You are on page 1of 4

Chapter 30 30

Morphotectonic and Geologic Digital Map Compilations


of the South-Central Andes (3642S)
Daniel Melnick Helmut P. Echtler

described by naturalists like Charles Darwin and Ignacy


30.1 Introduction
Domeyko (Darwin 1839; Domeyko 1846). Their tectonic
significance was further developed among
The need of the multidisciplinary SFB-267 project of in- others by Brggen (1950), Plafker and Savage (1970),
tegrated, large-scale tectonic and geologic base informa- Gansser (1973), Jordan et al. (1983), Mpodozis and Ra-
tion for the specific and localized subprojects led to pro- mos (1989). The off-shore structure of the margin and
duce the two map compilations presented here. Both maps shelf basins has been integrated from hydrocarbon
have been conceived at about 1 : 4 000 000 scale and cover exploration studies made by Empresa Nacional del
the region from 36 to 42 S, between the Pacific Ocean Petrleo (ENAP), the Chilean state oil company (Mordo-
and 67 W in the Argentine pampas (Figs. 30.1 and 30.2). jovich 1981; Gonzlez 1989), interpretation of ENAP
The first map includes the main morphotectonic units seismic reflection profiles and boreholes (Melnick and
and Cenozoic fault zones as well as major tectonic ele- Echtler 2006) and SPOC multibeam bathymetry (Reichert
ments. Off-shore shelf basins and limits of the continen- et al. 2002). The second map integrates the main re-
tal slope and trench plain (Fig. 30.1) are also integrated. gional-scale stratigraphic, intrusive, and metamorphic
These morphotectonic units can be considered as the units (Fig. 30.2) comprised within each margin-scale
continental-scale subdivisions of the Andean margin, first morphotectonic province.

Fig. 30.1. Morphotectonic units and major faults of the south-Central Andes
566 Daniel Melnick Helmut P. Echtler

Fig. 30.2. Geologic map compilation of the south-Central Andes

field observations, interpretation of the digital elevation


30.2 Methods and Data Sources
model and locally remote sensing data, and published
data. Table 30.1 includes area and mean and maximum
The morphotectonic units were mapped using the NASA- elevations of the morphotectonic units.
SRTM digital elevation model, which has a ground reso- The geologic compilation is based on the available maps
lution of 3 arc sec (Slater et al. 2006). The main criteria of the Chilean and Argentinean Geological Surveys pur-
used to define the map units were morphology, topo- chased in digital versions at 1 : 1000000 and 1 : 2500000
graphic gradients, geological evolution, and structural scale, respectively (SERNAGEOMIN 1982, 2003; SEGEMAR
boundaries. The precise limit of each unit is based on own 1995). Both maps were simplified by merging units based
Chapter 30 Morphotectonic and Geologic Digital Map Compilations of the South-Central Andes (3642S) 567

on chronostratigraphic as well as tectonic considerations;


for example, the late Cretaceous to Pliocene sedimentary infill
of the Andean fore-arc basins was grouped into Marine and
continental fore-arc basins; Jurassic to Miocene intrusive
rocks of the Main Cordillera were integrated into North
Patagonian Batholith magmatic arc root (e.g., Herv 1994).
The structural information supplied by both geologi-
cal surveys has been actualized by studies developed in
the frame of the SFB-267, its local partner universities
and institutions, and other parallel research groups in the
Andes (e.g., Herv 1988, 1994; Lavenu and Cembrano 1999;
Muoz et al. 2000; Jordan et al. 2001; Radic et al. 2002;
Melnick et al. 2002, 2003, 2006ac; Rosenau 2004; Folguera
et al. 2004; Glodny et al. 2005; Ramos and Folguera 2005;
Zapata and Folguera 2005; Rosenau et al. 2006). The ma-
jor fault zones have been revised, updated and mapped
using the SRTM digital elevation model. The legend of
the geologic map has been organized in order to show
the tectonic position of each unit as well as its time span
(Fig. 30.3). This facilitates i.e., visualizing shifts in the lo-
cus of magmatic activity, sediment transport and distri-
bution, and basin development. Table 30.2 integrates sim-
plified descriptions and age ranges of each unit. All the
GIS tables are available in the accompanying DVD in geo-
detic projection and WGS 1984 datum.

Acknowledgments

This work benefits from discussions with the SFB-267 com-


munity and Berlin-Potsdam geosciences groups as well as
Fig. 30.3. Space-time diagram of the geologic units colleagues from Chilean and Argentinean institutions.
568 Daniel Melnick Helmut P. Echtler

Melnick D, Bookhagen B, Echtler H, Strecker M (2006a) Coastal de-


References formation and great subduction earthquakes, Isla Santa Mara,
Chile (37 S). Geol Soc Am Bull 118(9), in press
Brggen J (1950) Fundamentos de la Geologa de Chile. Instituto Melnick D, Folguera A, Ramos VA (2006b) Structural control on arc
Geogrfico Militar, Santiago, Chile volcanism: the CaviahueCopahue complex, Central to Patago-
Darwin C (1839) Journal and Remarks 18321836. Volume III of nian Andes transition (38 S). J S Am Earth Sci 20(5), in press
Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majestys ships Ad- Melnick D, Rosenau M, Folguera A, Echtler H (2006c) Neogene tec-
venture and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing tonic evolution of the Neuqun Andes western flank (3739 S),
their examination of the southern shores of South America, and In: Kay SM, Ramos VA (eds) Evolution of an Andean margin: a
the Beagles circum navigation. London, pp 370381 tectonic and magmatic view from the Andes to the Neuqun Ba-
Domeyko I (1846) Memoria sobre la Estructura Geolgica de Chile en sin (3539 S lat). Geol Soc Am Spec P 407:7395
la Latitud de Concepcin, desde la Baha de Talcahuano hasta la Mordojovich C (1981) Sedimentary basins of Chilean Pacific Off-
Cumbre de la Cordillera de Pichachn y Descripcin del Volcn shore. In: Halbouty MT (ed) Energy resources of the Pacific Re-
Antuco. In: Domeyko I (ed) Geologa. Imprenta Cervantes, Santia- gion. AAPG Stud Geol, pp 6382
go, pp 123172 Mpodozis C, Ramos V (1989) The Andes of Chile and Argentina. In:
Folguera A, Ramos VA, Hermanns RL, Naranjo J (2004) Neotecton- Ericksen GE, Caas Pinochet MT, Reinemund JA (eds) Geology
ics in the foothills of the southernmost Central Andes (3738 S): of the Andes and its relation to hydrocarbon and mineral re-
evidence of strike-slip displacement along the Antiir-Copahue sources. Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Re-
fault zone. Tectonics 23(5):123 sources, Texas, pp 5990
Gansser A (1973) Facts and theories on the Andes. J Geol Soc Lon- Muoz J, Troncoso R, Duhart P, Crignola P, Farmer L, Stern CR (2000)
don 129:93131 The relation of the mid-Tertiary coastal magmatic belt in South-
Glodny J, Lohrmann J, Echtler H, Grfe K, Seifert W, Collao S, Figueroa Central Chile to the late Oligocene increase in plate convergence
O (2005) Internal dynamics of a paleoaccretionary wedge: in- rate. Rev Geol Chile 27(2):177203
sights from combined isotope tectonochronology and sandbox Plafker G, Savage JC (1970) Mechanism of the Chilean earthquake
modelling of the South-Central Chilean forearc. Earth Planet Sci of May 21 and 22, 1960. Geol Soc Am Bull 81:10011030
Lett 231(12):2339 Radic J, Rojas L, Carpinelli A, Zurita E (2002) Evolucin tectnica de
Gonzlez E (1989) Hydrocarbon resources in the coastal zone of Chile. la Cuenca Terciaria de Cura Malln, regin cordillerana chileno-
In: Ericksen GE, Caas Pinochet MT, Reinemund JA (eds) Geol- argentina (3630'39 S). In: Actas 15 Congreso Geolgico
ogy of the Andes and its relation to hydrocarbon and mineral Argentino, Calafate, pp 233237
resources. Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Re- Ramos VA, Folguera A (2005) Tectonic evolution of the Andes of
sources, Texas, pp 383404 Neuqun: constraints derived from the magmatic arc and
Herv F (1988) Late Paleozoic subduction and accretion in South- foreland deformation. In: Veiga GD, Spalletti LA, Howell JA,
ern Chile. Episodes 11(3):183188 Schwarz E (eds) The Neuqun Basin, Argentina: a case study in
Herv F (1994) The Southern Andes between 39 and 44 S latitude: sequence stratigraphy and basin dynamics. Geol Soc London
the geological signature of a transpressive tectonic regime re- Spec Pub, pp 1535
lated to a magmatic arc. In: Reutter K-J, Scheuber E, Wigger P Reichert C, Schreckenberger B, SPOC team (2002) Fahrtbericht
(eds) Tectonics of the Southern Central Andes. Springer-Verlag, SONNE-Fahrt SO-161, Leg 2&3 SPOC Subduktionsprozesse vor
Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 243248 Chile BMBF-Forschungsvorhaben 03G0161A. Bundesanstalt fr
Jordan TE, Isacks BL, Allmendinger RW, Brewer JA, Ramos VA, Ando Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover
CJ (1983) Andean tectonics related to geometry of subducted Rosenau M (2004) Tectonics of the Southern Andean intra-arc zone
Nazca plate. Geol Soc Am Bull 94(3):341361 (3842 S). Ph.D. thesis, Freie Universitt Berlin
Jordan TE, Burns WM, Veiga R, Pngaro F, Copeland P, Kelley S, Rosenau M, Melnick D, Echtler H (2006) Kinematic constraints on
Mpodozis C (2001) Extension and basin formation in the South- intra-arc shear and strain partitioning in the Southern Andes
ern Andes caused by increased convergence rate: a midCeno- between 38 S and 42 S latitude. Tectonics 25(4), TC4013
zoic trigger for the Andes. Tectonics 20(3):308324 SEGEMAR (1995) Geologic map of Argentina, digital version
Lavenu A, Cembrano J (1999) Compressional- and transpressional- 1 : 2 500 000
stress pattern for Pliocene and Quaternary brittle deformation SERNAGEOMIN (1982) Geologic map of Chile, scale 1 : 1 000 000
in fore arc and intra-arc zones (Andes of Central and Southern SERNAGEOMIN (2003) Geologic map of Chile, digital version, scale
Chile). J Struct Geol 21(12):16691691 1 : 1 000 000
Melnick D, Echtler HP (2006) Inversion of forearc basins in south-central Slater JA, Garvey G, Johnston C, Haase J, Heady B, Kroenung G, Little
Chile caused by rapid glacial age trench fill. Geology 34(9):709712 J (2006) The SRTM data finishing process and products.
Melnick D, Folguera A, Rosenau M, Echtler H, Potent S (2002) Tec- Photogramm Engin Remote Sens 72(3):237247
tonics from the northern segment of the Liquie-Ofqui fault sys- Zapata T, Folguera A (2005) Tectonic evolution of the Andean
tem (3739 S), Patagonian Andes. In: 5th International Sympo- fold and thrust belt of the Southern Neuqun Basin, Argen-
sium on Andean Geodynamics, Toulouse, pp 413417 tina. In: Veiga GD, Spalletti LA, Howell JA, Schwarz E (eds)
Melnick D, Sanchez M, Echtler H, Pineda V (2003) Structural geology The Neuqun Basin, Argentina: a case study in sequence
of Mocha Island, south-central Chile (3830' S, 74 W): regional stratigraphy and basin dynamics. Geol Soc London Spec Pub,
tectonic implicances. X Congreso Geolgico Chileno, Concepcin pp 3756