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# 9.6 Heat Transfer: Conduction 9.

## 1 Heat as Energy Transfer

Conduction: visualized as resulting from molecular interactions Heat (Q): The net energy transferred from one object to
Heat conduction: Time rate of heat flow (Q/T) in a material for another.
One kilocalorie (kcal): Amount of heat needed to
a given temperature difference (T) Area raise the temperature needed to raise the
Thermal conductivity - SI unit: Joule (J)
Heat difference Q kAT Temperature difference - Measurable as energy losses or gains temperature of 1 kg of water by 1C (from 14.5C

Time difference t d Length to 15.5C)
Q ve = energy lost - 1 kcal = 1000 cal
- 1 kcal = 4186J = 4.186 kJ
Thermal gradient (T/d): changes in temperature per unit length Q +ve = energy gain
- 1 cal = 4.186 = J
Thermal conductivity (k): heat-conducting ability of a material
- The greater the value of k, the higher the heat conductivity
- SI unit: joules per meter-second-Celsius degree [J/(msC)]
9.5 Latent Heat
9.2 Internal Energy
Latent heat (L): Heat energy involve in phase change
Chapter 9: Internal energy (U): Sum of total of all energy of all the
Q mL
Latent heat Heat molecules in an object. SI unit = Joule (J)

## Ideal gas law

Heat Mass of substance
3
nRT
SI = J/kg or kcal/kg U= 2 Temperature (K)

Latent heat of fusion (Lf): solid-liquid phase change Constant = 8.31 J/molK
Water: Lf = 33.33 x106 J/kg
No. of molecule of gas
Latent heat of vaporization (Lv): liquid-gas phase change Specific heat: the amount of heat energy required to raise
Water: Lv = 2260 J/kg
9.4 Calorimeter 9.3 Specific Heat the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 C

## System: any object/set of objects Q mT - SI unit: J/(kgK) or kcal/(kgC)

we wish to consider - Water: 4186 J/(kgC) or 1.00 kcal/(kgC)
Closed system: mass enters or
Q mcT
(Tf > Ti): T and Q = +ve; energy = added to a system
leaves (but energy may be
Q (Ti > Tf): T and Q = -ve; energy = removed from a system
exchanged with the environment) c
mT
- Isolated: no energy passes
Conservation of energy: Q = amount of heat
T T f Ti
Heat lost = Heat gained
Or (change of temperature)
Energy out of one part = Energy into another part c = specific heat capacity
m = mass