately fast in Subtraction and

multiplication with means of 2.93 and 2.5, respectively; and low in Division with a mean

of 1.93.

The teachers adopted further constant practice on the four fundamental operation

with a mean of 4.79 promotes learning in the subject; talk to parents of slow learners or

conduct follow-up, practice at home with 4.20, pupils memorize content of window

cards, group or peer study, designate fast learner as the leader of slow learner and display

materials to be used by the children are all used by mathematics teachers in the

implementation of Project ISICON at the Palimpe Elementary School, Division of

Pampanga, according to the study of Bautista (2005).

It is common practice for mathematics teachers to adopt similar strategies in

teaching the subject in the public elementary schools of the country. This was the subject

of the study of Alminiana (2005) that specifically focused on the common strategies

employed by mathematics teachers for Grade Two pupils and its implications to the

mathematics instruction in Laurel District SY 2004-2005, Batangas province.

The study of Alminiana revealed that the common strategies of mathematics

teachers in the area are the following: conducting contests, games, written or symbolic

exercises, oral (individual counting activities), simulation or role-playing, practical work,

oral (choral counting activities) and lectures. Also adopted teaching strategies are

exposition, discussion, practice, cooperative learning, POEM, DAMATH, games,

72
puzzles, problem solving, quizzes, unit test, Math trivia, graded oral recitations, out

campus study, and peer learning.

Not commonly used strategies are: modern technology utilization of modules,

self-learning kit, mileage, chart, audio-visual display and teaching by analogy. In the

same study, Alminiana (2005) also found out that the problems encountered by

mathematics teachers are the following: for Teacher Factor there is an inadequate time

to prepare lesson plan; on Pupil Factor problem poor study habits of pupils, lack of

interest towards learning area, laziness, absenteeism and tardiness; on Instructional

Factors lack of materials; and on problems with Administration and Supervision Factors

there is too much extra-curricular activities to contend with. She found though that

mathematics teachers in the area did not encounter problem with regard to the classroom

and physical facilities of their school. As to its implications, Alminianas study could help

and make mathematics teaching more effective and meaningful, offer new and interesting

teaching strategies to capture the interest of pupils in learning mathematics.

The more recent study conducted by Dumlao (2010) is of great interest and

relevance to the current study.

This particular study delves on the effectiveness of the different teaching

strategies in mathematics. It was undertaken during the SY 2009-2010 at the Payatas A

Elementary School in Quezon City.

Dumlao utilized the descriptive method of researcher and found out mathematics

teachers of the aforesaid school considered the following teaching strategies as Highly

73
Effective in teaching the subject: Classroom Demonstration, Cooperative Learning, Field

Studies, Discussion Method, and Role Playing. But the researcher decried the lack of

modern technology in use in classrooms in the school.

Mascarias (2006) undertook a study that deals on the

assessment by mathematics teachers of their pupils in the public

elementary schools in the District of Marinduque. The study that

utilized the descriptive method of research found out that Paper and

Pencil Method was always employed by mathematics teachers in the

assessment of their pupils. She found though that classroom

assessment of teachers have no significant effect to the extent of the

learners progress in the subject. She recommended that (1) other than

paper and pencil test, mathematics teachers should use other

alternative assessments for a more reliable evaluation of the students

performance in the subject; (2) the school administrator may design a

school-based in-service training for mathematics teachers on

classroom assessment practices to refresh and improve teachers

knowledge and skills in assessing their students progress.

This researcher also finds the study of Mati (2007) of importance to the present

investigation. Mati undertook a study that deals on the evaluation of Mathematical

achievement of students of relevance to the current undertaking. Based on her findings,

Mati recommended that Mathematics teachers should realize their way of teaching

74
Mathematics and other ways which they can learn best practices, possibly by viewing

audio-visual materials of actual classroom teaching in other countries like the United

States, Germany and Jan. They should also realize how they view the actual classroom

devices can become key elements in their environmental process of curriculum and

teaching training reforms.

Mati continued with another recommendation that calls for Mathematics teachers

to conceptualize and organize better teaching strategies and materials to make students

master the topics being taught. Teachers should use strategies that would concretize the

subject clearly. Constructivism is one approach that utilizes true-to-life experiences.

Moreover she said that students should be given enough time to master certain skills

before proceeding to the next topic. Administrators and mathematics teachers should

organize tutorial or remedial classes for underachievers and provide advanced lessons for

high-achievers to help the students overcome their difficulties and strengthen their

interest in Mathematics. Games should be integrated in mathematics classes to make the

subject interesting and enjoyable. There should be sufficient reading materials and

supplementary exercise, varied in different levels to improve their problem solving

abilities. Teachers must make provisions for students delivery and creativity, either

guided or independently thought of.

To motivate students in problem solving teachers should use different strategies such as

trial and error, searching for a pattern, acting out, making a list, table or chart, and

different instructional aids such as models or sketchers. Students should be provided with

approved textbooks for the students to read and answer.

75
On the other hand, classroom assessment practices and the extent of learners

progress in mathematics was the major concern of the study conducted by Bueno (2006).

This involved 15 Mathematics teachers and 290 students of the Manila High School. It

was revealed in this study that the major problem of students were toward mathematics

curriculum and basic foundation. Teacher strategy was found to be a minor problem in

teaching the subject. And the instructional instruments that matched with the identified

problems were curriculum, strategy and attitudes and basic foundation. Thus, based on

her findings, Bueno (2006) presented the following recommendations:

a. Since the common problems in mathematics were identified as the

possible causes of low performance in mathematics, suggest4ed

solutions and enhance should be applied in teaching the subject.

b. The identified problems in mathematics could be made as factor

determinant in learning to help develop the students mathematical

ability, however, the teacher should apply suggested solutions to draw

highly satisfactory result in teaching mathematics.

c. Seminars and workshop should be conducted for all mathematics

teachers to discuss the problems identified so that possible solutions

could be made in classroom activity.

d. There should be no gap between teacher and students in order to avoid

negative attitudes of students towards their teacher.

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e. There should be remedial mathematics classes for students with

deficiencies and difficulties in the subject.

f. Remedial teaching program should be implemented and continuously

improved and enhanced to meet the needs of the time.

g. Use of modern technology can be of great help in a more effective

assessment of the performance of students in Mathematics.

Synthesis

The review of related literature and related studies has clearly established the need

to utilize modern technology for the countrys public elementary and secondary schools.

It can also be seen from the presentation in this chapter the many facets of technology

tools that must be considered for utilization by Philippine public schools for the country

to be at par with other countries of the world.

Both foreign and local literature and studies cited here show that if we want our

students to excel in a fast-changing, global society, we must harness the technology

resources they need to function in a digital age. And although schools have made

progress in bringing computers and the Internet to students and staff, greater access is still

needed in order for technology to become a reliable tool for teaching and learning.

There are many challenges in the world, and to our country in particular, in the

utilization of modern technology tools in our schools.

This includes investments needed in Information and Communication

Technology (ICT) plus concerns in computer maintenance and upgrades that are big

77
challenges in most public elementary and secondary schools in the Philippines. Thus, the

review of related literature and studies afforded the researcher vital information that

guided the same researcher in undertaking the present study.

The review of related literature and studies have specifically established the great

challenges faced by scientists and information technology experts in updating currently

available functions and use of technology and preparing design on human-computer

interaction that can be best achieved by mankind to benefit people in this world.

The related literature and studies are not only relevant but proved invaluable to

the present study. For one, Tollmar (2015) provided information on program in Human

Computer Interaction and Design focuses on study, design, development and evaluation.

Grudin (2008) revealed Humancomputer interaction as a core element of computer

science. That is very useful to HCI design.

On the other hand, Prez-Quiones. and Sibert (2015), adequate feedback is a

necessary component of both human-human and human-computer interaction that

enriches our understanding of HCI design considerations.

The studies of Yasdi (2000), Popescu, Popescu and Popescu. (2012) and Iachello

and Hong (2007).contributed various factors that generally affect and influence Human

Computer Interaction (HCI), design approaches, results, and trends.

Peslak (2005) pointed that development of information systems is devoted to user

interface development. And Fetaji, Majlinda, Suzana Loskoskas, Bekim Fetaji and

78
Mirlinda Ebibi. (2007) presented some invaluable knowledge to design a good, efficient

and ease-to-use user-friendly interface for an e-learning environment as a computer-based

system and several issues that have to be considered. Thus, the review of related literature

and studies has proved very helpful to the researcher in undertaking the present study.

There is an apparent dearth of academic studies on the countrys policy on the use

or adoption of ICT and on the efficiency and effectiveness of the Department of

Education in implementing the utilization of technology tools that could usher in the

realization of digital classrooms in the countrys public elementary and secondary

schools. This is what the study would like to accomplish in order to narrow down or even

fill up the gap of our knowledge about the implementation of odern technology as

instructional deices in the classroom instruction and use of computers itself in our local

public schools.

The other local unpublished studies clearly show the need for the utilization of

modern technology in teaching Mathematics to Filipino children. Teachers in the said

studies were hampered by the non-utilization of modern technology in teaching the

subject, resulting to dismal performances of the students or pupils in the said subject.

The researcher hopes that, in this way, we can be more effective in promoting

education through the utilization of modern technology tools in Philippine public school

classrooms

Chapter III

79
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the method and the procedures that were used in the study. It

describes the research design, respondents of the study, instruments of the study,

validation of the instruments, data gathering procedure, ethical consideration and

statistical treatment of data of the study.

Research Design

The researcher utilized the descriptive-comparative method of research that

employs the survey technique. According to Fonollera (2010), the descriptive method of

research involves the collection of data in order to test hypothesis or answer questions

concerning the current status of the study that requires description, recording, analysis,

and interpretation of the conditions that exists at the time of the investigation. Descriptive

research usually makes some types of comparison, contrast and correlation in a carefully

planned and orchestrated research (Ardales, 2008). And this prompted the researcher to

utilize this research design in this study.

The study is also employing the comparative method of research since the specific

objective of the study is to compare the two groups of respondentsthe Mth teachers

and Grades 5 and 6 pupils. They are similar in some respects, because both are concerned

about Mathematics, but they differ in some respects because the Math teachers will be

providing information on what they know about their pupils; academic performance in

Mathematics with the use of modern technology while the pupils have their

own perceptions on the utilization of modern technology in order to enhance their

chances of learning Mathematics in the classroom, These differences become the focus

80
of examination. The goal is to find out why the cases are different: to reveal the general

underlying structure which generates or allows such a variation.

Respondents of the Study

As already indicated, the study has two groups of respondents. The first set is

composed of all Mathematics Teachers handing Grades 5 and 6 pupils at the Rafael Palma

Elementary School while the other group is composed of randomly selected Grades 5 and

6 pupils of the same school.

The first group of respondents is composed of _____ Mathematics Teachers for

Grades 5 and 6. The second group of respondents is composed of 50 pupils from Grade 5

and another 50 pupils in Grade 6.

Instruments of the Study

The data gathering instruments of the study are the prepared Survey Questionnaire-

and interview. The survey questionnaire is in checklist type or form where respondents

will simply check or mark their chosen answers.

The first part of the survey form for the Teacher Respondents also want to elicit

data on the demographic profile of the teachers in order to provide a good background on

the style and effectiveness of the teachers in teaching Mathematics to their pupils.

The survey questionnaire though for the pupils do not include the demographic

profile of the pupils as this would only make it more complicated for the pupils in

answering the items in the survey form.

81
The survey form will try to elicit data on the use of modern technology in the

school at present and how the practice has affected the academic performance of the pupils

in Grades 5 and 6.

Follow-up interviews will be conducted by the researcher with the respondents in

order to gather supplementary information that could be utilized in the in-depth analysis

of the perceptions of respondents about the use of modern technology as instruitonal

devices and on the advantages of the same to both the pupils and the teachers in promoting

learning of Mathematics,

Validation of the Instruments

In order to ensure the validity of the survey instrument, the researcher will subject

the same to the Thesis Adviser. In addition to this the same researcher shall ask the

Mathematics teachers if they think the survey form is in proper construction that it can

elicit the right responses from respondents for use in the study.

To ensure the pupils will be able to provide the responses required from them, the

same researcher is going to pre-test survey questionnaire among 11 pupils in Grades 5 and

6 who are not part of the 100 respondents of the study. This is for the researcher to find out

if the questions are suitable to the respondents and in order to find if the pupils will be

able to answer the questions with ease.

Data Gathering Procedure

82
With the completion of the approval and validation of the survey questionnaire-

checklist of the study, the researcher shall seek the necessary permission to administer the

questionnaire-checklist with the principal of Rafael Palma Elementary School.

The researcher shall then proceed with the actual flotation or distribution of

Questionnaire Checklist after permission shall have been granted by concerned school

authorities in the area. The same researcher shall retrieve the completed survey forms the

following day in order to give the respondents sufficient time to answer or fill up the

survey questionnaire-checklist. The retrieved survey forms will then be tabulated by the

researcher for the subsequent statistical treatment of data gathered from the survey.

Ethical Consideration

The researcher will strictly adhere to calls or requirements for honesty, respect,

and integrity in dealing with respondents, clients, and the public. In this, respondents

should be given the content, and purpose of the survey so that they may make an

informed judgment about whether they wish to participate or not in the survey. Any

assurances, such as confidentiality or anonymity, must also be kept by the researcher.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The researcher will utilize a composite of statistical measures to treat raw data that

will be gathered for this investigation. These are the frequency and percentage, arithmetic

weighted mean, and the One-Way Analysis of Variance or ANOVA for the statistical

treatment of primary data.

1. Frequency and Percentage

83
The formula for the percentage used in the study is :

%= F/N X 100

Where:

% = the percentage

F = the frequency of responses given

N = total number of respondents or population of the study

100 = the fixed constant variable

The frequency and percentage was used for the statistical treatment of the

demographic profile of individual respondent of real estate firms.

2. Weighted Mean

The Weighted Arithmetic Mean was utilized for the statistical treatment of raw

data gathered for the effectiveness of the teaching strategies adopted by the respondent

mathematics teachers and problems encountered by them in teaching the same subject in

Grade One. The arithmetic weighted mean formula that will be used for the study is as

follows:
Xw Xw
Xw = -------- = -------
W N
Where:

Xw = the weighted mean

W = the weight of X

84
Wx = the sum of the weight of Xs

W = the sum of the weight of X

N = x

3. Likert Scale

In order to interpret the weighted mean values of the different variables of the

study, the researcher will adopt the Five Point Likert Scale with the appropriate scale,

values and verbal interpretations that are as follow:

Scale Value Range of weighted mean Responses/ interpretation

5 4.50-5.00 Very Effective


Strongly Agree

4 3.50-4.49 Effective
Agree

3 2.50-3.49 Moderately Effective


Moderately Agree

2 1.50-2.49 Less Effective


Disagree
Least Effect
1 0-1.49
Strongly Disagree

4. One-Way ANOVA

85
The One-Way F-test or one factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be utilized

to test the significance of the differences between the means obtained on the perceptions

of the Mathematics teachers and pupils and to test the validity of the hypotheses of the

study.

Steps for ANOVA calculations:

[A] Calculate the correction factor

[B] Calculate the Sum of Squares Total value (SS Total)

SS Total = Sx2 - CF

[C] Calculate the SS Group value

[D] Calculate the SS Error value

SS Error = SS Total - SS Group

[E] Calculate MS Group value

[F] Calculate MS Error value

[G] Calculate F value (V.R.)

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