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RWG 6 Quoting, Paraphrasing, & summarizing

`Name: _____________________________________________

Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing


Get into a group and define the following:

Quoting:

Paraphrasing:

Summarizing:

What is the purpose of using quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

You might use them to . . .

* Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing

* Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing

* Give examples of several points of view on a subject

* Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with

* Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting


the original

* Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers


that the words are not your own

* Expand the breadth or depth of your writing

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RWG 6 Quoting, Paraphrasing, & summarizing

6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing


1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how
you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key
word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version
accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you
have borrowed exactly from the source.
6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can
credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.

Some paraphrased examples to compare

The original passage:

Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result


they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about
10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter.
Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of
source materials while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
A legitimate paraphrase:

In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted


material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates
during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim
(Lester, 1976 pp. 46-47).

[Info on 1st and 2nd pages adapted from The Owl At Purdue http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/02/

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RWG 6 Quoting, Paraphrasing, & summarizing

Practice Paraphrasing: Read the following passages and follow the steps
for paraphrasing:

#1. Practically any course of action that can be taken to address an


environmental problem has its own impacts on the environment, which must
be assessed when evaluating potential solutions. Environmental impact
analyses often involve studies by geographers, chemists, and engineers as
well as ecologists and other biologists. Furthermore, the decision whether to
implement a plan to restores or protect the environment is almost always
affected by social, political, and economic concerns. Any proposal is
inevitably and rightly constrained by existing laws and by the citizens who
will be affected by the decision.1

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#2 Gross domestic product (GDP) is the economic variable of most
interest to macroeconomists. GDP is the total value of all goods and services
produced in the economy during a specified period of time, usually a year or
a quarter. The total value of goods and services can change either because
the quantities of goods and services are changing or because their prices are
changing. As a result, economists often prefer to use real gross domestic
product (real GDP) as the measure of production; the adjective real means
that we adjust the measure of production to account for changes in prices
over time. Real GDP, also called output or production, is the most
comprehensive measure of how well the economy is doing.

1
Raven, P. H., & Berg, L. R (2006) Environmentalists at workCase in point: Lake
Washington. College Reading 4, p161.
2
Taylor J. (2006) Real GDP over Time. College Reading 4, p.189.

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RWG 6 Quoting, Paraphrasing, & summarizing

Your paraphrase for #1:

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Your paraphrase for #2:

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RWG 6 Quoting, Paraphrasing, & summarizing

Definitions for Quoting, Paraphrasing, & Summarizing

Quoting: must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the


source. They must match the source document word for word and must be
attributed to the original author.

Paraphrasing: involves putting a passage from source material into your


own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source.
Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a
somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

Summarizing: involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words,
including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute
summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter
than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.