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=h^brZd Nbehahnkdh] nZdmel_lZ m Gh\hf KZ^m, Db]Z XXXIX-1 (2014)

Annual Review of the Faculty of Philosophy, Novi Sad, Volume XXXIX-1 (2014)

<eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b M>D 94(=163.41)17


G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b 323.1(=163.41)17
Nehahnkdb nZdmel_l Mgb\_jabl_lZ m Gh\hf KZ^m Hjb]bgZeZg gZmqgb jZ^

KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF


XVIII <?D: BAF?-M ;?QDH= ><HJ:
B M=:JKDBO <E:KLB1

:mlhjb iheZa_ h^ ^_nbgbkZZ kjikdbo ijb\be_]bZ 1690-1695. b boh\h] jZaebqb-


lh] lmfZq_Z Zmkljbkd_ (pZjkd_) b m]Zjkd_ (`miZgbkd_) \eZklb. AZ [_qdb ^\hj Kj[b km
ij_^klZ\Zeb gZjh^ (Natio Rascianica) ^hd km aZ m]Zjkd_ klZe_`_ hgb [beb kZfh lji_b-
\Z \_jkdZ kdmibgZ gZ \_dh\gh m]Zjkdh l_jblhjbb. H\Z dZf_g kihlbpZZ ih iblZm
Kj[Z _ m\_ebdh h^j_b\Zh h^ghk_ baf_{m ^\hjZ b M]Zjkd_, Z gZ hkgh\m lh]Z km Kj[b
g_j_ldh dhjbr_gb dZh kbkl_f mp_g_ aZ kfbjb\Z_ gZjkebo gZpbhgZegbo kljZklb
m]Zjkdbo (fZ{Zjkdbo) klZe_`Z. Kjikdb gZjh^ k_ ljm^bh dhebdh ]h^ _ fh]Zh ^Z eZ\bjZ
baf_{m h\bo jZaebqblbo bgl_j_kZ b lmfZq_Z _]h\h] ijZ\gh] klZlmkZ, l_`_b ^Z
ij_fZ kblmZpbb k\hbf ijb\be_]bZfZ h[_a[_^b [hb b ijZ\bqgbb ijZ\gb klZlmk,
ijbagZl b h^ m]Zjkdbo b pZjkdbo \eZklb bklh\j_f_gh. Kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_ km a[h] agZ-
qZZ kjikdh] gZjh^Z aZ FhgZjobm, lhdhf 18 \_dZ \br_ imlZ ihl\j{b\Zg_, Zeb m\_d b
gZgh\h kZ _^ghf beb \br_ h]jZgbqZ\Zmbo deZmameZ, ^hd dhgZqgh gb_ k_^Zf^_k_lbo
]h^bgZ 18 \_dZ ^hreh ^h ihlimgh] km`Z\ZZ b k\h{_Z ijb\be_]bZ ba kn_j_ gZjh^gh-
pjd\_gbo m pjd\_gh-rdhekdb hd\bj.
Dmqg_ j_qb: pZjkdb ^\hj, M]ZjkdZ, Kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_, BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ ^_imlZpbZ.

K_h[hf ih^ iZljbZjohf :jk_gb_f III QZjgh_\b_f 1690. ]h^bg_, g_dZ^


fgh]h[jhgb kjikdb gZjh^ m M]Zjkdh, ijhj_{_g m \j_f_ <_ebdh] [_qdh] jZlZ,
agZlgh _ ihim_g b h[_^b_g, Z Ijb\be_]bZfZ ^h[b_gbf h^ pZjZ E_hihe-
^Z I kl_dZh _ ihk_[Zg ijZ\gh-iheblbqdb b \_jkdb klZlmk. H^ kljZg_ ;_qdh]
^\hjZ Kj[b km ijbagZlb dZh gZjh^, dZh Natio Serbica, Natio Rascianica, rlh
gb_ [bh kemqZ b h^ kljZg_ m]Zjkdbo klZe_`Z, KZ[hjZ, `miZgb_ b M]Zjkd_
^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_, dhb km bo lj_lbjZeb dZh ^hrZd_, kljZgp_ b kZfh dZh
\_jkdm kdmibgm ]jqdh-g_k_^b_gbo (beb hr b ]hj_, dZh rbafZlbd_) dhb
km fh]eb [blb ih`_gb kZfh dZh df_lh\b m]Zjkdh] ie_fkl\Z m khpbZeghf,
h^ghkgh dZh mgbZlb b dZlhebpb m \_jkdhf ih]e_^m (JZ^hgb 1939: 6-24; B\b
1929 305-328; :^Zfh\b 1902: 15-33; JZ^hgb-Dhklb 1954 20-28; K. =Z\jb-
eh\b 1991: 9-18, <. =Z\jbeh\b 2005: 30-42).Ij\hf Ijb\be_]bhf h^ 21.
Z\]mklZ 1690. pZj E_hihe^ I _ Kj[bfZ ijbagZh keh[h^m \_jhbkih\_klb, ijZ\h

1
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69
70 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

gZ ba[hj Zjob_ibkdhiZ h^ boh\h] jh^Z b _abdZ, ijbagZh fm \eZkl gZ^ pjd\Z-


fZ, fZgZklbjbfZ, k\_rl_gkl\hf b gZjh^hf; k\_rl_gkl\m _ h[_Zh hkeh[Z-
{Z_ h^ ^Z`[bgZ, _ibkdhibfZ ijZ\h dZghgkd_ \bablZpb_, Z p_eh gZpbb mih-
lj_[m klZjh] dZe_g^ZjZ. H\m ijb\be_]bm _ iZljbZjo QZjgh_\b ijbfbh m
DhfhjZgm, h^ kljZg_ _ghihkdh] kjikdh] _ibkdhiZ BkZb_ -Zdh\bZ, m dhf_
k_ gZeZabh m _k_g 1690. ]h^bg_ (<. =Z\jbeh\b 2001: 14). >jm]m Ijb\be_]bm,
h^ pZjZ E_hihe^Z I Kj[b km ^h[beb lZqgh ]h^bgm ^ZgZ ihke_ ij\_, h^ghkgh
20. Z\]mklZ 1691, g_ihkj_^gh ihke_ [bld_ dh^ KeZgdZf_gZ m dhh km kdhjh
ij_km^gh ^hijbg_eb ih[_^b ojbrZgkd_ \hkd_ gZ^ LmjpbfZ. 5hf_ km ijZ-
\Z Zjob_ibkdhiZ hr \br_ m\_ZgZ gZ lZ gZqbg rlh _ k\b Kj[b m [m^m-
ghklb aZ\bkblb h^ _]Z dZdh m ^moh\gbf lZdh b m k\_lh\gbf kl\ZjbfZ b rlh
fm _ ijbiZeh b ijZ\h dZ^mpbl_lZ (<. =Z\jbeh\b 2001: 15). Lj_Z ijb\be_-
]bZ, ba^ZlZ 4. fZjlZ 1695. _ kl_q_gZ m \j_f_ dZ^ km Kj[b ghkbeb gZ k\hbf
ie_bfZ gZ\_b l_j_l jZlZ gZ KZ\b, >mgZ\m b Lbkb. HgZ _ ijZ\hkeZ\gh
pjd\b, qbZ _ hj]ZgbaZpbZ dZh _ibkdhiZeg_ ijbagZlZ 1694. ]h^bg_, ^h^_eb-
eZ b ijZ\h gZ m[bjZ_ ^_k_lbg_ h^ ijZ\hkeZ\gbo \_jgbdZ, Zeb _ lh ijZ\h
ihke_ g_dhebdh ]h^bgZ \jZ_gh PZjkdh ^\hjkdh dhfhjb, Z Zjob_ibkdhim _
hkb]mjZg gh\qZgb _d\b\Ze_gl aZ m (:^Zfh\b 1902: 35-60; JZ^hgb-Dhklb
1954: 28-29, 65-67; K. =Z\jbeh\b 1991: 12-15; <. =Z\jbeh\b 2001: 16).
IblZ_ kjikdh] \h\h^_ b ihk_[g_ kjikd_ l_jblhjb_ kZ hj]ZgbfZ khikl\_-
g_ \eZklb, m Ijb\be_]bZfZ _ aZh[b{_gh, h^ghkgh k\_ lh Kj[bfZ _ h[_Zgh
Zdh pZjkdZ \hkdZ ljZgh aZ]hkih^Zjb Kj[bhf iZ lZ iblZZ gbkm [beZ Zdlm_e-
gZ ij\bo ]h^bgZ ihke_ K_h[_. :eb, dZ^ km Kj[b ihq_eb ^Z ]m[_ gZ^m gZ ih-
\jZlZd m fZlbqgm a_fm, lZ iblZZ, Z ihk_[gh iblZ_ khikl\_g_ l_jblhjb_,
ihklZeZ km aZ bo bama_lgh \Z`gZ iZ _ 1694. gZ A[hjm gZjh^gbo ij\ZdZ m
;Zb aZljZ`_gh ^Z k_ kjikdhf gZjh^m aZ ljZgh gZk_Z\Z_ ij_imkl_ FZeZ
<eZrdZ m KeZ\hgbb b h[eZkl baf_{m >mgZ\Z b Lbk_ (DmfZgbZ). Lh bf _ h^
kljZg_ >\hjZ h[_Zgh, Zeb h[_Z_ gb_ bkim_gh, Z hgb km k_ jZk_Z\Zeb m
jZagbf ijZ\pbfZ, Z ihk_[gh ^m` Lbk_ b FhjbrZ, ]^_ km 1702. kl\hj_g_ Ih-
lbrdZ b IhfhjbrdZ \hgZ ]jZgbpZ kZ g_fZqdbf dhfZg^ZfZ m K_]_^bgm b :jZ-
^m, Z kZ Kj[bfZ hnbpbjbfZ b \hgbpbfZ-]jZgbqZjbfZ (:^Zfh\b 1902: 45-50;
JZ^hgb 1939: 26-27; Kbf_hgh\bQhdb 1939: 61; K. =Z\jbeh\b 1991: 11).
M gZq_em, >\hj gb_ h^[Zpb\Zh aZol_\ Kj[Z aZ khkikl\_ghf l_jblhjbhf
Zeb ]Z _ h^eZ]Zh aZ ih]h^gbZ \j_f_gZ b dh^ bo h^j`Z\Zh gZ^m ^Z _ lZ
aZol_\ b bkimgblb, Zdh Kj[b hklZgm m \_jghklb ij_fZ _fm. GZ ij\hf gZ-
jh^ghpjd\_ghf kZ[hjm m Djmr_^hem 1708. ]h^bg_ [m^bfkdb Kj[b, dZh gZk-
\_kgbb ^_h kjikdh] ]jZ{Zgkl\Z m M]Zjkdh, ljZ`beb km ^Z Kj[b ^h[bm KeZ-
\hgbm b Kj_f baf_{m >mgZ\Z b KZ\_ k\_ ^h oj\Zlkd_ ]jZgbp_, b ;Zqdm b
;ZgZl baf_{m D_j_rZ b FhjbrZ, Z ma lh, ^Z ^\Z kZ\_lgbdZ h^ gZr_]Z gZ-
jh^Z b h^ ]jqd_ \_j_ [m^m dh^ pZjkdh] ^\hjZ [b] dh^ M]Zjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_Z
^Z l_ kZ\_lgbd_ [bjZ ]eZ\gZ kdmirlbgZ [KZ[hj] kjikdh] gZjh^Z. F_{mlbf,
fbljhihebl BkZbZ -Zdh\b lh gb_ kfZljZh aZ ^h\hgh, fbke_b ^Z Kj[b
fhjZm ihk_[gh ^Z ijb^h[bm FZ{Zj_, m qbh ^j`Z\b km k_ gZeZabeb, ^Z hgb
KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF XVIII <?D:... 71

gZ k\hf >j`Z\ghf kZ[hjm (>b_lb) ijbo\Zl_ kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_, mdmq_ bo


(bgZjlbdmebrm) m k\h_ aZdhg_ b ijh]eZk_ ih k\bf `miZgbZfZ dZdh [b Kj[b,
ie_fbb b ]jZ{Zgb, ihklZeb jZ\ghijZ\gb kZ ih^ZgbpbfZ ^jm]bo gZpbhgZe-
ghklb b \_jhbkih\_klb. :eb, gb h^ lh]Z gb_ [beh gbrlZ hkl\Zj_gh iZ _
^j`Z\gh-ijZ\gb iheh`Z Kj[Z m FhgZjobb hklZh g_^_nbgbkZg: h^ kljZg_
>\hjZ ijbagZlb km dZh gZjh^, h^ghkgh dZh g_dZdZ\ corpus separatum, Zeb [_a
khikl\_g_ l_jblhjb_ b k\h_ gZpbhgZeg_ mijZ\gh-iheblbqd_ \eZklb (:^Z-
fh\b 1902: 89-91; JZ^hgb 1939: 46-47; Kbf_hgh\bQhdb 1939: 60-61; K.
=Z\jbeh\b 1991: 11-13).
Kj[b km h^ kljZg_ Zmkljbkdh] pZjZ ijbf_gb m a_f_ hk\h_g_ h^ LmjZ-
dZ b h^ _]Z ^h[beb k\h_ Ijb\be_]b_ iZ km h^ kljZg_ >\hjZ kfZljZgb dZh
_]h\Z k\hbgZ (Patrimonium Domus Austriacae), rlh _ lj_[Zeh ^Z agZqb ^Z
DjZ_\bgZ M]ZjkdZ g_fZ gbdZd\Z ijZ\Z gZ^ lbf gZjh^hf, dhb _ h^ _
ihlimgh h^\h_g, gh ^Z _^bgh _]h\Z PZjkdZ fbehkl fh`_ bf_ mijZ\Zlb.
:eb, ihrlh km Kj[b [beb gZk__gb gZ lem DjZ_\bg_ M]Zjkd_, _gZ iheb-
lbqdZ l_eZ kfZljZeZ km ^Z k\_ rlh k_ lbpZeh kjikdh] gZjh^Z kiZ^Z m mgmljZ-
rZ iblZZ l_ DjZ_\bg_, h^ghkgh ^Z boh\_ kl\Zjb lj_[Z lj_lbjZlb dZh
Provinciale et politicum Hungariae. ;m^mb ^Z km Kj[b, agZlgbf ^_ehf, mreb
m kZklZ\ <hg_ ]jZgbp_, hgb km hklZeb m ^_ehdjm]m \hgbo \eZklb kZ >\hj-
kdbf jZlgbf kZ\_lhf gZ q_em, ^hd km hgb dhb km ^hreb m klZlmk dhgljb[m_-
gZlZ ihliZeb ih^ PZjkdm ^\hjkdm dhfhjm, hgb dhb km ^hreb ih^ kiZob_,
ihliZeb km ih^ mjbk^bdpbm m]Zjkdbo `miZgbZ, M]Zjkdh] kZ[hjZ b, dZkgb_,
ih^ \eZkl M]Zjkdh] gZf_kgbqdh] \_Z m ;m^bfm (Nhjbrdh\b 1986: 280-281).
M hkgh\b, ijZ\gh-iheblbqdb iheh`Z Kj[Z [bh _ \jeh ^_ebdZlZg b ijh-
lb\j_qZg: ;_qdb ^\hj _ fh]Zh ^Z bo maf_ m aZrlblm h^ m]Zjkdbo klZe_`Z,
iZ b h^ Z]j_kb\gbo dZlhebqdbo [bkdmiZ, Zeb b ^Z, ih ihlj_[b, km`Z\Z kjikd_
ijb\be_]b_, Z ^Z ijb lhf_ g_ gZbeZab gZ ijhlb\__ m]Zjkdbo \eZklb, dh_
km Kj[_ kfZljZe_ aZ g_`__g_ ]hkl_, m_a_ b kljZgh l_eh m hd\bjm k\h]
^j`Z\gh-ijZ\gh] mkljhkl\Z, mihjgh h^[bZmb ^Z boh\_ ijb\be_]b_ bgZj-
lbdmebrm m k\h_ aZdhgh^Z\kl\h, bZdh km bo, ih^ ijblbkdhf \eZ^ZjZ, dZh
m]Zjkdh] djZZ, fhjZe_ ^Z ijh]eZrZ\Zm ih `miZgbZfZ b keh[h^gh-djZ_\-
kdbf ]jZ^h\bfZ.
KeZ[hkl ijZ\gh] iheh`ZZ Kj[Z m FhgZjobb, dhb k_ k\h^bh gZ pZjkdb
patrimonium, ihdZaZeZ k_ \jeh jZgh, _j _ \eZ^Zjm hklZ\Zh keh[h^m ^Z
f_Z h^j_^[_ b kfbkZh boh\bo ijb\be_]bZ, h^ghkgh ^Z m bo mghkb h]jZ-
gbqZ\Zm_ deZmame_ b ^Z bo lZdh nZdlbqdb h[_kgZ`b, rlh k_ b ^h]h^beh
lhdhf XVIII \_dZ b lh [Zr ij_dh bgklblmpb_ nhjfZegh gZf__g_ boh\h
aZrlblb (<. =Z\jbeh\b 1991: 13). <_ 1713. pZj _ m Ijb\be_]b_ mg_h deZm-
amem ^Z hg_ \Z`_ kZfh mdhebdh lh g_ [m^_ \j_{Zeh ijZ\Z ^jm]bo, qbf_ _
hl\ZjZgZ fh]mghkl jZaebqblh] lmfZq_Z kjikdbo ijZ\Z b boh\h] h]jZ-
gbqZ\ZZ. Ijhl_klb gZjh^gbo ij_^klZ\gbdZ ijhlb\ lh]Z, hklZZeb km [_a
j_amelZlZ (:^Zfh\b 1991: 92, 101-105; Kbf_hgh\b Qhdb, 1939: 63-68;
<_k_ebgh\b 1986: 106-162).
72 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

M \j_f_ \eZ^Z\bg_ pZjZ DZjeZ VI (1711-1740) ^hreh _ ^h km`Z\ZZ Ijb-


\be_]bZ. Ihke_ :mkljbkdh-lmjkdh] jZlZ 1716-1718. ih^ \eZkl OZ[a[mjrd_
fhgZjob_ _ ^hrZh ijhklhj DjZ_\bg_ Kj[b_ b LZfbrdh] ;ZgZlZ, gZ dhb
_ \eZ^Zj 1718. b 1720. ijhrbjbh Ijb\be_]b_, Zeb dZdh lh gb_ mqbgbh ij_dh
g_d_ bgklblmpb_, g_]h ^_dj_lhf, hklZeZ _ fh]mghkl ^Z [m^m km`_g_. Bgb-
pbZlb\Z m lhf kf_jm _ ^ZlZ ^_p_f[jZ 1724. h^ kljZg_ >\hjkdh] jZlgh] kZ-
\_lZ, dhb _ ljZ`bh ^Z Ijb\be_]b_ [m^m ijhlmfZq_g_ m kdeZ^m kZ deZmamehf
dhZ _ ihklhZeZ m Lj_h ba 1695. GZ hkgh\m ba\_rlZZ A_fZkd_ Z^fbgb-
kljZpb_, j_r_gh _ ^Z k_ Ijb\be_]b_ ijhlmfZq_ b kma_ m ^_\_l lZqZdZ
(OZb 1880: 99-103; Kbf_hgh\b-Qhdb 1939: 63-64). Hg_ km k_ h^ghkbe_ gZ
keZ\__ k\_lbl_Z m \_jkdb o_l_jh]_gbf kj_^bgZfZ, ljhgm dZg^b^Zpbm
ijbebdhf ba[hjZ fbljhiheblZ b _ibkdhiZ, hijZ\dm klZjbo b ih^baZ_ gh\bo
pjdZ\Z, mjbk^bdpbm fbljhiheblZ gZ^ k\_lh\gbf ebpbfZ, h]jZgbq_Z m
ih]e_^m \eZkgbrl\Z gZ^ pjd\ZfZ b fZgZklbjbfZ. GZijZ\_g_ km baf_g_ m
ih]e_^m dZghgkdbo \bablZpbZ dh_ km fhjZe_ [blb ijbZ\_g_ \eZklbfZ,
dZ^mpbl_lm, ijb q_fm bfh\bgZ k\_lh\ZdZ gb_ \brZ fh^eZ ^Z ijbiZ^g_
Pjd\b. K\_rl_gbpb km ih ij\b iml hihj_ah\Zgb aZ a_fm dhm h[jZ{mm, ^hd
_ gZjh^ h^ fbljhiheblZ bfZh ^Z aZ\bkb kZfh dZh h^ ^moh\gh], Z gbdZdh
k\_lh\gh], ih]eZ\ZjZ (OZb 1880: 103-105).
GZ hkgh\m ij_^eh]Z Dhfbkb_ pZj DZjeh VI _ 12. ZijbeZ 1727. ba^Zh
>_deZjZlhjbm b gZj_{__ A_fZkdh Z^fbgbkljZpbb m DjZ_\bgb Kj[bb
b ;ZgZlm, ^Z k_ ihf_gmlbo ^_\_l lZqZdZ m\h^_ m `b\hl. Fbljhihebl _ ih pZj-
kdh aZih\_klb ijh]eZkbh h\m >_deZjZlhjbm, Zeb k_ dh^ gZjh^Z Z\bh kgZ`Zg
hlihj, _j km ih kjikdhf lmfZq_m Ijb\be_]b_ aZkem`_g_, Z Kj[b [beb
\_jgb >\hjm, a[h] q_]Z g_ agZm aZrlh km hg_ km`_g_.2 GZjh^gb ij_^klZ\gb-
pb km k_ m ^hdZab\Zm h^Zghklb ihab\Zeb b gZ Bg\blZlhjbm, Z dZh Zj]mf_gl
[hj[_ gZ kljZgb >\hjZ, gZ\h^beb km mq_r_ m jZlm ijhlb\ JZdhpbZ (OZb
1880: 153-154). Kjikdb kZ[hj ba 1727. ijm`bh _ ^hdZa_ ijhlb\ km`Z\ZZ
Ijb\be_]bZ, gZ hkgh\m klZjb_ ijZdk_ m \_ab kZ ^_\_l kihjgbo iblZZ.3
GZbrZ\rb gZ ha[bZg hlihj gZjh^Z b fbljhiheblZ FhkbZ, dhb km
aZol_\Zeb ^Z k_ Ijb\be_]b_ ijhlmfZq_ m ba\hjghf h[ebdm b ^Z lZdh [m^m
ihl\j{_g_, pZj _ 13. ZijbeZ 1729. ba^Zh gh\m >_dejZlhjbm, Zeb hgZ gb_
^hg_eZ g_dh ih[hrZ_ m h^ghkm gZ hgm ba^Zlm ^\_ ]h^bg_ jZgb_, _j km m

2
Fbljhiheblm Fhkbm km gZjh^gb ij\Zpb ij_lbeb, ^Z ]Z g__ ijbagZlb aZ ih]eZ\ZjZ, a[h] >_deZ-
jZlhjb_. M h\hf lhgm km fm k_ h[jZlbeb 7/18. mgZ 1727. Kj[b kZ kZ[hjZ m DZjeh\pbfZ, b lh: \eZ^bdZ
[Zqdb Khnjhgb_ LhfZr_\b b \Z_\kdb >hkbl_ Gbdheb, m bf_ fhgZrl\Z djmr_^hekdb Zjob-
fZg^jbl :lZgZkb_ <_ebqdh\(b), m bf_ k\_rl_gkl\Z @b\Zg Pjgh]hjp dZjeh\Zqdb ijhlhihi, m
bf_ Ihlbkd_ ]jZgbp_ h[_jdZi_lZg @b\Zg Ahjb, m bf_ Ih^mgZ\kd_ h[_jdZi_lZg <ZkZ Gbdheb,
h[_jdZi_lZg <md BkZdh\b m bf_ k\_ \hkd_ ba DjZ_\bg_ Kj[b_, m bf_ [_h]jZ^kd_ Kjikd_ \Zjhrb
=Z\jbeh JZrdh\b, dZjeh\Zqdb [bjh\ KlZgdh Fbeb_\b, m bf_ kf_^_j_\kdh] ^bkljbdlZ h[hjdg_a
FZjdh, m bf_ Ih`Zj_\Zqdh] ^bkljbdlZ h[hjdg_a FZebg, m bf_ Bjb]Z dg_a I_lZj FZjdh\b, b
FboZeh Pjgh_\b. (OZb 1880: 108-111)
3
Ih iblZm ljhg_ dZg^b^Zpb_, dhZ _ aZol_\ZgZ aZ bk[hj _ibkdhiZ mdZaZgh _ ^Z _ ij_k_^Zg
gZijZ\_g kZfh ijbebdhf ba[hjZ Gbdhe_ >bfbljb_\bZ aZ \jrZqdh-dZjZgk_[_rdh] _ibkdhiZ,
Zeb _ ijhlb\ lh]Z b lZ^Z ijhl_kl\h\Zgh. (OZb 1881: 112-114, 118-127)
KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF XVIII <?D:... 73

h kZfh ^_lZgb_ h[jZah`_g_ jZgb_ h^emd_. Kjikdh g_aZ^h\hkl\h h\Zd\hf


h^emdhf _ [beh hr Zq_, a[h] q_]Z _ pZj m ^\Z J_kdjbilZ ( h^ 16. n_[jmZjZ
1732. b 21. k_il_f[jZ 1734) ihgh\h h[jZlbh iZ`Z gZ kihjgZ iblZZ, Z bfZ
gb_ kmrlbgkdb gbrlZ baf_gbh, hkbf m iblZm _ibkdhikd_ aZhklZ\rlbg_,
dhZ _ fh]eZ [blb ih^__gZ gZ ^\Z ^_eZ, h^ dhbo _ _^Zg ijbiZ^Zh Zjob_-
ibkdhim, Z ^jm]b _ibkdhibb ij_fbgmeh] \eZ^bd_.
J_kdjbil ba 1734. kZfh _ ij_pbabjZh kihjg_ h^j_^[_, dh_ km ihklhZe_
b m jZgbbf ZdlbfZ. LZdh _ ih iblZm dZe_g^ZjZ, h^ghkgh ijZagh\ZZ dZ-
lhebqdbo ijZagbdZ j_r_gh ^Z k_ Kj[bfZ ^ha\hZ\Z ^Z keZ\_ ijZagbd_ ih
k\hf dZe_g^Zjm, Zeb ^Z k_ m f_rh\blbf kj_^bgZfZ fhjZm ma^j`Z\Zlb h^
ihkeh\Z b Z\gbo jZ^h\Z gZ dZlhebqdb ;h`b, Mkdjk, ij\b ^Zg >moh\Z b
;jZrZgq_\h. J_pbijhpbl_l h\Zd\_ f_j_ dhb [b \Z`bh aZ dZlhebd_ gb_
ihklhZh. QZd gb h^emdZ ba J_kdjbilZ gb_ ihrlh\ZgZ g_]h km Kj[b k\_ q_r_
ijbkbZ\Zgb ^Z keZ\_ k\_ dZlhebqd_ ijZagbd_ (:K:GMD, FI: ; 119. b
122/1751; Gbgdh\b 2013: 214-219). Ih iblZm ijZ\Z ihklZ\ZZ _ibkdhiZ
^bj_dlgh _ djr_gZ h^j_^[Z Ij\_ ijb\be_]b_, ih dhh Zjob_ibkdhi fh`_
keh[h^gh ihklZ\Zlb _ibkdhi_. AZol_\ aZ ljhghf dZg^b^Zpbhf, dhb _ ^\hj
aZol_\Zh, _ ijZ\^Zg qb_gbphf ^Z _ \eZ^Zjkdh ijZ\h ^Z m ^j`Z\b ihklZ\Z
_ibkdhi_, Z ^Z _ ljhgZ dZg^b^ZpbZ dZlhebqdZ ijZdkZ. BiZd, ljhgZ dZg^b-
^ZpbZ gb_ lZ^Z aZ`b\_eZ, Zeb _ [beh g_hioh^gh ^Z \eZ^Zj _ibkdhiZ dh_]
fbljhihebl ij_^eh`b ihl\j^b aZ lh a\Z_. Ih iblZm ^moh\g_ b k\_lh\g_
\eZklb fbljhiheblZ, gb_ gbrlZ f_Zgh m ZdlbfZ gZklZebf 1729, 1732. beb
1734, kZfh _ ihZr_gh ^Z fm k_ ^moh\gZ \eZkl g_ fh`_ gbdZdh hkihjblb b
^Z lh \eZ^Zj b g_ `_eb, Zeb ^Z m iheblbqdbf, ]jZ{Zgkdbf b dhfmgZegbf
kl\ZjbfZ hg g_ fh`_ bfZlb ijZ\Z, _j hgZ klh_ m \_ab kZ aZde_l\hf \_jghk-
lb b h[Z\_aZfZ ih^ZgbdZ, Z k\_lh\gm \eZkl ihklZ\Z \eZ^Zj ih fbehklb
;h`bh. Fbljhihebl _ b ^Z_ fh]Zh aZklmilb b [jbgmlb h k\hbf \_jgb-
pbfZ, Zeb ]Z gbkm kf_eb kfZljZlb aZ k\_lh\h] ih]eZ\ZjZ _j _ lh [bh pZj
DZjeh VI, ^hd _ kjikdhf ij\h_jZjom ij_hklZeh ^Z [m^_ ihkj_^gbd baf_{m
\eZ^ZjZ b gZjh^Z, mdhebdh ih_^bgpb k\h bgl_j_k g_ hkl\Zj_ ij_dh gZ^e_`-
gbo bgklblmpbZ (R\bd_j 1998: 62-64).
J_kdjbil ba 1734. _ m\_h bklb ijbgpbi aZ ]jZ^m ijZ\hkeZ\gbo b dZlh-
ebqdbo pjdZ\Z, Zeb km m ijZdkb ^ha\he_ aZ ]jZ^m ^h[bZg_ l_d ihke_ ^m`_]
\j_f_gZ, ^hd km [bkdmib b h\h gZklhZeb ^Z h]jZgbq_. Ih iblZm gZ^e_`gh-
klb k\_lh\gbo km^h\Z gZ^ ^moh\gbf ebpbfZ h^j_{_gh _ ^Z m ^moh\gbf kl\Z-
jbfZ ih^e_`m mjbk^bdpbb _ibkdhiZ b fbljhiheblZ, Zeb m k\_lh\gbf km b
aZ bo h^]h\hjgb k\_lh\gb km^h\b. IblZ_ hkeh[h{_Z ^Z\ZZ ^_k_ldZ gb_
dhgZqgh j_r_gh gb J_kdjbilhf ba 1734. g_]h _ hklZeh ^Z k_ j_rZ\Z m [m^m-
ghklb, Z ^Z eb _ ]Z dZlhebqdh k\_rl_gkl\h b [bkdmib mabfZlb aZ\bkbeh _
h^ kblmZpb_ ^h kblmZpb_ b ehdZegbo ijbebdZ. LZdh{_, m [m^mghklb _
lj_[Zeh ^Z [m^_ j_r_gh b iblZ_ dZ^mpbl_lZ (R\bd_j 1998, 64-68).
H^j_^[_ dhbfZ km Ijb\be_]b_ ijhlmfZq_gZ, h^ghkgh km`_g_ m i_jbh^m
1727-1734. gbkm ij_lklZ\Ze_ gh\bgm m ^j`Zm >\hjZ. Ihklhb ba\_kgZ ih-
74 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

^m^Zjghkl hgh]Z rlh k_ m ]hj_ ihf_gmlbo ^_\_l lZqZdZ gZeZab b dhf_glZjZ


gZ aZol_\_ iZljbZjoZ :jk_gbZ III dh_ _ ^Zh dZj^bgZe E_hihe^ Dhehgbq
1706. BZdh km >_deZjZlhjb_ b J_kdjbilb kihjgZ iblZZ agZlgh hirbjgb_
b ij_pbagb_ ^_nbgbkZeb, hr k_ dh^ DhehgbqZ \b^b gZklhZ_ ^Z k_ Ijb-
\be_]b_ h]jZgbq_ mijZ\h ih iblZm ]jZ^_ gh\bo pjdZ\Z, dZ^mpbl_lZ, aZ
dhb _ ij_^\b{Zh ^Z lj_bgZ ijbiZ^g_ jh{ZpbfZ ihdhgbdZ, lj_bgZ ^j`Z-
\b, Z lj_bgZ pjd\b. LZdh{_, hr _ hg aZol_\Zh ^Z m ^moh\gbf kl\ZjbfZ
ijZ\h km^Z bfZ fbljhihebl, Z m djbfbgZegbf jZ^ZfZ k\_lh\gb km^h\b b
^Z \eZ^Zj bfZ dhgZqgm j_q ijb ihklZ\Zm _ibkdhiZ (=jmm 1906: 14-15,
18, 22, 24). G_fZ hkgh\Z ^Z k_ kfZljZ ^Z km dZj^bgZeh\b dhf_glZjb [beb mahj
aZ Zdlb ba \j_f_gZ pZjZ DZjeZVI, Zeb b [_a lh]Z, k_ fh`_ \b^_lb dhglbgmb-
l_l gZf_j_ ^Z k_ Ijb\be_]b_ kma_, h^ghkgh ijhlmfZq_, hgZdh dZdh lh >\hjm
h^]h\ZjZ, _j j_r_Z dhZ km fm h^]h\ZjZeZ 1690, 1691. b 1695. \br_ gbkm
[beZ Zdlm_egZ b lj_[Zeh _ mkdeZ^blb bo kZ l_`hf mgbnbdZpb_ b p_gljZ-
ebaZpb_ >j`Z\_. Ijh[e_f _, f_{mlbf, [bh m lhf_ rlh gb km`_g_ Ijb\be_-
]b_ gbkm ihrlh\Zg_.
Kj[b km k_ `Zebeb pZjm b gZ J_kdjbil ba 1734. Z fbljhihebl <b_glb_
hlimlh\Zh _ ih\h^hf _]h\h] h[Z\b\ZZ m ;_q. PZj _ ih^ ijblbkdhf
\j_Z m <hgh ]jZgbpb b kjikdbo aZol_\Z ba^Zh 18. fZZ 1735. AZrlblbgh
ibkfh m dh_f _ bklZdZh ^Z hg g_fZ gZf_jm ^Z km`Z\Z Ijb\be_]b_. Ihk_[gh
k_ hk\jgmh gZ iblZ_ gZke_{Z bfh\bg_ Zjob_ibkdhiZ b h^j_^bh ^Z k_ lZ bfh-
\bgZ, dZh b hgZ _ibkdhikdZ b k\_rl_gbdZ [_a ^_p_, fh`_ bkdhjbklblb kZfh
aZ \_jkd_ aZ^m`[bg_, dh_ [b h^j_^bh Zjob_ibkdhi, Z ihl\j^bh pZj, _j _fm,
dZh \joh\ghf ijhl_dlhjm k\bo \_jkdbo aZ^m`[bgZ, ijbiZ^Z h\h ijZ\h. M
mem 1735. _ kZa\Zg KZ[hj m DZjeh\pbfZ jZ^b im[ebdh\ZZ h\h] AZrlblgh]
ibkfZ, Zeb km k_ gZjh^gb ij_^klZ\gbpb ieZrbeb _]h\bo h^j_^[b, _j km
ih_^bgb ^_eh\b fh]eb [blb lZdh ijhlmfZq_gb ^Z pb\beg_ \eZklb bfZm
ijZ\h ^Z ijbk\h_ mjbk^bdpbm gZ^ k\_rl_gkl\hf. F_{mlbf, mke_^ kmdh[Z
_ibkdhiZ b k\_rl_gbdZ, b ijbij_fZ aZ gh\b jZl kZ HkfZgebZfZ, k\_ [hj[_
m \_ab kZ Ijb\be_]bZfZ hklZe_ km g_dh \j_f_ m ^jm]hf ieZgm, Zeb gbkm
gZimrl_g_ (Kbf_hgh\b-Qhdb 1939: 64-68).
>m]Z \eZ^Z\bgZ pZjbp_ FZjb_ L_j_ab_ (1740-1780) [beZ _ m agZdm kbk-
l_fZlkdh] km`Z\ZZ kjikdbo ijb\be_]bZ. IhimrlZmb fZ{Zjkdhf b oj\Zl-
kdhf ie_fkl\m b dZlhebqdh pjd\b, pZjbpZ _ 1741. gZ M]Zjkdhf kZ[hjm, dZh
oj\ZlkdZ b m]ZjkdZ djZbpZ, h[_ZeZ ^Z _ jZknhjfbjZlb Ihlbkdm b Ihfh-
jbrdm \hgm ]jZgbpm b aZ_^gh kZ dhfhjkdhf KeZ\hgbhf b Kj_fhf bgdhj-
ihjbkZlb m M]Zjkdm, dZh b ^Z _ m Ljh_^gh djZ_\bgb hklZ\blb gZ kgZab
aZdhg_ ijhlb\ g_dZlhebdZ, h^ghkgh ijZ\hkeZ\gbo b ijhl_klZgZlZ, dhb km
ihl\j{_gb 1723. ]h^bg_. H\bf aZdhgbfZ _ ml\j{_gh ^Z g_dZlhebpb g_ fh]m
klbpZlb g_ihdj_lgZ ^h[jZ, dZh b ^Z kjikdb ijZ\hkeZ\gb fbljhiheblb g_fZm
mjbk^bdpbm gZ^ de_jhf b gZjh^hf m Ljh_^gh djZ_\bgb. Gh, ihrlh a[h]
JZlZ aZ Zmkljbkdh gZke_{_ (1740-1748) gb_ kf_eZ gb Kj[_ ^Z m^Zb h^ k_[_,
hgZ _ 1743. ihke_^b iml, ihl\j^beZ kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_, Z 1744. ^ha\hebeZ
KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF XVIII <?D:... 75

^Z Kj[b h^j`_ k\h GZjh^ghpjd\_gb kZ[hj gZ dhf_ k_ _^Zg h^ ]eZ\gbo aZ-


ol_\Z h^ghkbh gZ hkgb\Z_ gZpbhgZegh] fZ]bkljZlZ h^ ljb ^moh\gZ b ^_k_l
k\_lh\gbo qeZgh\Z, dhb [b, dZh gZjh^gZ ^_imlZpbZ [beb m ;_qm b [jZgbeb
k\h gZjh^ h^ k\bo gZkjlZZ kZ jZagbo kljZgZ (<. =Z\jbeh\b 2005: 36). Kj[b
km aZol_\Zeb ^ha\hem aZ klmiZ_ m hj]Zg_ Z\g_ \eZklb m M]Zjkdh, ijZ\h gZ
klbpZ_ ihk_^Z, keh[h^m lj]h\bg_ b aZgZlkl\Z, dZh b hkeh[Z{Z_ k_ZdZ h^
df_lkl\Z (:^Zfh\b 1902: 92, 101-105; Kbf_hgh\bQhdb 1939: 68-70; <.
=Z\jbeh\b 2005: 37).
AZol_\b Kjikdh] kZ[hjZ gbkm mk\h_gb, Zeb _ \_ 1745. pZjbqbgbf ^_d-
j_lhf kl\hj_gZ BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ dhfbkbZ, dhZ _ m e_lh 1747. k\h gZab\
ijhf_gbeZ m BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ ^_imlZpbZ, dZh \bkhdZ iheblbqdZ mklZgh\Z
m ;_qm, ba_^gZq_gZ k ^jm]bf ^\hjkdbf dZgp_eZjbZfZ. BZdh gZ q_eh Dhfb-
kb_, h^ghkgh >_imlZpb_ gbkm ^hreb m^b ba kj_^bg_ kjikdh] gZjh^Z, _gh
ihklhZ_ lhdhf ljb ^_p_gb_ (1745-1747) dZh k\h_\jkgh] fbgbklZjkl\Z aZ
kjikd_ ihkeh\_^hijbg_eh _ ^Z_f ihl\j{b\Zm gZpbhgZeg_ b \_jkd_
kZfhk\_klb dh^ kjikdh] gZjh^Z (Nhjbrdh\b 1986: 281).
M \j_f_ FZjb_ L_j_ab_ ba\jr_gZ _ fbeblZjbaZpbZ m <hgh ]jZgbpb,
dhZ _ breZ gZ rl_lm jZgbbo gZjh^gbo kZfhmijZ\Z, Z jZknhjfbjZg_ km
Ih^mgZ\kdZ, IhlbkdZ b IhfhjbrdZ ]jZgbpZ, qbf_ _ hkeZ[_g g_ kZfh kji-
kdb hnbpbjkdb klZe_` g_]h b p_eZ gZjh^gZ aZ_^gbpZ dZh iheblbqdb qbgb-
eZp m FhgZjobb. M m]Zjkdhf Ijh\bgpbZem, brq_aZ\Z_f dhfhjkdbo \eZklb
b dhfhjkdbo ihk_^Z, Kj[b km ]m[beb j_eZlb\gh ih^ghrb\ iheh`Z dhfhj-
kdbo ih^ZgbdZ-dhgljb[m_gZlZ b ij_l\ZjZeb k_ m `miZgbkd_ ih^Zgbd_ b
kiZobkd_ df_lh\_. BiZd, hgb km b gZ^Z_ mki_\Zeb ^Z hqm\Zm k\h_ ^moh\-
gh-iheblbqdh _^bgkl\h m hd\bjm DZjeh\Zqd_ fbljhiheb_, Z b \joh\gZ \eZkl
m ;_qm kfZljZeZ bo _ dZh _^bgkl\_gm bebjkdm gZpbm, rlh _ dh^ bo
h^j`Z\Zeh fbkZh h Zmlhghfghklb b hg^Z dZ^ km boh\_ ijb\be_]b_ k\_^_-
g_ kZfh gZ pjd\_gm b mg_dhebdh gZ rdhekdm kn_jm (K. =Z\jbeh\b 1991: 15).
<j_f_ Bebjkd_ ^\hjkd_ ^_imlZpb_ ijhlbpZeh _ m kmdh[m kZ M]Zjkdhf
^\hjkdhf dZgp_eZjbhf dhZ _ gZklhZeZ ^Z h]jZgbqb _g ^_ehdjm] b hf_l_
_g_ bgbpbZlb\_, Z Kj[_ ij_^ >\hjhf ^Z ijbdZ`_ dZh g_ihma^Zg _e_f_gZl
dhb aehmihlj_[Z\Z ^Zl_ fm ijb\be_]b_. Ij_^f_l ihe_fbd_ baf_{m bo
[be_ km b kZf_ ijb\be_]b_ dZh lZd\_. Ij_^k_^gbd Bebjkd_ ^\hjkd_ ^_im-
lZpb_, ]jhn D_gb]k_]-?jik _ 1753. hilm`b\Zh m]Zjkd_ \eZklb b [bkdmi_,
dhb km kfZljZeb ^Z ^hfZb, m]Zjkdb aZdhgb bfZm ij_^ghkl m h^ghkm gZ
ijb\be_]b_, h^ghkgh ^Z k_ ijb\be_]b_ fhjZm ijbeZ]h{Z\Zlb m]Zjkdhf
aZdhgh^Z\kl\m. GZkmijhl bfZ, D_gb]k_]-?jik l\j^bh _ ^Z km ijb\be_]b_
^Zl_ Kj[bfZ ba \Z`gbo ^j`Z\gbo jZaeh]Z, h^ghkgh a[h] ihk_[gbo aZkem-
]Z m jZlh\bfZ ijhlb\ LmjZdZ, b ^Z hg_ ij_^klZ\Zm bama_lZd h^ aZdhgZ iZ
k_ ijhlb\ bo gbdh g_ fh`_ ihab\Zlb gb gZ dhb aZdhg, g_]h ^Z h[bqgb aZ-
dhgb fhjZm mafZdgmlb ij_^ ijb\be_]bZfZ, hkbf Zdh g_dh g_ p_gb djZ_\-
kdm \eZkl dhZ bo _ ^ZeZ kjikdhf gZjh^m. Ihj_^ lh]Z, l_ ijb\be_]b_ bfZm
agZqZ b m kihgh iheblbpb FhgZjob_, ihk_[gh m h^ghkm kZ Jmkdhf pZj_-
\bghf dZh kZ\_agbdhf :mkljb_ (R\bd_j 1998: 149-151).
76 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

M bf_ M]Zjkd_ ^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_ klZ\ ij_fZ kjikdbf ijb\be_]bZfZ


bag_h _ _g kZ\_lgbd, ]jhn NjZZ Dhe_j dhb _ k\h hik_`gb _eZ[hjZl
aZ\jrbh dhgklZlZpbhf ^Z _ ^h kjikdh-fZ{Zjkdh] lj\_Z fhjZeh ^hb _j
km fgh]_ kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_ m kmijhlghklb kZ m]Zjkdbf a_fZkdbf aZdhgb-
fZ b kZ mklZ\gbf mj_{__f DjZ_\bg_ M]Zjkd_ Z, hkbf lh]Z, Kj[b b aehmih-
lj_[Z\Zm ^Zl_ bf ijb\be_]b_. GZaZ^, l_ ijb\be_]b_ m fgh]bf lZqdZfZ
\_ km aZklZj_e_ beb baf__g_, Z b kZfh rbj__ Kj[Z ih p_eh M]Zjkdh
hl_`Z\Z boh\h ihlimgh kijh\h{__ (R\bd_j 1998: 154-163; Kbf_hgh\b
Qhdb 1939: 73-74).
Gh\b ij_^k_^gbd Bebjkd_ ^\hjkd_ ^_imlZpb_, ]jhn 3hoZg DjbklbZg
;Zjl_grlZg ih[bZh _ Dhe_jh\_ l\j^_ b bklZdZh ^Z _ M]ZjkdZ hkeh[h{_-
gZ ihfhm Kj[Z Z ijZ\^Z aZol_\Z ^Z k_ lh Kj[bfZ g_ aZ[hjZ\b; hgh rlh _
Kj[bfZ m]h\hjhf h^ kljZg_ \eZ^ZjZ h[_Zgh, g_ fh`_ bf k_, [_a boh\_
djb\bp_, h^ma_lb, gblb k_ fh`_ hkihjZ\Zlb ^Z _ fbljhihebl ijbjh^gb
aZklmigbd Kj[Z _j k_ ijb\be_]b_ h^ghk_ ij\_gkl\_gh gZ kn_jm \_jhbkih-
\_klb (Kbf_hgh\bQhdb 1939: 76).
FZjbZ L_j_abZ _, k _^g_ kljZg_, ^hghkbeZ ihablb\g_ j_ahempb_ m
h^ghkm gZ lm`[_ dZjeh\Zqdh] fbljhiheblZ IZ\eZ G_gZ^h\bZ a[h] ]Z`_Z
ijb\be_]bZ b gZlmjZZ mgb_ ijZ\hkeZ\gbf \_jgbpbfZ, Zeb _ bklh\j_f_-
gh lhe_jbkZeZ Zdpb_ mgbZlZ ihrlh _, m ihlZb, `_e_eZ ^Z ijZ\hkeZ\g_
ihdZlhebqb. =h^bg_ 1762. fbljhihebl G_gZ^h\b ih^g_h _ hik_`gm ij_^-
klZ\dm m dhh _ ki_pbnbdh\Zh fgh]_ kemqZ_\_ djr_Z ijb\be_]bZ b mdZ-
aZh gZ hiZkghkl h^ aZdhgZ ba 1741, ihk_[gh m Ljh_^gbpb, gZ\_h ijbf_j_
aZihklZ\ZZ ijZ\hkeZ\gbo m Z\gbf kem`[ZfZ, p_oh\bfZ, rdheZfZ, mdZaZh
gZ kf_l_ ijb ]jZ{_m pjdZ\Z, fZelj_lbjZ_ k\_rl_gbdZ bl^., ihke_ q_]Z
km BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ ^_imlZpbZ b M]ZjkdZ ^\hjkdZ dZgp_eZjbZ ^m]h jZkijZ-
\Ze_ h k\_fm lhf_ ^Z [b n_[jmZjZ 1763. pZjbpZ ^hg_eZ ^_dj_l ^Z Kj[bfZ
g_fZ f_klZ gZ [m]Zjkdhf] a_fZkdhf kZ[hjm ihrlh km boh\_ ijb\be_]b_
^h[be_ kgZ]m ih djZ_\kdh fbehklb b boh\b ihkeh\b g_ kiZ^Zm gZ ^b_lm
g_]h gZ djZ_\kdb ij_klh, ]^_ km kb]mjgh qm\Zgb; kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_ gb_
ihlj_[gh gZjhqblh maZdhZ\Zlb gZ m]Zjkdh ^b_lb _j km \_ ba^Zl_ iml_f
M]Zjkd_ ^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_, Z hr _ b aZrlblgb iZl_gl h^ 16. n_[jmZjZ
1715. [bh ijh]eZr_g klZe_`bfZ gZ ^b_lb; Zdh Kj[b m ijb\be_]bZfZ b keh-
[h^ZfZ [m^m ih\j_{_gb bfZm k_ h[jZlblb j_^h\gbf \eZklbfZ, k_f rlh k_
fbljhihebl b _]h\ debj bfZm m ebqgbf b ^moh\gbf kl\ZjbfZ h[jZZlb
Bebjkdh ^\hjkdh ^_imlZpbb dhZ _ Forum privilegiatum, ]^_ _ fhb gZb
ihfhb (R\bd_j 1998: 171-176; Kbf_hgh\bQhdb 1939: 78-79).
G_ meZa_b m ^jm]_ pZjbqbg_ h^emd_, hklZ_ gZf kZfh ^Z aZdmqbfh ^Z _
h\bf IZl_glhf [bh ij_k_q_g iml Kj[bfZ ij_fZ M]Zjkdhf kZ[hjm dhb k_,
bklbgZ, kZklZh ke_^__, 1764. ]h^bg_, Z ihke_ lh]Z l_d 1790. ]h^bg_. M f_{m-
\j_f_gm, 1769, ihke_ kfjlb fbljhiheblZ IZ\eZ G_gZ^h\bZ h^j`Zg _ ih-
ke_^b jZkijZ\gb kjikdb GZjh^ghpjd\_gb kZ[hj ij_ KZ[hjZ m L_fbr\Zjm
1790. ]h^bg_. KZ[hj ba 1769. ljZZh _ i_l b ih f_k_pb, Z ;_qdb ^\hj ]Z _
KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF XVIII <?D:... 77

bkdhjbklbh ^Z m gZ\_h f_jb ihgbab b hkeZ[b kjikdb _ibkdhiZl, bgZq_


f_{mkh[gh aZ\Z{_g, b ^Z mq\jklb k\hm \eZkl gZ^ kjikdhf pjd\hf, Z h]jZgb-
qZ\Zmb \eZkl _jZjob_ m pjd\b ^Z h]Zgbqb b k\_mdmigZ ijZ\Z Kj[Z m Fh-
gZjobb. LZ KZ[hj, ih^ lmlhjkl\hf dhf_kZjZ, ]jhnZ :g^jb_ OZ^bdZ, h^em-
qbh _ m fgh]hf_ ijhlb\ k\h_ \h_ h ^Zh km^[bgb Kj[Z m M]Zjkdh iZ _
h^ klZjbo kjikdbo ijb\be_]bZ hr fZeh rlZ hklZeh (=j[b 1990: 73-76).
GZ hkgh\m j_amelZlZ lh] KZ[hjZ, Z ih gZj_{_m kZ\eZ^ZjZ, pZjZ 3hkbnZ II,
BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ ^_imlZpbZ ih^ ij_^k_^gbrl\hf ]jhnZ NjZ_ Dhe_jZ
bajZ^beZ _ a[bjdm ijhibkZ ba ijb\be_]bZ, pZjkdbo iZl_gZlZ b j_ahempbZ
dZh ]_g_jZegb ghjfZlb\ aZ kjikd_ kl\Zjb la\. J_]meZf_gl h^ 27. k_il_f[jZ
1770, dhbf km aZdhgkdb mj_{_gb h^ghkb m kjikdh pjd\b, h^ghkgh _gZ hj]Z-
gbaZpbZ h^ \joZ ^h ^gZ. Pjd\_gZ _jZjobZ _ kmrlbgkdb hkeZ[_gZ m dhjbkl
^j`Z\g_ \eZklb, Zeb b \_jgbdZ (Dhklb 1932: 44-47).
Ihrlh _ ijhlb\ J_]meZf_glZ [beh ^hklZ `Ze[b, ihq_ldhf 1777. bajZ{_g
_ >jm]b j_]meZf_gl, Zeb [_a [blgbo jZaebdZ m h^ghkm gZ Ij\b; ^hreh _ b
^h g_fbjZ f_{m Kj[bfZ iZ _ 2. ^_p_f[jZ 1777. mdbgmlZ BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ
^_imlZpbZ, Z a[h] g_aZ^h\hkl\Z m pjd\b b gZjh^m pZjbpZ _ 16. meZ 1779.
h^ [blgbo h^j_^Z[Z h[Z J_]meZf_glZ kZqbgbeZ la\. >_deZjZlhjbm (>_deZ-
jZlhjgb j_kdjbil), ijhibkmmb p_em hj]ZgbaZpbm kjikd_ pjd\_ g_aZ\bkgh
h^ `_Z b aZol_\Z b kjikdh]Z debjZ b gZjh^Z, b [_a fgh]h h[abjZ gZ ijhibk
kjikdbo ijb\be_]bZlZdh ^Z _ bf kl\hj_g gh\ ijZ\gb iheh`Z kjikdh]Z
gZjh^Z m M]Zjkdh, k lbf ^Z _]h\_ ijb\be_]b_ h^ lZ^Z \Z`_ kZfh gZ hk-
gh\m b ih kfbkem lh]Z j_kdjbilZ, dZh b ^Z _ fbljhihebl kZfh ^moh\gb
klZj_rbgZ Kj[Z, Z ^Z m k\_lh\gbf kl\ZjbfZ gb_ ]eZ\Z kjikdh]Z gZjh^Z.
>_deZjZlhjbZ ba 1779. ^hg_eZ _ ihlimgm gZ^fh ^j`Z\_ gZ^ pjd\hf kZ
ijb\be_]bZ n_m^Zegh] ijZ\Z ij_reh k_ gZ Zikhemlbklbqdh aZdhgh^Z\kl\h
fh^_jgh] klbeZ, Z kZ iZjbl_lgh] h^ghkZ ^j`Z\_ b pjd\_ ij_reh k_ gZ Zikh-
emlgh ih^\eZr__ pjd\_ ^j`Z\bgZjh^gh-iheblbqdZ ZmlhghfbZ Kj[Z m
M]Zjkdh ij_l\hj_gZ _ m pjd\_gh-rdhekdm (Dhklb 1932: 83-85).
K\_ lh, biZd, gb_ baZa\Zeh \__ ihlj_k_ m kj_^bgb Kj[Z _j _ \_ ke_^__
]h^bg_ \eZkl m FhgZjobb ij_ma_h ^hlZ^Zrb kZ\eZ^Zj FZjb_ L_j_ab_,
_g kbg, pZj 3hkbn II, ijhk\__gb ZikhemlbklZ m imghf kfbkem l_ j_qb, dhb
_ h^emqgh kijh\h^bh ^jmrl\_gh-_dhghfkd_ b iheblbqd_ j_nhjf_ dh_ km
[be_ ijbo\Z_g_ h^ ]jZ{Zgkdh] b k_Zqdh] ^jmrl\Z ihk\m^Z, Z dh^ Kj[Z kZ
bkdj_gbf h^mr_\__f. >hghr__f IZl_glZ h \_jkdh lhe_jZgpbb, hl-
\ZjZ_f fh]mghklb aZ klmiZ_ m Z\g_ kem`[_ kihkh[gbfZ ba ]jZ{Zgkdh]
^jmrl\Z, h^emqgbf m[eZ`Z\Z_f b kdhjh mdb^Z_f df_lkd_ aZ\bkghklb
k_Zrl\Z, kl\ZjZ_f ih\hg_ debf_ aZ ^_eh\Z_ bgl_eb]_gpb_ b ^jm]bf
kijh\_^_gbf beb hq_db\Zgbf ijhf_gZfZ, ih[hrZg _ hirlb iheh`Z k\bo
keh_\Z kjikdh] ^jmrl\Z iZ _ ijb\be_]bZegh iblZ_ ^hreh m ^jm]b ieZg,
a[h] q_]Z gb >_deZjZlhjbZ, hkbf m hqbfZ de_jZ, gb_ ba]e_^ZeZ ih]m[gZ aZ
_]Z. LZdh _ [beh k\_ ^h kfjlb pZjZ-j_nhjfZlhjZ ihq_ldhf 1790. ]h^bg_
(Dhklb 1952: 24, 27, 78, 79, 146).
78 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

Ihke_^Z ]h^bgZ \eZ^Z\bg_ pZjZ 3hkbnZ II _ hkbf kihgbo ijh[e_fZ


\_aZgbo aZ ihZ\m NjZgpmkd_ j_\hempb_ OZ[a[mjrdh fhgZjobb ^hg_eZ b
mgmljZr_, \_hfZ \_ebd_ g_km]eZkbp_. FZ{Zjkdh ie_fkl\h _ hkhdh_gh
k\_ \br_ bajZ`Z\Zeh k\h gZpbhgZebaZf ij_l_b ^Z h^[Zpb k\_ j_nhjf_
pZjZ 3hkbnZ, mdmqmmb b IZl_gl h \_jkdh lhe_jZgpbb b aZdhg_ ba Z]jZj-
gh-khpbZeg_ kn_j_, gZ rlZ km Kj[b m FhgZjobb, dZh ^jmrl\h g_ie_fbd_
kljmdlmj_ b dZh ijbiZ^gbpb kZfh lhe_jbkZg_ ]jqdh-bklhqg_, rbafZlbqd_
\_jhbkih\_klb, fhjZeb ^Z j_Z]mm, h^ghkgh ^Z k_ ijbij_f_ gZ h^[jZgm k\h]
gZpbhgZegh] b ^jmrl\_gh] [bZ. Hk_Zeb km lh gZjhqblh ^moh\gh-iheb-
lbqdb ih]eZ\Zj kjikdh] gZjh^Z, fbljhihebl Fhkb_ Imlgbd, i_rlZgkdb
k_gZlhj 3h\Zg FmrdZlbjh\b b ^jm]b \h^_b bgl_e_dlmZepb ih keh[h^gbf
djZ_\kdbf ]jZ^h\bfZ b gZij_^gbbf \Zjhrdbf kj_^bgZfZ, dhb km kfZljZ-
eb ^Z Kj[b g_ kf_m hklZlb iZkb\gb, _j gZ]h\_rlZ\Zg_ ijhf_g_ m ^j`Z\b,
Z ihk_[gh m _ghf m]Zjkdhf ^_em, g_ [b lj_[Zeh ^Z k_ hkl\Zj_ [_a boh\h]
mq_rZ b gZ boh\m rl_lm (<. =Z\jbeh\b 2005: 301).
DZdh gb_ gZ{_g aZ_^gbqdb _abd kZ m]Zjkdbf bgklblmpbZfZ m ih]e_^m
aZklmi_ghklb kjikdbo ij_^klZ\gbdZ gZ m]Zjkdhf kZ[hjm (>b_lb), Kj[b km
k_ hdj_gmeb h^j`Z\Zm khikl\_gh] gZjh^gh-pjd\_gh] kZ[hjZ, dhb _ ih^j`Zh
b gh\b pZj E_hihe^ II, Z dhb _ h^j`Zg m L_fbr\Zjm k_il_f[jZ 1790. 5_]h-
\_ h^emd_, dh_ _ [_qdb ^\hj m \_ebdh f_jb ih^j`Zh, km k_ ^bj_dlgh dhkbe_
kZ ihdmrZbfZ m]Zjkdh] kZ[hjZ, dhb _ gZ k\hbf aZk_^ZbfZ (1790-1791) brZh
aZ lbf_ ^Z \jZlb kZfhklZeghkl b h[_^b_ghkl M]Zjkd_, h^ghkgh djmg_ K\_lh]
Kl_nZgZ m hd\bjbfZ FhgZjob_. AZol_\ L_fbr\Zjkdh] kZ[hjZ h ^h^_b\Zm
Kj[bfZ ihk_[g_, Zmlhghfg_ l_jblhjb_ ;ZgZlZ, _ gZl_`_ ih]h^beZ M]Zj-
kdb kZ[hj, dhb k_ kij_fZh ^Z ba\jrb b a\Zgbqgm, aZdhgkdm bgdhjihjZpbm
bklh], ihab\Zmb k_ gZ h^emd_ pZjbp_ FZjb_ L_j_ab_ h ^h^_eb ;ZgZlZ M]Zj-
kdh ba 1779. ]h^bg_. G_a\Zgbqgbf ih^j`Z\Z_f h\_ h^emd_ [_qdb ^\hj _
l_`bh ^Z gZ{_ gZqbg ^Z aZmklZ\b gZjZkeb fZ{Zjkdb gZpbhgZebaZf aZ q_]Z km
m lhf lj_gmldm Kj[b kZ k\hbf aZol_\bfZ [beb \_hfZ ih]h^gh hjm{_ (=Z\jb-
eh\b 2005: 301-314; FbdZ\bpZ 2010: 239-249). ;_qdb ^\hj _ lZdh{_ m ihlim-
ghklb babrZh m kmj_l Kj[bfZ m boh\hf aZol_\m aZ hl\ZjZ_f ihk_[gh]
gZ^e_rl\Z (dZgp_eZjb_) m hd\bjbfZ FhgZjob_, l_ _ gZ hkgh\m lh]Z hl\hj_-
gZ BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ dZgp_eZjbZ (1790-1792), dhZ _ ij_ma_eZ ^_h gZ^e_`gh-
klb M]Zjkd_ ^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_, rlh _ m]Zjkdh ie_fkl\h kfZljZeh \_hfZ
\_ebdf m^Zjp_f. M h km \b^_eb kijh\h{__ iheblbd_ dhZ _ breZ dZ kl\Z-
jZm ^j`Z\_ m ^j`Z\b b h^[bZ_ ij_^klZ\d_ fZ{Zjkdbo klZe_`Z dhZ _
gZ]h\_rlZ\ZeZ ^Z\Z_ ]jZ{Zgkdbo ijZ\Z b ]ZjZglh\Z_ keh[h^_ \_jhbkih-
\_klb aZ ijZ\hkeZ\g_ m M]Zjkdh. Ij_fZ ij_^k_^gbdm h\_ dZgp_eZjb_ ]jhnm
NjZb ;ZeZrb ,,ha_nbgbklbqdhf [Zgm Oj\Zlkd_ ]Zbeb km h^ jZgb_ ih^h-
aj__ b g_lji_b\hkl b `Ze[_ b lm`[_ ijhlb\ _]Z [be_ km >b_lb h^Z\gh
ihagZl_ (K. =Z\jbeh\b 1994: 14; FbdZ\bpZ 2010: 249). Gb_ ijbo\ZlZgh PZ-
j_\h m\_jZ\Z_ ^Z _ DZgp_eZjbZ bfZlb bkl_ gZ^e_`ghklb dZh b >_imlZpbZ,
Z haZdh__ Ijb\be_]bZ gZq_egh _ ijbo\ZlZgh m hgh f_jb m dhh lh gb_
KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF XVIII <?D:... 79

[beh m kmijhlghklb kZ aZdhgbfZ DjZ_\bg_ M]Zjkd_. Kfjl pZjZ E_hihe^Z


II (1. fZjl 1792) bkdhjbklbh _ M]Zjkdb kZ[hj ^Z [b h^ gh\h] \eZ^ZjZ aZol_\Zh
mdb^Z_ Bebjkd_ ^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_ rlh _ pZj NjZgp II b ijbo\Zlbh, gZ
hkgh\m 10 aZdhgkdh] qeZgZ m]Zjkd_ >b_l_ h keh[h^b b g_aZ\bkghklb M]Zjkd_
m h[Z\Zm mgmljZrbo ihkeh\Z b lbf_ _ hkb]mjZh ih^jrdm fZ{Zjkdh]
ie_fkl\Z m [hj[b ijhlb\ njZgpmkd_ j_\hempb_, ^hd km ihkeh\b Bebjkd_
^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_ ij_^Zlb m gZ^e_`ghkl M]Zjkd_ ^\hjkd_ dZgp_eZjb_ b
>\hjkdh] jZlgh] kZ\_lZ. AZdhgbfZ dh_ _ M]Zjkdb kZ[hj m f_{m\j_f_gm ^hg_h
^m]hjhqgh _ ^_nbgbkZg Z\gh-ijZ\gb iheh`Z Kj[Z b boh\Z ijZ\Z ^h\_^_-
gZ km m kdeZ^ kZ fZ{Zjkdbf ko\ZlZ_f ^j`Z\gh] km\_j_gbl_lZ.
GZklhZ_ FZ{ZjZ ^Z m\_^m fZ{Zjkdb _abd m kem`[_gm mihlj_[m
j_amelbjZeh _ ^hghr__f 16 aZdhgkdh] qeZgdZ ba 1791. dhbf _ E_hihe^ II
ihl\j^bh fZ{Zjkdbf klZe_`bfZ ijZ\h gZ dhjbr__ fZ{Zjkdh] _abdZ m
mgmljZrbf ihkeh\bfZ, ]bfgZabZfZ, djZ_\kdbf ZdZ^_fbZfZ, mgb\_j-
abl_lbfZ b kZ fZ{Zjkdbf dZh gZklZ\gbf _abdhf, aZ hg_ dhb h\Z _abd gbkm
ihagZ\Zeb ^Z [b ]Z h\bf iml_f gZmqbeb b mkZ\jrbeb, Zeb k\_ lh ma dhgklZ-
lZpbm ^Z eZlbgkdb _abd hklZ_ _abd ^j`Z\g_ mijZ\_, ]^_ k_ aZ^j`Zh ^h
40-bo ]h^bgZ XIX \_dZ. JZ\ghijZ\ghkl dhZ _ ijbagZlZ Kj[bfZ aZdhgkdbf
qeZgpbfZ 27 ba 1791. b 10 ba 1792. h^ghkbeZ k_ gZ lh ^Z _ \_jhbkih\_kl
,,]jdh-g_k_^b_gbo aZbklZ [blb keh[h^gZ, dZh b aZ^m`[bg_, gZklZ\gb kbk-
l_f, \ZkiblZ\Z_ hfeZ^bg_, ihl\j{mm bf k_ ijbiZ^ZmZ ijZ\Z, ijb\be_]b_
b ih\eZklbp_ dh_ gbkm [be_ m kmijhlghklb aZdhgm DjZ_\bg_ M]Zjkd_, ]Z-
jZglh\Zgh bf _ ijZ\h klbpZZ ihk_^Z, ijZ\h ijbfZZ m k\_ ^j`Z\g_ kem`-
[_. IjZ\h fbljhiheblZ b _ibkdhiZ ^Z [m^m aZklmi_gb gZ >b_lb, ]ZjZglh\Z-
gh bf _ 10 aZdhgkdbf qeZgdhf dhbf _ h^j_{_gh b mdb^Z_ Bebjkd_ ^\hjkd_
dZgp_eZjb_ (Corpus Juris Hungarici, Magyar trvnytr 1740-1835, Budapest
1901: 246-248; Nhjbrdh\b 1986: 264; FbdZ\bpZ 2010: 249-250). AZ \eZ^ZjZ
_ aZ^j`Zgh ijZ\h ^Z ihl\j{m_ ba[hj fbljhiheblZ b _ibkdhiZ, ba^Z_ ^ha\h-
e_ aZ h^j`Z\Z_ kjikdbo KZ[hjZ b bf_gm_ dhf_kZj_ gZ bfZ. AZ`b\Z\Z_
ijZ\Z ]ZjZglh\Zgbo m]Zjkdbf aZdhgbfZ m imgh f_jb km kij_qZ\Zeb dZlhebq-
dh ie_fkl\h b fZ{Zjkd_ `miZgb_. KZfh gZba]e_^ nhjfZegh iblZ_ f_klZ gZ
dh_f _ k_^_lb fbljhihebl b _ibkdhib, h^\h_gh beb aZ_^gh kZ dZlhebqdbf
de_jhf m ]hj_f ^hfm KZ[hjZ, ^h^Zlgh _ mfZb\Zeh agZqZ ^hg_lbo aZdhgZ.4
<_ gZ >b_lb 1792. iZeZlbg gb_ h^j_^bh kjikdbf _ibkdhibfZ f_klh f_{m
dZlhebqdbf, g_]h bf _ h^j_^bh f_klZ baZ k\bo ^jm]bo ihkeZgbdZ. A[h] lh]Z
km kjikdb _ibkdhib meh`beb ijhl_kl gZihfbmb ^Z _ k_ ,,aZ \j_f_ aZ^h-
\hblb f_klhf dh_ bf _ iZelbg gZagZqbh, Zeb ^Z k_[b aZ^j`Z\Zm ijZ\h ^Z
dZkgb_ ihljZ`_ k\_ hgh gZ rlZ bf k_ qbgb ^Z bfZm ijZ\h.

* * *

4
Fbljhihebl KljZlbfbjh\b _ kfZljZh ^Z fm _ f_klh ihj_^ ijbfZkZ M]Zjkd_, Z ^Z kjikdb _ibkdhib
lj_[Zm ^Z k_^_ f_{m dZlhebqdbf, Zeb bkij_^ mgbZlkdbo _ibkdhiZ. (FbdZ\bpZ 2010: 250)
80 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

Iheh`Z Kj[Z m OZ[a[mjrdh fhgZjobb djZ_f XVII b lhdhf XVIII \_dZ


[bh _ bama_lgh keh`_g. BZdh _ gZjh^ ^h[bh ijb\be_]b_ h^ pZjZ E_hihe^Z
I (1690, 1691, 1695), dh_ km ihl\j^beb _]h\b gZke_^gbpb, pZj 3hkbn I (1706),
DZjeh VI (1713. b 1715) b FZjbZ L_j_abZ (1743), hg_ g_ kZfh ^Z gbkm ihrlh\Z-
g_, g_]h gb ba^Z\Z_ AZrlblgbo ibkZfZ, dhZ km ma Ijb\be_]b_ lj_[Zeh ^Z
]ZjZglmm \_jkdm keh[h^m b aZrlblm, gbkm ^hg_eb imgh heZdrZ_, _j km aZ
m]Zjkd_ klZe_`_ Kj[b hklZeb kZfh g_`__gZ \_jkdZ kdmibgZ, dhZ, dZh ]hkl
m M]Zjkdh, fh`_ [blb kZfh df_lh\kdZ b mgbZlkdZ. <j_f_ghf km \eZ^Zjb
km`Z\Zeb Ijb\be_]b_ dh_ km kZfb ihl\j^beb, rlh _ baZab\Zeh g_aZ^h\h-
kl\h b hlihj dh^ gZjh^Z, a[h] q_]Z km fgh]Z j_r_Z fhjZeZ [blb ih\mq_gZ,
Zeb p_gljZebaZlhjkdZ iheblbdZ, dhZ _ ^ha\hZ\ZeZ _^bgh \eZ^Zjm ^Z ijZ-
\begh lmfZqb Ijb\be_]b_, gbdZ^Z gb_ gZimrl_gZ. GZjhqblh _ FZjbZ
L_j_abZ h]jZgbqZ\ZeZ Kj[bfZ ijZ\Z kl_q_gZ ^h _g_ \eZ^Z\bg_, aZ\jrb\rb
_ ^hghr__f >_deZjZlhjb_ (1779) qbf_ _ gZjh^gh-iheblbqdZ ZmlhghfbZ
Kj[Z ij_l\hj_gZ m pjd\_gh-rdhekdm. <_ebd_ gZ^_ dh_ km Kj[b iheZ]Zeb m
_gh] gZke_^gbdZ, pZjZ 3hkbnZ II gbkm m ihlimghklb bkim_g_, Z l_d _
M]ZjkdZ klZe_rdZ kdmirlbgZ 1791. b 1792. ^hg_eZ aZdhgkd_ qeZgd_, dhbfZ
km Kj[bfZ ijbagZlZ ]jZ{ZgkdZ ijZ\Z, ihke_ p_h \_d ^bkdjbfbgZpbZ, fZ^Z
km hr ^m]h \j_f_gZ m FhgZjobb lj_lbjZgb dZh ]jZ{Zgb ^jm]h] j_^Z.

Vladan S. Gavrilovi
Nenad . Ninkovi

SERBS IN THE HABSBURG MONARCHY DURING


THE 18TH CENTURY-BETWEEN THE COURT IN VIENNA
AND THE HUNGARIAB AUTHORITIES

SUMMARY
At the Viennese court Serbs were seen as a nation (Natio Rascianica), whereas Hungarian
classes saw them merely as an obliging religious group. This difference in attitude determined
relations between the court and Hungary, and Serbs were more often than not used by the court to
blackmail Hungarian classes whenever their heightened national fervour needed quietening down.
Serbian people tried as much as it was possible to vacillate between these different interests and
different interpretations of their legal status. Depending on the situation, Serbs strove to ensure,
through their Privileges, a better and fairer legal status for themselves, which would be recognized
by both Hungarian and Austrian authorities. Due to the important role Serbs had in the Monarchy,
Serbian Privileges were confirmed on several occasions in the course of the 18th century, but time
and again this confirmation came along with one or more restricting provisos, until finally in the
1870s the Privileges were reduced completely and narrowed from the sphere of national-ecclesi-
astic, down to the frame of ecclesiastic and school privileges.
Key words: Imperial Court, Hungarn, serbian privilegs, Illyrian court deputation.
KJ;B M O:;A;MJRDH3 FHG:JOB3B LHDHF XVIII <?D:... 81

BA<HJB

:job\ Kjikd_ ZdZ^_fb_ gZmdZ b mf_lghklb m Kj_fkdbf DZjeh\pbfZ, Fbljhihebkdh-


iZljbZjrbkdb Zjob\, nhg^ ; (:K:GMD, FI: ;)
Corpus Juris Hungarici, Magyar trvnytr 1740-1835, Budapest 1901
:^Zfh\b, 3h\Z (1902). Ijb\be_]b_ kjikdh] gZjh^Z m M]Zjkdh b jZ^ ;eZ]h\_rl_gkdh]
kZ[hjZ 1861. AZ]j_[: KjikdZ rlZfiZjbZ.
=jmb, JZ^hkeZ\ (1906). DZdh k_ ihklmiZeh kZ kjikdbf fhe[ZfZ gZ ^\hjm _kZjZ
Z\kljbkdh] ihke_^_ ]h^bg_ `b\hlZ iZljbZjoZ :jk_gbZ III QZjgh_\bZ. Gh\b
KZ^: FZlbpZ kjikdZ.
OZb, :glhgb_ (1880). >\Z ijbeh]Z ba ]. 1727. aZ ih\_kgbpm kjikdh] gZjh^Z, E_lhibk
FZlbp_ kjikd_, 123: 99-111; 124: 153-156.
OZb, :glhgb_ (1881). >\Z ijbeh]Z ba ]. 1727. aZ ih\_kgbpm kjikdh] gZjh^Z, E_lhibk
FZlbp_ kjikd_, 125: 112-130.

EBL?J:LMJ:

<_k_ebgh\b, JZdh (1986). GZjh^ghpjd\_gZ b ijb\be_]bkdZ iblZZ Kj[Z m OZ[a[mjrdh


fhgZjobb 1699-1716. b Kj[bZ ih^ Zmkljbkdhf \eZrm 1718-1739. BklhjbZ kjikdh]
gZjh^Z. IV: 39-55, 106-160.
=Z\jbeh\b, KeZ\dh (1991). H [hj[b Kj[Z m OZ[a[mjrdh fhgZjobb aZ iheblbqdh-
l_jblhjbZegm Zmlhghfbm (1690-1850), A[hjgbd FZlbp_ kjikd_ aZ bklhjbm. 43: 7-24.
=Z\jbeh\b, KeZ\dh (1994). BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ dZgp_eZjbZ m ;_qm (1791-1792), A[hjgbd
FZlbp_ kjikd_ aZ bklhjbm. 49: 7-30.
=Z\jbeh\b, KeZ\dh (1996). GZklhZZ iZljbZjoZ :jk_gbZ QZjgh_\bZ hdh ijZ\Z gZ
^_k_lbgm b a_fbrgb ihk_^ 1690-1706, A[hjgbd FZlbp_ kjikd_ aZ bklhjbm, 53: 7-38.
=Z\jbeh\b, <eZ^Zg (2001). >biehfZlbqdb kibkb dh^ Kj[Z m OZ[a[mjrdh fhgZjobb b
DZjeh\Zqdh fbljhihebb h^ djZZ XVII ^h kj_^bg_ XIX \_dZ. <_l_jgbd: 2001.
=Z\jbeh\b, <eZ^Zg (2005). L_fbr\Zjkdb kZ[hj b BebjkdZ ^\hjkdZ dZgp_eZjbZ (1790-
1792). Gh\b KZ^: IeZlhg_mf.
=j[b, FZgheh (1990). DZjeh\Zqdh \eZ^bqZgkl\h. d. II, Lhimkdh: =eZk.
B\b, :e_dkZ (1929). BklhjbZ Kj[Z m <h\h^bgb. Gh\b KZ^: FZlbpZ kjikdZ.
Dhklb, FblZ (1932) =jhn Dhe_j dZh dmelmjgh-ijhk\_lgb j_nhjfZlhj dh^ Kj[Z m
M]Zjkdh m XVIII \_dm. ;_h]jZ^: KjikdZ djZ_\kdZ ZdZ^_fbZ
Dhklb, FblZ (1952). >hkbl_ H[jZ^h\b m bklhjbkdh i_jki_dlb\b XVIII b XIX \_dZ.
;_h]jZ^: GZmqgZ db]Z
FbdZ\bpZ, >_Zg (2010). JZ\ghijZ\ghkl b ^bkdjbfbgZpbZ gZ M]Zjkdh >b_lb 1690-1848,
BkljZ`b\ZZ. 21: 213-261.
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]h^bg_, Susreti kultura, II: 209-220.
JZ^hgb, 3h\Zg (1939). <h\h^bgZ h^ <_ebd_ k_h[_ (1690) ^h KZ[hjZ m Djmr_^hem (1708),
A[hjgbd <h\h^bgZ II: 1-47.
JZ^hgb 3h\Zg-Dhklb FblZ (1954). Kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_ h^ 1690. ^h 1792. ;_h]jZ^: GZmqgZ
db]Z.
Kbf_hgh\b-Qhdb Kl_\Zg (1939), Kjikd_ ijb\be_]b_, A[hjgbd <h\h^bgZ II: 48-85.
82 <eZ^Zg K. =Z\jbeh\b, G_gZ^ -. Gbgdh\b

Nhjbrdh\b, :e_dkZg^Zj (1986). Iheblbqdb, ijZ\gb b ^jmrl\_gb h^ghkb dh^ Kj[Z m


OZ[a[mjrdh FhgZjobb, BklhjbZ kjikdh] gZjh^Z, IV/1: 223-304.
R\bd_j, 3hoZg OZgjbo (1998). IheblbqdZ bklhjbZ Kj[Z m M]Zjkdh. Gh\b KZ^-;_h]jZ^:
FZlbpZ kjikdZ-=ml_g[_j]h\Z ]ZeZdkbZ.