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nineteenth edition
William I. Orr, WESAl

Division HOWARD W. SAMS & CO.. INC.
I N D I A N A P O L I S . I N D I A N A 4 6 2 6 8



Copyright 1972 by Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., Indian-

apolis, Indiana 46268. Printed in the United States of

All rights reserved. Reproduction or use, without express

permission, of editorial or pictorial content, in any manner,
is prohibited. No patent liability is assumed with respect
to the use of the information contained herein.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 40 -33904

International Standard Book Number: 0- 672-24030 -0

"Radio Handbook" is also available on special order in Spanish.



At the turn of the Century farsighted experimenters were communicating by

"wireless" over scores of miles using spark transmitters and magnetic detectors. Semi-
conductors and vacuum tubes were unknown to these daring men but the fundamental
concepts of tuning, resonance and wave propagation were clearly understood.
Seventy years later the grandsons of these pioneers have instant, worldwide radio
communication at their fingertips and can radio- command space probes traversing the
outer reaches of the solar system.
The wireless experimenters of 1900 would be confounded by the vacuum -tube
equipment of the "sixties" and dazzled by the solid -state techniques of the "seventies ".
But they would understand the underlying fundamentals of today's sophisticated equip-
ment since it still obeys the natural laws of electricity as set forth by Ohm, Ampere,
Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz, and others so long ago.
Thus radio communication is a continuing science and this latest edition of RADIO
HANDBOOK reflects both basic fundamentals and the latest electronic techniques and
Born in 1935 as a slim, paperback reference work, RADIO HANDBOOK has
grown through 18 editions to its present position as the leading independent authority
in the field of radio amateur h -f and vhf communication, faithfully covering more than
three decades of development in the art of electronic communication.
Included in this 19th edition are expanded sections covering the latest advance-
ments in communication electronics, circuit techniques, vhf solid -state power sources
and uhf low -noise receiving devices. Of particular interest to the advanced amateur are
the solid -state SSB receiver and exciter as well as the h -f broadband linear amplifiers and
vhf f -m equipment.
The author and publisher wish to thank the following individuals whose assistance
and support were vital in the compilation of this Handbook.


Bob Artigo, W6GFS Henry Ingwersen, PAOAFN /WI Rodney Reynolds, VK7ZAJ
Cliff Buttschardt, W6HDO Rick Kniss, W6MCA Ray Rinaudo, W6ZO
Bruce Donecker, W6KQG Dick Lucas, W3WSQ Bill Senior, W6YSX
W. W. Eitel, W6UF /WA7LRU Jack Manon, W6FIG Mike Staal, K6MYC
John Ehler, K9HTK /3 Jack McCullough, W6CHE Bob Sutherland, W6PO
Mike Goldstein, VE3GFN Hank Olson, W6GXN T. H. Tenny, Jr., WINLB
R. L. Gunther, VK7RG B.A. Ontiveros, W6FFF A. Prose Walker, W4BW
Roy Hejall, K7QWR Jack Quinn, W6MZ Robert Welborn, W9PBW
Dick Igaz, W6HRB Vasili Rajewski
Glossary of Terms .... 11


1 -1 Amateur Radio _ _ 1.1
1 -2 Station and Operator Licenses 1.2
1 -3 The Amateur Bands 1.4
1 -4 Starting Your Study 1.6


2 -1 The Atom 2.1
2 -2 Fundamental Electrical Units and Relationships 2.2
2 -3 Electrostatics and Capacitors 2.12
2 -4 Magnetism and Electromagnetism 2.18
2 -5 RC and RL Transients 2.23


3 -1 Alternating Current 3.1
3 -2 Resonant Circuits 3.15
3 -3 Nonsinusinodal Waves and Transients 3.21
3 -4 Transformers 3.24
3 -5 Electric Filters 3.27
3 -6 Low -Pass Filter Nomography 3.29
3 -7 Modern Filter Design 3.33
3 -8 The Electromagnetic Field 3.34


Part I-Diodes and Bipolar Devices

4 -1 Atomic Structure of Germanium and Silicon
4 -2 Mechanism of Conduction 4.2
4 -3 The PN Junction 4.3
4 -4 Diode Power Devices 4.8
4 -5 The Bipolar Transistor 4.12
4 -6 Transistor Characteristics 4.16
4-7 Transistor Audio Circuitry 4.22
4 -8 R -F Circuitry 4.26
4 -9 Silicon Power Transistors 4.30
4 -10 VHF Circuitry 4.37
Part II- Field- Effect Devices, Integrated Circuits and Numeric Displays
4 -11 Field- Effect Devices 4.39
4 -12 FET Circuitry 4.42
4 -13 Integrated Circuits 4.45
4 -14 Digital -Logic IC's 4.48
4 -15 MOS Logic 4.50
4 -16 Solid -State Light Sources and Numeric Displays 4.58
5 -1 Thermionic Emission 5.1
5.2 The Diode 5.6
5 -3 The Triode 5.7
5 -4 Tetrode and Screen -Grid Tubes 5.12
5 -5 Mixer and Converter Tubes 5.15
5 -6 Electron Tubes at Very -High Frequencies 5.16
5 -7 Special Microwave Electron Tubes 5.17
5 -8 The Cathode -Ray Tube 5.20
5 -9 Gas Tubes 5.23
5 -10 Miscellaneous Tube Types 5.25


6 -1 Vacuum -Tube Parameters 6.1
6 -2 Classes and Types of Vacuum -Tube Amplifiers ....._ .. 6.2
6 -3 Biasing Methods 6.3
6 -4 Distortion in Amplifiers 6.4
6 -5 Resistance -Capacitance Coupled Audio -Frequency Amplifiers 6.4
6 -6 Video -Frequency Amplifiers 6.7
6 -7 Other Interstage Coupling Methods 6.8
6 -8 Phase Inverters 6.10
6 -9 D -C Amplifiers 6.12
6 -10 Single -Ended Triode Amplifiers 6.13
6 -11 Single -Ended Pentode Amplifiers 6.15
6 -12 Push -Pull Audio Amplifiers 6.17
6 -13 Class -B Audio -Frequency Power Amplifiers 6.19
6 -14 Cathode -Follower Power Amplifiers 6.23
6 -15 Feedback Amplifiers 6.25
7 -1 Class -C R -F Power Amplifiers 7.1
7 -2 Constant- Current Curves ... 7.4
7.3 Class -C Amplifier Calculations 7.6
7 -4 Class -B Radio -Frequency Power Amplifiers 7.12
7 -5 Grounded -Grid and Cathode- Follower R -F Power Amplifier
Circuits 7.15
7 -6 Class -AB1 Radio- Frequency Power Amplifiers 7.19
7 -7 Grounded -Grid Linear Amplifers 7.22
7 -8 Intermodulation Distortion 7.25
8 -1 Limiting Circuits 8.1
8 -2 Clamping Circuits 8.3
8 -3 Multivibrators 8.3
8 -4 The Blocking Oscillator 8.5
8 -5 Counting Circuits 8.6
8 -6 Resistance -Capacitance Oscillators 8.7
8 -7 Feedback 8.8


9 -1 The SSB System 9.1
9 -2 A Basic Single -Sideband Transmitter 9.9
9 -3 Selective Tuned Circuits 9.10
9 -4 Distortion Products Due to Nonlinearity of R-F Amplifiers 9.13
9 -5 Speech Processing 9.14
9 -6 SSB Reception 9.17
9 -7 The SSB Transceiver 9.21


Part I -The H -F Receiver
10 -1 Types of Receivers 10.1
10 -2 Receiver Performance Requirements 10.3
10 -3 The Superheterodyne Receiver 10.5
10 -4 Noise and Spurious Products 10.9
10 -5 R -F Amplifier Stages 10.12
10 -6 Mixer Stages 10.18
10 -7 The Local Oscillator 10.21
10 -8 The I -F Amplifier 10.23
10 -9 The Beat -Frequency Oscillator 10.29
10 -10 Detectors and Demodulators 10.29
10 -11 Automatic Gain Control 10.32

Part II -VHF and UHF Receivers

10 -12 VHF /UHF Noise Sources 10.36
10 -13 Noise and Receiver Circuitry 10.37
10 -14 VHF Receiver Circuitry 10.39
10 -15 I -F Strips and Conversion Oscillators . __._ 10.41
10 -16 Special Consideration in UHF Receiver Design for VHF Receivers 10.43
10 -17 Representative VHF Converter Circuits 10.47



Part 1 -H -F Circuits
11 -1 Self- Controlled Oscillators 11.1
11 -2 Quartz -Crystal Oscillators 11.6
11 -3 Crystal -Oscillator Circuits 11.9
11 -4 Frequency Synthesis 11.14
11 -5 Spurious Frequencies 11.16
11 -6 Rodio- Frequency Amplifiers .._ ..... 11.18
11 -7 Neutralization of R -F Amplifiers 11.19
11 -8 Neutralizing Procedures 11.22
11 -9 Grounded -Grid Amplifiers 11.26
11 -10 Frequency Multipliers 11.26
11 -11 Tank -Circuit Design 11.28
11 -12 L, Pi, and Pi -L Matching Networks 11.33
11 -13 Toroidal -Wound Tank Coils 11.36
11 -14 Grid Bios _ ...... ... 11.38
11 -15 Protective Circuits for Transmitting Tubes 11.40
11 -16 Interstage Coupling 11.43
Part II -VHF Circuits
11 -17 Vacuum -Tube Limitations 11.45
11 -18 Input and Output 11.48
Chapter Twelve. FEEDBACK
R -F 12.1
12 -1 R -FFeedback Circuits 12.1
12 -2 Feedback and Neutralization of a Two -Stage R -F Amplifier.. 12.4
12 -3 Neutralization Procedure in Feedback -Type Amplifiers 12.6
13 -1 Frequency Modulation 13.1
13 -2 Direct F -M Circuits _
13 -3 Phase Modulation 13.8
13 -4 Reception of F -M Signals 13.11
13 -5 The F -M Repeater .
.. 13.19
14 -1 Radioteletype Systems 14.1
14 -2 RTTY Reception 14.2
14 -3 An Audio -Frequency RTTY Converter 14.4
14 -4 Frequency-Shift Keying 14.5
14 -5 Slow -Scan Television 14.7
15 -1 Sidebands 15.1
15 -2 Mechanics of Modulation 15.2
15 -3 Systems of Amplitude Modulation 15.4
15 -4 Input Modulation Systems 15.8
15 -5 The Doherty and the Terman -Woodyard Modulated Amplifiers 15.13
15 -6 Speech Clipping 15.15
15 -7 Speech Compression 15.18
15 -8 High Level Modulation 15.21
15 -9 General Purpose Triode Class -8 Modulator 15.24
15 -10 A 15 -Watt Clipper -Amplifier 15.26
15 -11 Auxiliary Clipper Amplifiers 15.27
15 -12 Zero Bias Tetrode Modulators 15.27
15 -13 Pulse- Duration Modulation 15.27
Chapter Sixteen. RADIO INTERFERENCE (RFI) 16.1
16 -1 Types of Television Interference 16.1
16 -2 Harmonic Radiation .... 16.3
16 -5 Miscellaneous Interference 16.14
16 -4 Broadcast Interference 16.9
16 -5 Miscellaneous Interference 16.14
16 -6 Help in Solving TV1 16.15
Chapter Seventeen. EQUIPMENT DESIGN 17.1
17 -1 Resistors 17.1
17 -2 Capacitors 17.3
17 -3 Wire and Inductors 17.5
17 -4 Grounds 17.7
17 -5 Holes, Leads, and Shafts 17.9
17 -6 Parasitic Resonances 17.11
17 -7 Parasitic Oscillation in R -F Amplifiers 17.12
17 -8 Elimination of VHF Parasitic Oscillations 17.14
17 -9 Checking for Parasitic Oscillations _.. 17.16
17 -10 Forced -Air Cooling ... 17.17
17 -11 Conduction Cooling 17.18


18 -1 Station Layout 18.1
18 -2 Transmitter Control Methods 18.5
18 -3 Safety Precautions .... ... 18.6
18 -4 Transmitter Keying 18.9
18 -5 Cathode Keying __ ... 18.11
18 -6 Grid -Circuit Keying 18.11
18 -7 Screen -Grid Keying 18.12
18 -8 Differential Keying Circuits 18.13
18 -9 The Electronic Key 18.16
18 -10 The YSX Electronic Key 18.19
18 -11 An R -F Operated Keying Monitor 18.21
18 -12 VOX Circuitry 18.21


19 -1 Mobile and Portable Power Sources 19.2
19 -2 Transistor Supplies 19.6
19 -3 Antennas for Mobile Operation 19.11
19 -4 Construction of Mobile Equipment 19.16
19 -5 Vehicular Noise Suppression 19.18
19 -6 A Portable Amateur Band Receiver 19.20
19 -7 A Solid -State 2 -Meter F -M Transmitter .... _.. 19.32
19 -8 A 70 -Watt Solid -State Amplifier for 2 -Meter F -M 19.35


20-1 A Low -Noise DX Converter for 2 Meters 20.2
20 -2 A Low -Noise Converter and Preamplifier for 432 MHz 20.8
20 -3 A Low -Noise Preamplifier for 1296 MHz 20.12
20 -4 A Solid -State 80 -Meter Receiver 20.15
20 -5 An Advanced Solid -State Deluxe Amateur Band Receiver 20.23


21 -1 A 40 -Watt Broadband Exciter for 2 Meters 21.1
21 -2 An Advanced Six -Band Solid-State SSB Exciter 21.7
21 -3 A Single -Band 200 -Watt PEP SSB Transceiver 21.24
21 -4 A 200 -Watt 3 -Band Sideband Transceiver 21.34
21 -5 A Triple Amplifier for 432 MHz 21.45

Chapter Twenty -Two. H -F AND VHF POWER AMPLIFIERS 22.1

22 -1 Triode Amplifier Design 22.2
22 -2 Tetrode Amplifier Design 22.6
22 -3 Cathode- Driven Amplifier Design 22.13
22 -4 Two Solid -State Broadband Linear Amplifier for SSB 22.18
22 -5 The KW -1 Mark III Linear Amplifier Using the 8875 22.24
22 -6 The 500Z 2 -KW PEP Linear Amplifier for 10 Three 80 Meters 22.30
22 -7 A 2 -KW Linear Amplifier for 6 Meters 22.38
22 -8 The KW -2 Heavy Duty Linear Amplifier 22.42
22 -9 A High- Performance 2 -Meter Power Amplifier 22.48
Chapter Twenty- Three. POWER SUPPLIES 23.1
23 -1 Power -Supply Requirements 23.1
23 -2 Power -Supply Components 23.5
23 -3 Rectification Circuits 23.6
23 -4 Series Diode Operation 23.12
23 -5 Silicon Supplies for SSB 23.13
23 -6 A 1- Kilowatt IVS Power Supply 23.18
23 -7 A 2- Kilowatt PEP Supply for SSB 23.19
23 -8 IVS Bridge- Rectifier Supplies 23.20
23 -9 Regulated Power Supplies 23.22
23 -10 Transceiver Power Supplies 23.31
24 -1 Radiation from an Antenna 24.1
24 -2 General Characteristics of Antennas 24.2
24 -3 Radiation Resistance and Feedpoint Impedance _.. _. 24.6
24 -4 Antenna Directivity 24.9
24 -5 Bandwidth 24.12
24 -6 Propagation of Radio Waves .. 24.12
24 -7 Ground -Wave Communication 24.13
24 -8 Ionospheric Propagation 24.16
24 -9 Transmission Lines 24.20
24 -10 Nonresonant Transmission Lines 24.21
24 -11 Tuned or Resonant Lines 24.24
24 -12 Line Discontinuities 24.25
24 -13 A Broadband 50 -Ohm Balun 24.26
Chapter Twenty -Five. ANTENNAS AND ANTENNA MATCHING ... 25.1
25 -1 End -Fed Holf-Wave Horizontal Antennas 25.1
25 -2 Center -Fed Half -Wove Horizontal Antennos 25.2
25 -3 The Half -Wave Vertical Antenna 25.5
25 -4 The Ground -Plane Antenna 25.5
25 -5 The Marconi Antenna 25.6
25 -6 Space- Conserving Antennas 25.8
25 -7 Multiband Antennas 25.10
25 -8 Matching Nonresonant Lines to the Antenna 25.19
25 -9 Antenna Supports 25.25
25 -10 Coupling to the Antenna System 25.28
25 -11 Antenna Couplers 25.30
25 -12 A Single -Wire Antenna Tuner 25.33
26 -1 Directive Antennas 26.1
26 -2 Long -Wire Radiators ... 26.3
26 -3 The V Antenna ._ ............. ___ 26.4
26 -4 The Rhombic Antenna 26.6
26 -5 Stacked -Dipole Arroys 26.8
26 -6 Broadside Arrays 26.10
26 -7 The Cubical Quod Beam .. 26.15
26 -8 End -Fire Directivity 26.17
26 -9 Combination End -Fire and Broadside Arrays 26.18
Chapter Twenty- Seven. VHF AND UHF ANTENNAS 27.1
27 -1 Antenna Requirements .. 27.1
27 -2 Simple Horizontal- Polarized Antennas 27.4
27 -3 Simple Vertical -Polarized Antennas 27.5
27 -4 The Discone Antenna 27.8
27 -5 Helical Beam Antennas 27.9
27 -6 The Corner -Reflector and Horn -Type Antennas 27.11
27 -7 VHF Horizontal Rhombic Antenna 27.13
27 -8 The Log- Periodic Antenna 27.14
27 -9 VHF Yagi Beam Antennas 27.17
28 -1 Unidirectional Parasitic End -Fire Arrays (Yogi Type) 28.1
28 -2 The Three -Element Array 28.3
28 -3 Feed Systems for Parasitic (Yogi) Arrays 28.5
28 -4 Unidirectional Driven Arrays 28.11
28 -5 Construction of Rotatable Arrays 28.14
28 -6 Tuning the Array 28.15
28 -7 Indication of Direction 28.17
28 -8 Three -Band Beams 28.18
28 -9 Lumped Baluns for Beam Antennas 28.19
Chapter Twenty -Nine. ELECTRONIC TEST EQUIPMENT 29.1
29 -1 Voltage and Current 29.1
29 -2 Electronic Voltmeters 29.4
29 -3 Power Measurements 29.8
29 -4 Measurement of Circuit Constants 29.10
29 -5 Measurements with a Bridge 29.11
29 -6 R -F Bridges 29.12
29 -7 Antenna and Transmission Line Instrumentation 29.13
29 -8 Practical SWR Instruments 29.17
29 -9 Frequency and Line Measurements 29.22
29-10 A Precision Crystal Calibrator 29.23
29 -11 Instruments for Shop and Station 29.25
29 -12 A Variable- Frequency Audio Generator 29.31

Chapter Thirty. THE OSCILLOSCOPE 30.1

30 -1 A Modern Oscilloscope 30.1
30 -2 Display of Waveforms .. ...... ......... ...... ......_.......
. . 30.5
30 -3 Lissajous Figures ................ ... .... 30.5
30 -4 Receiver I -F Alignment with an Oscilloscope .... .......... _..
. 30.9
30-5 Single -Sideband Applications 30.11
30 -6 A -M Applications 30.14
Chapter Thirty -One. CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES 31.1
31 -1 Tools 31.1
31 -2 The Material ................... 31.3
31 -3 TVI -Proof Enclosures .... 31.5
31 -4 Enclosure Openings ... 31.5
31 -5 Construction Practice 31.6
31 -6 Printed Circuits 31.9
31 -7 Coaxial Cable Terminations 31.12
31 -8 Workshop Layout _ 31.13
31 -9 Components and Hardware 31.14



Symbol Notation Symbol Notation

A Amperes (a -c, rms, or d -c) fil Filament

A Amplifier voltage gain G Gigo (10 ")
a Amperes (peak) g, g,, g etc. Grid (number to identify,
ac, a-c, a.c. Alternating current starting from cathode)
a-m, a.m. Amplitude modulation g_. Grids having common pin
C Capacitance connection
c.f.m. Cubic feet per minute GHz Gigahertz (10" cycles per
C, Capacitance grid to ground second)
etc. Tube capacitance between G,, or S,,, Transconductance
indicated electrodes (grid- plate)
C,,, Input capacitance H Henry
CI, Capacitance between Hz Hertz
cathode and ground Peak current
cm Centimeter Current (a -c, rms, or d -c)
C. Neutralizing capacitance /,, Average d -c plate current
C.,,,, Output capacitance /,, ,, ,, Peak signal d -c plate
Capacitance, plate to screen current
cw, C.W. or c-w Continuous wave i,. Instantaneous plate current
dB or db Decibel Peak plate current
dc, d.c., d-c Direct current Idling plate current
E Voltage (a -c, rms, or d -c) /. Average d -c grid current
Peak voltage
Average plate voltage
Instantaneous plate voltage
i current
Instantaneous a -c plate
current referred to I,,
Peak plate voltage Peak a -c plate current
e,, ,,,,,, Minimum instantaneous referred to lb
plate voltage referenced i, etc. Fundamental component of
to ground r -f plate current
e, ,,,,, Maximum positive grid i, ,,,,, Peak fundamental component
voltage of r -f plate current
Cutoff -bias voltage 1, Single tone d -c plate current
E., Average grid #1 voltage 1, etc. Two -tone, etc., d -c plate
E.. Average grid #2 voltage current
E. Average grid #3 voltage etc. Average grid #1, #2, etc.
e,., Instantaneous grid #1 current
voltage Filament current

Instantaneous grid # 2 i,_ etc. Instantaneous grid current

voltage etc.
1111,., Peak grid current
e. Instantaneous grid #3 l'- Average cathode current
voltage i'. Instantaneous cathode
Er Filament voltage current
e, Rms value of Peak cathode current
exciting voltage K Cathode
e,, Instantaneous plate voltage k Kilo(10')
(o.c.) referenced to E. kHz Kilohertz
Peak a -c plate voltage kV Peak kilovolts
referenced to E,, kVac A -c kilovolts
Applied signal voltage (d -c) kVdc D -c kilovolts
Applied signal voltage (a -c) kW Kilowatts
e Instantaneous cathode Wavelength
voltage M Mutual inductance
Peak cathode voltage M Mega (10 ")
Fk Farad m Meter
Frequency (in Hertz) m One thousandth
Symbol Notation Symbol Notation
mm Millimeter R,, Resistance in series with
mA or ma Milliamperes plate
Meg or meg Megohm r,, Dynamic internal plate
mH Millihenry resistance
MHz Megahertz S. or G. Conversion transconductance
Mu or Amplification factor S.., or G Transconductance
mV or my Millivolts SSB Single sideband
MW Megawatts SWR Standing -wave ratio
mW Milliwatts T Temperature (C)
NF Noise figure Time (seconds)
N, . Efficiency B Conduction angle
P Pico (10-'') p Micro (10 -) or amplification
P,, Average drive power factor
P., Peak drive power A Amplification Factor
Average feedthrough power pA Microampere
Pr, Peak feedthrough power pmho Micromho
pF or pf Picofarad pF or pfd Microfarad
PEP Peak envelope power pH Microhenry
P_,, P_,, etc. Power dissipation of As Microsecond
respective grids pV Microvolt
P. Power input (average) _ Grid -screen amplification
P, Peak power input factor
P., Power output (average) V Volt(s), (a -c, rms, or d -c)
p.. Peak power output or d.c.)
P,. Plate dissipation v Peak volts
Q Figure of merit Vac A -c volts
Q, Loaded Q Vdc D -c volts
R Resistance VSWR Voltage standing -wove
Reflector ratio
rf, r.f or r-f Radio frequency W Watts
R.. Resistance in series with Z Impedance
the grid. Z, Grid impedance
r- Dynamic internal grid Z, Input impedance
resistance Z Cathode impedance
R, Resistance in series with Z. Load impedance
the cathode Z Output impedance
R, Load resistance Z Impedance in plate circuit
rms Root mean square Z, Screen bypass impedance

Introduction to Radio

The field of radio is a division of the available spectrum, it becomes necessary to

much larger field of electronics. Radio itself delve more deeply into the basic principles
is such a broad study that it is still further underlying radio communication, both from
broken down into a number of smaller fields the standpoint of equipment design and
of which only short -wave or high- frequency operation and from the standpoint of signal
radio is covered in this book. Specifically the propagation. Hence, it will be found that
field of communication on frequencies from this edition of the RADIO HANDBOOK
1.8 to 1296 MHz is taken as the subject mat- has been devoted in greater proportion to
ter for this work. the teaching of the principles of equipment
The largest group of persons interested in design and signal propagation. It is in re-
the subject of high- frequency communica- sponse to requests from schools and agencies
tion is the more than 450,000 radio ama- of the Department of Defense, in addition
teurs located in nearly all countries of the to persistent requests from the amateur
world. Strictly speaking, a radio amateur is radio fraternity, that coverage of these
anyone noncommercially interested in radio, principles has been expanded.
but the term is ordinarily applied only to
those hobbyists possessing transmitting
equipment and a license to operate from the 1 -1 Amateur Radio
It was for the radio amateur, and particu- Amateur radio is a fascinating hobby with
larly for the serious and more advanced ama- many facets. So strong is the fascination of-
teur, that most of the equipment described fered by this hobby that many executives,
in this book was developed. However, in engineers, and military and commercial
each equipment group, simple items also are operators enjoy amateur radio as an avoca-
shown for the student or beginner. The de- tion, even though they are also engaged in
sign principles behind the equipment for the radio field commercially.
high- frequency radio communication are of Amateurs have rendered much public
course the same whether the equipment is to service through furnishing communications
be used for commercial, military, or ama- to and from the outside world in cases
teur purposes. The principal differences lie in where disaster has isolated an area by sever-
construction practices, and in the tolerances ing all wire communications. Amateurs have
and safety factors placed on components. a proud record of heroism and service on
With the increasing complexity of high - such occasions. Many expeditions to remote
frequency communication, resulting pri- places have been kept in touch with home
m irily from increased utilization of the by communication with amateur stations on


the high frequencies. The amateur's fine The license is valid for a period of two years
record of performance with the "wireless" and is not renewable. However a former
equipment of World War I has been sur- amateur licensee may apply for a new Novice
passed by his outstanding service in World Class license provided he has not held an
War II. amateur license for at least a period of one
By the time peace came in the Pacific in year prior to making application. The ex-
the summer of 1945, many thousand ama- amination may be taken only by mail, under
teur operators were serving in the Allied the direct supervision of an amateur holding
Armed Forces. They had supplied the Army, a General Class license or higher, or a com-
Navy, Marines, Coast Guard, Merchant Ma- mercial radiotelegraph licensee. The exam-
rine, Civil Service, war plants, and civilian ination consists of a code test in sending and
defense organizations with trained personnel receiving at a speed of S words per minute,
for radio, radar, wire, and visual communi- plus a written examination on the rules and
cations and for teaching. The Veterans who regulations essential to beginners operation,
came from these organizations, many of including sufficient elementary radio theory
whom were radio amateurs, now are the fer the understanding of these rules. Re-
backbone of our modern electronics industry. stricted c -w privileges in segments of the
Their stature in the community emphasizes 80 -, 40 -, 1 5 -, and 2 -meter amateur bands
to the beginning radio amateur that his are currently available to the Novice licensee,
pastime is the gateway to a career in the whose transmitter is limited to crystal -con-
expanding electronics industry and that am- trolled operation with an input power not
ateur radio is indeed an impressive intro- exceeding 75 watts.
duction to one of the most exciting fields of The receiving code test for the Novice
endeavor in this century. Class license requires correct copy of five
consecutive words of text counting five let-
ters per word for a continuous period of at
1 -2 Station and least one minute. Punctuation marks and
Operator Licenses numerals are included.
Technician Class -The Technician Class
exists for the purpose of encouraging a
Every radio transmitting station in the greater interest in experimentation and de-
United States (with the exception of certain velopment of the higher frequencies among
low -power communication devices) must experimenters and would -be radio amateurs.
have a license from the Federal Government This Class of license is available to any U.S.
before being operated; some classes of sta- Citizen or national. The examination is
tions must have a permit from the govern- similar to that given for the General Class
ment even before being constructed. And license, except that the code test in sending
every operator of a licensed transmitting sta- and receiving is at a speed of 5 words per
tion must have an operator's license before minute.
operating a transmitter. There are no ex- The holder of a Technician Class license is
ceptions. Similar laws apply in practically accorded all authorized amateur privileges in
every major country. all amateur bands above 220 MHz, and in
portions of the 144 -MHz and 50 -MHz
Classes of Amateur There are at present six bands. This class of license may be taken
Operator Licenses classes of amateur oper- only by mail, under the direct supervision of
ator licenses in the United an amateur (21 years of age, or older) hold-
States authorized by the Federal Communi- ing a General Class License, or higher, or a
cations Commission. These classes differ in commercial radiotelegraph license. The li-
many important respects, so each will be cense is valid for a period of five years, and
discussed briefly. may be renewed on proper application.
Notice Class -The Novice Class license General Class -The General Class license
is available to any U.S. citizen or national is the standard radio amateur license and is
who has not previously held an amateur available to any U.S. Citizen or national.
license of any class issued by any agency of The license is valid for a period of five years
the U.S. Government, military or civilian. and is renewable on proper application. Ap-

plicants for the General Class license must on request, may receive a special diploma -
take the examination before an FCC rep- type certificate from the District FCC En-
resentative (with certain exceptions dis- gineer-in- Charge. The license is valid for a
cussed under the Conditional Class license). period of five years and is renewable. Appli-
The examination consists of a code test cants for the Amateur Extra Class license
in sending and receiving at a code speed of must take the examination before an FCC
13 words per minute, plus a written exami- representative. The examination consists of
nation in basic theory and regulations. It a code test in sending and receiving at a
conveys all amateur privileges, with the speed of 20 words per minute, a standard
exceptions noted for the Advanced and written examination in theory and regula-
Extra Class licenses. tions (credit will be given to holders of Gen-
Conditional Class-The Conditional Class eral and Advanced Class licenses for this re-
license is equivalent to the General Class quirement), and a written examination based
license in the privileges accorded by its use. on advanced radio theory and operation as
This license is issued to an applicant who: applicable to modern amateur techniques, in-
(1) lives more than 175 miles airline dis- cluding, but not limited to, radiotelephony,
tance from the nearest point at which the radiotelegraphy, and transmissions of energy
FCC conducts examinations twice yearly, or for measurements and observations applied
oftener; (2) is unable to appear for exami- to propagation, for the radio control of
nation because of physical disability to trav- remote objects, and for similar experimental
el; (3) is unable to appear for examination purposes. An applicant for the Amateur
because of military service; (4) is temporari- Extra Class license will be given credit for
ly resident outside the United States, its that portion of the examination covered by
territories, or possessions for a year or more. the General and Advanced Class licenses, if
The Conditional Class license may be taken a valid license of either grade is held at the
only by mail and is renewable. time of examination.
Advanced Class -The Advanced Class li- The Amateur Extra Class license accords
cense is equivalent to the old Class -A certain radiotelephone and radiotelegraph
license and is available to any U.S. Citizen privileges in the amateur bands between 80
or national. The license is valid for a period and 6 meters, unavailable to holders of
of five years and is renewable on proper ap- lower -grade licenses. In addition, the holder
plication. Applicants for the Advanced Class of an Amateur Extra Class license, licensed
license must take the examination before an for 25 years or longer by the FCC prior to
FCC representative. The examination con- the date of the Amateur Extra Class license
sists of a general code test at 13 words per may request a two -letter call sign, in lieu of
minute, questions covering general amateur a three -letter call sign.
practice and regulations involving radio The Amateur The station license author-
operation, and technical questions covering Station License izes the radio apparatus of
intermediate -level radio theory and operation the radio amateur for a par-
as applicable to modern amateur techniques, ticular address and designates the official
including, but not limited to, radiotelephony call sign to be used. The license is a portion
and radiotelegraphy. An applicant for the of the combined station- operator license
Advanced Class license will be given credit normally issued to the radio amateur. Au-
for that portion of the examination and the thorization is included for portable or mobile
code test covered by the General Class li- operation within the continental limits of the
cense, if a valid license of that grade is held United States, its territories or possessions, on
at the time of examination. any amateur frequency authorized to the
The Advanced Class license accords cer- class of license granted the operator. If por-
tain radiotelephone privileges in the amateur table or mobile operation for a period of
bands between 80 and 6 meters, which are greater than 48 hours is contemplated, ad-
unavailable to holders of lower -grade ama- vance notice must be given to the FCC
teur licenses. district in which operation will be con-
Amateur Extra Class-The Amateur Ex- ducted. The station license must be modified
tra Class license is the highest -grade amateur on a permanent change in address. The sta-
license issued by the FCC and the recipient, tion license is customarily renewed with the

operator license. Applications filed for ama- various geographic regions. In particular,
teur radio licenses (except that of a Novice the 40 -meter amateur band is used legally
Class) require a filing fee. (and illegally) for short -wave broadcasting
by many countries in Europe, Africa and
International The domestic regulatory pat - Asia. Parts of the 80 -meter band are used
Regulations tern of the United States for short distance marine work in Europe,
agrees with the international and for broadcasting in South America. The
agreements established by the International amateur bands available to United States
Telecommunications Union and to which the radio amateurs are:
United States is a signatory power. The fre-
160 Meters The 160 -meter band
quency bands reserved for the Amateur Radio
(1800 kHz -2000 kHz) is divided into 25-
Service are included in the ITU frequency
allocations table, as one of the services to kHz segments on a
which frequencies are made available. In the regional basis, with day and night power
lower - frequency amateur bands, the inter- limitations, and is available for amateur use
national allocations provide for joint use provided no interference is caused to the
of the bands by several services in addition Loran (Long Range Navigation) stations
to the amateur service in various areas of operating in this band. This band is least
the world. affected by the 11 -year solar sunspot cycle.
Article I of the ITU Radio Regulations The maximum usable frequency (MUF)
defines the amateur service as: "A service even during the years of decreased sunspot
of self-training, intercommunication, and activity does not usually drop below 4 MHz,
technical investigations carried on by ama- therefore this band is not subject to the
teurs, that is, by duly authorized persons violent fluctuations found on the higher -
interested in radio technique solely with a frequency bands. DX contacts on this band
personal aim and without a pecuniary inter- are limited by the ionospheric absorption of
est." Within this concept, the U. S. radio radio signals, which is quite high. During
regulations governing radio amateur licensing winter nighttime hours the absorption is
and regulation are formulated. often of a low enough value to permit trans-
By reciprocal treaty, the United States oceanic contacts on this band. On rare oc-
now has a number of agreements with other casions, contacts up to 10,000 miles have
countries permitting amateurs of one coun- been made. As a usual rule, however, 160 -
try to operate in the other. On the other meter amateur operation is confined to
hand, by international agreement, notifica- ground -wave contacts or single -skip con-
tion to the ITU may forbid international tacts of 1000 miles or less. Popular before
communications with radio amateurs of cer- World War II, the 160 -meter band is now
tain countries. only sparsely occupied since many areas of
A comprehensive coverage of United the country are blanketed by the megawatt
States licensing procedure for radio amateurs pulses of the Loran chains.
and applicable rules and regulations may be 80 Meters The 80 -meter band
found in "The Radio Amateur's License (3500 kHz-4000 kHz) is the most popular
Manual," published by the American Radio amateur band in
Relay League, Newington, Conn. 06111.
the continental United States for local "rag
chewing" and traffic nets. During the years
of minimum sunspot activity the iono-
1 -3 The Amateur Bands spheric absorption on this band may be
quite low, and long distance DX contacts
Certain small segments of the radio -fre- are possible during the winter night hours.
quency spectrum between 1800 kHz and Daytime operation, in general, is limited to
22,000 MHz are reserved for operation of contacts of 500 miles or less. During the
amateur radio stations. These segments are summer months, local static and high iono-
in general agreement throughout the world, spheric absorption limit long distance con-
although certain parts of different amateur tacts on this band. As the sunspot cycle ad-
bands may be used for other purposes in vances and the MUF rises, increased iono-

spheric absorption will tend to degrade the paths other than the Great Circle route.
long distance possibilities of this band. At Signals can be heard via the "long path," 180
the peak of the sunspot cycle, the 80 -meter degrees opposite the Great Circle path. Dur-
band becomes useful only for short -haul ing daylight hours, absorption may become
communication. apparent on the 20 -meter band, and all
signals except very short skip may disappear.
40 Meters The 40 -meter band On the other hand, the band will be open
(7000 kHz -7300 kHz) is high enough in for worldwide DX contacts all night long.
frequency to be se- The 20 -meter band is very susceptible to
verely affected by the 11 -year sunspot cycle. "fadeouts" caused by solar disturbances, and
During years of minimum solar activity, all except local signals may completely dis-
the MUF may drop below 7 MHz, and the appear for periods of a few hours to a day
band will become very erratic, with signals or so.
dropping completely out during the night
hours. Ionospheric absorption of signals is 15 Meters This is a rela-
not as large a problem on this band as it is (21,000 kHz-21,450 kHz) tively new band
on 80 and 160 meters. As the MUF grad- for radio ama-
ually rises, the skip distance will increase on teurs since it has only been available for
40 meters, especially during the winter amateur operation since 1952. It has charac-
months. At the peak of the solar cycle, the teristics similar to both the 20- and 10-
daylight skip distance on 40 meters will be meter amateur bands. During a period of
quite long, and stations within a distance of low sunspot activity, the MUF will rarely
500 miles or so of each other will not be rise as high as 15 meters, so this band will
able to hold communication. DX operation be "dead" for a large part of the sunspot
on the 40 -meter band is considerably ham- cycle. During the next few years, I5 -meter
pered by broadcasting stations, propaganda activity should be excellent, and the band
stations, and jamming transmitters. In should support extremely long DX con-
Europe and Asia the band is in a chaotic tacts. The band will remain open 24 hours
state, and amateur operation in this region a day in Equatorial areas of the world.
is severely hampered. Fifteen -meter operation may be hampered
in some cases when neighbors possess older -
20 meters At the present model TV receivers having a 21 -MHz i -f
(14,000 kHz- 14,350 kHz) time, the 20 -me- channel, which falls directly in the 15 -meter
ter band is by band. The interference problem may be al-
far the most popular band for long -distance leviated by retuning the i -f system to a
contacts. High enough in frequency to be frequency outside the amateur assignment.
almost obliterated at the bottom of the
solar cycle, the band nevertheless provides 10 Meters During the peak
good DX contacts during years of minimal (28,000 kHz -29,700 kHz) of the sunspot
sunspot activity. At the present time, the cycle, the 10-
band is open to almost all parts of the world meter band is without doubt the most pop-
at some time during the year. During the ular amateur band. The combination of
summer months, the band is active until the long skip and low ionospheric absorption
late evening hours, but during the winter make reliable DX contacts with low- powered
months the band is only good for a few equipment possible. The great width of the
hours during daylight. Extreme DX contacts band (1700 kHz) provides room for a
are usually erratic, but the 20 -meter band is large number of amateurs. The long skip
the only band available for DX operation (1500 miles or so) prevents nearby amateurs
the year around during the bottom of the from hearing each other, thus dropping the
sunspot cycle. As the sunspot count increases interference level. During the winter
and the MUF rises, the 20 -meter band will months, sporadic -E (short -skip) signals up
become open for longer hours during the to 1200 miles or so will be heard. The 10-
winter. The maximum skip distance in- meter band is poorest in the summer months,
creases, and DX contacts are possible over even during a sunspot maximum. Extreme-

ly long daylight skip is common on this moon -earth) transmissions and for repeater -
band, and in years of high MUF the 10- satellite experiments (Project Oscar). The
meter band will support intercontinental vhf bands hold great promise for serious
DX contacts during daylight hours. experimenters as radio amateurs forge into
The second harmonic of stations operating the microwave region.
in the 10 -meter band falls directly into
television channel 2, and the higher har- 1 -4 Starting Your Study
monics of 10 -meter transmitters fall into
the higher TV channels. This harmonic When you start to prepare yourself for
problem seriously curtailed amateur 10 -meter the amateur examination you will find that
operation during the late 40's. However, the circuit diagrams, tube characteristic
with new circuit techniques and the TVI curves, and formulas appear confusing and
precautionary measures stressed in this Hand- difficult to understand. But after a few
book, 10 -meter operation should cause little study sessions one becomes sufficiently fa-
or no interference to nearby television re- miliar with the notation of the diagrams
ceivers of modern design. and the basic concepts of theory and opera-
Six Meters At the peak of the sun - tion so that the acquisition of further
(50 MHz -54 MHz) spot cycle, the MUF knowledge becomes easier and even fascinat-
occasionally rises high ing.
enough to permit DX contacts up to 10,000 Since it takes a considerable time to be-
miles or so on 6 meters. Activity on this come proficient in sending and receiving
band during such a period is often quite high. code, it is a good idea to intersperse techni-
Interest in this band wanes during a period cal study sessions with periods of code prac-
of lesser solar activity, since contacts, as a tice. Many short code-practice sessions ben -
rule, are restricted to short -skip work. The fit one more than a small number of longer
proximity of the 6 -meter band to television sessions. Alternating between one study and
channel 2 often causes interference prob- the other keeps the student from getting
lems to amateurs located in areas where "stale" since each type of study serves as a
channel 2 is active. As the sunspot cycle sort of respite from the other.
increases, activity on the 6 -meter band will When you have practiced the code long
increase. enough you will be able to follow the gist of
the slower -sending stations. Many stations
The VHF Bands The vhf bands are send very slowly when working other sta-
(Two Meters and "Up ") the least affected by tions at great distances. Stations repeat their
the vagaries of the calls many times when calling other stations
sunspot cycle and Heaviside layer. Their before contact is established, and one need
predominant use is for reliable communica- not have achieved much code proficiency to
tion over distances of 150 miles or less. make out their calls and thus determine
These bands are sparsely occupied in the their location.
rural sections of the United States, but are
quite heavily congested in the urban areas The Code The applicant for any class of
of high population. amateur operator license must be
In recent years it has been found that able to send and receive the Continental
vhf signals are propagated by other means Code (sometimes called the International
than by line -of -sight transmission. "Scatter Morse Code). The speed required for the
signals," Aurora reflection, and air -mass sending and receiving test may be either S,
boundary bending are responsible for vhf 13, or 20 words per minute, depending on
communication up to 1200 miles or so. the class of license assuming an average of
Weather conditions will often affect long - five characters to the word in each case.
distance communication on the 2 -meter The sending and receiving tests run for
band, and all the vhf bands are particularly five minutes, and one minute of errorless
sensitive to this condition. transmission or reception must be accom-
In recent years the vhf bands have been plished within the five- minute interval.
used for experimental "moonbounce" (earth- If the code test is failed, the applicant

A esa N ) MD
g 2
ow. p
4 1111
E R MI 5
S 6
G =0 IND T 7 am am
H U MI 8 mb

J IMO IMO MP W z,e11 0

Y ..,=.

- --
M ss, esa z



( ") 1-


imo 11=1IMMI
all 11M
Figure 1

The Continental (or International Morse) Cods Is used for substantially all non -automatic radio
communication. DO NOT memorize from the printed page; cods is a lan f SOUND, and
must not be I d visually; learn by listening as explained in the text.

must wait at least one month before he Since code reading requires that individual
may again appear for another test. Approxi- letters be recognized instantly, any memor-
mately 30% of amateur applicants fail to izing scheme which depends on orderly se-
pass the test. It should be expected that quence, such as learning all "dah" letters and
nervousness and excitement will, at least to all "dit" letters in separate groups, is to be
some degree, temporarily lower the appli- discouraged. Before beginning with a code
cant's code ability. The best insurance practice set it is necessary to memorize the
against this is to master the code at a little whole alphabet perfectly. A good plan is to
greater than the required speed under ordi- study only two or three letters a day and
nary conditions. Then if you slow down a to drill with those letters until they become
little due to nervousness during a test the part of your consciousness. Mentally trans-
result will not prove fatal. late each day's letters into their sound equiv-
alent wherever they are seen, on signs, in
Memorizing There is no shortcut to code papers, indoors and outdoors. Tackle two
the Code proficiency. To memorize the additional letters in the code chart each day,
alphabet entails but a few eve- at the same time reviewing the characters
nings of diligent application, but consider- already learned.
able time is required to build up speed. The Avoid memorizing by routine. Be able
exact time required depends on the individ- to sound out any letter immediately with-
ual's ability and the regularity of practice. out so much as hestitating to think about
While the speed of learning will naturally the letters preceding or following the one
vary greatly with different individuals, about in question. Know C, for example, apart
70 hours of practice (no practice period to from the sequence ABC. Skip about among
be over 30 minutes) will usually suffice to all the characters learned, and before very
bring a speed of about 13 w.p.m.; 16 w.p.m. long sufficient letters will have been acquired
requires about 120 hours; 20 w.p.m., 175 to enable you to spell out simple words to
hours. yourself in "dit dabs." This is interesting

IIND 4IM tice, by far the best practice is to obtain a

study companion who is also interested in
OM II=1 OM learning the code. When you have both
OM IND MI GM memorized the alphabet you can start send-
MID ing to each other. Practice with a key and
oscillator or key and buzzer generally proves
superior to all automatic equipment. Two
IND IMO 1=1 such sets operated between two rooms are
IMD fine-or between your house and his will
be just that much better. Avoid talking to
Figure 2 your partner while practicing. If you must
These code characters are used in languages ask him a question, do it in code. It makes
other than English. They may occasionally more interesting practice than confining
be encoun d so it is well to know them. yourself to random practice material.
When two co- learners have memorized
exercise, and for that reason it is good to the code and are ready to start sending to
memorize all the vowels first and the most each other for practice, it is a good idea to
common consonants next. enlist the aid of an experienced operator for
Actual code practice should start only the first practice session or two so that they
when the entire alphabet, the numerals, will get an idea of how properly formed
period, comma, and question mark have been characters sound.
memorized so thoroughly that any one can During the first practice period the speed
be sounded without the slightest hesitation. should be such that substantially solid copy
Do not bother with other punctuation or can be made without strain. Never mind if
miscellaneous signals until later. this is only two or three words per minute.

Sound - Each letter and figure //rust be

Not Sight memorized by its sound rather
In the next period the speed should be in-
creased slightly to a point where nearly all
of the characters can be caught only through
than its appearance. Code is a conscious effort. When the student becomes
system of sound communication, the same proficient at this new speed, another slight
as is the spoken word. The letter A, for ex- increase may be made, progressing in this
ample, is one short and one long sound in manner until a speed of about 16 words
combination sounding like dit dab, and it per minute is attained if the object is to pass
must be remembered as such, and not as the amateur 13 -word per minute code test.
"dot dash." The margin of 3 w.p.m. is recommended to
overcome a possible excitement factor at
Practice Time, patience, and regularity are examination time. Then when you take the
required to learn the code properly. test you don't have to worry about the
Do not expect to accomplish it within a few "jitters" or an "off day."
days. Speed should not be increased to a new
Don't practice too long at one stretch; it level until the student finally makes solid
does more harm than good. Thirty minutes copy with ease for at least a five -minute
at a time should be the limit. period at the old level. How frequently in-
Lack of regularity in practice is the creases of speed can be made depends on in-
most common cause of lack of progress. dividual ability and the amount of practice.
Irregular practice is very little better than Each increase is apt to prove disconcerting,
no practice at all. Write down what you but remember "you are never learning when
have heard; then forget it; do not look back. you are comfortable."
If your mind dwells even for an instant on A number of amateurs are sending code
a signal about which you have doubt, you practice on the air on schedule once or
will miss the next few characters while your twice each week; excellent practice can be
attention is diverted. obtained after you have bought or con-
While various automatic code machines, structed your receiver by taking advantage
phonograph records, etc., will give you prac- of these sessions.

If you live in a medium -size or large city, send, and how fast you can receive. Con-
the chances are that there is an amateur - centrate on making signals properly with
radio club in your vicinity which offers your key. Perfect formation of characters
free code- practice lessons periodically. is paramount to everything else. Make every
signal right no matter if you have to prac-
Skill When you listen to someone speaking tice it hundreds or thousands of times.
you do not consciously think how his Never allow yourself to vary the slightest
words are spelled. This is also true when you from perfect formation once you have
read. In code you must train your ears to learned it.
read code just as your eyes were trained in If possible, get a good operator to listen
school to read printed matter. With enough to your sending for a short time, asking him
practice you acquire skill, and from skill, to criticize even the slightest imperfections.
speed. In other words, it becomes a habit,
something which can be done without con- Timing It is of the utmost importance to
scious effort. Conscious effort is fatal to maintain uniform spacing in charac-
speed; we can't think rapidly enough; a ters and combinations of characters. Lack of
speed of 25 words a minute, which is a com- uniformity at this point probably causes be-
mon one in commercial operations, means ginners more trouble than any other single
125 characters per minute or more than two factor. Every dot, every dash, and every
per second, which leaves no time for con- space must be correctly timed. In other
scious thinking. words, accurate timing is absolutely essen-
tial to intelligibility, and timing of the
Perfect Formation When transmitting on the spaces between the dots and dashes is just as
of Characters code practice set to your important as the lengths of the dots and
partner, concentrate on the dashes themselves.
quality of your sending, not on your speed. The characters are timed with the dot as
Your partner will appreciate it and he could a "yardstick." A standard dash is three times
not copy you if you speeded up anyhow. as long as a dot. The spacing between parts
If you want to get a reputation as hav- of the same letter is equal to one dot, the
ing an excellent "fist" on the air, just re- space between letters is equal to three dots,
member that speed alone won't do the and that between words equal to five dots.
trick. Proper execution of your letters and The rule for spacing between letters and
spacing will make much more of an im- words is not strictly observed when sending
pression. Fortunately, as you get so that slower than about 10 words per minute for
you can send evenly and accurately, your the benefit of someone learning the code
sending speed will automatically increase. and desiring receiving practice. When send-
Remember to try to see how evenly you can ing at, say, S w.p.m., the individual letters
should be made the same as if the sending
rate were about 10 w.p.m., except that the
boobo666 bo,icijoogci spacing between letters and words is greatly
iS B C
exaggerated. The reason for this is obvious.
The letter L, for instance, will then sound

exactly the same at 10 w.p.m. as at 5
w.p.m., and when the speed is increased
Imo above 5 w.p.m. the student will not have
A T O.. E to become familiar with what may seem
to him like a new sound, although it is in
Figure 3 reality only a faster combination of dots and
Diagram illustrating relative lengths of dashes. At the greater speed he will merely
dashes and spaces referred fo the duration have to learn the identification of the same
of a dot. A dash is exactly equal in duration
fo three dots; spaces between parts of a sound without taking as long to do so.
letter equal one dot; those between letters, Be particularly careful of letters like B.
three dots; space between words, Ave dots.
Note that a slight increase between two parts Many beginners seem to have a tendency to
of a letter will make it sound like two letters. leave a longer space after the dash than

that which they place between succeeding

dots, thus making it sound like TS. Simi-
larly, make sure that you do not leave
a longer space after the first dot in the
letter C than you do between other parts
of the same letter: otherwise it will sound
like NN.

Sending vs. Once you have memorized the

Receiving code thoroughly you should con-
centrate on increasing your re-
ceiving speed. True, if you have to practice
with another newcomer who is learning the
code with you, you will both have to do Figure 4
some sending. But don't attempt to prac- PROPER POSITION OF THE FINGERS FOR
tice sending just for the sake of increasing OPERATING A TELEGRAPH KEY
your sending speed.
When transmitting code to your partner The fingers hold the knob and act as a cush-
ion. The hand rests lightly on the key. The
so that he can practice, concentrate on muscles of the forearm provide the power,
the quality of your sending, not on your the wrist acting as the fulcrum. The power
should not come from the fingers, but rather
speed. from the forearm muscles.
Because it is comparatively easy to learn
to send rapidly, especially when no particu- is close to the surface, which in turn will
lar care is given to the quality of sending, tend to increase fatigue considerably.
many operators who have just received their The knob of the key is grasped lightly
licenses get on the air and send mediocre (or with the thumb along the edge; the index
worse) code at 20 w.p.m. when they can and third fingers rest on the top towards
barely receive good code at 13. Most old - the front or far edge. The hand moves with
timers remember their own period of initia- a free up and down motion, the wrist acting
tion and are only too glad to be patient and as a fulcrum. The power must come entirely
considerate if you tell them that you are from the arm muscles. The third and index
a newcomer. But the surest way to incur fingers will bend slightly during the sending
their scorn is to try to impress them with but not because of deliberate effort to ma-
your "lightning speed," and then to re- nipulate the finger muscles. Keep your finger
quest them to send more slowly when they muscles just tight enough to act as a cushion
come back at you at the same speed. for the arm motion and let the slight move-
Stress your copying ability; never stress ment of the fingers take care of itself. The
your sending ability. It should be obvious key's spring is adjusted to the individual
that if you try to send faster than you can wrist and should be neither too stiff nor too
receive, your ear will not recognize any loose. Use a moderately stiff tension at first
mistakes which your hand may make. and gradually lighten it as you become more
proficient. The separation between the con-
Using the Key Figure 4 shows the proper po- tacts must be the proper amount for the
sition of the hand, fingers and desired speed, being somewhat under 1/16
wrist when manipulating a telegraph or inch for slow speeds and slightly closer to-
radio key. The forearm should rest naturally gether (about 1/32 inch) for faster speeds.
on the desk. It is preferable that the key be Avoid extremes in either direction.
placed far enough back from the edge of Do not allow the muscles of arm, wrist or
the table (about 18 inches) that the elbow fingers to become tense. Send with a full,
can rest on the table. Otherwise, pressure of free arm movement. Avoid like the plague
the table edge on the arm will tend to any finger motion other than the slight
hinder the circulation of the blood and cushioning effect mentioned above.
weaken the ulnar nerve at a point where it Stick to the regular handkey for learning

code. No other key is satisfactory for this and stick to them. So long as these characters
purpose. Not until you have thoroughly give you trouble you are not ready for any-
mastered both sending and receiving at the thing else.
maximum speed in which you are interested Follow the same procedure with letters
should you tackle any form of automatic or which you may tend to confuse such as F
semiautomatic key such as the Vibrohlev and L, which are often confused by begin-
( "bug ") or an electronic key. ners. Keep at it until you always get them
right without having to stop even an instant
to think about it.
Difficulties Should you experience difficulty If you do not instantly recognize the
in increasing your code speed sound of any character, you have not
after you have once memorized the charac- learned it; go back and practice your alpha-
ters, there is no reason to become discour- bet further. You should never have to omit
aged. It is more difficult for some people to writing down every signal you hear except
learn code than for others, but there is no when the transmission is too fast for you.
justification for the contention sometimes Write down what you hear, not what you
made that "some people just can't learn the think it should be. It is surprising how often
code." It is not a matter of intelligence; so the word which you guess will be wrong.
don't feel ashamed if you seem to experience
a little more than the usual difficulty in Copying Behind All good operators copy sev-
learning code. Your reaction time may be eral words behind, that is,
a little slower or your coordination not so while one word is being received, they are
good. If this is the case, remember you can writing down or typing, say the fourth or
still learn the code. You may never learn to fifth previous word. At first this is very
send and receive at 40 w.p.m., but you difficult, but after sufficient practice it will
can learn sufficient speed for all noncom- be found actually to be easier than copying
mercial purposes (and even for most com- close up. It also results in more accurate
mercial purposes) if you have patience, and copy and enables the receiving operator to
refuse to be discouraged by the fact that capitalize and punctuate copy as he goes
others seem to pick it up more rapidly. along. It is not recommended that the be-
When the sending operator is sending just ginner attempt to do this until he can send
a bit too fast for you (the best speed for and receive accurately and with ease at a
practice), you will occasionally miss a sig- speed of at least 12 words a minute.
nal or a small group of them. When you do, It requires a considerable amount of train-
leave a blank space; do not spend time fu- ing to disassociate the action of the subcon-
tilely trying to recall it; dismiss it, and scious mind from the direction of the con-
center attention on the next letter; other- scious mind. It may help some in obtaining
wise you'll miss more. Do not ask the sender this training to write down two columns of
any questions until the transmission is fin- short words. Spell the first word in the first
ished. column out loud while writing down the
To prevent guessing and get equal prac- first word in the second column. At first
tice on the less common letters, depart oc- this will be a bit awkward, but you will
casionally from plain language material and rapidly gain facility with practice. Do the
use a jumble of letters in which the usually same with all the words, and then reverse
less commonly used letters predominate. columns.
As mentioned before, many students put Next try speaking aloud the words in the
a greater space after the dash in the letter one column while writing those in the
B, than between other parts of the same other column; then reverse columns.
letter so it sounds like TS. C, F, Q,V, X, Y, After the foregoing can be done easily,
and Z often give similar trouble. Make a list try sending with your key the words in one
of words or arbitrary combinations in which column while spelling those in the other.
these letters predominate and practice them, It won't be easy at first, but it is well worth
both sending and receiving until they no keeping after if you intend to develop any
longer give you trouble. Stop everything else real code proficiency. Do not attempt to

Figure 5


1.5 TO 4.5 VOLTS
PHONES. The b is adjusted to give a
1 TO 4
steady, high -pitched whine. if de-
sired, the phones may be omitted,
in which case the buzzer should be
mounted firmly on a sounding board.
OPERATION IS DESIRED Crystal, magnetic, or dynamic ear-
phones may be used. Additional
sets of phones should be connected
in parallel, not in series.

catch up. There is a natural tendency to words, and five words. The more you prac-
close up the gap, and you must train your- tice keeping received material in mind, the
self to overcome this. easier it will be to stay behind. It will be
Next have your code companion send you found easier at first to copy material with
a word either from a list or from straight which one is fairly familiar, then gradually
text; do not write it down yet. Now have switch to less familiar material.
him send the next word; after receiving this
second word, write down the first word. Automatic Code The two practice sets which
After receiving the third word, write the Machines are described in this chapter
second word; and so on. Never mind how are of most value when you
slowly you must go, even if it is only two have someone with whom to practice. Auto-
or three words per minute. Stay behind. matic code machines are not recommended
It will probably take quite a number of to anyone who can possibly obtain a corn -
practice sessions before you can do this with panion with whom to practice, someone who
any facility. After it is relatively easy, then is also interested in learning the code. If
try staying two words behind; keep this up you are unable to enlist a code partner and
until it is easy. Then try three words, four have to practice by yourself, the best way
to get receiving practice is by the use of
a tape machine (automatic code -sending
machine) with several practice tapes. Or you
can use a set of phonograph code -practice
TONE records. The records are of use only if you
have a phonograph whose turntable speed is
readily adjustable. The tape machine can
be rented by the month for a reasonable fee.
Once you can copy about 10 w.p.m. you
can also get receiving practice by listening
to slow- sending stations on your receiver.
Many amateur stations send slowly par-
ticularly when working far distant stations.
When receiving conditions are particularly
poor many commercial stations also send
9 TO 20 slowly, sometimes repeating every word. Un-
til you can copy around 10 w.p.m. your
receiver isn't much use, and either another
operator or a machine or records is neces-
Figure 6 sary for getting receiving practice after you
Two inexpensive "hobby"-type transistors and have once memorized the code.
a 9 -volt battery, plus a handful of parts make
up a code -practice oscillator. Volume and tone Code Practice If you don't feel too foolish
are controlled by the potentiometers. Low - Sets doing it, you can secure a
impedance earphones may be substituted for
the speaker, if desired. measure of code practice with

100K graph) operators use a "light" style of
sending and can send somewhat faster when
GE-3, 2N2148, using this light touch. But, in radio work
OR 2N2869
static and interference are often present,
GE-10, 2N2923, and a slightly heavier dot is desirable. If
OR 2N339I INTERCOM you use a husky key, you will find yourself
automatically sending in this manner.
To generate a tone simulating a code
signal as heard on a receiver, either a me-
Figure 7
chanical buzzer or an audio oscillator may
CODE -PRACTICE OSCILLATOR SUITABLE be used. Figure f shows a simple code -prac-
FOR SPEAKER OPERATION. tice set using a buzzer which may be used
directly simply by mounting the buzzer on
the help of a partner by sending "dit -dah" a sounding board, or the buzzer may be
messages to each other while riding to work, used to feed from one to four pairs of con-
eating lunch, etc. It is better, however, to ventional high -impedance phones.
use a buzzer or code -practice oscillator in An example of the audio-oscillator type
conjunction with a regular telegraph key. of code -practice set is illustrated in figure 6.
As a good key may be considered an in- Two inexpensive "hobby -type transistors
vestment it is wise to make a well -made key are used and the unit is powered by a 9 -volt
your first purchase. Regardless of what type transistor radio battery. Low -impedance
code- practice set you use, you will need a (500-ohm) earphones may be substituted for
key, and later on you will need one to key the speaker, if desired. The oscillator may be
your transmitter. If you get a good key to built up on a phenolic circuit board.
begin with, you won't have to buy another A code -practice oscillator that will drive
one later. a speaker to good room volume is shown
The key should be rugged and have in figure 7. Inexpensive entertainment -type
fairly heavy contacts. Not only will the transistors are used and any size permanent
key stand up better, but such a key will magnet speaker may be used. Mount the
contribute to the "heavy" type of sending speaker on a large sounding board for best
so desirable for radio work. Morse (tele- volume.

Direct -Current Circuits

All naturally occurring matter (exclud- elliptical orbits at an incredible rate of

ing artifically produced radioactive sub- speed, are called orbital electrons.
stances) is made up of 92 fundamental con- It is on the behavior of these orbital
stituents called elements. These elements can electrons when freed from the atom, that
exist either in the free state such as iron, depends the study of electricity and radio, as
oxygen, carbon, copper, tungsten, and alu- well as allied sciences. Actually it is pos-
minum, or in chemical unions commonly sible to subdivide the nucleus of the atom
called compounds. The smallest unit which into a dozen or so different particles, but
still retains all the original characteristics of this further subdivision can be left to
an element is the atom. quantum mechanics and atomic physics. As
Combinations of atoms, or subdivisions of far as the study of electronics is concerned
compounds, result in another fundamental it is only necessary for the reader to think
unit, the molecule. The molecule is the small- of the normal atom as being composed of a
est unit of any compound. All reactive ele- nucleus having a net positive charge that is
ments when in the gaseous state also exist in exactly neutralized by the one or more
the molecular form, made up of two or orbital electrons surrounding it.
more atoms. The nonreactive gaseous ele- The atoms of different elements differ in
ments helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, respect to the charge on the positive nucleus
and radon are the only gaseous elements and in the number of electrons revolving
that ever exist in a stable monatomic state around this charge. They range all the way
at ordinary temperatures. from hydrogen, having a net charge of one
on the nucleus and one orbital electron, to
uranium with a net charge of 92 on the
2 -1 The Atom nucleus and 92 orbital electrons. The number
of orbital electrons is called the atomic
An atom is an extremely small unit of number of the element.
matter-there are literally billions of them
making up so small a piece of material as a Action of the From the foregoing it must
speck of dust. To understand the basic Electrons not be thought that the elec-
theory of electricity and hence of radio, we trons revolve in a haphazard
must go further and divide the atom into manner around the nucleus. Rather, the
its main components, a positively charged electrons in an element having a large
nucleus and a cloud of negatively charged atomic number are grouped into rings hav-
particles that surround the nucleus. These ing a definite number of electrons. The only
particles, swirling around the nucleus in atoms in which these rings are completely


filled are those of the inert gases mentioned coulomb is taken as a fourth fundamental
before; all other elements have one or more unit.
uncompleted rings of electrons. If the un-
completed ring is nearly empty, the element Fundamental and Electrical measurements
is metallic in character, being most metallic Secondary Units expressed in the MKS
when there is only one electron in the outer System are traceable to
ring. If the incomplete ring lacks only one the National Bureau of Standards in the
or two electrons, the element is usually non- United States. Aside from the meter, kilo-
metallic. Elements with a ring about half gram, and second, the major electrical unit
completed will exhibit both nonmetallic and is the coulomb (Q), a unit of charge (6.28
metallic characteristics; carbon, silicon, X 10" electron charges). The coulomb is
germanium, and arsenic are examples. Such defined as an ampere -second, or that steady
elements are called semiconductors. current flowing through a solution of silver
In metallic elements these outer ring elec- nitrate, which will deposit silver at the rate
trons are rather loosely held. Consequently, of 1.118 X 10-6 kilograms per second.
there is a continuous helter -skelter move-
ment of these electrons and a continual
shifting from one atom to another. The PREFIXES TO ELECTRICAL DIMENSIONS
electrons which move about in a substance
are called free electrons, and it is the ability PREFIX MULTIPLE SYMBOL
of these electrons to drift from atom to Giga- 102 G
atom which makes possible the electric cur- Mega- 102 M
kilo- 10' k
rent. devi- 10-' d
tenti- 10-2 c
Conductors, Semiconductors, If the free elec- milli- 10-0 m
and Insulators trons are num- micro- 10-6 or u
pica- 10-10 p
erous and loosely
held, the element is a good conductor. On the
other hand, if there are few free electrons Secondary, or derived units, are based on
(as is the case when the electrons in an outer the above listed fundamental units. The
ring are tightly held), the element is a poor rate of current flow is the ampere (I), whose
conductor. If there are virtually no free dimensions are in coulombs per second. The
electrons, the element is a good insulator. unit of energy or work is the joule (J)
Materials having few free electrons are whose dimensions are volts X coulombs. The
classed as semiconductors and exhibit con- unit of power is the watt (W) , whose di-
ductivity approximately midway between mensions are joules per second. The electrical
that of good conductors and good insulators. pressure that moves a coulomb of charge
past a measuring point is the volt (E or V),
whose dimensions are joules per coulomb.
2 -2 Fundamental Electrical The unit of opposition to current flow is
Units and Relationships the ohm (R), whose dimensions are volts
per ampere. Two units express charge storage
Basic Electrical Electrical dimensions, in a circuit. The first is the farad (F), a
Dimensions, Units, units, and qualities are unit of capacitance whose dimensions are
and Symbols expressed as letters, com- coulombs per volt. The second is the henry
binations of letters, and (H) , a unit of inductance whose dimensions
other characters that may be used in place are volts per ampere- second. These and other
of the proper names for these characteristics. electrical units are summarized in Table 2.
In addition, various prefixes are added to the Other complex quantities may be built up
symbols to indicate multiples or submulti- from these units.
ples of units (Table 1) .

The international system of fundamental

units which covers mechanics, electricity, Electromotive Force: The free electrons in a
and magnetism is designated the Rational Potential Difference conductor move con-
MKS (meter -kilogram-second) System. The stantly about and




Charge Q or q coulomb 6.28 x 10's electric charges

Voltage E or e Volt potential difference

V or v (joules per coulomb)

Current I or i Ampere electrons in motion

(coulombs per second)

Resistance R or r Ohm electrical resistance

(volts per ampere)

Conductance G or g mho reciprocal of resistance

Energy J Joule quantity of work

(volts x coulombs)

Power W Watt unit of power

(joules per second)

Storage F Farod unit of charge storage

(coulombs per volt)

Storage H Henry unit of inductance

(volts per ampere- second)

change their position in a haphazard man- it should be noted that for there to be a
ner. To produce a drift of electrons, or elec- potential difference between two bodies or
tric current, along a wire it is necessary that points it is not necessary that one have a
there be a difference in "pressure" or poten- positive charge and the other a negative
tial between the two ends of the wire. This charge. If two bodies each have a negative
potential difference can be produced by con- charge, but one more negative than the
necting a source of electrical potential to other, the one with the lesser negative
the ends of the wire. charge will act as though it were positively
As will be explained later, there is an ex- charged with respect to the other body. It
cess of electrons at the negative terminal of is the algebraic potential difference that
a battery and a deficiency of electrons at the determines the force with which electrons
positive terminal, due to chemical action. are attracted or repulsed, the potential of
When the battery is connected to the wire, the earth being taken as the zero reference
the deficient atoms at the positive terminal point.
attract free electrons from the wire in order
for the positive terminal to become neutral. The Electric The flow of electric charges,
The attracting of electrons continues Current either electrons, holes (see
through the wire, and finally the excess elec- Chapter Four) or ions consti-

trons at the negative terminal of the battery tutes an electric current. The flow may be
are attracted by the positively charged atoms induced by the application of an electromo-
at the end of the wire. Other sources of tive force. This flow, or drift, is in addi-
electrical potential (in addition to a bat- tion to the irregular movements of the elec-
tery) are: an electrical generator (dynamo), trons. However, it must not be thought
a thermocouple, an electrostatic generator that each free electron travels from one
(static machine) , a photoelectric cell, and end of the circuit to the other. On the
a crystal or piezoelectric generator. contrary, each free electron travels only a
Thus it is seen that a potential dif- short distance before colliding with an atom;
ference is the result of a difference in the this collision generally knocks off one or
number of electrons between the two (or more electrons from the atom, which in
more) points in question. The force or pres- turn move a short distance and collide with
sure due to a potential difference is termed other atoms, knocking off other electrons.
the electromotive force, usually abbreviated Thus, in the general drift of electrons along
e.m.f. or E.M.F. It is expressed in units a wire carrying an electric current, each
called volts. electron travels only a short distance and

the excess of electrons at one end and the and is one of its physical properties.
deficiency at the other are balanced by the The unit of resistance is the ohm. Every
source of the e.m.f. When this source is substance has a specific resistance, usually
removed the state of normalcy returns; expressed as ohms per mil -foot, which is de-
there is still the rapid interchange of free termined by the material's molecular struc-
electrons between atoms, but there is no ture and temperature. A mil -foot is a piece
general trend or "net movement" in either of material one circular mil in area and one
one direction or the other -inother words, foot long. Another measure of resistivity
no current flows. frequently used is expressed in the units
microhms per centimeter cube. The resist-
Current and Older textbooks speak of cur - ance of a uniform length of a given sub-
Electron Flow rent flow as being from the stance is directly proportional to its length
positive terminal of the e.m.f. and specific resistance, and inversely pro-
source through the conductor to the nega- portional to its cross -sectional area. A wire
tive terminal. Nevertheless, it has long been with a certain resistance for a given length
an established fact that the current flow will have twice as much resistance if the
in a metallic conductor is the electron drift length of the wire is doubled. For a given
from the negative terminal of the source length, doubling the cross -sectional area of
of voltage through the conductor to the the wire will halve the resistance, while
positive terminal. The only exceptions to
the electronic direction of flow occur in TABLE 3. TABLE OF RESISTIVITY
gaseous and electrolytic conductors where Resistivity in
the flow of positive ions toward the cathode, Ohms per Temp. Coeff. of
Circular resistance per C.
or negative electrode, constitutes a positive Material Mil -Foot at 20 C.
flow in the opposite direction to the elec- Aluminum 17 0.0049
tron flow. (An ion is an atom, molecule, or Brass 45 0.003 to 0.007
particle which either lacks one or more Cadmium 46 0.0038
Chromium 16 0.00
electrons, or else has an excess of one or
Copper 10.4 0.0039
more electrons.) Iron 59 0.006
In radio work the terms "electron flow" Silver 9.8 0.004
and "current" are becoming accepted as Zinc 36 0.0035
Nichrome 650 0.0002
being synonymous, but the older terminology Constantin 295 0.00001
is still accepted in the electrical (industrial) Manganin 290 0.00001
field. Because of the confusion this some- Mons! 255 0.0019
times causes, it is often safer to refer to the
direction of electron flow rather than to the doubling the diameter will reduce the re-
direction of the "current." Since electron sistance to one fourth. This is true since
flow consists actually of a passage of nega- the cross -sectional area of a wire varies as
tive charges, current flow and algebraic the square of the diameter. The relationship
electron flow do pass in the same direction. between the resistance and the linear dimen-
sions of a conductor may be expressed by
Resistance The flow of current in a materi- the following equation:
depends on the ease with
al r/
which electrons can be detached from the
atoms of the material and on its molec-
- A
ular structure. In other words, the easier
it is to detach electrons from the atoms the R equals resistance in ohms,
r equals resistivity in ohms per mil-foot,
more free electrons there will be to contrib-
I equals length of conductor in feet,
ute to the flow of current, and the fewer
A equals cross -sectional area in circular
collisions that occur between free electrons
and atoms the greater will be the total
electron flow. For convenience, two larger units the
The opposition to a steady electron flow kilohm (1000 ohms) and the megohm
is called the resistance (R) of a material, (1,000,000 ohms) are often used.

Figure I

Shown above are various types of resistors used in electronic circuits. The larger
units ore power resistors. On the left is a variable power resistor. Three precision-
type resistors are shown in the center with two small composition resistors beneath
them. At the right is a composition -type potentiometer, used for audio circuitry.

The resistance also depends on tempera- condurlicity, or lowest resistance to the flow
ture, rising with an increase in tempera- of an electric current.
ture for most substances (including most
metals), due to increased electron accelera- Secondary These units are the gait, the
tion and hence a greater number of impacts Electrical Unitsampere, and the ohm. They
between electrons and atoms. However, in were mentioned in the pre-
the case of some substances such as carbon ceding paragraphs, but were not completely
and glass the temperature coefficient is nega- defined in terms of fixed, known quantities.
tive and the resistance decreases as the tem.- The fundamental unit of current, or rate
perature increases. of flow of electricity is the ampere. A cur-
Conductors and In the molecular structure rent of one ampere will deposit silver from
Insulators of many materials such as a specified solution of silver nitrate at a
glass, porcelain, and mica all rate of 1.118 milligrams per second.
electrons are tightly held within their orbits The international standard for the ohm is
and there are comparatively few free elec- the resistance offered by a uniform column
trons. This type of substance will conduct of mercury at 0 C., 14.4521 grams in mass,
an electric current only with great difficulty of constant cross -sectional area and 106.300
and is known as an insulator. An insulator centimeters in length. The expression meg-
is said to have a high electrical resistance. ohm (1,000,000 ohms) is also sometimes
On the other hand, materials that have a used when speaking of very large values of
large number of free electrons are known as resistance.
conductors. Most metals (those elements A volt is the e.m.f. that will produce a
which have only one or two electrons in current of one ampere through a resistance
their outer ring) are good conductors. Silver, of one ohm. The standard of electromotive
copper, and aluminum, in that order, are force is the Weston cell which at 20 C.
the best of the common metals used as con- has a potential of 1.0183 volts across its
ductors and are said to have the greatest terminals. This cell is used only for reference

RESISTANCE al - Ra voltage is the unknown quantity, it can be
found by multiplying I X R. These three
equations are all secured from the original
BATTERY by simple transposition. The expressions are
here repeated for quick reference:
I= R
R= E =IR
Figure 2
I is the current in amperes,
At (A) the battery Is in serles with a single
resistor. At (e) the battery is in series with R is the resistance in ohms,
two resistors, the resistors themselves being E is the electromotive force in volts.
in series. The arrows indicate the direction of
electron flow. Taken in a broader sense, Ohm's Law ex-
presses a ratio of voltage to current when
purposes in a bridge circuit, since only an
the circuit resistance is known. This con-
infinitesimal amount of current may be
cept is important in transmission -line studies
drawn from it without disturbing its char- and antenna work.
Conductance Instead of speaking of the
Ohm's Law The relationship between the resistance of a circuit, the
electromotive force (voltage), conductance may be referred to as a measure
the flow of current (amperes) , and the re- of the ease of current flow. Conductance is
sistance which impedes the flow of current the reciprocal of resistance and is measured
(ohms), is very clearly expressed in a simple in mhos (ohms spelled backwards) and is
but highly valuable law known as Ohm's designated by the letter G.
Law. This law states that the current in am- The relation between resistance and con
peres is equal to the voltage in volts divided ductance is:
by the resistance in ohms. Expressed as an
equation: G= R,R =Gor 1 = EG

I In electronics work, a small unit of .In-

ductance, which is equal to one -millionth
of a mho, frequently is used. It is called
a micromho.
Figure 3
SIMPLE PARALLEL Application of All electrical circuits fall into
CIRCUIT Ohm's Law one of three classes: series
circuits, parallel circuits, and
series- parallel circuits. A series circuit is
The two resistors R and R are said to be in one in which the current flows in a single
parallel since the flow of current is offered
two parallel paths. An electron leaving point continuous path and is of the same value at
A will pass either through R, or Re but not every point in the circuit (figure 2). In a
through both, to reach the positive terminal
of the battery. If a large number of electrons parallel circuit there are two or more cur-
are considered, the greater number will pass rent paths between two points in the circuit,
through whichever of the two resistors has as shown in figure 3. Here the current di-
the lower resistance.
vides at A, part going through R, and part
through R,, and combines at B to return
If the voltage (E) and resistance (R)
are known, the current (I) can be readily
to the battery. Figure 4 shows a series -
parallel circuit. There are two paths between
found. If the voltage and current are
points A and B as in the parallel circuit, and
known, and the resistance is unknown, the
in addition there are two resistances in series
E in each branch of the parallel combination.
resistance (R) is equal to .When the Two other examples of series -parallel ar-

Of course, if the resistances happened to be

Figure 4 all the same value, the total resistance would
be the resistance of one multiplied by the

CIRCUIT number of resistors in the circuit.

Resistances Consider two resistors, one of
in Parallel 100 ohms and one of 10 ohms,
In this type of circuit the resistors are ar- connected in parallel as in fig-
ranged in series groups, and these groups are ure 3, with a potential of 10 volts applied
then placed in parallel.
across each resistor, so the current through
rangements appear in figure S. The way in each can be easily calculated.
which the current splits to flow through E
the parallel branches is shown by the arrows. 1 =
In every circuit, each of the parts has
E = 10 volts _ 10
some resistance: the batteries or generator,
R, = 100 ohms 1,
= 0.1 ampere
the connecting conductors, and the appa-
ratus itself. Thus, if each part has some re- E = 10 volts 10
sistance, no matter how little, and a current
R_ = 10 ohms
1_ = 10
= 1.0 ampere
is flowing through it, there will be a volt-
age drop across it. In other words, there will Total current = I, + 12 = 1.1 ampere
be a potential difference between the two
ends of the circuit element in question. This Until it divides at A, the entire current
drop in voltage is equal to the product of of 1.1 amperes is flowing through the con-
the current and the resistance hence it is ductor from the battery to A, and again
called the IR drop. from B through the conductor to the bat-
tery. Since this is more current than flows
Internal The source of voltage has an in- through the smaller resistor it is evident
Resistance ternal resistance, and when con- that the resistance of the parallel combina-
nected into a circuit so that tion must be less than 10 ohms, the re-
current flows, there will be an IR drop sistance of the smaller resistor. We can find
in the source just as in every other part this value by applying Ohm's Law.
of the circuit. Thus, if the terminal voltage
of the source could be measured in a way E
that would cause no current to flow, it
would be found to be more than the voltage E = 10 volts 10
measured when a current flows by the 9.09 ohms
amount of the IR drop in the source. The 1 = 1.1 amperes RT= 1.1 =
voltage measured with no current flowing The resistance of the parallel combination
is termed the no load voltage; that measured 9.09 ohms.
with current flowing is the load voltage.
It is apparent that a voltage source having A

a low internal resistance is most desirable.

Resistances The current flowing in a series

in Series circuit is equal to the voltage
impressed divided by the total
resistance across which the voltage is im-
pressed. Since the same current flows through
every part of the circuit, it is merely nec-
essary to add all the individual resistances
to obtain the total resistance. Expressed as
a formula: Figure 5
RToi=R,+R2+R:,+... CIRCUITS

Mathematically, we can derive a simple From the above, it also follows that when
formula for finding the effective resistance two or more resistors of the same value are
of two resistors connected in parallel. placed in parallel, the effective resistance of
the paralleled resistors is equal to the value
R, X R2 of one of the resistors divided by the num-
R, R, ber of resistors in parallel.
The effective value of resistance of two
or more resistors connected in parallel is
RT is the unknown resistance,
always less than the value of the lowest re-
R, is the resistance of the first resistor,
sistance in the combination. It is well to
R2 is the resistance of the second resistor.
bear this simple rule in mind, as it will assist
If the effective value required is known, greatly in approximating the value of paral-
and it is desired to connect one unknown leled resistors.
resistor in parallel with one of known value, Resistors in To find the total resistance of
the following transposition of the above Series-Parallel several resistors connected in
formula will simplify the problem of ob- series- parallel, it is usually
taining the unknown value: easiest to apply either the formula for series

R, - R, RT resistors or the parallel resistor formula first,

in order to reduce the original arrangement
to a simpler one. For instance, in figure 4
where, the series resistors should be added in each
RT is the effective value required, branch, then there will be but two resistors
R, is the known resistor, in parallel to be calculated. Similarly in
R, is the value of the unknown resistance figure 6, although here there will be three
necessary to give RT when in parallel parallel resistors after adding the series re-
with R,. sistors in each branch. In figure 6B the par-
alleled resistors should be reduced to the
The resultant value of placing a number equivalent series value, and then the series
of unlike resistors in parallel is equal to the resistance value can be added.
reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of Resistances in series -parallel can be solved
the various resistors. This can be expressed by combining the series and parallel formu-
as: las into one similar to the following (refer
to figure 6) :

R, Rp
+ . . .
RT = 1 1

Ri R, R,+R, R; +R+R'
effective value of placing any num-
ber of unlike resistors in parallel can be Voltage Dividers A voltage divider is exactly
determined from the above formula. How- what its name implies: a
ever, it is commonly used only when there resistor or of resistors connected
a series
are three or more resistors under considera- across a source of voltage from which
tion, since the simplified formula given various lesser values of voltage may be ob-
before is more convenient when only two tained by connection to various points along
resistors are being used. the resistor.
A voltage divider serves a most useful
R R5
purpose in a radio receiver, transmitter or
Re amplifier, because it offers a simple means of
R2 R Ri obtaining plate, screen, and bias voltages of
different values from a common power sup-
Figure 6 ply source. It may also be used to obtain
very low voltages of the order of .01 to .001
ANOTHER TYPE OF volt with a high degree of accuracy, even
SERIES- PARALLEL CIRCUIT though a means of measuring such voltages

is lacking. The procedure for making these simple matter. The first consideration is the
measurements can best be given in the fol- amount of "bleeder current" to be drawn.
lowing example. In addition, it is also necessary that the de-
Assume that an accurately calibrated volt- sired voltage and the exact current at each
meter reading from 0 to 150 volts is avail- tap on the voltage divider be known.
able, and that the source of voltage is
Figure 7 illustrates the flow of current
in a simple voltage- divider and load circuit.
exactly 100 volts. This 100 volts is then
The light arrows indicate the flow of bleeder
impressed through a resistance of exactly
1000 ohms. It will then be found that the
current, while the heavy arrows indicate the
flow of the load current. The design of a
voltage along various points on the resistor,
with respect to the grounded end, is exactly combined bleeder resistor and voltage divid-
er, such as is commonly used in radio equip-
proportional to the resistance at that point.
From Ohm's Law, the current would be 0.1 ment, is illustrated in the following example:
A power supply delivers 300 volts and
ampere; this current remains unchanged
is conservatively rated to supply all needed
since the original value of resistance (1000
ohms) and the voltage source (100 volts) current for the receiver and still allow a
are unchanged. Thus, at a 500 -ohm point
bleeder current of 10 milliamperes. The fol-
on the resistor (half its entire resistance),
lowing voltages are wanted: 75 volts at 2
the voltage will likewise be halved or re- milliamperes for the detector tube, 100
volts at 5 milliamperes for the screens of
duced to 50 volts.
The equation (E = I X R) gives the the tubes, and 250 volts at 20 milliamperes
proof: E = 500 X 0.1 = 50. At the point for the plates of the tubes. The required
of 250 ohms on the resistor, the voltage voltage drop across R, is 75 volts, across
R_ 25 volts, across R3 150 volts, and across
will be one -fourth the total value, or 25
volts (E = 250 X 0.1 = 25). Continuing R, it is 50 volts. These values are shown in
with this process, a point can be found the diagram of figure 8. The respective cur-
where the resistance measures exactly 1 ohm rent values are also indicated. Apply Ohm's
and where the voltage equals 0.1 volt. It Law:
is, therefore, obvious that if the original E 75
source of voltage and the resistance can be
R, = T-= .01
= 7500 ohms
measured, it is a simple matter to predeter-
E 25
mine the voltage at any point along the
resistor, provided that the current remains
R2 = I - .012
= 2083 ohms

constant, and provided that no current is E 150

taken from the tap -on point unless this R, = I .017
= 8823 ohms
current is taken into consideration.
Voltage- Divider Proper design of a voltage lo.z +s +zoM
Calculations divider for any type of radio
equipment is a relatively Ji
r 300 VOLTS
10+2 +5 MA.
10+2 MA.


Figure 7


Tho arrows indicate the manner In which the
Row divides between the voltage The method for computing the values of the
divider itself and the external load circuit. resistors is discussed in the accompanying text.

R., = = 7 = 1351 ohms

RTotaI = 7500 + 2083 + 8823 + R2
1351 = 19,757 ohms AMP:.

A 20,000 -ohm resistor with three sliding I1I1I

taps will be the approximately correct 2n VOLTS

size, and would ordinarily be used because Figure 9

of the difficulty in securing four separate
resistors of the exact odd values indicated, ILLUSTRATING KIRCHHOFF'S
and because no adjustment would be possible FIRST LAW
to compensate for any slight error in esti- rho t flowing toward point "A" Is equal
mating the probable currents through the to the current flowing away from point "A."
various taps.
When the sliders on the resistor once are Stated in another way: if currents flowing to
set to the proper point, as in the above ex- the point are considered positive, and those
ample, the voltages will remain constant at flowing from the point are considered nega-
the values shown as long as the current
remains a constant value.
tive, the sum of all currents flowing toward

and away from the point
into account
taking signs
is equal to zero. Such a sum
Disadvantages of One of the serious disad- is known as an algebraic sum; such that the
Voltage Dividers vantages of the voltage law can be stated thus: The algebraic sum
divider becomes evident of all currents entering and leaving a point
when the current drawn from one of the is zero.
taps changes. It is obvious that the voltage Figure 9 illustrates this first law. If
drops are interdependent and, in turn, the the effective resistance of the network of
individual drops are in proportion to the
resistors is 5 ohms, it can be seen that 4
current which flows through the respective amperes flow toward point A, and 2 amperes
sections of the divider resistor. The only flow away through the two 5 -ohm resistors
remedy lies in providing a heavy steady in series. The remaining 2 amperes flow
bleeder current in order to make the indi- away through the 10 -ohm resistor. Thus,
vidual currents so small a part of the total
there are 4 amperes flowing to point A
current that any change in current will and 4 amperes flowing away from the
result in only a slight change in voltage. point. If RT is the effective resistance of
This can seldom be realized in practice be- the network (5 ohms), R, = 10 ohms, R_
cause of the excessive values of bleeder cur-
rent which would be required.
= 5 ohms, R3 = 5 ohms, and E = 20 volts,
we can set up the following equation:
Kirchhoff's Laws Ohm's Law is all that is E E E
necessary to calculate the
RT R, R2+R:,
values in simple circuits, such as the pre-
ceding examples; but in more complex prob- 20 20 20
lems, involving several loops, or more than 5 10 5 + 5
one voltage in the same closed circuit, the
use of Kirchhoff's laws will greatly simplify 4 -2 -2 =0
the calculations. These laws are merely rules Kirchhoff's second law is concerned with
for applying Ohm's Law. net voltage drop around a closed loop in a
Kirchhoff's first law is concerned with net circuit and states that:
current to a point in a circuit and states
that: In any closed path or loop in a circuit
the sum of the IR drops must equal
At any point in a circuit the current the sum of the applied e.m.f.'s.
flowing toward the point is equal to
the current flowing away from the The second law also may be conveniently
point. stated in terms of an algebraic sum as: The

algebraic sum of all voltage drops around a which was drawn originally. This is illus-
closed path or loop in a circuit is zero. The trated in the example of figure 10, where
applied e.m.f.'s (voltages) are considered the direction of flow of I, is opposite to the
positive, while IR drops taken in the direc- direction assumed in the sketch.
tion of current flow (including the internal
drop of the sources of voltage) are consid- Power in In order to cause electrons
ered negative. Resistive Circuits to flow through a conduc-
Figure 10 shows an example of the appli- tor, constituting a current
cation of Kirchhoff's laws to a comparative- flow, it necessary to apply an electromotive
ly simple circuit consisting of three resistors force (voltage) across the circuit. Less pow-
and two batteries. First assume an arbitrary er is expended in creating a small current
direction of current flow in each closed loop flow through a given resistance than in
of the circuit, drawing an arrow to indicate creating a large one; so it is necessary to
the assumed direction of current flow. Then have a unit of power as a reference.
equate the sum of all IR drops plus battery The unit of electrical power is the watt,
drops around each loop to zero. You will which is the rate of energy consumption
need one equation for each unknown to be when an e.m.f. of 1 volt forces a current
determined. Then solve the equations for the of 1 ampere through a circuit. The power
unknown currents in the general manner in a resistive circuit is equal to the product
indicated in figure 10. If the answer comes of the voltage applied across, and the cur-
out positive the direction of current flow rent flowing in, a given circuit. Hence: P
you originally assumed was correct. If the (watts) =
E (volts) X I (amperes).

answer comes out negative, the current flow Since it is often convenient to express
is in the opposite direction to the arrow power in terms of the resistance of the cir-
cuit and the current flowing through it,
a substitution of IR for E (E = IR) in the
above formula gives: P = IR X I or P =
f2OH12 12R. In terms of voltage and resistance, P
t3:HM5 = F_2 /R. Here, I = E/R and when this is
11 T. 3 VOLTS
Y.12 /T- _" 3 VOLTS
substituted for I the original formula be-
comes P = E X E /R, or P = E2 /R. To
repeat these three expressions:
2(OHMS1 +2(11- 12)+3= G (FIRST Loop)
-6 +2 (12 -It) +312=0 (sfcoNo Loop) P is the power in watts,
E is the electromotive force in volts, and
211+211-212+3.0 212-2I1+312-6=0
411+3 512-21t-6.0 I is the current in amperes.
2 211+6
- 12
To apply the above equations to a typical
41t +3
problem: The voltage drop across a cathode
2 - 5 resistor in a power amplifier stage is 50
volts; the plate current flowing through the
201, +15 = 411 +12
resistor is 150 milliamperes. The number of
11 =-Ip AMPERE watts the resistor will be required to dissi-
pate is found from the formula: P = EI, or
+3 2* 1
SO X .150 = 7.5 watts (.150 ampere is
12= 2 - - 1-6- AMPERE
equal to 150 milliamperes). From the fore-
Figure 10
going it is seen that a 7.5 -watt resistor will
safely carry the required current, yet a 10-
ILLUSTRATING KIRCHHOFF'S or 20 -watt resistor would ordinarily be used
SECOND LAW to provide a safety factor.
In another problem, the conditions being
The voltage drop around any closed loop in a
network is equal to zero. similar to those above, but with the resist-

ance (R = 333% ohms), and current being

the known factors, the solution is obtained
as follows: P = PR =
.0225 X 333.33 =
7.5. If only the voltage and resistance are
known, P = E2 /R = 2500/333.33 = 7.5
watts. It is seen that all three equations give
the same results; the selection of the particu-
lar equation depends only on the known

Power, Energy
and Work
It is important to remember
that power (expressed in
watts, horsepower, etc.), rep-
resents the rate of energy consumption or
the rate of doing work. But when we pay

Figure 12
Figure 11 The two large units are high value Alter ca-
pacitors. Shown beneath these are various
MATCHING OF types of bypass capacitors for r -f and audio
RESISTANCES application.

To deliver the greatest amount of power to

the load, the load resistance R,. should be 2 -3 Electrostatics and
equal to the internal resistance of the
battery Re Capacitors
our electric bill to the power company we Electrical energy can be stored in an elec-
have purchased a specific amount of energy trostatic field. A device capable of storing
or work expressed in the common units of energy in such a field is called a capacitor
kilowatt -hours. Thus rate of energy con- (in earlier usage the term condenser was
sumption (watts or kilowatts) multiplied frequently used but the IEEE standards call
by time (seconds, minutes, or hours) gives for the use of capacitor instead of conden-
us total energy or work. Other units of ser) and is said to have a certain capacitance.
energy are the watt- second, BTU, calorie, The energy stored in an electrostatic field
erg, and joule. is expressed in joules (watt- seconds) and is
equal to CE2 /2, where C is the capacitance
Heating Effect Heat is generated when a in farads (a unit of capacitance to be dis-
source of voltage causes a cussed) and E is the potential in volts. The
current to flow through a resistor (or, for charge is equal to CE, the charge being ex-
that matter, through any conductor) . As pressed in coulombs.
explained earlier, this is due to the fact
that heat is given off when free electrons Capacitance and Two metallic plates sep-
collide with the atoms of the material. More Capacitors arated from each other by
heat is generated in high -resistance materials a thin layer of insulating
than in those of low resistance, since the material (called a dielectric, in this case)
free electrons must strike the atoms harder becomes a capacitor. When a source of d -c
to knock off other electrons. As the heating potential is momentarily applied across these
effect is a function of the current flowing plates, they may be said to become charged.
and the resistance of the circuit, the power If the same two plates are then joined to-
expended in heat is given by the second gether momentarily by means of a switch,
formula: P = PR. the capacitor will discharge.


Figure 13
At top left are three variable air capacitors intended for hf /vhf use. At the right is a small variable
vacuum capacitor intended for high -voltage service. Across the bottom are (left to right): two sub-
miniature variable split -stator capacitors, a precision "plunger" capacitor, a compression mica capaci-
tor, and a variable ceramic trimming capacitor.

When the potential was first applied, which separates the two capacitor plates,
electrons immediately flowed from one plate due to the mutual attraction of two unlike
to the other through the battery or such potentials on the plates. This stress is known
source of d -c potential as was applied to known as electrostatic energy, as contrasted
the capacitor plates. However, the circuit with electromagnetic energy in the case of
from plate to plate in the capacitor was an inductor. This charge can also be called
incomplete (the two plates being separated potential energy because it is capable of per-
by an insulator) and thus the electron flow forming work when the charge is released
ceased, meanwhile establishing a shortage of through an external circuit. The charge is
electrons on one plate and a surplus of elec- proportional to the voltage but the energy
trons on the other. is proportional to the voltage squared, as
Remember that when a deficiency of elec- shown in the following analogy.
trons exists at one end of a conductor, there The charge represents a definite amount of
is always a tendency for the electrons to electricity, or a given number of electrons.
move about in such a manner as to re- estab- The potential energy possessed by these elec-
lish a state of balance. In the case of the trons depends not only on their number, but
capacitor herein discussed, the surplus quan- also on their potential or voltage.
tity of electrons on one of the capacitor Compare the electrons to water, and two
plates cannot move to the other plate be- capacitors to standpipes, a 1 -fd capacitor to
cause the circuit has been broken; that is, a standpipe having a cross section of 1
the battery or d -c potential was removed. square inch and a 2 -pfd capacitor to a
This leaves the capacitor in a charged con- standpipe having a cross section of 2 square
dition; the capacitor plate with the electron inches. The charge will represent a given
deficiency is positively charged, the other volume of water, as the "charge" simply
plate being negative. indicates a certain number of electrons. Sup-
In this condition, a considerable stress pose the quantity of water is equal to f
exists in the insulating material (dielectric) gallons.

AFIELD 500 volts, though the charge (expressed in
coulombs: Q =CE) is the same in either
S case.

The Unit of Capes- If the external circuit of

itance: The Farad the two capacitor plates
is completed by joining
the terminals together with a piece of wire,
CHARGING CURRENT the electrons will rush immediately from
one plate to the other through the external
Figura 14
circuit and establish a state of equilibrium.
SIMPLE CAPACITOR This latter phenomenon explains the dis-
charge of a capacitor. The amount of stored
Illustrating the imaginary lines of force repre-
senting the paths along which the repelling energy in a charged capacitor is dependent
force of the electrons would act on a free on the charging potential, as well as a factor
electron located between the two capacitor which takes into account the size of the
plates, dielectric thickness, nature of the di-
Now the potential energy, or capacity for electric, and the number of plates. This
doing work, of the 5 gallons of water will be factor, which is determined by the fore-
twice as great when confined to the 1 sq. in. going, is called the capacitance of a capaci-
standpipe as when confined to the 2 sq. in. tor and is expressed in farads.
standpipe. Yet the volume of water or The farad is such a large unit of capaci-
"charge" is the same in either case. tance that it is rarely used in radio calcula-
Likewise a 1- afd capacitor charged to tions, and the following more practical units
1000 volts possesses twice as much potential have, therefore, been chosen.
energy as does a 2-tfd capacitor charged to 1 microfarad = 1 /1,000,000 farad, or

.000001 farad, or 10' farad.

TABLE 4.TABLE OF DIELECTRIC MATERIALS 1 niicromicro f arad or picofarad =
Dielectric Power Softening 111,000,000 niicrofarad, or .000001
Material Constant
10 MHz
Factor Point
10 MHz Fahrenheit
niicrofarad, or 10 -I` niicrofarad.
Resin 3.4 0.004 260
1 micromicrofarad or picofarad = one -
Barium Titianate 1200 1.0 - millionth of one -millionth of a farad, or
Castor Oil 4.67 10 -12 farad.
Cellulose Acetate 3.7 0.04 180
Glass, Window 6-8 Poor 2000 If the capacitance is to be expressed in
Glass, Pyrex 4.5 0.02 niicrofarads in the equation given for ener-
Kel -F Fluorothene 2.5 0.6 - gy storage, the factor C would then have to
Methy l-Methacry I ate -
Lucite 2.6 0.007 160 be divided by 1,000,000, thus:
Mica 5.4 0.0003
Mycalex Mykroy 7.0 0.002 650 CXE2
Phenol-Formaldehyde, Stored energy in joules = 2 X 1,000,000
Low -Loss Yellow 5.0 0.015 270
Phenol -Formaldehyde
Black Bakelite 5.5 0.03 350 This storage of energy in a capacitor is
Porcelain 7.0 0.005 2800 one of its very important properties, par-
Polyethylene 2.25 0.0003 220
ticularly in those capacitors which are used
Polystyrene 2.55 0.0002 175
Quartz, Fused 4.2 0.0002 2600 in power -supply filter circuits.
Rubber Hard -Ebonite 2.8 0.007 150
Steatite 6.1 0.003 2700 Dielectric Although any substance which has
Sulfur 3.8 0.003 236 Materials the characteristics of a good in-
Teflon 2.1 .0006 - sulator may be used as a dielectric
Titanium Dioxide 100 -175 0.0006 2700
Transformer Oil 2.2 0.003 material, commercially manufactured ca-
Urea -Formaldehyde 5.0 0.05 260 pacitors make use of dielectric materials
Vinyl Resins 4.0 0.02 200 which have been selected because their char-
Wood, Maple 4.4 Poor
acteristics are particularly suited to the job

at hand. Air is a very good dielectric ma- fired at a relatively low temperature. It is
terial, but an air -spaced capacitor does not hard and brittle, but can be drilled or ma-
have a high capacitance since the dielectric chined when water is used as the cutting
constant of air is only slightly greater than lubricant.
one. A group of other commonly used di- Mica dielectric capacitors have a very low
electric materials is listed in Table 4. power factor and extremely high voltage
Certain materials, such as bakelite, lucite, breakdown per unit of thickness. A mica
and other plastics dissipate considerable and copperfoil "sandwich" is formed under
energy when used as capacitor dielectrics. pressure to obtain the desired capacity value.
This energy loss is expressed in terms of the The effect of temperature on the pressures
power factor of the capacitor, which repre- in the "sandwich" causes the capacitance of
sents the portion of the input volt -amperes the usual mica capacitor to have large, non -
lost in the dielectric material. Other ma- cyclic variations. If the copper electrodes
terials including air, polystyrene and quartz are plated directly on the mica sheets, the
have a very low power factor. temperature coefficient can be stabilized at
The new ceramic dielectrics such as stea- about 20 parts per million per degree Centi-
tite (talc) and titanium dioxide products grade. A process of this type is used in the
are especially suited for high- frequency and manufacture of "silver mica" capacitors.
high- temperature operation. Ceramics based Paper dielectric capacitors consist of strips
on titanium dioxide have an unusually high of aluminum foil insulated from each other
dielectric constant combined with a low by a thin layer of paper, the whole assembly
power factor. The temperature coefficient being wrapped in a circular bundle. The
with respect to capacitance of units made cost of such a capacitor is low, the capaci-
with this material depends on the mixture tance is high in proportion to the size and
of oxides, and coefficients ranging from weight, and the power factor is good. The
zero to over -700 parts per million per life of such a capacitor is dependent on the
degree Centigrade may be obtained in com- moisture penetration of the paper dielectric,
mercial production. and on the level of the applied d -c voltage.
Mycalex is a composition of minute mica Air -dielectric capacitors are used in trans-
particles and lead- borate glass, mixed and mitting and receiving circuits, principally
where a variable capacitor of high resetabil-
CIRCULAR PLATE CAPACITORS ity is required. The dielectric strength is
CAPACITANCE fOR A GIVEN SPACING high, though somewhat less at radio fre-

quencies than at 60 Hz. In addition,

1111111 corona discharge at high frequencies will
Ca C
111MM 1


1 2 3 5 6 7 6 9 10 11 12 tS la Ct I_ Ca 4C.


Through the use of this chart it is possible to

'"T-C2 TC6
determine the required plate diameter (with CAPACITORS IN SERIES - PARALLEL
the necessary spacing established by peak
voltage considerations) for a circular -plate Figure 15
neutralizing capacitor. The capacitance given
is for a dielectric of air and the spacing given CAPACITORS IN SERIES, PARALLEL,
is between adjacent faces of the two plates.

cause ionization of the air dielectric causing tance is directly proportional to the area of
an increase in power loss. Dielectric strength the plates and inversely proportional to the
may be increased by increasing the air pres- thickness of the dielectric (spacing between
sure, as is done in hermetically sealed radar the plates). This simply means that when
units. In some units, dry nitrogen gas may the area of the plate is doubled, the spacing
be used in place of air to provide a higher between plates remaining constant, the ca-
dielectric strength than that of air. pacitance will be doubled. Also, if the area
Likewise, the dielectric strength of an of the plates remains constant, and the
"air" capacitor may be increased by placing plate spacing is doubled the capacitance will
the unit in a vacuum chamber to prevent be reduced to half.
ionization of the dielectric. The above equation also shows that ca-
The temperature coefficient of a variable pacitance is directly proportional to the di-
air -dielectric capacitor varies widely and is electric constant of the spacing material.
often noncyclic. Such things as differential An air -spaced capacitor that has a capaci-
expansion of various parts of the capacitor, tance of 100 pf in air would have a ca-
changes in internal stresses, and different pacitance of 467 pf when immersed in castor
temperature coefficients of various parts con- oil, because the dielectric constant of castor
tribute to these variances. oil is 4.67 times as great as the dielectric
constant of air.
Dielectric The capacitance of a capacitor is Where the area of the plate is definitely
Constant determined by the thickness and set, when it is desired to know the spacing
nature of the dielectric material needed to secure a required capacitance,
between plates. Certain materials offer a
greater capacitance than others, depending
A X 0.2248 X K
on their physical makeup and chemical con- t=
stitution. This property is expressed by a C
constant K, called the dielectric constant.
(K = 1 for air.) where all units are expressed just as in the
preceding formula. This formula is not con-
Dielectric If the charge becomes too great fined to capacitors having only square or
Breakdown for a given thickness of a cer- rectangular plates, but also applies when the
tain dielectric, the capacitor will plates are circular in shape. The only change
break down, i.e., the dielectric will puncture. will be the calculation of the area of such
It is for this reason that capacitors are circular plates; this area can be computed
rated in the manner of the amount of by squaring the radius of the plate, then
voltage they will safely withstand as well multiplying by 3.1416, or "pi." Expressed
as the capacitance in microfarads. This rat- as an equation:
ing is commonly expressed as the d -c work-
ing voltage (DCWV). A = 3.1416 X r-
Calculation ofThe capacitance of two par - where,
Capacitance allel plates may be determined r equals radius in inches.
with good accuracy by the The capacitance of a multiplate capacitor
following formula: can be calculated by taking the capacitance
A of one section and multiplying this by the
C = 0.2248 X K X
number of dielectric spaces. In such cases,
however, the formula gives no consideration
where, to the effects of edge capacitance; so the
C equals capacitance in picofarads, capacitance as calculated will not be en-
K equals dielectric constant of spacing tirely accurate. These additional capacitances
material, will be but a small part of the effective total
A equals area of dielectric in square inches, capacitance, particularly when the plates
t equals thickness of dielectric in inches. are reasonably large and thin, and the final
result will, therefore, be within practical
This formula indicates that the capaci- limits of accuracy.

Capacitors in Equations for calculating ca- Strictly speaking, a very small current
Parallel and pacitances of capacitors in par - may actually flow because the dielectric of
in Series allel connections are the same the capacitor may not be a perfect insulator.
as those for resistors in series. This minute current flow is the leakage cur-
rent previously referred to and is dependent
C. =C1 +C2 +... +C on the internal d -c resistance of the capaci-
tor. This leakage current is usually quite
Capacitors in series connection are cal- noticeable in most types of electrolytic ca-
culated in the same manner as are resistors pacitors.
in parallel connection.
When an alternating current is applied to
The formulas are repeated: (1) For two and
a capacitor, the capacitor will charge
or more capacitors of unequal capacitance of times per
discharge a certain number
in series: in accordance with the frequency of
1 the alternating voltage. The electron flow
CT = 1 1 1 in the charge and discharge of a capacitor
C2 C3
when an a -c potential is applied constitutes
an alternating current, in effect. It is for

1 1+ 1+ 1 this reason that a capacitor will pass an

Cr C1 C_ C3 alternating current yet offer practically in-
finite opposition to a direct current. These
(2) Turo capacitors of unequal capacitance two properties are repeatedly in evidence in
in series: a radio circuit.
Voltage Rating Any good paper -dielectric
CT C1 + C, of Capacitors filter capacitor has such a
(3) Three capacitors of equal capacitance in Series high internal resistance (in-
in series: dicating a good dielectric)
that the exact resistance will vary consider-
31 ably from capacitor to capacitor even though
they are made by the same manufacturer
and are of the same rating. Thus, when
1000 volts d. c. are connected across two 1-
C1 is the common capacitance. !Aid 500 -volt capacitors in series, the
chances are that the voltage will divide un-
(4) Three or more capacitors of equal ca- evenly; one capacitor will receive more than
pacitance in series. 500 volts and the other less than 500 volts.
Value of common capacitance
CT Number of capacitors in series Voltage Equalising By connecting a half -
Resistors megohm 1 .watt carbon
(5) Six capacitors in series -parallel: resistor across each ca-
pacitor, the voltage will be equalized be-
CT= + + cause the resistors act as a voltage divider,
1 1 1 1+ 1

C1 C- C3 C, C. C6

Capacitors in A -C capacitor is con -

When a EQUAL
and D -C Circuits netted into a direct -cur-
rent circuit, it will block
the d.c., or stop the flow of current. Beyond
the initial movement of electrons during the Figure 16
period when the capacitor is being charged,
there will be no flow of current because the SHOWING THE USE OF VOLTAGE EQUAL-
circuit is effectively broken by the dielectric IZING RESISTORS ACROSS CAPACITORS
of the capacitor.

and the internal resistances of the capacitors trolytic capacitors are connected in series,
are so much higher (many megohms) that the positive terminal is always connected
they have but little effect in disturbing the to the positive lead of the power supply;
voltage divider balance. the negative terminal of the capacitor con-
Carbon resistors of the inexpensive type nects to the positive terminal of the next
are not particularly accurate (not being de- capacitor in the series combination. The
signed for precision service) ; therefore it is method of connection for electrolytic ca-
advisable to check several on an accurate pacitors in series is shown in figure 16. Elec-
ohmmeter to find two that are as close as trolytic capacitors have very low cost per
possible in resistance. The exact resistance microfarad of capacitance, but also have a
is unimportant, just so it is the same for large power factor and high leakage; both
the two resistors used. dependent on applied voltage, temperature,
and the age of the capacitor. The modern
Capacitors in When two capacitors are con- electrolytic capacitor uses a dry paste elec-
Series on A.C. nected in series, alternating trolyte embedded in a gauze or paper dielec-
voltage pays no heed to the tric. Aluminum foil and the dielectric are
relatively high internal resistance of each wrapped in a circular bundle and are
capacitor, but divides across the capacitors mounted in a cardboard or metal box.
in inverse proportion to the capacitance. Be- Etched electrodes may be employed to in-
cause, in addition to the d -c voltage across crease the effective anode area, and the total
a capacitor in a filter or audio amplifier cir-
capacitance of the unit.
cuit there is usually an a -c or a -f voltage The capacitance of an electrolytic ca-
component, it is inadvisable to series -connect pacitor is affected by the applied voltage,
capacitors of unequal capacitance even if the usage of the capacitor, the temperature
dividers are provided to keep the d -c volt- and the humidity of the environment. The
ages within the ratings of the individual capacitance usually drops with the aging
capacitors. of the unit. The leakage current and power
For instance, if a 500 -volt 1 -fd capaci- factor increase with age. At high frequen-
tor is used in series with a 4 -fd 500 - cies the power factor becomes so poor that
volt capacitor across a 250 -volt a -c supply,
the electrolytic capacitor acts as a series
the 1 -fd capacitor will have 200 a -c volts resistance rather than as a capacitance.
across it and the 4 -pfd capacitor only 50
volts. An equalizing divider, to do any good
in this case, would have to be of very low 2 -4 Magnetism
resistance because of the comparatively low and Electromagnetism
impedance of the capacitors to alternating
current. Such a divider would draw ex- The common bar or horseshoe magnet is
cessive current and be impracticable. familiar to most people. The magnetic field
The safest rule to follow is to use only which surrounds it causes the magnet to at-
capacitors of the same capacitance and volt- tract other magnetic materials, such as iron
age rating and to install matched high - nails or tacks. Exactly the same kind of
resistance proportioning resistors across the magnetic field is set up around any conduc-
various capacitors to equalize the d -c volt- tor carrying a current, but the field exists
age drop across each capacitor. This holds only while the current is flowing.
regardless of how many capacitors are series -
Magnetic Fields Before a potential, or volt-
age, is applied to a conduc-
ElectrolyticElectrolytic capacitors use a very tor there no external field, because there
Capacitors thin film of oxide as the dielec- is no general movement of the electrons in
tric, and are polarized; that is, one direction. However, the electrons do
they have a positive and a negative terminal progressively move along the conductor
which must be properly connected in a cir- when an e.m.f. is applied, the direction of
cuit; otherwise, the oxide will break down motion depending on the polarity of the
and the capacitor will overheat. The unit e.m.f. Since each electron has an electric
then will no longer be of service. When elec- field about it, the flow of electrons causes

these fields to build up into a resultant of the adjacent turns to form a total field
external field which acts in a plane at right through the coil which is concentrated
angles to the direction in which the cur- along the axis of the coil and behaves ex-
rent is flowing. This field is known as the ternally in a way similar to the field of a
magnetic field. bar magnet.
The magnetic field around a current -car- If the left hand is held so that the thumb
rying conductor is illustrated in figure 17. is outstretched and parallel to the axis of a
The direction of this magnetic field depends coil, with the fingers curled to indicate the
entirely on the direction of electron drift or direction of electron flow around the turns
current flow in the conductor. When the of the coil, the thumb then points in the
flow is toward the observer, the field about direction of the north pole of the magnetic
the conductor is clockwise; when the flow field.
is away from the observer, the field is
The Magnetic In the magnetic circuit, the
counterclockwise. This is easily remembered
Circuit units which correspond to
if the left hand is clenched, with the thumb
outstretched and pointing in the direction current, voltage, and resist-
of electron flow. The fingers then indicate ance in the electrical circuit are flux, Inag-
netomotive force, and reluctance.
Flux; Flux As a current is made up of a drift
Density of electrons, so is a magnetic
i -
ELECTRON DRIFT field made up of lines of force,
--SWITCN and the total number of lines of force in a
given magnetic circuit is termed the flux.
The flux depends on the material, cross sec-
Figure 17 tion, and length of the magnetic circuit,
LEFT -HAND RULE and it varies directly as the current flowing
in the circuit. The unit of flux is the max-
Showing the direction of the magnetic lines of well, and the symbol is the Greek letter
force produced around a conductor carrying
an electric current. 4, (phi).
Flux density is the number of lines of
the direction of the magnetic field around
force per unit area. It is expressed in gauss
the conductor.
if the unit of area is the square centimeter
Each electron adds its field to the total
(1 gauss = 1 line of force per square cen-
external magnetic field, so that the greater
the number of electrons moving along the
timeter), or in lines per square inch. The
symbol for flux density is B if it is expressed
conductor, the stronger will be the resulting in gauss, or B if expressed in lines per sq. in.
One of the fundamental laws of magnet- Mognetomotive The force which produces a
ism is that like poles repel one another and Force flux in a magnetic circuit
unlike poles attract one another. This is is called magnetomotive
true of current -carrying conductors as well force. It is abbreviated m.m.f. and is desig-
as of permanent magnets. Thus, if two nated by the letter F. The unit of magneto -
conductors are placed side by side and the motive force is the gilbert, which is equiva-
current in each is flowing in the same di- lent to 1.26 X NI, where N is the number
rection, the magnetic fields will also be in of turns and I is the current flowing in the
the same direction and will combine to form circuit in amperes.
a larger and stronger field. If the current
The m.m.f. necessary to produce a given
flow in adjacent conductors is in opposite flux density is stated in gilberts per centi-
directions, the magnetic fields oppose each meter (oersteds) (H), or in ampere -turns
other and tend to cancel. per inch (H).
The magnetic field around a conductor
may be considerably increased in strength Reluctance Magnetic reluctance corresponds
by winding the wire into a coil. The field to electrical resistance, and is
around each wire then combines with those the property of a material that opposes the

creation of a magnetic flux in the material. These relations may also be stated as follows:
It is expressed in reis, and the symbol is the
letter R. A material has a reluctance of 1 rel
when an m.m.f. of 1 ampere -turn (NI) gen-
H =-- orH= BandB=

Hp. orB =H

erates a flux of 1 line of force in it. Com- It can be seen from the foregoing that
binations of reluctances are treated the permeability is inversely proportional to the
same as resistances in finding the total ef- specific reluctance of a material.
fective reluctance. The specific reluctance of
any substance is its reluctance per unit vol- Saturation Permeability is similar to electric
ume. conductivity. This is, however,
Except for iron and its alloys, most com- one important difference: the permeability
mon materials have a specific reluctance of magnetic materials is not independent of
very nearly the same as that of a vacuum, the magnetic current (flux) flowing through
which, for all practical purposes, may be it, although electrical conductivity is sub-
considered the same as the specific reluct- stantially independent of the electric cur-
ance of air. rent in a wire. When the flux density of a
magnetic conductor has been increased to
Ohm's Low for The relations between flux, the saturation point, a further increase in
Magnetic Circuits magnetomotive force, and the magnetizing force will not produce a
reluctance are exactly the corresponding increase in flux density.
same as the relations between current, volt-
age, and resistance in the electrical circuit. B -H Curve To simplify magnetic circuit
These can be stated as follows: calculations, a magnetization
curve may be drawn for a given unit of
R= F=R material. Such a curve is termed a B -H
curve, and may be determined by experi-
where, ment. When the current in an iron -core
coil is first applied, the relation between the
4 equals flux, F equals m.m.f., winding current and the core flux is shown
R equals reluctance. at A -B in figure 18. If the current is then
reduced to zero, reversed, brought back
Permeability Permeability expresses the ease
again to zero and reversed to the original
with which a magnetic field direction, the flux passes through a typical
may be set up in a material as compared hysteresis loop as shown.
with the effort required in the case of air.
Iron, for example, has a permeability of Residual Magnetism; The magnetism remain -
around 2000 times that of air, which means Retentivity ing in a material after
that a given amount of magnetizing effort the magnetizing force
produced in an iron core by a current flow- is removed called residual magnetism. Re-
ing through a coil of wire will produce tentivity the property which causes a
2000 times the flux density that the same magnetic material to have residual magne-
magnetizing effect would produce in air. It tism after having been magnetized.
may be expressed by the ratio B/H or B /H.
In other words, Hysteresis; Hysteresis is the characteristic
Coercive Force of a magnetic system which
B causes a loss of power due to
H the fact that a negative magnetizing force
must be applied to reduce the residual mag-
where p. is the permeability, B is the flux
netism to zero. This negative force is termed
density in gausses, B is the flux density in coercive force. By "negative" magnetizing
lines per square inch, H is the m.m.f. in force is meant one which is of the opposite
gilberts per centimeter (oersteds), and H polarity with respect to the original magne-
is the m.m.f. in ampere -turns per inch. tizing force. Hysteresis loss is apparent in

known as a counter e.m.f. or back e.m.f.,

and the effect is termed self -induction. When
the applied voltage is building up, the
MAGNETIZING FORCE counter e.m.f. opposes the rise; when the ap-
H - plied voltage is decreasing, the counter
e.m.f. is of the same polarity and tends to
maintain the current. Thus, it can be seen
that self- inductance tends to prevent any
Figure 18 change in the current in the circuit.
The storage of energy in a magnetic field
is expressed in joules and is equal to (LI2) /2.
(B -H CURVE = A -B)
(A joule is equal to 1 watt -second. L is de-
Showing relationship between the current In fined immediately following.)
the winding of an iron-core inductor and the
sore Aux. A direct current flowing through the
inductance brings the magnetic state of the The Unit of Inductance is usually denoted
core to some point on the hysteresis loop, Inductance: by the letter L, and is expressed
such as C.
The Henry in henrys. A coil has an in-
transformers and chokes by the heating of ductance of I henry when a
the core. voltage of 1 volt is induced by a current
change of 1 ampere per second. The henry,
Inductance If the switch shown in figure 17 while commonly used in audio- frequency
is opened and closed, a pulsating circuits, is too large for reference to induct-
direct current will be produced. When it is ance coils, such as those used in radio -fre-
first closed, the current does not instanta- quency circuits; millihenry or microhenry
neously rise to its maximum value, but is more commonly used, in the following
builds up to it. While it is building up, the manner:
magnetic field is expanding around the con- henry = 1000 millihenrys, or 10'
ductor. Of course, this happens in a small millihenrys.
fraction of a second. If the switch is then
opened, the current stops and the magnetic 1 millihenry = 1 /1000 henry, .001
field contracts quickly. This expanding and henry, or 10-9 henry.
contracting field will induce a current in
any other conductor that is part of a contin- 1 microhenry = 1/1,000,000 henry,
uous circuit which it cuts. Such a field can .000001 henry, or 10-6 henry.
be obtained in the way just mentioned by
means of a vibrator interruptor, or by ap- 1 microhenry = 1 /1000 millihenry,
plying a. c. to the circuit in place of the .001, or 10-3 millihenry.
battery. Varying the resistance of the circuit
will also produce the same effect. This in- 1000 nricrohenrys = 1 millihenry.
ducing of a current in a conductor due to
a varying current in another conductor not Mutual Inductance When one coil is near an-
in actual contact is called electromagnetic other, a varying current
induction. in one will produce a varying magnetic
field which cuts the turns of the other
Self- inductance If an alternating current coil, inducing a current in it. This induced
flows through a coil the current is also varying, and will therefore
varying magnetic field around each turn induce another current in the first coil. This
cuts itself and the adjacent turn and in- reaction between two coupled circuits is
duces a voltage in the coil of opposite po- called mutual inductance, and can be cal-
larity to the applied e.m.f. The amount of culated and expressed in henrys. The symbol
induced voltage depends on the number of for mutual inductance is M. Two circuits
turns in the coil, the current flowing in the thus joined are said to be inductively cou-
coil, and the number of lines of force thread- pled.
ing the coil. The voltage so induced is The magnitude of the mutual inductance

depends on the shape and size of the two coils are connected in such a way that all
circuits, their positions and distances apart, flux linkages are in the same direction, i.e.,
and the permeability of the medium. The additive. If this is not the case and the
extent to which two inductors are coupled mutual linkages subtract from the self -link-
is expressed by a relation known as coeffi- ages, the following formula holds:
cient of coupling (k). This is the ratio of
the mutual inductance actually present to
L, +L,L- -2M
the maximum possible value.
Thus, when k is 1, the coils have the M is the mutual inductance.
maximum quantity mutual induction. Core Material Ordinary magnetic cores can-
The mutual inductance of two coils can not be used for radio frequen-
be formulated in terms of the individual cies because the eddy current and hysteresis
inductances and the coefficient of coupling: losses in the core material become enormous
as the frequency is increased. The principal
M= k\/L,XL_ use for conventional magnetic cores is in the
For example, the mutual inductance of
two coils, each with an inductance of 10 If- - I s INDUCTANCE OF
henrys and a coupling coefficient of 0.8 is: SOLENOID COILS

R2 N2
M = 0.8 10 X 10 = 0.8 X 10 = 8

- that +formula
The for mutual inductance N TURNS
is L
L, + L, 2M when the coils are poled WHERE R = RADIUS OF COIL TO CENTER WIRE
so their fields add. When they are poled N : NUMBER OF TURNS
that their buck, then = 1.1 +
L.,- (figure 19).
fields L
Figure 20
Inductors in Inductors in parallel are com- FORMULA FOR
Parallel bined exactly as are resistors CALCULATING INDUCTANCE
in parallel, provided that they Through the use of the equation and the
are far enough apart so that the mutual sketch shown above the inductance of single -
inductance is entirely negligible. layer solenoid coils can be calculated with an
accuracy of about one p for the types
of coils normally used ln the hf and vhf range.
Inductors in Inductors in series are additive,
Series just as are resistors in series, audio- frequency range below approximately
again provided that no mutual 1 5,000 Hertz, whereas at very low frequen-
inductance exists. In this case, the total in- cies (50 to 60 Hertz) their use is manda-
ductance L is: tory if an appreciable value of inductance
L -L, +L, +...,etc. is desired.

Where mutual inductance does exist: An air -core inductor of only henry in- 1

ductance would be quite large in size, yet

L = L, + L, + 2M values as high as 500 henrys are commonly
where, available in small iron -core chokes. The in-
M is the mutual inductance. ductance of a coil with a magnetic core will
This latter expression assumes that the vary with the amount of current (both a -c
and d -c) which passes through the coil.
M For this reason, iron -core chokes that are used
in power supplies have a certain inductance

71 7I I

Figure 19
rating at a predetermined value of direct
The permeability of air does not change
with flux density; so the inductance of iron -
MUTUAL INDUCTANCE core coils often is made less dependent on
flux density by making part of the magnetic
The quantity M represents the mutual indues
tance between the two coils L, and L,. path air, instead of utilizing a closed loop of

iron. This incorporation of an air gap is number of turns than a comparable pow-
necessary in many applications of iron -core dered -iron unit.
coils, particularly where the coil carries a Ferrite and powdered -iron cores of all
considerable d -c component. Because the types are widely used in bandswitching and
permeability of air is so much lower than broadband r -f transformers for both trans-
that of iron, the air gap need comprise only mitters and receivers.
a small fraction of the magnetic circuit in
order to provide a substantial proportion of
the total reluctance. 2 -5 RC and RL Transients
Iron -Core Inductors Iron -core inductors may A voltage divider may be constructed as
of Radio Frequencies be used at radio fre-
shown in figure 21. Kirchhoff's and Ohm's
quencies if the iron is Laws hold for such a divider. This circuit
in a very finely divided form, as in the case
is known as an RC circuit.
of the powdered -iron cores used in some
types of r -f coils and -f transformers. These
Time Constant- When switch S in figure 21
cores are made of extremely small particles
RC and RL is placed in position 1, a
of iron. The particles are treated with an in-
Circuits voltmeter across capacitor
sulating material so that each particle will
C will indicate the manner
be insulated from the others, and the treated
in which the capacitor will become charged
powder is molded with a binder into cores.
through the resistor R from battery B. If
Eddy current losses are greatly reduced,
relatively large values are used for R and C,
with the result that these special iron cores
and if a vacuum -tube voltmeter which
are entirely practical in circuits which op-
erate up to 100 MHz in frequency.

Ferrite -Core Ferrite materials provide high

Inductors permeability and low core loss
characteristics well into the vhf
range. Commonly used ferrites are made pri-
marily of iron oxide with a trace of manga- 100

nese sintered at a high temperature into a F to

ceramic -like material. Ferrite may take the o eo.
form of a very small ferrite bead slipped over :NU l --

a wire to form a simple r -f choke, a ferrite

J 20'
rod, or a more complex ferrite cup -core as-
sembly providing very high Q in a small oOTIMEt. INTERMSOF TIME CONSTANT RC,
volume. In addition, ferrite cores are avail- F.
,00 -- - --' -

c eor-

able as toroids or standard E -I combinations

(see Chapter 3). 92:
o eo--
Toroid ZU8
The toroid winding provides a 20; - -
Inductors closed magnetic field allowing a ZW -
large value of inductance per ,2

winding turn combined with minimum nevi

magnetic field outside the winding. Pow-

dered -iron and ferrite toroids are available Figure 21
for hf and vhf operation. The powdered - TIME CONSTANT OF AN RC CIRCUIT
iron toroids are commonly made of a car-
bonyl material and coils can be wound on Shown at (A) is the circuit upon which is
based the curves of (e) and (C). (I) shows the
such forms or cores showing Q values of rate at which capacitor C will charge from
several hundred. Ferrite toroids have a high the instant at which switch S is placed in
value of permeability and provide coils hav- position 1. (C) shows the discharge curve of
capacitor C from the instant at which switch
ing a greater inductance value for a given S is placed in position 3.

Figure 22

The large inductance is a 1000 -watt transmitting coil. To the right and left of this coil are
small r -f chokes. Several varieties of low power capability coils are shown below, along
with various types of r -f chokes intended for high- frequency operation.

draws negligible current is used to measure

the voltage (e) , the rate of charge of the
e -= E (1 - E -1 /1

capacitor may actually be plotted with the where e,E,R, and C have the values discussed
aid of a stop watch. above, e = 2.716 (the base of Naperian or
natural logarithms), and t represents the
Voltage Gradient be found that the
It will time which has elapsed since the closing of
voltage (e) will begin to
rise rapidly from zero the instant the switch R (INCLUDING DC RESISTANCE
is closed. Then, as the capacitor begins to
charge, the rate of change of voltage across
the capacitor will be found to decrease, the
charging taking place more and more slowly
as capacitor voltage e approaches battery L4x
voltage E. Actually, it will be found that

in any given interval a constant percentage 60

of the remaining difference between e and E 063.2
will be delivered to the capacitor as an in- 40
crease in voltage. A voltage which changes _ 20
in this manner is said to increase logarithmi-
cally, or follows an exponential curve. o
0 2 3
a L

Time Constant A mathematical analysis of Figure 23

the charging of a capacitor
in this manner would show that the relation- TIME CONSTANT OF AN RL CIRCUIT
ship between battery voltage E and the volt- Note that the time constant for the increase
age across the capacitor (e) could be ex- in current through an R L circuit is identical
to the rate of increase in voltage across the
pressed in the following manner: capacitor in an R C circuit.

Figure 24


At the right is an upright mounting filter choke intended for use in low-powered
transmitters and audio equipment. At the center is a hermetically sealed inductance
for use under poor environmental conditions. To the left is an inexpensive receiving -
type choke, with a small iron -core r -f choke directly in Iront of it.

. 1IN NN1 1 i N 1NN N NNI N IN NN Nu ,

VI 0 1
Figure 25
At top left is a trifilar (three- winding) filament choke wound on a ferrite rod. To the right are
two toroid inductors with bifilar windings on ferrite cores. At the lower left is a ferrite cup-cope
assembly, with two miniature ferrite toroid inductors at the center. To the lower right are typical
miniature ferrite toroid cores and an encapsulated ferrite-core r -f choke.

the switch. With t expressed in seconds, R as shown in figure 23, the current through
and C may be expressed in farads and ohms, the combination follows a very similar law
or R and C may be expressed in microfarads to that given above for the voltage appear-
and megohms. The product RC is called the ing across the capacitor in an RC series cir-
time constant of the circuit, and is expressed cuit. The equation for the current through
in seconds. As an example, if R is one meg- the combination is:
ohm and C is one microfarad, the time
constant RC will be equal to the product of
the two, or one second. i- E

When the elapsed time (t) is equal to the

time constant of the RC network under where i represents the current at any instant
consideration, the exponent of r becomes through the series circuit, E represents the
-1. Now r -' is equal to 1 'r, or 1/2.716, applied voltage, and R represents the total
which is 0.368. The quantity (1- 0.368) resistance of the resistor and the d -c resist-
then is equal to 0.632. Expressed as percent- ance of the inductor in series. Thus the time
age, the above means that the voltage across constant of the RL circuit is L /R, with R
the capacitor will have increased to 63.2 per- expressed in ohms and L expressed in henrys.
cent of the battery voltage in an interval
equal to the time constant or RC product Voltage Decay When the switch in figure
of the circuit. Then, during the next period 21 is moved to position 3
equal to the time constant of the RC com- after the capacitor has been charged, the
bination, the voltage across the capacitor capacitor voltage will drop in the manner
will have risen to 63.2 per cent of the re- shown in figure 21 -C. In this case the volt-
maining difference in voltage, or 86.5 per age across the capacitor will decrease to 36.8
cent of the applied voltage (E). percent of the initial voltage (will make
63.2 per cent of the total drop) in a period
RL Circuit In the case of a series combina- of time equal to the time constant of the
tion of a resistor and an inductor, RC circuit.

Alternating- Current Circuits

The previous chapter has been devoted to

a discussion of circuits and circuit elements I- +
upon which is impressed a current consisting
of a flow of electrons in one direction. This
type of unidirectional current flow is called

direct current (abbreviated d -c or d.c.).
Equally as important in radio and communi-
cations work and power practice is a type of --1

current whose direction of electron flow
reverses periodically. The reversal of flow I-
may take place at a low rate, in the case of W
power systems, or it may take place millions CC
of times per second, in the case of communi-
cations frequencies. This type of current
flow is called alternating current (abbrevi- ALTERNATING CURRENT
ated a -c or a.c.). Figure 1

3 -1 Alternating Current ALTERNATING CURRENT

Frequency of an An alternating current is Graphical comparison between unidirectional
Alternating Current one whose amplitude of (direct) current and alternating current as
current flow periodically plotted against time.
rises from zero to a maximum in one direc-
tion, decreases to zero, changes its direction,
rises to maximum in the opposite direction, Frequency Spectrum At present the usable
and decreases to zero again. This complete frequency range for al-
process, starting from zero, passing through ternating electrical currents extends over
two maximums in opposite directions, and the electromagnetic spectrum from about
returning to zero again, is called a cycle. IS cycles per second to perhaps 30,000,-
The number of times per second that a 000,000 cycles per second. It is obviously
current passes through the complete cycle cumbersome to use a frequency designation
is called the frequency (f) of the current. in c.p.s. for enormously high frequencies,
One and one -quarter cycles of an alternating so three common units which are multiples
current wave are illustrated diagrammati- of one cycle per second were established and
cally in figure 1. are still used by many engineers.


These units have been: TABLE 1.

(1) The kilocycle (kc), 1000 c.p.s. FREQUENCY CLASSIFICATION
(2) The megacycle (Mc), 1,000,000
(3) The kilomegacycle (kMc), 3 to 30 kHz Very-low frequency VLF
1,000,000,000 c.p.s. or 1000 Mc.
30 to 300 kHz Low frequency LF
Used for some time in other countries, 300 to 3000 kHz Medium frequency MF
and recently adopted by the U. S. National
Bureau of Standards, IEEE, and many other 3 to 30 MHz High frequency HF

American organizations, the Hertz is the 30 to 300 MHz Very -high frequency VHF
present unit of frequency measurement. 300 to 3000 MHz Ultrahigh frequency UHF
One Hertz is precisely defined as one cycle
3 to 30 GHz Superhigh frequency SHF
per second and is not to be confused with
any other time base. Hertz is abbreviated as 30 to 300 GHz Extremely high

Hz (no period). The standard metric pre-

fixes for kilo, mega, giga, etc. are used with
the basic unit. Since "m" denotes "milli," Generation of Faraday discovered that
capitarM4is used for mega, and small "k" is Alternating Current if a conductor which
kilo. Thus megacycle becomes megahertz forms part of a closed
(MHz), kilocycle is kilohertz (kHz), etc. circuit is moved through a magnetic field
The frequencies falling between about 15 so as to cut across the lines of force, a cur-
and 20,000 hertz are called audio frequen- rent will flow in the conductor. He also dis-
cies (abbreviated a.f.), since these frequen- covered that, when a conductor in a second
cies are audible to the human ear when con- closed circuit is brought near the first con-
verted from electrical to acoustical signals ductor and the current in the first one is
by a speaker or headphone. Frequencies in varied, a current will flow in the second
the vicinity of 60 Hz also are called power conductor. This effect is known as induc-
frequencies, since they are commonly used tion, and the currents so generated are
to distribute electrical power to the con- induced currents. In the latter case it is the
sumer. lines of force which are moving and cutting
The frequencies falling between 3,000 the second conductor, due to the varying
c.p.s. (3 kHz) and 300 GHz are commonly current strength in the first conductor.
called radio frequencies (abbreviated r. f .) , A current is induced in a conductor if
since they are commonly used in radio com- there relative motion between the con-
is a
munication and allied arts. The radio -fre- ductor and a magnetic field, its direction of
quency spectrum is often arbitrarily classified flow depending on the direction of the rela-
into eight frequency bands, each one of tive motion between the conductor and the
which is ten times as high in frequency as field, and its strength depends on the in-
the one just below it in the spectrum. The tensity of the field, the rate of cutting lines
present spectrum, with classifications, is of force, and the number of turns in the
given in Table I. conductor.

Alternators A machine that generates an al-

ternating current is called an
alternator or a -c generator. Such a machine
in its basic form is shown in figure 2. It
consists of two permanent magnets, the op-
posite poles of which face each other and are
Figure 2 machined so that they have a common
radius. Between these two poles (north and
THE ALTERNATOR south) a substantially constant magnetic
field exists. If a conductor in the form of
Semi -schematic, rep resenfatten of the simplest
form of the alternator. a loop (C) is suspended so that it can be


Iii11 IMAx o



I 1 1



I I 1111

n 111111111
TIM( --

Figure 3



Graph showing sine -wave output current of

the alternator of figure 2. Figure 4

freely rotated between the two:poles, and if THE SINE WAV

the opposite ends of conductor C are brought Illustrating one cycle of a sine wave. One
to collector rings, there will be a flow of complete cycle of alternation is broken up
alternating current when conductor C is into 360 degrees. Then one -half cycle is 180
degrees, one-quarter cycle is 90 degrees, and
rotated. This current flows out through the so on down to the smallest division of the
collector rings (R) and brushes (B) to the wave. A cosine wave has a shape identical to
a sine wave but is shifted 90 degrees in phase
external circuit (X -Y). - in other words the wave begins at full am-
The field intensity between the two pole plitude, the 90- degree point comes at sera
pieces is substantially constant over the en- amplitude, the 180-degree point comes at full
amplitude in the opposite direction of current
tire area of the pole face. However, when flow, etc.
the conductor is moving parallel to the lines
of force at the top or bottom of the pole The rotating arrow to the left in figure
faces, no lines are being cut. As the con- 3 represents a conductor rotating in a con-
ductor moves on across the pole face it cuts stant magnetic field of uniform density. The
more and more lines of force for each unit arrow also can be taken as a vector repre-
distance of travel, until it is cutting the senting the strength of the magnetic field.
maximum number of lines when opposite This means that the length of the arrow is
the center of the pole. Therefore, zero cur- determined by the strength of the field
rent is induced in the conductor at the in- (number of lines of force), which is con-
stant it is midway between the two poles, stant. Now if the arrow is rotating at a
and maximum current is induced when it is constant rate (that is, with constant angu-
opposite the center of the pole face. After lar velocity), then the voltage developed
the conductor has rotated through 180 it across the conductor will be proportional to
can be seen that its position with respect to the rate at which it is cutting lines of force,
the pole pieces will be exactly opposite to which rate is proportional to the vertical
that when it started. Hence, the second distance between the tip of the arrow and
180 of rotation will produce an alternation the horizontal base line.
of current in the opposite direction to that If EO is taken as unity, or a voltage of 1,
of the first alternation. then the voltage (vertical distance from tip
The current does not increase directly as of arrow to the horizontal base line) at point
the angle of rotation, but rather as the sine C for instance may be determined simply by
of the angle; hence, such a current has the referring to a table of sines and looking up
mathematical form of a sine wave. Although the sine of the angle which the arrow makes
most electrical machinery does not produce with the horizontal.
a strictly pure sine curve, the departures are When the arrow has traveled from point
usually so slight that the assumption can be A to point E, it has traveled 90 degrees or
regarded as fact for most practical purposes. one quarter cycle. The other three quadrants
All that has been said in the foregoing para- are not shown because their complementary
graphs concerning alternating current also or mirror relationship to the first quadrant
is applicable to alternating voltage. is obvious.

It is important to note that time units are 7r radians = 1/2 cycle = 180
represented by degrees or quadrants. The
fact that AB, BC, CD, and DE are equal 7r
radians = 1/4 cycle = 90
chords (forming equal quadrants) simply 2
means that the arrow (conductor or vector)
is traveling at a constant speed, because radians = 1/6 cycle = 60
these points on the radius represent the pas- 3

sage of equal units of time.

The whole picture can be represented in radians = 1/8 cycle = 45
another way, and its derivation from the
foregoing is shown in figure 3. The time
base is represented by a straight line rather 1 radian =
cycle = 57.3
than by angular rotation. Points A, B, C,
etc., represent the same units of time as be- When the conductor in the simple alter-
fore. When the voltage corresponding to nator of figure 2 has made one complete
each point is projected to the corresponding revolution it has generated one cycle and
time unit, the familiar sine curve is the re- has rotated through 27r radians. The expres-
sult. sion 2irf then represents the number of
The frequency of the generated voltage is radians in one cycle multiplied by the num-
proportional to the speed of rotation of the ber of cycles per second (the frequency) of
alternator, and to the number of magnetic the alternating voltage or current. The ex-
poles in the field. Alternators may be built pression then represents the number of ra-
to produce radio frequencies up to 30 kHz, dians per second through which the con-
and some such machines are still used for ductor has rotated. Hence 2irf represents the
low- frequency communication purposes. By angular velocity of the rotating conductor,
means of multiple windings, three -phase or of the rotating vector, which represents
output may be obtained from large in- any alternating current or voltage, expressed
dustrial alternators. in radians per second.
In technical literature the expression 2irf
Radian Notation From figure 1 we see that is often replaced by m, the lower -case Greek
the value of an a -c wave letter omega. Velocity multiplied by time
varies continuously. It is often of impor- gives the distance travelled, so 27r f t (or
tance to know the amplitude of the wave in LIt) represents the angular distance through
terms of the total amplitude at any instant which the rotating conductor or the rotat-
or at any time within the cycle. To be able ing vector has travelled since the reference
to establish the instant in question we must time t = 0. In the case of a sine wave the
be able to divide the cycle into parts. We reference time t = 0 represents the instant
could divide the cycle into eighths, hun- when the voltage or the current, whichever
dredths, or any other ratio that suited our is under discussion, also is equal to zero.
fancy. However, it is much more convenient
mathematically to divide the cycle either WHERE
into electrical degrees (360 represent one e (THETA) . PHASE ANGLE = 2 Ar T

cycle) or into radians. A radian is an arc of A =

a circle equal to the radius of the circle; e=ff RADIANS OR ISO*
hence there are 27r radians per cycle-or per G. RADIANS OR 270

circle (since there are 7r diameters per cir- D = 27r RADIANS OR 300
cumference, there are 27r radii). 1

Both radian notation and electrical -degree

notation are used in discussions of alternat- Figure 5
ing- current circuits. However, trigonometric
tables are much more readily available in ILLUSTRATING RADIAN NOTATION
terms of degrees than radians, so the follow-
The radian is a unit of phase angle, equal to
ing simple conversions are useful. 57.324 degrees. it is commonly used in math-
ematical relationships involving phase angles
27r radians = 1 cycle = 360 since such relationships are simplified when
radian notation is used.

Instantaneous Value The instantaneous volt - sin O = 0.8415

of Voltage or age or current is propor-
Current tional to the sine of the so e = 0.8415 Emax
angle through which the
rotating vector has travelled since reference Effective Value The instantaneous value
time t = 0. Hence, when the peak value of of an of an alternating cur -
the a -c wave amplitude (either voltage or Alternating Current rent or voltage varies
current amplitude) is known, and the angle continuously throughout
through which the rotating vector has the cycle, so some value of an a -c wave
travelled is established, the amplitude of the must be chosen to establish a relationship
wave at this instant can be determined between the effectiveness of an a -c and a
through use of the following expression: d -c voltage or current. The heating value
e = Emax sin 27r f t of an alternating current has been chosen
to establish the reference between the ef-
where, fective values of a.c. and d.c. Thus an
e equals the instantaneous voltage, alternating current will have an effective
Emax equals maximum peak value of value of I ampere when it produces the
voltage, same heat in a resistor as does ampere of 1

f equals frequency in hertz, direct current.

t equals period of time which has elapsed The effective value is derived by taking
since t = 0 (expressed as a fraction of the instantaneous values of current over a
one second). cycle of alternating current, squaring these
The instantaneous current can be found values, taking an average of the squares,
from the same expression by substituting i and then taking the square root of the
for e and I,aa, for E,,,;,x. average. By this procedure, the effective
It is often easier to visualize the process value becomes known as the root mean
of determining the instantaneous amplitude square, or rms, value. This is the value that
by ignoring the frequency and considering is read on a -c voltmeters and a -c ammeters.
only one cycle of the a -c wave. In this case, The rms value is 70.7 percent of the peak
for a sine wave, the expression becomes: or maximum instantaneous value (for sine
waves only) and is expressed as follows:
e= E,,,a, sin O

where O represents the angle through which

E,.cc or F.,,,,, = 0.707 X F,,,,,,or
the vector has rotated since time (and am- I,.cc or I,.,,,, = 0.707 X 1,,,;,,
plitude) were zero. As examples:
The following relations are extremely use-
when O = 30 ful in radio and power work:
sin 0= 0.5 E,,,,,= 0.707 X E,,,,,, and
so e = 0.5 E,,,ax E_a,;,5 = 1.414 X

sO e =


Figure 6
when = 90 O
sin O = 1.0 SINE WAVE
Wave form obtained at the output of a full -
SO e = Emax wave rectifier being fed with a sine wave
and hiving 100 per cent rectification effi-
ciency. Each pulse has the same shape as one -
when O = radian1 half cycle of a sine wave. This type of cur-
rent is known as pulsating direct current.

Rectified Alternating If an alternating cur - aided the circuits under consideration are
Current or Pulsat- rent is passed through a. purely resistive, that is, circuits which have
ing Direct Current rectifier, it emerges in neither inductance (coils) nor capacitance
the form of a current (capacitors). Problems which involve tube
filaments, dropping resistors, electric lamps,
of varying amplitude which flows in one
heaters or similar resistive devices can be
direction only. Such a current is known as
solved with Ohm's Law, regardless of wheth-
rectified a.c. or pulsating d.c. A typical er the current is direct or alternating. When
wave form of a pulsating direct current as a capacitor or coil is made a part of the
would be obtained from the output of a circuit, a property common to either, called
full -wave rectifier is shown in figure 6. reactance, must be taken into consideration.
Measuring instruments designed for d -c Ohm's Law still applies to a -c circuits con-
operation will not read the peak or instan- taining reactance, but additional considera-
taneous maximum value of the pulsating
tions are involved; these will be discussed in
d -c output from the rectifier; they will
a later paragraph.
read only the average value. This can be ex-
plained by assuming that it could be pos-
sible to cut off some of the peaks of the
waves, using the cutoff portions to fill in
the spaces that are open, thereby obtaining
an average d -c value. A milliammeter and TIME

voltmeter connected to the adjoining circuit,

or across the output of the rectifier, will
It is related to peak
read this average value.
value by the following expression: CURRENT LAGGING VOLTAGE BY 90
Fagg. = 0.636 X EH.
Figure 7
It thus seen that the average value
is is 63.6
percent of the peak value. LAGGING PHASE ANGLE

Relationship Between To summarize the three Showing the manner in which the current lags
the voltage in an a-c circuit containing pure
Peak, RMS, or most significant values inductance only. The lag is equal to one -
Effective, and of an a -c sine wave: the quarter cycle or 90 degrees.
Average Values peak value is equal to
1.41 times the rms or As was stated in Chapter Two,
effective, and the rms value is equal to Reactance when changing current flows

0.707 times the peak value; the average through an inductor a back- or
value of a full -wave rectified a -c wave is counterelectromotive force is developed, op-
0.636 times the peak value, and the average posing any change in the initial current. This
value of a rectified wave is equal to 0.9 property of an inductor causes it to offer
times the rms value. opposition or impedance to a change in cur-
0.707 X peak rent. The measure of impedance offered by
an inductor to an alternating current of a
average = 0.636 X peak given frequency is known as its inductive
reactance. This is expressed as X1. and is
average = 0.9 X rms shown in figure 7.

rms = 1.11 X average

XL = 2TrfL
peak = 1.414 X rms

= 1.57 X average Xt, equals inductive reactance expressed

in ohms,
7r equals 3.1416 (277 = 6.283),
Applying Ohm's Low Ohm's Law applies
to Alternating Current equally to direct or al-
f equals frequency in Hertz,
ternating current, pro- L equals inductance in henrys.

Inductive Reactance It is very often neces- factors for inductance and frequency appear
at Rodio Frequencies sary to compute induc- in numerator and denominator, and hence
tive reactance at radio are cancelled out. However, it is not pos-
frequencies. The same formula may be used, sible in the same equation to express L in
but to make it less cumbersome the induct- millihenrys and f in Hertz without con-
ance is expressed in millihenrys and the version factors.
frequency in kilohertz. For higher frequen-
Capacitive It has been explained that induc-
cies and smaller values of inductance, fre-
Reactance tive reactance is the measure of
quency is expressed in megahertz and induct-
ance in microhenrys. The basic equation the ability of an inductor to of-
need not be changed, since the multiplying fer impedance to the flow of an alternating
current. Capacitors have a similar property
although in this case the opposition is to
any change in the voltage across the capaci-
tor. This property is called capacitive react-
ance and is expressed as follows:
TII.IE -a-

Xo - 2 f

CURRENT LEADING VOLTAGE BY 90 Xc equals capacitive reactance in ohms,


f equals frequency in Hertz,

Figure 8 C equals capacitance in farads.
LEADING PHASE ANGLE Capacitive Re- Here again, as in the case
Showing the m In which the t actance at of inductive reactance,
leads the voltage in an a -c circuit containing Radio Frequencies the units of capacitance
pure capacitance only. The lead is equal to
one -quarter cycle or 90 degrees. and frequency can be

TABLE 2. Quantities, Units, and Symbols

Symbol Quantity Unit Abbreviation

f Frequency hertz Hz
X Wavelength meter M
Xc Inductive Reactance ohm f2
Xa Capacitive Reactance ohm f2
Q Figure of merit
z Impedance ohm 12

= instantaneous value of voltage

Em.: = peak value of voltage
= instantaneous value of current
Mgt = peak value of current
B = phase angle, expressed in degrees
Eerr or E,121. = effective or rms value of voltage
lift or Irma = effective or rms value of current
l = vector operator (90 rotation)

converted into smaller units for practical is found by subtracting the capacitive
problems encountered in radio work. The reactance from the inductive reactance
equation may be written: (X =XI, -Xe).
The result of such a combination of pure
Xc - 1,000,000 reactances may be either positive, in which
27rfC case the positive reactance is greater so that
the net reactance is inductive, or it may be
negative in which case the capacitive react-
f equals frequency in megahertz, ance is greater so that the net reactance is
C equals capacitance in picofarads. capacitive. The net reactance may also be
In the audio range it is often convenient to zero in which case the circuit is said to be
express frequency (f) in Hertz and capac- resonant. The condition of resonance will be
itance (C) in nricrofarads, in which event discussed in a later section. Note that in-
the same formula applies. ductive reactance is always taken as being
positive while capacitive reactance is always
Phase When an alternating current flows taken as being negative.
through a purely resistive circuit, it Impedance; Circuits Pure reactances intro -
will be found that the current will go Containing Reactance duce a phase angle of
through maximum and minimum in perfect and Resistance 90 between voltage
step with the voltage. In this case the cur-
and current; pure re-
rent is said to be in step, or in phase with
sistance introduces no phase shift between
the voltage. For this reason, Ohm's Law will
voltage and current. Hence we cannot add
apply equally well for a.c. or d.c. where
a reactance and a resistance directly. When
pure resistances are concerned, provided that
a reactance and a resistance are used in
the same values of the wave (either peak or
rms) for both voltage and current are used Y-AXIS
in the calculations. (+A) X (- I) ROTATES
However, in calculations involving alter- VECTOR THROUGH ISO.

nating currents the voltage and current are Ne

not necessarily in phase. The current

through the circuit may lag behind the A
voltage, in which case the current is said to
have lagging phase. Lagging phase is caused
by inductive reactance. If the current
reaches its maximum value ahead of the
voltage (figure 8) the current is said to Figure 9
have a leading phase. A leading phase angle
is caused by capacitive reactance. Operation on the vector (+A) by the quantity
In an electrical circuit containing re- ( -1) a vector to rotate through 180
deg .
actance only, the current will either lead or
lag the voltage by 90 . If the circuit con-
combination the resulting phase angle of
tains inductive reactance only, the current current flow with respect to the impressed
will lag the voltage by 90 . If only capaci- voltage lies somewhere between plus or
tive reactance is in the circuit, the current minus 90 and 0 depending on the relative
will lead the voltage by 90 . magnitudes of the reactance and the resist-
Reactances Inductive and capacitive re- ance.
in Combination actance have exactly op- The term impedance is a general term
posite effects on the phase which can be applied to any electrical entity
relation between current and voltage in a which impedes the flow of current. Hence
circuit. Hence when they are used in com- the term may be used to designate a resist-
bination their effects tend to neutralize. The ance, a pure reactance, or a complex com-
combined effect of a capacitive and an in- bination of both reactance and resistance.
ductive reactance is often called the net re- The designation for impedance is Z. An im-
actance of a circuit. The net reactance (X) pedance must be defined in such a manner

that both its magnitude and its phase angle are plotted to the right, positive values of
are established. The designation may be ac- reactance (inductive) in the upward direc-
complished in either of two ways -one of tion, and negative values of reactance (ca-
which is convertible into the other by pacitive) in the downward direction.
simple mathematical operations. Note that the resistance and reactance are
The j Operator
drawn as the two sides of a right triangle,
The first method of des- with the hypotenuse representing the result-
ignating an impedance is ing impedance. Hence it is possible to deter-
actually to specify both the resistive and the mine mathematically the value of a result-
reactive component in the form R + X.
ant impedance through the familiar right -
In this form R represents the resistive com- triangle relationship-the square of the
ponent in ohms and X represents the re- hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the
active component. The j merely means that squares of the other two sides:
the X component is reactive and thus can-
not be added directly to the R component. Z2 = R2 + X2
Plus jX means that the reactance is positive or,
or inductive, while if minus jX were given
it would mean that the reactive component
IZI = VR2 +X2
was negative or capacitive. Note also that the angle O included between
In figure'9 we have a vector ( +A) lying R and Z can be determined from any of the
along the positive X -axis of the usual X -Y following trigonometric relationships:
coordinate system. If this vector is multi-
plied by the quantity ( - 1) , it becomes
( -A) and its position now lies along the
sin B = X
X -axis in the negative direction. The opera-
tor (-1) has caused the vector to rotate cos O = R
through an angle of 180 degrees. Since (ZI

(- 1) is equal to ( X ) the
same result may be obtained by operating on tan O = X
the vector with the operator (1,/ X
One common problem is that of determining
on but once by the operator ( /i)
IFL-1.). However if the vector is operated
, it is

caused to rotate only 90 degrees (figure 10).

the scalar magnitude of the impedance, IZI,
and the phase angle 0, when resistance and
reactance are known; hence, of converting
Thus the operator (V7-7() rotates a vector from the Z = R + jX to the IZI L O form.
by 90 degrees. For convenience, this opera- In this case we use two of the expressions
tor is called the j operator. In like fashion, just given:
the operator ( -j)
rotates the vector of
figure 9 through an angle of 270 degrees,
so that the resulting vector ( -jA) falls on
IZI = R2 + X2
the ( -Y) axis of the coordinate system.
tan B= R, (or B= tan' 1
R )
Polar Notation The second method of repre-
senting an impedance is to
specify its absolute magnitude and the phase
angle of current with respect to voltage, in
the form Z L O. Figure 11 shows graphically

v,(tA) x

(-I )

the relationship between the two common 1

ways of representing an impedance. +A J X AXIS

The construction of figure 11 is called an

impedance diagram. Through the use of
such a diagram we can add graphically a
resistance and a reactance to obtain a value Figure 10
for the resulting impedance in the scalar Operation on the vector ( +A) by the quantity
form. With zero at the origin, resistances (I) causes vector to rotate through 90 degrees.

The inverse problem, that of converting expressions defines the net reactance -that
from the IZI L O to the R + 1X form is is, the difference between X,, and Xc. Hence
done with the following relationships, both (X,, -Xe) may be substituted for X in
of which are obtainable by simple division the equations. Thus:
from the trigonometric expressions just
given for determining the angle O: IZ =VR2+ (X,, -Xc)2
R = 1ZI cos 0 O = tan -1 (X1, - Xc)
jX = IZI j sin 0
A series RLC circuit thus may present
By simple addition these two expressions an impedance which is capacitively reactive
may be combined to give the relationship if the net reactance is capacitive, inductively
between the two most common methods of reactive if the net reactance is inductive, or
indicating an impedance: resistive if the capacitive and inductive re-
R + X= (cos B+ j sin B) actances are equal.
In the case of impedance, resistance, or re-
Addition of The addition of complex
Complex Quantities quantities (for example,
actance, the unit of measurement is the
impedances in series) is
quite simple if the quantities are in the rec-
t.1 3
tangular form. If they are in the polar form
4 they only can be added graphically, unless
they are converted to the rectangular form
by the relationships previously given. As an

Z' 4+J3
IZI a2+3 2Lt%'''4
example of the addition of complex quanti-
ties in the rectangular form, the equation
X L3s.s3- VI= 5 ton-' 0.75 for the addition impedance is:
_ 3s.u
(R1 + jX,) + (R2 + jX2) =
R 4 OHMS (R1 + R2) + j (X1 + X2)
For example if we wish to add the imped-
Figure 11 ances (10 + j50) and (20 -
j30) we ob-
Showing the graphical construction of a tri-
angle for obtaining the net (scalar) impedance
(10 + j50) + (20 j30) -
resulting from the connection of a resistance (-30)]
and a reactance in series. Shown also along- = (10 + 20) + j[50 +
side is the alternative mathematical pro-
cedure for obtaining the values associated
with the triangle.
= 30 + j(50 30) -
= 30 + j20
ohm; hence, the ohm may be thought of as
a unit of opposition to current flow, with-
Multiplication and It is often necessary in
out reference to the relative phase angle be- Division of solving certain types of
tween the applied voltage and the current Complex Quantities
which flows. circuits to multiply or
Further, since both capacitive and in-
divide two complex
ductive reactance are functions of fre- quantities. It is a much simpler mathemati-
cal operation to multiply or divide complex
quency, impedance will vary with fre-
quency. Figure 12 shows the manner in quantities if they are expressed in the polar
which IZI will vary with frequency in an form. Hence if they are given in the rec-
RL series circuit and in an RC series circuit.
tangular form they should be converted to
the polar form before multiplication or
Series RLC CircuitsIn a series circuit con- division is begun. Then the multiplication is
taining R, L, and C, the accomplished by multiplying the IZI terms
impedance is determined as discussed before together and adding algebraically the L O
except that the reactive component in the terms, as:

(Iz,I Le,) (142I Le2) = circuits involving either complex quantities

Izl Iz21 (Le, + Le2) or simple resistive elements. The form is:
For example, suppose that the two imped- I =
ances 1201 L43 and 1321 L -23 are to be Z
multiplied. Then:
in which, in the general case, I, F, and Z
(1201 L43 ) (1321 L -23 ) = 120.321 are complex (vector) quantities. In the
(L43 + L -23 ) simple case where the impedance is a pure
= 640 L20 resistance with an a -c voltage applied, the
Division is accomplished by dividing the equation simplifies to the familiar I = F. /R.
denominator into the numerator, and sub- In any case the applied voltage may be ex-
tracting the angle of the denominator from pressed either as peak, rms, or average; the
that of the numerator, as: resulting current always will be in the same
type used to define the voltage.
In the more general case vector algebra
must be used to solve the equation. And,
since either division or multiplication is in-
volved, the complex quantities should be
expressed in the polar form. As an example,
take the case of the series circuit shown in
figure 13 with 100 volts applied. The im-
pedance of the series circuit can best be ob-
tained first in the rectangular form, as:
200 + j(100 - 300) = 200 - j200
o Now, to obtain the current we must con-
vert this impedance to the polar form.
Figure 12
IZ1 = V 2002 + (- 200) 2


= 40,000 + 40,000
The Impedance of an RC circuit approaches
infinity as the frequency approaches zero = 80,000
(d.c.), while the impedance of a series RL cir-
cuit approaches infinity as the frequency ap- =282 f2
proaches infinity. The impedance of an RC cir-
cuit approaches the impedance of the series
= -' = tan-'
-200 tan -'(-
resistor as the frequency approaches infinity, e tan 1)
while the impedance of a series RL circuit ap- R 200
proaches the resistance as the frequency ap-
proaches zero, = - 45
Therefore, Z = 282 L -45
Iz,I Le, - IZ,I
(Le, -Le2) Note that in a series circuit the resulting
1Z21 Lee IZ2I
impedance takes the sign of the largest re-
For example, suppose that an impedance of actance in the series combination.
1501 L67 is to be divided by an impedance
of 1101 Z45. Then:
1501 X67 _If01(L67o_L450)
1101 L45 1101
= 1f1cL22 )

Ohm's Law for The simple form of

Complex Quantities Ohm's Law used for d -c
Figure 13
circuits may be stated in
a more general form for application to a -c SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

Where a slide rule is being used to make pacitive reactance is greater than the supply
the computations, the impedance may be voltage. This condition often occurs in a
found without any addition or subtraction series RLC circuit, and is explained by the
operations by finding the angle O first, and fact that the drop across the capacitive re-
then using the trigonometric equation below actance is cancelled to a lesser or greater
for obtaining the impedance. Thus: extent by the drop across the inductive re-
9 = tan -'
= tan -' -200
- tan -1(- 1) It is often desirable in a problem such as
the above to check the validity of the an-
swer by adding vectorially the voltage drops
= -45 . across the components of the series circuit

Then, Z equals
cos O
voltage -
to make sure that they add up to the supply
or to use the terminology of
Kirchhoff's Second Law, to make sure that
and cos -45 = 0.707 the voltage drops across all elements of the
circuit, including the source taken as nega-
200 tive, is equal to zero.
282 ohms
0.707 In the general case of the addition of a
Since the applied voltage will be the refer-
number of voltage vectors in series it is best
to resolve the voltages into their in -phase
ence for the currents and voltages within
the circuit, we may define it as having a and out -of -phase components with respect
zero phase angle: E = 100 L0 . Then: to the supply voltage. Then these compo-
nents may be added directly. Hence:
1= 282 L
100 LO
-45 L0 - ( -45 ) so-

= 0.354 L45 amperes VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS

70.4 4!
This same current must flow through all \LINE VOLTAGE'100
three elements of the circuit, since they are 140 , \ O.
in series and the current through one must
already have passed through the other two. ,DROP ACROSS XC' 104.2/ 4S-
Hence the voltage drop across the resistor
(whose phase angle of course is 0 ) is: NI/ET DROP ACROSS XL + XC = 70.4 -4Y
E = IR
Figure 14
E _ (0.354 L45 ) (200 L0 )
Graphical construction of the voltage drops
= 70.8 L 45 volts associated with the series RLC circuit of
figure 13.
The voltage drop across the inductive re-
actance is: ER = 70.8 L45
E =IX,, = 70.8 (cos45 + jsin4S)
E = (0.354 L45 ) (100 L90 ) = 70.8 ( 0.707 + j0.707)
= 35.4 L135 volts = 50 + j50
Similarly, the voltage drop across the capac- E,, = 35.4 L 135
itive reactance is:
E =IXc = 35.4 (cos 135 + j sin 135)
-90 ) = 35.4 ( -0.707 + j0.707)
E _ (0.354 L45 ) (300 L
= -25 + j25
= 106.2 L -45
Note that the voltage drop across the ca- Ec = 106.2 615

= 106.2 (cos-45 + j sin-45) that complex quantities are employed. The

basic relation is:
= 106.2 (0.707 -j0.707)
= 75 -j75
1 1 1 + 1 +
zTotal Z1 Z. Z3

ER +EI, +Ec= (50 +j50) or when only two impedances are involved:
+ ( -25 + j25) + (75 -j75)
_ (50 -25 + 75) +
ZTotal - z,z_
z, + z_
j(50 + 25-75) As an example, using the two -impedance
ER +E,, +Ec= 100 +j0 relation, take the simple case, illustrated in
= 100 L0 , figure 15, of a resistance of 6 ohms in paral-
lel with a capacitive reactance of 4 ohms.
which is equal to the supply voltage.
To simplify the first step in the computa-
tion it is best to put the impedances in the
Checking by It is frequently desirable polar form for the numerator, since multi-
Construction on the to check computations plication is involved, and in the rectangular
Complex Plane involving complex quan- form for the addition in the denominator.
tities by constructing
vectors representing the quantities on the
complex plane. Fig. 14 shows such a con-
zT cal - (6 L0 ) (4 L -90 )
6 -j4
struction for the quantities of the problem
just completed. Note that the answer to 24 L -90
the problem may be checked by construct- 6 -j4
ing a parallelogram with the voltage drop
across the resistor as one side and the net
voltage drop across the capacitor plus the esn
inductor (these may be added algebraically -.i 2.7711
as they are 180 out of phase) as the ad-
jacent side. The vector sum of these two o T
voltages, which is represented by the diag- PARALLEL EQUIVALENT SERIES
onal of the parallelogram, is equal to the CIRCUIT CIRCUIT
supply voltage of 100 volts at zero phase
angle. Figure 15


Resistance and Re- In
a series circuit, such Showing a parallel RC circuit and the equiv-
actante in Parallel just discussed, the cur-
as alent series RC circuit which represents the
same net impedance as the parallel circuit.
rent through all the ele-
ments which go to make up the series cir-
Then the denominator is changed to the
cuit is the same. But the voltage drops
across each of the components are, in gen-
polar form for the division operation:
eral, different from one another. Conversely,
in a parallel RLC or RX circuit the voltage O = tan-1 -4 = tan-1
-0.667 = -33.7
is, obviously, the same across each of the
elements. But the currents through each of
the elements are usually different. 1Z1 _ cos
- 33.7
- 7.21 ohms
There are many ways of solving a prob-
lem involving paralleled resistance and re- 6- j4 =7.21L -33.7
actance; several of these ways will be de-
scribed. In general, it may be said that the Then:
impedance of a number of elements in par-
allel is solved using the same relations as are
24 - 90 - 3.33 L-56.3
used for solving resistors in parallel, except 7.21 L -33.7

= 3.33 (cos - 56.3 + j sin - 56.3 ) Parallel RLC In solving a more complicated
Circuits circuit made up of more than
= 3.33 [0.5548 + j (- 0.832)] two impedances in parallel we
= 1.85 - j 2.77 may elect to use either of two methods of
solution. These methods are called the ad-
Equivalent Series Through the series of op- mittance method and the assumed- voltage
Circuit erations the previous
in method. However, the two methods are
paragraph we have con- equivalent since both use the sum-of- recip-
rocals equation:
verted a circuit composed of two imped-
ances in parallel into an equivalent series cir- 1 1 1 1

cuit composed of impedances in series. An ZTotal Zt Z. Z.i

equivalent series circuit is one which, as
far as the terminals are concerned, acts iden- In the admittance method we use the rela-
tically to the original parallel circuit; the tion Y = 1 /Z, where Y = G + ,B; Y is
current through the circuit and the power called the admittance, defined above, G is
dissipation of the resistive elements are the the conductance or R /Z2 and B is the sus -
same for a given voltage at the specified ceptance or -X /Z2. Then Ytutal = 1 / ZTotal
frequency. = YI + Y2 + Y3 ....
In the assumed -
We can check the equivalent series voltage method we multiply both sides of
circuit of figure 15 with respect to the the equation above by E, the assumed volt-
original circuit by assuming that one volt age, and add the currents, as:
a -c (at the frequency where the capacitive
reactance in the parallel circuit is 4 ohms)
is applied to the terminals of both the series
= 1z1+ Iz2 + Iz3 . . .

and parallel circuits.

In the parallel circuit the current through Then the impedance of the parallel com-
the resistor will be % ampere (0.166 amp) bination may be determined from the rela-
while the current through the capacitor will tion:
be j 1/4 ampere (+ j 0.25 amp) . The total ZTotal = E/IZ Tula l

current will be the sum of these two cur-

rents, or 0.166 + j 0.25 amp. Adding these A -C Voltage Voltage dividers for use with
vectorially we obtain: Dividers alternating current are quite
similar to d -c voltage dividers.
III = .10.1662 + 0.252 = 0.09
However, since capacitors and inductors as
= 0.3 amp. well as resistors oppose the flow of a -c cur-
The dissipation in the resistor will be 12/6 rent, voltage dividers for alternating volt-
= 0.166 watts. ages may take any of the configurations
In the case of the equivalent series cir- shown in figure 16.
cuit the current will be: Since the impedances within each divider
are of the same type, the output voltage is
0.3 amp
III IZI 3.33 =
And the dissipation in the resistor will be:

W= I2R =0.32X 1.85

= 0.09 X 1.85 Ex Ei R= EtEi XCt
Ea EI Lx
Li + La
= 0.166 watts Ea .E1 C,+Ct
So we see that the equivalent series circuit Figure 16
checks exactly with the original parallel cir-

in phase with the input voltage. By using Resonant Frequency Some resistance is always
combinations of different types of imped- present in a circuit be-
ances, the phase angle of the output may be cause it is possessed in some degree by both
shifted in relation to the input phase angle the inductor and the capacitor. If the fre-
at the same time the amplitude is reduced. quency of the alternator E is varied from
Several dividers of this type are shown in nearly zero to some high frequency, there
figure 17. Note that the ratio of output will he one particular frequency at which
voltage is equal to the ratio of the output the inductive reactance and capacitive re-
impedance to the total divider impedance. actance will be equal. This is known as the
This relationship is true only if negligible resonant frequency, and in a series circuit
current is drawn by a load on the output it isthe frequency at which the circuit
terminals. current will be a maximum. Such series -
resonant circuits are chiefly used when it is
desirable to allow a certain frequency to pass
through the circuit (low impedance to this
frequency), while at the same time the cir-
cuit is made to offer considerable opposition
to currents of other frequencies.


Figure 18


Ex EI x`

OD EaE, X If the values of inductance and capaci-

tance both are fixed, there will be only one
E-E, resonant frequency.
VR=+ N-XC)=
If both the inductance and capacitance
Figure 17 are made variable, the circuit may then
be changed or tuned, so that a number
COMPLEX A -C VOLTAGE DIVIDERS of combinations of inductance and capaci-
tance can resonate at the same frequency.
This can be more easily understood when
3 -2 Resonant Circuits one considers that inductive reactance and
capacitive reactance change in opposite direc-
A series circuit such as shown in figure 18 tions as the frequency is varied. For ex-
is said to be in resonance when the applied ample, if the frequency were to remain
frequency is such that the capacitive react- constant and the values of inductance and
ance is exactly balanced by the inductive re- capacitance were then changed, the follow-
actance. At this frequency the two react- ing combinations would have equal react-
ances will cancel in their effects, and the ance:
impedance of the circuit will be at a mini-
mum so that maximum current will flow. In
fact, as shown in figure 19 the net imped- Frequency is constant at 60 Hz.
ance of a series circuit at resonance is equal L is expressed in henrys.
to the resistance which remains in the cir-
cuit after the reactances have been can- C is expressed in microfarads (.000001
celled. farad.)

L equals inductance in microhenrys,

L X,, C Xe f equals frequency in MHz,
.265 100 26.5 100 C equals capacitance in picofarads.
2.65 1000 2.65 1000
26.5 10,000 .265 10,000 Impedance of Series The impedance across
265.00 100,000 .0265 100,000 Resonant Circuits the terminals of a series -
2,650.00 1,000,000 .00265 1,000,000 resonant circuit (figure
18) is:
Frequency From the formula for reso- Z=Vr2+ (X,,-Xc)2
of Res nance, 27f L = 1/ 2afC , the
resonant frequency is deter- where,
mined: Z equals impedance in ohms,
r equals resistance in ohms,
f Xe equals capacitive reactance in ohms,
27 1,/c X,, equals inductive reactance in ohms.
From this equation, it can be seen that
the impedance is equal to the vector sum of
the circuit resistance and the difference be-
tween the two reactances. Since at the
resonant frequency X,, equals Xc, the dif-
ference between them (figure 19) is zero,
so that at resonance the impedance is sim-
ply equal to the resistance of the circuit;
therefore, because the resistance of most
normal radio -frequency circuits is of a very
low order, the impedance is also low.

Figure 19

Showing the variation In reactance of the
separate elements and in the net impedance
of a series resonant circuit (such as figure 18)
with changing frequency. The vertical line Is
drawn at the point of resonance (X,. X,. = 0)

in the series circuit. J?
where, ,,O''
f equals frequency in hertz, >
L equals inductance in henrys, zi i
O 1
C equals capacitance in farads. :`
It is more convenient to express L and FREQUENCY
C in smaller units, especially in making Figure 20
radio -frequency calculations; f can also be
expressed in MHz or kHz. A very useful RESONANCE CURVE
group of such formulas is: Showing the increase in impedance at reson-
ance for a parallel- resonant circuit, and

or L = 25,330 or C
- 25,330
similarly, the increase in current at
for a series- resonant circuit. The sharpness of
resonance is determined by the Q of the cir-
cuit, as illustrated by a comparison between
where, the three curves.

At frequencies higher and lower than the the circuit is thereby decreased. Selectivity
resonant frequency, the difference between in this case can be defined as the ability of
the reactances will be a definite quantity a circuit to discriminate against frequencies
and will add with the resistance to make the adjacent to (both above and below) the
impedance higher and higher as the circuit resonant frequency.
is tuned off the resonant frequency.
If Xe should be greater than XL, then the Voltage Across Coil Because the a -c or r-f
term (X1. -
Xe) will give a negative num- and Capacitor in
Series Circuit
voltage across a coil and
capacitor is proportional
ber. However, when the difference is squared
the product is always positive. This means to the reactance (for a
that the smaller reactance is subtracted given current), the actual voltages across
from the larger, regardless of whether it be the coil and across the capacitor may be
capacitive or inductive, and the difference is many times greater than the terminal volt-
squared. age of the circuit. At resonance, the voltage
across the coil (or the capacitor) is Q
Current and Voltage Formulas for calculat- times the applied voltage. Since the Q (or
in Series- Resonant ing currents and volt- merit factor) of a series circuit can be in
Circuits ages in a series- resonant the neighborhood of 100 or more, the volt-
circuit are similar to age across the capacitor, for example, may
those of Ohm's Law be high enough to cause flashover, even
E though the applied voltage is of a value con-
I= Z
E = IZ siderably below that at which the capacitor
is rated.
The complete equations are:

I- E Circuit Q -
ness of Res
An extremely important
property of a capacitor
V r2 + (XL, - Xc) 2 or an inductor is its fac-
tor-of- merit, more generally called its Q.
E =1 \/r2+ (X,, -X0)2 It is this factor, Q, which primarily deter-
Inspection of the above formulas will mines the sharpness of resonance of a tuned
show the following to apply to series -reso- circuit. This factor can be expressed as the
nant circuits: When the impedance is low, ratio of the reactance to the resistance, as
the current will be high; conversely, when follows:
the impedance is high, the current will be 2rfL
low. Q R
Since it is known that the impedance will
be very low at the resonant frequency, it where,
follows that the current will be a maximum
at this point. If a graph is plotted of the R equals total resistance.
current against the frequency either side
of resonance, the resultant curve becomes Skin Effect The actual resistance in a wire
what is known as a resonance curte. Such a or an inductor can be far greater
curve is shown in figure 20, the frequency than the d -c value when the coil is used in a
being plotted against current in the series - radio- frequency circuit; this is because the
resonant circuit. current does not travel through the entire
Several factors will have an effect on the cross section of the conductor, but has a
shape of this resonance curve, of which re- tendency to travel closer and closer to the
sistance and L -to -C ratio are the important surface of the wire as the frequency is in-
considerations. The lower curves in figure creased. This is known as the skin effect.
20 show the effect of adding increasing val- The actual current carrying portion of the
ues of resistance to the circuit. It will be wire is decreased as a result of the skin
seen that the peaks become less and less effect so that the ratio of a -c to d -c resist-
prominent as the resistance is increased; ance of the wire, called the resistance ratio,
thus, it can be said that the selectivity of is increased. The resistance ratio of wires to

be used at frequencies below about 500 kHz

may be materially reduced through the use
of lit: wire. Litz wire, of the type common-
ly used to wind the coils of 455-kHz i -f
transformers, may consist of 3 to 10 strands
of insulated wire, about No. 40 in size, with
the individual strands connected together
only at the ends of the coils. Figure 21
Variation of Q Examination of the equation PARALLEL -RESONANT CIRCUIT
with Frequency for determining Q might
The inductance I. and capacitance C comprise
give rise to the thought that the reactive elements of the parallel -resonant
even though the resistance of an inductor (anti ant) tank circuit, and the resistance
increases with frequency, the inductive re- R indicates the sum of the r -f resistance of the
coil and capacitor, plus the resistance cou-
actance does likewise, so that the Q might pled into the circuit from the external load.
be a constant. Actually, however, it works In most cases the tuning capacitor has much
lower r -f resistance than the coil and can
out in practice that the Q of an inductor therefore be ignored in comparison with the
will reach a relatively broad maximum at coil resistance and the coupled -in resistance.
The instrument M, indicates the "line current'
some particular frequency. Hence, coils nor- which keeps the circuit in a state of oscilla-
mally are designed in such a manner that the tion -this current is the same as the funda-
peak in their curve of Q versus frequency mental component of the plate t of a
class -C amplifier which might be feeding the
will occur at the normal operating frequen- tank circuit. The instrument M. indicates the
cy of the coil in the circuit for which it is "tank current" which is equal to the line cur-
rent multiplied by the operating Q of the
designed. tank circuit.
The Q of a capacitor ordinarily is much
higher than that of the best coil. Therefore, storage tank when incorporated in vacuum -
it usually is the merit of the coil that limits tube circuits.
the over -all Q of the circuit. Contrasted with series resonance, there
At audio frequencies the core losses in an are two kinds of current which must be con-
iron -core inductor greatly reduce the Q sidered in a parallel -resonant circuit: (1)
from the value that would be obtained sim- the line current, as read on the indicating
ply by dividing the reactance by the resist- meter M,, (2) the circulating current which
ance. Obviously the core losses also represent flows within the parallel LCR portion of the
circuit resistance, just as though the loss circuit. See figure 21.
occurred in the wire itself. At the resonant frequency, the line cur-
rent (as read on the meter M,) will drop to
Parallel In radio circuits, parallel reso- a very low value although the circulating
Resonance nance (more correctly termed current in the LC circuit may be quite large.
anliresonance) is more frequent- It is interesting to note that the parallel -
ly encountered than series resonance; in fact, resonant circuit acts in a distinctly opposite
it is the basic foundation of receiver and manner to that of a series -resonant circuit,
transmitter circuit operation. A circuit is in which the current is at a maximum and
shown in figure 21. the impedance is minimum at resonance. It
is for this reason that in a parallel- resonant
circuit the principal consideration is one of
The "Tank" In this circuit, as contrasted impedance rather than current. It is also sig-
Circuit with a circuit for series reso- nificant that the impedance curve for paral-
nance, L (inductance) and C lel circuits is very nearly indentical to that
(capacitance) are connected in parallel, yet of the current curve for series resonance.
the combination can be considered to be in The impedance at resonance is expressed as:
series with the remainder of the circuit. This
combination of L and C, in conjunction (27rfL) 2
with R, the resistance which is principally Z= R
included in L, is sometimes called a tank
circuit because it effectively functions as a where,

Z equals impedance in ohms, tuned. Increasing the Q of the circuit (low-

L equals inductance in henrys, ering the resistance) will obviously increase
f equals frequency in hertz, both the selectivity and gain.
R equals resistance in ohms.
Circulating Tank The Q of a circuit has
Or, impedance can be expressed as a func- Current at Resonance a definite bearing on
tion of Q as: the circulating tank
Z = 27rf LQ
current at resonance. This tank current is
very nearly the value of the line current
showing that the impedance of a circuit is multiplied by the effective circuit O. For
directly proportional to its effective Q at example: an r-f line current of 0.050 am-
resonance. pere, with a circuit Q of 100, will give a
The curves illustrated in figure 20 can be circulating tank current of approximately
applied to parallel resonance. Reference to 5 amperes. From this it can be seen that
the curve will show that the effect of adding both the inductor and the connecting wires
resistance to the circuit will result in both a in a circuit with a high O must be of very
broadening out and lowering of the peak of low resistance, particularly in the case of
the curve. Since the voltage of the circuit high-power transmitters, if heat losses are
is directly proportional to the impedance, to be held to a minimum.
and since it is this voltage that is applied to Because the voltage across the tank at
the grid of the vacuum tube in a detector resonance is determined by the O, it is pos-
or amplifier circuit, the impedance curve sible to develop very high peak voltages
must have a sharp peak in order for the across a high -Q tank with but little line
circuit to be selective. If the curve is broad - current.
topped in shape, both the desired signal and
the interfering signals at close proximity to Effect of Coupling If a parallel- resonant cir-
resonance will give nearly equal voltages on on Impedance cuit is coupled to another
the grid of the tube, and the circuit will circuit, such as an anten-
then be nonselective ; that is , it will tune
na output circuit, the impedance and the
effective Q of the parallel circuit is decreased
as the coupling becomes closer. The effect
Effect of L/C Ratio In order that the highest of closer (tighter) coupling is the same as
in Parallel Circuits possible voltage can be though an actual resistance were added in
developed across a paral- series with the parallel tank circuit. The re-
lel- resonant circuit, the impedance of this sistance thus coupled into the tank circuit
circuit must be very high. The impedance can be considered as being reflected from the
will be greater with conventional coils of output or load circuit to the driver circuit.
limited Q when the ratio of inductance to The behavior of coupled circuits depends
capacitance is great, that is, when L is large largely on the amount of coupling, as shown
as compared with C. When the resistance of in figure 22. The coupled currrent in the
the circuit is very low, Xi, will equal 'Cc at secondary circuit is small, varying with fre-
maximum impedance. There are innumer- quency, being maximum at the resonant
able ratios of L and C that will have equal frequency of the circuit. As the coupling
reactance, at a given resonant frequency, is increased between the two circuits, the
exactly as in the case in a series -resonant secondary resonance curve becomes broader
circuit. and the resonant amplitude increases, until
In practice, where a certain value of in- the reflected resistance is equal to the pri-
ductance is tuned by a variable capacitance mary resistance. This point is called the
over a fairly wide range in frequency, the critical coupling point. With greater cou-
L 'C ratio will be small at the lowest -fre- pling, the secondary resonance curve becomes
quency end and large at the high- frequency broader and develops double resonance
end. The circuit, therefore, will have un- humps, which become more pronounced
equal gain and selectivity at the two ends and farther apart in frequency as the cou-
of the band of frequencies which is being pling between the two circuits is increased.



Figure 22

Tank -Circuit When the plate circuit of a monics and high impedance to the funda-
Flywheel Effect class -B or class -C operated
tube is connected to a par-
allel- resonant circuit tuned to the same fre-
the fundamental -
mental (being resonant to the latter), only
a sine -wave voltage
appears across the tank circuit in substantial
quency as the exciting voltage for the ampli- magnitude.
fier, the plate current serves to maintain this
L/C circuit in a state of oscillation. Loaded and Confusion sometimes exists as
The plate current is supplied in short Unloaded Q to the relationship between
pulses which do not begin to resemble a sine the unloaded and the loaded
wave, even though the grid may be excited Q of the tank circuit in the plate of an r-f
by a sine-wave voltage. These spurts of power amplifier. In the normal case the
plate current are converted into a sine wave loaded Q of the tank circuit is determined
in the plate tank circuit by virtue of the by such factors as the operating conditions
Q or flywheel effect of the tank. of the amplifier, bandwidth of the signal to
If a tank did not have some resistance be emitted, permissible level of harmonic
losses, it would, when given a "kick" with a radiation, and such factors. The normal
single pulse, continue to oscillate indefinitely. value of loaded Q for an r -f amplifier used
With a moderate amount of resistance or for communications service is from perhaps
"friction" in the circuit the tank will still 6 to 20. The unloaded Q of the tank circuit
have inertia, and continue to oscillate with determines the efficiency of the output cir-
decreasing amplitude for a time after being cuit and is determined by the losses in the
given a "kick." With such a circuit, almost tank coil, its leads and plugs and jacks if
pure sine -wave voltage will be developed any, and by the losses in the tank capacitor
across the tank circuit even though power which ordinarily are very low. The unloaded
is supplied to the tank in short pulses or Q of a good quality large diameter tank coil
spurts, so long as the spurts are evenly in the high- frequency range may be as high
spaced with respect to time and have a fre- as 500 to 800, and values greater than 300
quency that is the same as the resonant fre- are quite common.
quency of the tank.
Another way to visualize the action of
the tank is to recall that a resonant tank Tank -Circuit Since the unloaded Q of a tank
with moderate Q will discriminate strongly Efficiency circuit is determined by the
against harmonics of the resonant frequency. minimum losses in the tank,
The distorted plate current pulse in a class - while the loaded Q is determined by useful
C amplifier contains not only the funda- loading of the tank circuit from the external
mental frequency (that of the grid excita- load in addition to the internal losses in the
tion voltage) but also higher harmonics. As tank circuit, the relationship between the
the tank offers low impedance to the har- two Q values determines the operating effi-

ciency of the tank circuit. Expressed in the FUNDAMENTAL PLUS 3RD HARMONIC

form of an equation, the loaded efficiency of FUNDAMENTAL PLUS 3RD AND

a tank circuit is:

Tank efficiency = 11 - Q/ X 100

QII equals unloaded Q of the tank circuit,
Q1 equals loaded Q of the tank circuit.
Figure 24
As an example, if the unloaded Q of the
tank circuit for a class -C r -f power ampli-
fier is 400, and the external load is coupled
to the tank circuit by an amount such that
the loaded Q is 20, the tank -circuit effi- FUNDAMENTAL PLUS 3RD. STH.

ciency will be: eff. = (1

100, or (1 - -
20/400) X
0.05) X 100, or 95 per cent.

Hence f per cent of the power output of ?TN HARMONIC IF)

the class -C amplifier will be lost as heat in

the tank circuit and the remaining 95 per
cent will be delivered to the load.

3 -3 Nonsinusoidal Waves
Figure 25
and Transients
Pure sine waves, discussed previously, are FUNDAMENTAL, THIRD, FIFTH,
basic wave shapes. Waves of many different AND SEVENTH HARMONICS
and complex shapes are used in electronics,
called harmonics, and are always a whole
particularly square waves, sawtooth waves,
and peaked waves.
number of times higher than the funda-
mental. For example, the frequency twice as
Wave Composition high as the fundamental is called the second
Any periodic wave (one harmonic.
that repeats itself in defi-
nite time intervals) is composed of sine The Square Wave Figure 23 compares a
waves of different frequencies and ampli-
square wave with a sine
tudes, added together. The sine wave which wave (A) of the same frequency. If another
has the same frequency as the complex, peri-
sine wave (B) of smaller amplitude, but
odic wave is called the fundamental. The
frequencies higher than the fundamental are three times the frequency of A, called the
third harmonic, is added to A, the resultant
-FUNDAMENTAL SINE WAVE CAI wave (C) more nearly approaches the de-
3RD HARMONIC ICI sired square wave.
- SQUARE WAVE This resultant curve (figure 24) is added
to a fifth -harmonic curve (D), and the sides
of the resulting curve (E) are steeper than
before. This new curve is shown in figure
25 after a 7th -harmonic component has been
added to it, making the sides of the com-
posite wave even steeper. Addition of more
higher odd harmonics will bring the result-
Figure 23 ant wave nearer and nearer to the desired
square -wave shape. The square wave will be
COMPOSITE WAVE- FUNDAMENTAL achieved if an infinite number of odd har-
PLUS THIRD HARMONIC monics are added to the original sine wave.


The Sawtooth Wave in the same fashion, a
FUNDAMENTAL sawtooth ware is made
up of different sine waves (figure 26). The
addition of all harmonics, odd and even,


\ produces the sawtooth waveform.
The Peaked Wave Figure 27 shows the com-
position of a peaked trace.
Note how the addition of each successive
harmonic makes the peak of the resultant


higher, and the sides steeper.

Other Waveforms The three preceding ex-

amples show how a com-
i plex periodic wave is composed of a funda-
SAWTOOTH WAVE mental wave and different harmonics. The
AND 7TH HARMONIC! shape of the resultant wave depends on the
harmonics that are added, their relative am-
plitudes, and relative phase relationships. In
general, the steeper the sides of the wave-
Figure 26 form, the more harmonics it contains.
A -C Transient Circuits If an a -c voltage is
substituted for the d -c
FUNDAMENTAL input voltage in the RC transient circuits
discussed in Chapter 2, the same principles
may be applied in the analysis of the tran-
sient behavior. An RC coupling circuit is
designed to have a long time constant with
respect to the lowest frequency it must pass.
Such a circuit is shown in figure 28. If a
nonsinusoidal voltage is to be passed un-
changed through the coupling circuit, the
time constant must be long with respect
to the period of the lowest frequency con-
tained in the voltage wave.

RC Differentiator An RC voltage divider

and Integrator that designed to distort
the input waveform is
known as a differentiator or integrator, de-
pending on the locations of the output taps.
AND 7TH HARMONICS The output from a differentiator is taken
AND STH HARMONIC across the resistance, while the output from
an integrator is taken across the capacitor.
Such circuits will change the shape of any
complex a -c waveform that is impressed on
them. This distortion is a function of the
value of the time constant of the circuit as
compared to the period of the waveform.
Neither a differentiator nor an integrator
Figure 27 can change the shape of a pure sine wave,
they will merely shift the phase of the wave
COMPOSITION OF A PEAKED WAVE (figure 29). The differentiator output is a

sine wave leading the input wave, and the

integrator output is a sine wave which lags e100V ec'INTEGRATOR OUTPUT

the input wave. The sum of the two out- (PEAK)

puts at any instant equals the instantaneous eR= OIFTERENTIATOR OUTPUT

input voltage.
100v C=O.I LIP

1000 HERTZ

R xC= 50000 usECONOs 100 V

+125 V.

Figure 28 T5 V.

-125 V.

e0 (ec)
-25 V.
Figure 30


Sawtooth -Wave Input If a back -to -back saw -

tooth voltage is applied
to an RC circuit having a time constant
one -sixth the period of the input voltage,
the result is shown in figure 31. The capaci-
tor voltage will closely follow the input
voltage, if the time constant is short, and
Figure 29 the integrator output closely resembles the
RC DIFFERENTIATOR AND input. The amplitude is slightly reduced
INTEGRATOR ACTION ON and there is a slight phase lag. Since the
A SINE WAVE voltage across the capacitor is increasing at
a constant rate, the charging and discharg-
Square -Wove Input If
square -wave voltage
a ing current is constant. The output voltage
impressed on the cir-
is of the differentiator, therefore, is constant
cuit of figure 30, a square-wave voltage during each half of the sawtooth input.
output may be obtained across the integrat-
ing capacitor if the time constant of the Miscellaneous Various voltage waveforms
circuit allows the capacitor to become fully Inputs other than those represented
charged. In this particular case, the capacitor here may be applied to short -
never fully charges, and as a result the out- time- constant RC circuits for the purpose of
put of the integrator has a smaller ampli- producing across the resistor an output volt-
tude than the input. The differentiator out- age with an amplitude proportional to the
put has a maximum value greater than the rate of change of the input signal. The
input amplitude, since the voltage left on shorter the RC time constant is made with
the capacitor from the previous half wave respect to the period of the input wave, the
will add to the input voltage. Such a more;nearly the voltage across the capacitor
circuit, when used as a differentiator, is often conforms to the input voltage. Thus, the
called a peaker. Peaks of twice the input differentiator output becomes of particular
amplitude may be produced. importance in very short - time- constant,RC

circuits. Differentiator outputs for various
e. 00V J OUTPUT (e() types of input waves are shown in figure 32.
Square -Wove Test The application of a

for Audio Equipment square -wave input sig-
nal to audio equipment,
and the observation of the reproduced out-
put signal on an oscilloscope will provide
a quick and accurate check of the over -all
operation of audio equipment.
Low -frequency and high- frequency re-
sponse, as well as transient response can be
e0 / % i+144TA4rFO&If ;l
examined easily.
- +90 If the amplifier is deficient in low -fre-
quency response, the flat top of the square
wave will be canted, as in figure 33. If the
INTEGRATOR (ec) high - frequency response is inferior, the rise
time of the output wave will be retarded
(figure 34).
Figure 31 An amplifier with a limited high- and
RC DIFFERENTIATOR AND low- frequency response will turn the square
INTEGRATOR ACTION ON wave into the approximation of a sawtooth
A SAWTOOTH WAVE wave (figure 3 f) .

3 -4 Transformers
When two coils are placed in such induc-
tive relation to each other that the lines of
force from one cut across the turns of the
other inducing a current, the combination
T can be called a transformer. The name is
derived from the fact that energy is trans-
formed from one winding to another. The
inductance in which the original flux is
produced is called the primary; the induct-
ance which receives the induced current is
called the secondary. In a radio- receiver
power transformer, for example, the coil
through which the 120 -volt a.c. passes is
the primary, and the coil from which a
higher or lower voltage than the a -c line
potential is obtained is the secondary.
Transformers can have either air or mag-
netic cores, depending on the frequencies at
which they are to be operated. The reader
should thoroughly impress on his mind the
fact that current can be transferred from
one circuit to another only if the primary
current is changing or alternating. From
this it can be seen that a power transformer
Figure 32
cannot possibly function as such when the
Differentiator outputs of short -tune- constant primary is supplied with nonpulsating d -c.
RC circuits for various input voltage wave -
A power transformer usually has a mag-
shapes. The output voltage is proportional fo
the rate of change of the input voltage. netic core which consists of laminations of

Figure 33
Amplifier deficient in low- frequency response will distort square wave applied to the input
circuit, as shown. A 60-Hz square wave may be used.
A: Drop in gain at low frequencies
II: Leading phase shift at low frequencies
C: Lagging phase shift at low frequencies
D: Accentuated low -free y gain

Figure 34 Figure 35

Output waveshape of amplifier having defi- Output waveshape of amplifier having limited
ciency in high -frequency response. Tested low -frequency and high-frequency response.
with 10 -kHz square wave. Tested with kHz sq
1 wave.

iron, built up into a square or rectangular N1. E1.

form, with acenter opening or window. Ns Es
The secondary windings may be several in where,
number, each perhaps delivering a different N1. equals number of turns in the primary,
voltage. The secondary voltages will be Ns equals number of turns in the sec-
proportional to the turns ratio and the ondary,
primary voltage. equals voltage across the primary,

Es equals voltage across the secondary.

Types of Transformers are used in al- In practice, the transformation ratio of a
Transformers ternating- current circuits to transformer is somewhat less than the turns
transfer power at one voltage ratio, since unity coupling does not exist
and impedance to another circuit at another between the primary and secondary wind-
voltage and impedance. There are three main ings.
classifications of transformers: those made
for use in power- frequency circuits, those Ampere Turns (NI) The current that flows in
made for audio - frequency applications, and the secondary winding as
those made for radio frequencies. a result of the induced voltage must pro-
duce a flux which exactly equals the primary
The Transformation In a perfect transformer flux. The magnetizing force of a coil is ex-
Ratio all the magnetic flux pressed as the product of the number of
lines produced by the turns in the coil times the current flowing
primary winding link crosses every turn of in it:
the secondary winding (figure 36). For such Np Is
N1. X I1. = Ns X Is, or
a transformer, the ratio of the primary and Nc 1
secondary voltages is exactly the same as the where,
ratio of the number of turns in the two 11. equals primary current,
windings: /s equals secondary current.

It can be seen from this expression that N equals turns ratio of transformer,
when the voltage is stepped up, the current Zs equals impedance of secondary load.
is stepped down, and vice versa.

Leakage Reactance Since unity coupling does

not exist in a practical
transformer, part of the flux passing from
the primary circuit to the secondary circuit +e
follows a magnetic circuit acted on by the
Figure 37
primary only. The same is true of the sec-
ondary flux. These leakage fluxes cause leak- IMPEDANCE -MATCHING TRANSFORMER
age reactance in the transformer, and tend The reflected impedance Z. varies directly in
to cause the transformer to have poor volt- proportion to the dory load IL and
age regulation. To reduce such leakage re- directly in proportion to the square of the
primary -to- dory turns ratio.
actance, the primary and secondary windings
should be in close proximity to each other. Thus any specific load connected to the
The more expensive transformers have inter- secondary terminals of the transformer will
leaved windings to reduce inherent leakage be transformed to a different specific value
reactance. appearing across the primary terminals of
the transformer. By the proper choice of
PRIMARY SECONDARY turns ratio, any reasonable value of second-
ary load impedance may be "reflected" into
the primary winding of the transformer to
E, produce the desired transformer primary im-
pedance. The phase angle of the primary
Np N,
"reflected" impedance will be the same as
TURNS the phase angle of the load impedance. A
Np Ep capacitive secondary load will be presented
Ns Es to the transformer source as a capacitance,
Np s Ip Ns Is a resistive load will present a resistive "re-
x flection" to the primary source. Thus the
Z, (N,) primary source "sees" a transformer load
entirely dependent on the secondary load
impedance and the turns ratio of the trans-
Figure 36 former (figure 37).
THE LOW- FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER The Auto- The type of transformer in fig -
transformer ure 38, when wound with heavy
Power is transformed from the primary to the wire over an iron core, is a com-
secondary winding by means of the varying
magnetic field. The voltage induced in the sec- mon device in primary power circuits for
ondary for a given primary voltage is pro- the purpose of increasing or decreasing the
portional to the ratio of secondary to primary
turns. The impedance transformation is pro- line voltage. In effect, it is merely a con-
portional to the square of the primary to sec- tinuous winding with taps taken at various
ondary turns ratio.
points along the winding, the input voltage
being applied to the bottom and also to
Impedance In the ideal transformer, the one tap on the winding. If the output is
Transformation impedance of the secondary taken from this same tap, the voltage ratio
load is reflected back into will be 1 to 1; i.e., the input voltage will be
the primary winding in the following rela- the same as the output voltage. On the other
tionship: hand, if the output tap is moved down to-
ward the common terminal, there will be
Z,. = N2Zs, or N = a stepdown in the turns ratio with a conse-
quent stepdown in voltage. The initial set-
ting of the middle input tap is chosen so
7_1. equals reflected primary impedance,
that the number of turns will have sufficient

element (Z,5) and a parallel element (Z11) as
illustrated in figure 39. A definite number of
L sections may be combined into basic filter
sections, called T networks or it networks,
also shown in figure 39. Both the T and ir
networks may be divided in two to form
Figure 38 half-sections.

Schematic diagram of an aufotransfarmer L- sccriONS T -NET WORN

showing the method of c Hing it to the

line and to the load. When only a small
amount of step up or step down is required,
the autotransfarmer may be much smaller zII
physically than would be a transformer with
a separate ndary winding. Continuously T T
variable autotransformers (Variac and Power-
stat) are widely used commercially. PI - NErWUAN

reactance to keep the no-load primary cur-

rent at a reasonable low value.

3 -5 Electric Filters
Figure 39
There are many applications where it is Complex filters may be made up from these
desirable to pass a d -c component without basic filter sections.
passing a superimposed a -c component, or
to pass all frequencies above or below a Filter Sections The most common filter sec-
certain frequency while rejecting or attenu- tion is one in which the two
ating all others, or to pass only a certain impedances Z,5 and ZB are so related that
band or bands of frequencies while attenu- their arithmetical product is a constant: ZA
ating all others. X Z = k2 at all frequencies. This type of
All of these things can be done by suit- filter section is called a constant -k section.
able combinations of inductance, capaci- A section having a sharper cutoff fre-
tance, and resistance. However, as whole quency than a constant -k section, but less
books have been devoted to nothing but attenuation at frequencies far removed from
deciric filters, it can be appreciated that it cutoff is the m- derived section, so called
is possible only to touch on them superficial- because the shunt or series element is reso-
ly in a general- coverage book. nated with a reactance of the opposite sign.
If the complementary reactance is added
Filter Operation A filter acts by virtue of its to the series arm, the section is said to be
property of offering very shunt derived; if added to the shunt arm,
high impedance to the undesired frequencies, series derived. Each impedance of the m-
while offering but little impedance to the deri.ved section is related to a corresponding
desired frequencies. This will also apply to impedance in the constant -k section by some
d. c. with a superimposed a -c component, as factor which is a function of the constant
d. c. can be considered as an alternating cur- in. In turn, in is a function of the ratio
rent of zero frequency so far as filter dis- between the cutoff frequency and the fre-
cussion goes. quency of infinite attenuation, and will
Basic Filters Filters are divided into four have some value between zero and one. As
classes, descriptive of the fre- the value of ni approaches zero, the sharp-
quency bands which they are designed to ness of cutoff increases, but the less will be
transmit: high -pass, low -pass, bandpass, and the attenuation at several times cutoff fre-
band- elimination. Each of these classes of fil- quency. A value of 0.6 may be used for m
ters is made up of elementary filter sections in most applications. The "notch" frequency
called L sections which consist of a series is determined by the resonant frequency of



2C1 2C,


12 1 :C 14

L1 mLk CI. m
Ch 4m
Cf *4m
X C2. %Ck
C2. mCh

L1J J12 2

^ 12R
Lk m2 f
CM 9n17R



Figure 40

the tuned filter element. The amount of reduce the transmission of unwanted high
attenuation obtained at the "notch" when frequencies and hence to reduce the band-
a derived section is used is determined by width occupied by a radiophone signal. The
the effective Q of the resonant arm (fig- effectiveness of a properly designed and
ure 40) . properly used filter circuit in reducing QRM
and sideband splatter should not be under-
Filter Assembly Constant -k sections and m- estimated.
derived sections may be cas- In recent years, high- frequency filters
caded to obtain the combined characteristics have become commonplace in TVI reduction.
of sharp cutoff and good remote frequency High -pass type filters are placed before the
attenuation. Such a filter is known as a input stage of television receivers to reject
composite filter. The amount of attenuation the fundamental signal of low- frequency
will depend on the number of filter sec- transmitters. Low -pass filters are used in the
tions used, and the shape of the transmission output circuits of low -frequency transmit-
curve depends on the type of filter sec- ters to prevent harmonics of the transmitter
tions used. All filters have some insertion from being radiated in the television chan-
loss. This attenuation is usually uniform to nels.
all frequencies within the passband. The The chart of figure 41 gives design data
insertion loss varies with the type of filter, and procedure on the r section type of
the Q of the components, and the type of filter. The m- derived sections with an m of
termination employed. 0.6 will be found to be most satisfactory as
the input section (or half- section) of the
Filter Design Electric wave filters have long usual filter since the input impedance of such
Techniques been used in some amateur sta- a section is most constant over the passband
tions in the audio channel to of the filter section.









m =0.6



i T1CZ1
Z 0

Li. Lk
Lk n12
C2 Ck CI 0.267 Ck I qm 2

C2 0.6 CkmCk

Ck nf2R z ..- f4
1-(fir .0.6 12 F

1L1 iL1


_ - ZC1 q
d I
2L2- 2LZO 2L2
2L2 2L2 - 2L2
'(>---- I I

R LI 3.75 Lk+' m2 % Lk
I n ll Lz. L Ck Ck SAME VALUES AS m06

C 1 0.6

1 4

m I_ /1\2 .0.6

fl / :"

Figure 41

Through the use of the curves and equations which accompany the diagrams in the illustra -
Hon above it is possible to determine the lues of inductance and capacitance for
the usual types of pi- section Alters.

Simple filters may use either L, T, or 7r R (L) or R(C), respectively, on the right -
sections. Since the 7r section is the more hand scale. The values of L and C are
commonly used type, figure 41 gives design found where the straightedge intersects the
data and characteristics for this type of center scales. (Nomograph by Applebaum,
filter. reprinted with permission from the March,
1967 issue of EDN Magazine, Rogers Pub-
3 -6 Low -Pass Filter lishing Co., Englewood, Colo.)
Nomographs The Series The low -pass, m-derived
m- Derived Filter filter has a passband from
The Constent-K The low -pass constant -k d.c. to the cutoff frequen-
Filter filter has a passband from cy, f,,. Beyond this frequency, the signal is
d.c. to the cutoff fre- attenuated considerably to f 00 , as shown in
quency (f,). Beyond this frequency, the figure 44.
signal is attenuated as shown in figure 42. The T section configuration used in series
Pi and T configurations for constant -k m- derived filters is shown in the nomograph
filters are shown in the illustration, with ap- of figure 44, with the appropriate design
propriate design formulas. The nomograph formulas. The correct value of m is found
(#1 of figure 43) provides a graphical solu- by the use of nomograph # 2 of figure 45.
tion to these equations. The values of L and No units are given for f,, and since f.
C can be determined by aligning a straight- any frequency may be used provided that
edge from f
on the left -hand scale to both scales use the same units. The value

Figure 42

000- 0.3 0.003

04 -- 0.

b - 0.005

600 0N =-- 0000


- 0.02

- 0.03

a 0.04
100 5

- 0.05

6 0.06

e oos
10 01

20 = 02 _

100- 30
_ 0.3
i 9O, -
3-a0 0.';'
9 -
60 - 0.6 r
80 os
100 I

50 -

40 200 - ?

300 3

400 a

600 - 5
For a
l,iler -.19
11 use 161

800 F- IollO rn9 scale oc Sorb

oh 10
1.100 C L-ei
29 - 20

e 0e99n 0-lermrmlm9
pa" constant 9 611er mrin Nom09ra91r No 1,1c 1900. 1,190461nF,
q - ,.,II ,I 1901 and m 90 Mens m 3. 30 rolaesall almO ono C.51.61

Figure 43
Tho Alter termination value (R) is used on separate scales (right -hand) for determination of
C and L. An example is shown for R = 90 ohms.


Figure 44

m 12

11I111 1111l I I I I I, 1 I I l I 1 1 1 l i 1 r 1 I 1 I l l l 1 1, 1 1 111

01 03 04 05 06 07 011 09


Figure 45
f and f.

of in is determined by aligning a straightedge LR and CA are found by using the right -

from the value of f ao on its scale through hand scales.
the value of f on its scale. The value of By extending a straightedge from either
m is found where the straightedge inter- L or C to the value of in (as found in figure
sects the horizontal m scale. 45) on their appropriate scales, LA, L8, and
The values of filter components LA, L8, C are found where this line intersects the
and C are found with the aid of nomograph center scale. Any units may be used for
#3 of figure 46. Note that L,5, and CB are L or C provided the same units are used
found by using the left -hand scales, and for C8 or LA and L8, respectively. (Nomo-

L 1111

olrlm IaIL,0R Cel

10 100


0 8
6 2--
r 0

or CA


6t_ 06
Z 30

30 20 1 03


o z- 045

1- os


f- --06
tlo If 065
e 08 07

-6 -0 75



2 02

Z o 05

0 03

Olf 02 LeIN)

IL6 OR C,1

Figure 46

4- I






Figure 47

IO.. 4


025 F.C.





A time -varying

Figure 49




electromagnetic field may be

propagated through empty space. The wave
may be considered to be made up of inter-
related electric and magnetic fields at right
angles to each other and lying in a plane. In
this illustration, the electric (E) and magnetic
(H) fields are transverse to the direction of
Figure 48 propagation (out of the page).
SERIES en- DERIVED FILTER DESIGNED FOR and C2 = 0.51 fd. Therefore, on nomo-
f, =7 kHz, f o= 8 kHz AND R= graph #3 of figure 46, LA = 0.002 henry
(2mH), CB = 0.25 fd and LB = 0.0017
graph by Applebaum, reprinted with per- henry (1.7 mH) . The final filter design is
mission from the April, 1697 issue of EDN shown in figure 48.
magazine, Rogers Publishing Co., Engle-
wood, Coo.) 3 -7 Modern Filter Design
The Shunt, The pi section for the The traditional image -parameter filter
m- Derived Filtershunt, m- derived filter is (discussed in the previous section) has
shown in figure 47, using largely been superseded by the recently de-
the nomenclature shown. The values of veloped elliptic-function (Chebishev) filter
these components are found by using homo- design. This technique is well suited to com-
graphs #2 and #3 of figures 45 and 46, puter programming which stores a file of
just as with the series, m- derived filter de- precalculated and cataloged designs normal-
sign. ized to a cutoff frequency of one Hz and
Example: Design a low -pass, series m- terminations of one ohm. The catalog may
derived filter with a cutoff frequency of be readily adapted to a specific use by scaling
7 kHz, a maximum attenuation at 8 kHz, the normalized parameters to the cutoff fre-
and terminating in 90 ohms. Using the quency and terminating resistance desired.
nomograph of figure 45, m is determined to Filters designed by this new technique pro-
be 0.485. vide superior performance with less com-
On the nomograph (#1 of figure 42) ponents than equivalent filters designed by
using fe = 7 kHz and R = 90 on both the image -parameter scheme. A catalog of
R(C) and R(L) scales, the value of L and synthesis systems may be found in Simplified
C are determined to be: L2 = 0.0042 henry Modern Filter Design, by Geffe, published by

John F. Ryder Publisher, Inc., New York, cept of electron flow in a conductor, there is
a division of Hayden Publishing Co., Inc. no suggestion of energy radiation into space.
A set of relationships termed Marwell's equa-
3 -8 The Electromagnetic tions form the basic tools for the analysis of
Field most electromagnetic -wave problems. The
equations picture an interplay of energy be-
A time -varying electromagnetic field may tween electric and magnetic fields in free
be propagated through empty space at the space which is self -maintained, with the
velocity of light. Such a moving field is energy radiating outward from the point of
commonly called an electromagnetic wave. origin. The equations express the continuous
The wave may be considered to be made up nature of electric and magnetic fields and
of interrelated electric and magnetic fields define how changes in one field bring about
at right angles to each other and lying in a changes in the other field. The interplay of
plane, as indicated in figure 49. The wave, energy between the fields, moreover, produce
in addition to being propagated through displacement waves traveling with the veloc-
space, may be reflected or refracted at the ity of light. The compound disturbance thus
boundary between two types of media. The created is described in Maxwell's equations,
drawing illustrates a plane wave, with the which were first proven in fact by Hertz,
electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields trans- who generated an electromagnetic (radio)
verse to the direction of propagation (out of wave in 1888, fifteen years after Maxwell
page). predicted its existence.
The abstract concept of an electromag- A complete discussion of electromagnetic
netic wave traveling through space is diffi- fields and Maxwell's equations may be found
cult to comprehend without the assistance of in Flectromagnetics, by John D. Kraus,
mathematical proof. Viewed from the con- McGraw -Hill Book Co., New York.

Semiconductor Devices
Part I- Diodes and Bipolar Devices

One of the earliest detection devices used 4 -1 Atomic Structure of

in radio was the galena crystal, a crude ex-
ample of a semiconductor. More modern
Germanium and Silicon
examples of semiconductors are the selenium
and silicon rectifiers, the germanium diode, Since the mechanism of conduction of a
and numerous varieties of the transistor. All semiconductor device is different from that
of these devices offer the interesting property of a vacuum tube, it is well to briefly
of greater resistance to the flow of electrical review the atomic structure of various ma-
current in one direction than in the opposite terials used in the manufacture of transistors
direction. Typical conduction curves for and diodes.
some semiconductors are shown in figure 1. It was stated in an earlier chapter that
The transistor, a three -terminal device, more- the electrons in an element having a large
over, offers current amplification and may atomic number are conveniently pictured as
be used for a wide variety of control func- being grouped into rings, each ring having a
tions including amplification, oscillation, and definite number of electrons. Atoms in
frequency conversion. which these rings are completely filled are
Semiconductors have important advan- termed inert gases, of which helium and
tages over other types of electron devices. argon are examples. All other elements have
They are very small, light and require no one or more incomplete rings of electrons.
filament voltage. In addition, they consume If the incomplete ring is loosely bound, the
very little power, are rugged, and can be electrons may be easily removed, the element
made impervious to many harsh environ- is called metallic, and is a conductor of
mental conditions. Transistors are capable electric current. Copper and iron are ex-
of usable amplification into the uhf region amples of conductors. If the incomplete
and provide hundreds of watts of power ring is tightly bound, with only a few elec-
capacity at the lower frequencies. trons missing, the element is called non-
Common transistors are current -operated metallic, and is an insulator (nonconductor)
devices whereas vacuum tubes are voltage - to electric current. A group of elements, of
operated devices so that direct comparisons which germanium, gallium, and silicon are
between the two may prove to be misleading, examples, fall between these two sharply
however economic competition exists be- defined groups and exhibit both metallic and
tween the two devices and the inexpensive nonmetallic characteristics. Pure germanium
and compact transistor is rapidly taking or silicon may be considered to be a good
over some of the functions previously re- insulator. The addition of certain impurities
served for the more expensive vacuum tube. in carefully controlled amounts to the pure


increasing conductivity to positive poten-

tials and others increasing conductivity to
negative potentials. Early transistors were
mainly made of germanium but most modern
transistors possessing power capability are
made of silicon. Experimental transistors
are being made of gallium arsenide which
combines some of the desirable features of
lAu Bird
both germanium and silicon.
Both germanium and silicon may be
I "grown" in a diamond lattice crystal con-
figuration, the atoms being held together
1 + MariMa

culor spul
by bonds involving a shared pair of electrons
(figure 2) . Electrical conduction within the
crystal takes place when a bond is broken,
or when the lattice structure is altered to
obtain an excess electron by the addition of
an impurity. When the impurity is added,
it may have more or less loosely held elec-
trons than the original atom, thus allowing
Color Bud. an electron to become available for conduc-
Mbatta tion, or creating a vacancy, or hole, in the
shared electron bond. The presence of a hole
encourages the flow of electrons and may be
considered to have a positive charge, since
it represents the absence of an electron. The
J hole behaves, then, as if it were an electron,
hut it does not exist outside the crystal.

4 -2 Mechanism of
There exist in semiconductors both neg-
atively charged electrons and absence of
electrons in the lattice (holes), which be-
have as though they had a positive electrical
charge equal in magnitude to the negative
charge on the electron. These electrons and
0 -]0 -20 -10 -0 +1 *2 +3 holes drift in an electrical field with a ve-
VOLTS locity which is proportional to the field
Figure 1


The semiconductor diode offers greater re- where,
sistance to the Row of current in one direction
than in the opposite direction. Note expansion V,in equals drift velocity of hole,
of negative current and positive voltage E equals magnitude of electric field,
scales. Diode coding is shown above, with no-
tations usually placed on cathode (positive) tn equals mobility of hole.
end of unit.
In an electric field the holes will drift in a
element will alter the conductivity of the direction opposite to that of the electron
material. In addition, the choice of the im- and with about one -half the velocity, since
purity can change the direction of conduc- the hole mobility is about one -half the elec-
tivity through the element, some impurities tron mobility. A sample of a semiconductor,






Figure 2


Silicon and germanium lattice configuration made up of atoms held by bonds involving a
shared pair of electrons. Conduction takes place when bond is altered to provide excess elec-
tron (3) or to create electron vacancy or conducting "hole" (C).

such as germanium or silicon, which is both of the N -type material. Either the N -type or
chemically pure and mechanically perfect the P -type silicon is called extrinsic con-
will contain in it approximately equal num- ducting type. The doped materials have
bers of holes and electrons and is called an lower resistivities than the pure materials,
intrinsic semiconductor. The intrinsic resis- and doped semiconductor material in the
tivity of the semiconductor depends strongly resistivity range of .01 to 10 ohm /cm is
on the temperature, being about 50 ohm /cm normally used in the production of tran-
for germanium at room temperature. The sistors.
intrinsic resistivity of silicon is about 65,000 The electrons and holes are called carriers;
chm /cm at the same temperature. the electrons are termed majority carriers,
If, in the growing of the semiconductor and the holes are called minority carriers.
crystal, a small amount of an impurity, such
as phosphorous is included in the crystal,
each atom of the impurity contributes one
4 -3 The PN Junction
free electron. This electron is available for
conduction. The crystal is said to be doped The semiconductor diode is a PN junction,
and has become electron -conducting in na- or junction diode having the general electri-
ture and is called N (negative) -type silicon. cal characteristic of figure 1 and the electri-
The impurities which contribute electrons cal configuration of figure 3. The anode of
are called donors. N -type silicon has better the junction diode is always positive type
conductivity than pure silicon in one direc- ANODE P -N CATHODE
tion, and a continuous stream of electrons
will flow through the crystal in this direc- O
tion as long as an external potential of the o o
correct polarity is applied across the crystal. o
Other impurities, such as boron add one
hole to the semiconducting crystal by ac-
cepting one electron for each atom of im-
purity, thus creating additional holes in the
N - Figure 3

semiconducting crystal. The material is now PN JUNCTION DIODE

said to be hole -conducting, or P ( positive)-
P -type and N -type materials form junction
type silicon. The impurities which create diode. Current flows when P anode is positive
holes are called acceptors. P -type silicon has with respect to the N cathode (forward bias).
Electrons and holes are termed carriers, with
better conductivity than pure silicon in one holes behaving as though they have a positive
direction. This direction is opposite to that charge.

(P) material while the cathode is always

negative- -type (N) material. Current flow
occurs when the P -anode is positive with
respect to the N- cathode. This state is

termed forward bias. Blocking occurs when .. S

the P -anode is negative with respect to the REVERSE VOLTAGE

30 20 10
N- cathode. This is termed reverse bias. t0
When no external voltage is applied to the AT 5 MA. (VOLTS)

PN junction, the energy barrier created at CONSTANT
the junction prevents diffusion of carriers
_. 7s< 1.0,g: REVERSE
across the junction. Application of a positive _ MAX. LCNER u3

potential to the P -anode effectively reduces CURRENT

the energy barrier, and application of a
negative potential increases the energy
Figure 4
barrier, limiting current flow through the
In the forward -bias region shown in figure Between zener knee and point of maximum
1, current rises rapidly as the voltage is in- current, the zener voltage is essentially con-
creased, whereas in the reverse -bias region stant at 30 volts. Units are available with
zener voltages from approximately 4 to 200.
current is much lower. The junction, in
other words is a high- resistance element in
the reverse -bias direction and a low- resist- After a period of conduction, a silicon
ance element in the forward -bias direction. rectifier requires a finite time interval to
Junction diodes are rated in terms of elapse before it may return to the reverse -
average and peak- inverse voltage in a given bias condition. This reverse recovery time
environment, much in the same manner ai imposes an upper limit on the frequency at
thermionic rectifiers. Unlike the latter, how- which a silicon rectifier may be used. Opera-
ever, a small leakage current will flow in tion at a frequency above this limit results in
the reverse -biased junction diode because of overheating of the junction and possible
a few hole -electron pairs thermally gener- destruction of the diode because of the power
ated in the junction. As the applied inverse loss during the period of recovery.
voltage is increased, a potential will be
reached at which the leakage current rises The Zener The zener diode (reference diode)
abruptly at an avalanche voltage point. An Diode is a PN junction that can be used
increase in inverse voltage above this value as a constant -voltage reference, or
can result in the flow of a large reverse cur- as a control element. It is a silicon element
rent and the possible destruction of the operated in the reverse -bias avalanche break-
diode. down region (figure 4). The break from
Maximum permissible forward current in nonconductance to conductance is very
the junction diode is limited by the voltage sharp and at applied voltages greater than
drop across the diode and the heat- dissipa- the breakdown point, the voltage drop across
tion capability of the diode structure. Power the diode junction becomes essentially con-
diodes are often attached to the chassis of stant for a relatively wide range of currents.
the equipment by means of a heat -sink to This is the zener control region. Zener diodes
remove excess heat from the small junction. are available in ratings to 50 watts, with
Silicon diode rectifiers exhibit a forward zener voltages ranging from approximately
voltage drop of 0.4 to 0.8 volts, depending 4 volts to 200 volts.
on the junction temperature and the impur- Thermal dissipation is obtained by mount-
ity concentration of the junction. The for- ing the zener diode to a heat sink composed
ward voltage drop is not constant, increasing of a large area of metal having free access
directly as the forward current increases. to ambient air.
Internal power loss in the diode increases as The zener diode has no ignition potential
the square of the current and thus increases as does a gas regulator tube, thus eliminating
rapidly at high current and temperature the problems of relaxation oscillation and
levels. high firing potential, two ailments of the gas

tube. Furthermore, the zener regulator or sistors used in this fashion. For safety, no
combinations can be obtained for almost more than one quarter the rated power dis-
any voltage or power range, while the gas sipation of the transistor should be used when
tubes are limited to specific voltages and the device is operated this way.
restricted current ranges. All types of zener diodes are a potential
Actually, only the zener diode having a source of noise, although some types are
voltage rating below approximately 6.8 volts worse than others. If circuit noise is critical,
is really operating in the zener region. A the zener diode should be bypassed with a
higher voltage zener diode displays its con- low -inductance capacitor. This noise can be
stant voltage characteristic by virtue of the evident at any frequency, and in the worst
avalanche effect, which has a very sharp knee cases it may be necessary to use LC decoup-
(figure 4). A diode for a voltage below 6.8 ling circuits between the diode and highly
operates in the true zener region and is char- sensitive r -f circuits.
acterized by a relatively soft knee.
Avalanche and zener modes of breakdown Junction The PN junction possesses ca-
have quite different temperature character- Capacitance pacitance as the result of op-
istics and breakdown diodes that regulate in posite electric charges existing
the 5.6- to 6.2 volt region often combine on the sides of the barrier. Junction capaci-
some of each mechanism of breakdown and tance may change with applied voltage, as
have a voltage versus temperature charac- shown in figure 7.
teristic which is nearly flat. Many of the very A voltage -variable capacitor (varactor or
stable reference diodes are rated at 6.2 volts. e'aricah) is generally made of a silicon junc-
Since the avalanche diode (breakdown volt- tion having a special impurity concentration
age higher than 6.8 volts) displays a positive to enhance the capacitance variation and to
voltage- temperature slope, it is possible to minimize series resistance losses.
temperature-compensate it with one or more The varicap and the varactor are funda-
series forward -biased silicon diodes (D,) as mentally the same type of device, the former
shown in figure 5. The 1N935 series (9 volt) used in tuning resonant circuits electrically
is apparently of this sort, since the voltage and the latter used in parametric amplifiers
is not 6.2 or some integer multiple thereof. and frequency multipliers. Both devices have
Silicon epitaxial transistors may also be
-12V. +12.V.
used as zener diodes, if the current require- UNREGULATED UNREGULATED
ment is not too large. Most small, modern,
silicon signal transistors have a VBE0 (back - STORV. + 3 TO 6 V.
emitter -base breakdown voltage) between 3
N.C. N C.

2N3638 2N3641

Figure 6



been designed to give a high -Q capacitance

Figure 5
vs. voltage relationship at radio frequencies.
The circuit of figure 8A shows a varicap
used to electrically tune a resonant circuit.
This form of tuning is restricted to circuits
and 5 volts. If the base and emitter leads are which have a very small r -f voltage across
used as a zener diode, the breakdown will them,such as in receiver r -f amplifier stages.
occur at a volt or so in excess of the VBE Any appreciable a -c voltage (compared to
rating. Figure 6 shows NPN and PNP tran- the d -c control voltage across the device)

10 plier drops as the square of the multiple

(n), such devices are not usually used for
values of n greater than five.
Examples of varactor multipliers are
9 shown in figure 9. There are usually a num-
ber of idlers (series- resonant circuits) in a
varactor multiplier. In general, there will be
n -2 idlers. These idlers are high -Q selective
e short circuits which reflect undesired har-
monics back into the nonlinear capacitance
An interesting development in multiplier
T diodes is the step -recovery diode. Like the
2 4 6 6 lo 12 14
varactor, this device is a frequency multi-
REVERSE BIAS plier requiring no d -c input. The important
difference between the step- recovery diode
Figure 7
and the varactor is that the former is de-
JUNCTION CAPACITANCE VARIATION liberately driven into forward conduction
WITH RESPECT TO REVERSE VOLTAGE by the fundamental drive voltage. In addi-
tion, the step- recovery diode multiplier re-
will swing its capacitance at the r -f rate,
quires no idler circuits and has an output
causing circuit nonlinearity and possible efficiency that falls off only as 1 n. A "times -
crossmodulation of incoming signals. This ten" frequency multiplier could then ap-
nonlinearity may be overcome by using two proach 10;4 efficiency, as compared to a
varicap devices as shown in figure 8B. In
varactor multiplier whose efficiency would
this case, the a -c component increases the be in the neighborhood of 1'4. A typical
capacitance of one varicap while decreasing step -recovery multiplier is shown in figure
that of the other. This tuning method may 10. Diode multipliers are capable of provid-
be used in circuits having relatively high r -f
ing output powers of over 25 watts at 1
voltages without the danger of nonlinearity.
GHz, and several watts at S GHz. Experi-
The Varactor The varactor frequency mul- mental devices have been used for frequency
tiplier (also called the para- multiplication at frequencies over 20 GHz,
metric multiplier) is a useful vhf uhf with power capabilities in the milliwatt
multiplier which requires no d -c input power. region.
The input power consists only of the funda-
mental- frequency signal to be multiplied and Point -Contact A rectifying junction can be
typically 50',4 to 70(/, of that r -f power is Diodes made of a metal "whisker"
recovered at the output of the multiplier touching a very small semi -
unit. Since the efficiency of a varactor multi- conductor die. When properly assembled,

+ Ecc

Figure 8


A- Single varicap used to tune resonant circuit
11-Back-to-back varicaps provide increased tuning range with improved linearity

72 MHz. TRAP
72 MHz
n 12 T.* 22, 3/8 "r1:1,J
144 MHz 144 MHz

35 0.75 JJH.
72 MHz 144 MHz
20 W. 8T.#18 20 20 8T.It16 15 W.
3/8" D. 3/8"
47 K RCA 2
T. *16
1W. V -501 80 1/4" D.

144 MHz TRAP

4 T. *22, 1/4' D. 432 MHz 432 MHz

12 7 T. *18, 3/8" Di
2 4 ' ..
144 MHz
3T. *20, 1/4" D.
20 W.-I ::432 MHz, 8W.
100 K
1 W. MA-4060A

288 MHz

Figure 9


If "step -r " diode is used, idler loop may be omitted.

the die injects electrons into the metal. The Other Diode Impact, Trapatt, and Gunn
contact area exhibits extremely low capaci- Devices diodes are used to produce r -f
tance and point- contact diodes are widely directly from d -c when used
used as uhf mixers, having noise figures in microwave cavities. The PIN diode is
ranging up to 5 db at 3 GHz. The 1N21- useful as an attenuator or switch at radio
1N26 series devices are examples of silicon frequencies. This is a PN junction with a
point- contact diodes made for microwave layer of undoped (intrinsic) silicon between
radar mixer use. However, it is the inexpen-
sive germanium point- contact diode which zoo HZ 2000 MHZ
IN 001 1501 201 OUT
is now universally used for r -f detection.
The germanium device is still quite useful RFC 20 50 250
for, a h -f, low -voltage -drop diode but the ILH ICI IC2 1c3
new gold bonded germanium point- contact
diode has a lower forward voltage drop than .001

the older design.

The Schottky -barrier or hot -carrier diode
is similar to the silicon point -contact diode,
with the metal -to- silicon interface made by Figure 10
metal deposition on silicon. This device be- STEP-RECOVERY FREQUENCY
haves like a silicon point- contact diode, hav- MULTIPLIER
ing a lower forward voltage drop than an
equivalent silicon unit, good high- frequency Step -r y diode is used as multiplier.
No idler circuits are required, such as used
response, and a lower noise figure. with varactor.

0-0MA. 22 7 MH 101114 10LH
surfaces (Dow -Corning Silicone Grease
#200 often used.)
Care must be exercised in the contact
between dissimilar metals when mounting
semiconductor devices, otherwise electrolytic
action may take place at the joint, with
subsequent corrosion of one or more surfaces.
J.3K Many rectifiers come with plated finishes to
provide a nonactive material to be placed in
contact with the heat sink.
Figure 11 When it is necessary to electrically insulate
PIN DIODE USED AS R -F the case of the semiconductor from the heat
ATTENUATOR OR SWITCH sink, a thin mica washer may be placed
between the device and the heat sink after
Diode D, appears resistive to frequencies lubricating the surfaces with a thermal
whose period is shorter than "carrier" life-
time. Control voltage varies r -f attenuation lubricant.
of diode.
Diode Semiconductor power rectifiers
the P and N regions. Because of the neutral
Rectifiers are the most -used solid -state de-
intrinsic layer, the charge carriers in the
diode are relatively slow; that is, they have vices in the electronics industry.
a long carrier lifetime. If this lifetime is
Copper -oxide disc rectifiers have been used
long compared to the radio frequency im- for decades, as have selenium disc rectifiers.
pressed on the device, the diode appears re- The germanium junction rectifier, too, has
sistive to that frequency. Since PIN diodes been used extensively in electronics; the
appear resistive to frequencies whose period representative type 1N91 is still available.
is shorter than their carrier lifetime, these
Almost all new rectifier system design to-
diodes can be used as attenuators and day uses the silicon junction rectifier (fig-
switches. An example of such an electrically ure 12) This device offers the most promis-

variable PIN diode attenuator is shown in ing range of applications; from extreme cold
figure 11. to high temperature, and from a few watts
of output power to very high voltage and
currents. Inherent characteristics of silicon
4 -4 Diode Power Devices allow junction temperatures in the order of
200 C before the material exhibits intrinsic
properties. This extends the operating range
Semiconductor devices have ratings which
are based on thermal considerations similar
to other electronic devices. The majority of
power lost in semiconductors is lost intern-
ally and within a very small volume of the
device. Heat generated by these losses must - COPPER ANODE
flow outward to some form of heat ev- METAL SHELL
changer in order to hold junction tempera- SILICON P -N PELLET

ture to a reasonable degree. The largest 'OPPER

amount of heat flows out through the case
and mounting stud of the semiconductor
and thence through the heat exchanger into I

the air. The heat exchanger (or heal sink) Figure 12

must be in intimate contact with the case
or leads of the semiconductor to achieve SILICON RECTIFIER
maximum uniform contact and maximum Silicon pellet is soldered to copper stud to
heat transfer. The matching surfaces are provide low thermal resistance path between
PN junction and heat sink. Copper anode is
often lubricated with a substance having soldered to fop of junction. Temperature of
good thermal conductivity to reduce oxides junction must be held to less than 200 C, as
a result of increasing temperature on reverse
or galvanic products from forming on the current flow through junction.

of silicon devices beyond that of any other at least 20!4 below the avalanche point to
efficient semiconductor and the excellent provide a safety factor.
thermal range coupled with very small size A limited reverse current, usually of the
per watt of output power make silicon recti- order of 0.5 ma or less flows through the
fiers applicable where other rectifiers were silicon diode during the inverse - voltage
previously considered impractical. cycle. The reverse current is relatively con-
stant to the avalanche point, increasing rap-
Silicon The current density of a idly as this reverse -voltage limit is passed.
Current Density silicon rectifier is very The maximum reverse current increases as
high, and on present de- diode temperature rises and, at the same
signs ranges from 600 to 900 amperes per time, the avalanche point drops, leading to
square inch of effective barrier layer. The a "runaway" reverse- current condition at
usable current density depends on the gen- high temperatures which can destroy the
eral construction of the unit and the ability diode.
of the heat sink to conduct heat from the The forward characteristic, or resistance
crystal. The small size of the crystal is illus- to the flow of forward current, determines
trated by the fact that a rectifier rated at the majority of power lost within the diode
15 d -c amperes, and 150 amperes peak surge at operating temperatures. Figure 13B shows
current has a total cell volume of only the static forward current characteristic
.00023 inch. Peak currents are extremely relative to the forward voltage drop for a
critical because the small mass of the cell typical silicon diode. A small forward bias
will heat instantaneously and could reach (a function of junction temperature) is re-
failure temperatures within a time lapse quired for conduction. The power loss of a
of microseconds. typical diode rated at 0.5 ampere average
forward current and operating at 100 C,
Operating The reverse direction of a for example, is about 0.6 watt during the
Characteristics silicon rectifier is character- conducting portion of the cycle. The for-
ized by extremely high re- ward voltage drop of silicon power rectifiers
is carefully controlled to limit the heat
sistance, up to 10" ohms below a critical
voltage point. This point of avalanche volt- dissipation in the junction.
age is the region of a sharp break in the Diode Ratings Silicon diodes are rated in
resistance curve, followed by rapidly decreas and Terms terms similar to those used
ing resistance (figure 13A). In practice, the for vacuum -tube rectifiers.
peak inverse working voltage is usually set Some of the more important terms and their




ecz so

Z- u 5


25 30
75 100
125 150
U C)
aJ o
0.5 +.O


1.5 2 O


Figure 13


A- Reverse directionof silicon rectifier is characterized by extremely high resistance up to
point of avalanche voltage.
I-Threshold voltage of silicon cell is about 0.6 volt. Once device starts conducting the
increases exponentially with small increments of voltage, then nearly linearly on a very
steep slope.

definitions follow: Peak Inverse Voltage Schottky- barrier type provides a higher cur-
(PIV). The maximum reverse voltage that rent rating than does the equivalent silicon
may be applied to a specific diode type be- unit, brought about by the lower forward
fore the avalanche breakdown point is voltage drop.
reached. The Schottky- barrier device is also a very
Maximum RMS Input Voltage -The max- fast rectifier; operation in high- frequency
imum rms voltage that may be applied to a inverter circuits (up to several hundred
specific diode type for a resistive or induc- kHz) is quite practical. So far the PIV of
tive load. The PIV across the diode may be these diodes remains quite low (less than
greater than the applied rms voltage in the 50 volts).
case of a capacitive load and the maximum A second semiconductor rectifier which
rms input voltage rating must be reduced combines most of the features of the
Maximum Average Forward Current
The maximum value of average current al-
- Schottky- barrier and the common junction
device is the ion -implanted diode. This diode
has impurities implanted in the silicon by
lowed to flow in the forward direction for means of an "atom smasher." The impurity
a specified junction temperature. This value
ions are fired from a particle accelerator into
is specified for a resistive load. the silicon target wafer. The resultant silicon
cystal lattice is modified in such a way as
Peak Recurrent Forward Current-The
to cause the diodes made from this wafer to
maximum repetitive instantaneous forward
have a low forward drop and a fast recovery
current permitted to flow under stated con- time (figure 14).
ditions. This value is usually specified for ioo
60 Hz and a specific junction temperature.
Maximum Single -Cycle Surge Current
The maximum one -cycle surge current of a
- 10
60 -Hz sine wave at a specific junction tem- i
perature. Surge currents generally occur
when the diode -equipped power supply is
first turned on, or when unusual voltage
transients are introduced in the supply line.
Derated Forward Current -The value of
direct current that may be passed through a
diode for a given ambient temperature. For
higher temperatures, less current is allowed
through the diode.
Maximum Reverse Current -The maxi-
mum leakage current that flows when the o 0.2 0. 0.6 0.e
diode is biased to the peak- inverse voltage.
Figure 14
Silicon diodes may be mounted on a con-
ducting surface termed a heat sink that, ION -IMPLANTED DIODE FEATURES
because of its large area and heat dissipating LOW FORWARD DROP AND FAST
ability, can readily dispose of heat generated RECOVERY TIME
in the diode junction, thereby safeguarding
the diode against damage by excessive tem- SCR Devices The thyristor is a generic term
perature. for that family of multilayer
semiconductors that comprise
Improved A recent silicon rectifier de- silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's), Triacs,
Rectifier Types sign has been developed hav- Diacs, Four Layer Diodes and similar devices.
ing most of the advtantages The SCR is perhaps the most important
of silicon, but also low forward voltage drop. member of the family, at least economically,
This device is the Schottky- barrier or hot - and is widely used in the control of large
carrier diode in a large format for power blocks of 60 -Hz power.
use. For two equal volume units, the The SCR is a three-terminal, three -junc-

vice are anode, cathode, and gate. Without

gate current the SCR is an open switch in
either direction. Sufficient gate current will
close the switch in the forward direction
only. Forward conduction will continue even
with gate current removed until anode cur-
rent is reduced below a critical value. At
this point the SCR again blocks open. The
SCR is therefore a high -speed unidirectional
switch capable of being latched on in the
forward direction.
The gate signal used to trigger an SCR
may be an a -c wave, and the SCR may be
used for dimming lights-or speed control of
small a -c universal series -wound motors,
such as those commonly used in power tools.
Several power- control circuits using SCR
devices and triacs (bidirectional triode thy-
ristors) are shown in figure 16.
Figure 15
The triac is similar to the SCR except
that when its gate is triggered on, it will
THE SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER conduct either polarity of applied voltage.
This three -terminal semiconductor is an open
This makes full -wave control much easier
switch until it is triggered in the forward to achieve than with an SCR. An example
direction by the gate element. Conduction will of the triac in a full -wave power control
continue until anode c is reduced below a
critical value. circuit is shown in figure 16C.
The four layer diode is essentially an SCR
tion semiconductor, which could be thought without a gate electrode. As the forward
of as a solid -state thyratron. The SCR will voltage is increased across it, no conduction
conduct high current in the forward direc- occurs until the voltage rises to the holdoff
tion with low voltage drop, presenting a value, above which the device conducts in
high impedance in the reverse direction. The much the same fashion an SCR does when
three terminals (figure 15 ) of an SCR de- its holdoff voltage has been exceeded.

117 V. ti



O Figure 16


A- Half-wave control circuit for series motor or light. B- Full -wave control circuit for series motor
or light. C- Triac control light circuit. D- Symbols for SCR and Triac units.

The diac is analogous to the triac with no lent are shown in figure 17. Packaged equiv-
gate electrode. It acts like a four layer diode, alents are termed programmed unijunction
except that it has similar holdoff in both transistors (PUT).
directions. The diac is used principally to
generate trigger pulses for triac gating cir-
cuits. 4 -5 The Bipolar Transistor
The silicon unilateral switch (SUS) is
similar to the four layer diode and the The decisive event in the creation of the
silicon bilateral switch (SBS) is similar to modern semiconductor was the invention of
the diac. There are also a number of other the transistor in late 1947. In the last decade
variously -named "trigger diodes" for use semiconductor devices have grown prodig-
with thyristors, but they are all found to iously in variety, complexity, power capa-
be functionally similar to the four layer bility, and speed of operation. The transistor
diode or diac. is a solid -state device having gain properties
There exists one other thyristor of im- previously found only in vacuum tubes.
portance: it is the silicon controlled switch The elements germanium and silicon are the
(SCS). This device has two electrodes: a principal materials exhibiting the proper
gate to turn it on, and a second port to turn semiconducting properties which permit their
it off. The SCS has, so far, only been avail- application in transistors. However, other
able in low- voltage low- current versions, as semiconducting materials, including the
exemplified by the 3N81 -3N85 series. compounds indium, antimony, and lead sul-
fide, have been used experimentally in the
The Unijunction The unijunction transistor production of transistors.
Transistor (UJT) was originally
known as the double -base Classes of Thousands of type numbers of
diode, and its terminal designations (emit- Transistors transistors exist, belonging to
ter, base 1, base 2) still reflect that nomen- numerous families of construc-
clature. If a positive voltage is placed be- tion and use. The large classes of transistors,
tween B_ and B,, no conduction occurs until based on manufacturing processes are:
the emitter voltage rises to a fixed fraction Point Contact Transistor-The original
of this voltage. The fixed fraction is termed transistor was of this class and consisted of
rt (the Greek letter eta) and is specified for emitter and collector electrodes touching a
each type of UJT. In the manner of the thy- small block of germanium called the base.
ristor, when the emitter reaches 0 times the The base could be either N -type or P -type
voltage between B, and B1, the resistance material and was about .05" square. Because
between the base elements suddenly and of the difficulty in controlling the character-
markedly decreases. For this reason, the UJT istics of this fragile device, it is now con-
makes a good relaxation oscillator. A simple sidered obsolete.
relaxation oscillator and its transistor equiva- Grown Junction Transistor-Crystals
made by this process are grown from molten




Figure 18


Epitaxial, dual- epitaxial and overlay transis-
UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR SERVES tors are grown on semiconductor wafer in a
AS RELAXATION OSCILLATOR lattice structure. After fabrication, individual
transistors are separated from wafer and
Sawtooth or spike waveforms are produced mounted on headers. Connector wires are
by this simple circuit using single 2N6027 bonded to metalizad regions and unit is sealed
un in an inclosure.

germanium or silicon in such a way as to a great many transistor types having nearly
have the closely spaced junctions imbedded identical general characteristics. Finally, im-
in the wafer. The impurity material is proved manufacturing techniques may
changed during the growth of the crystal "obsolete" a whole family of transistors
to produce either PNP or NPN ingots, with a newer, less -expensive family. It is
which are then sliced into individual wafers. recommended, therefore, that the reader
Junction transistors may be subdivided into refer to one of the various transistor substi-
group junction, alloy junction, or drift field tution manuals for up -to -date guidance in
types. The latter type transistor is an alloy transistor classification and substitution.
junction device in which the impurity con-
centration is contained within a certain Transistor Semiconductors are generally
region of the base in order to enhance the Nomenclature divided into product groups
high- frequency performance of the transis- classified as "entertainment ",
tor. "industrial," and "military." The latter
Diffused function Transistor -This class classifications often call for multiple testing,
of semiconductor has enhanced frequency tighter tolerances, and quality documenta-
capability and the manufacturing process tion; and transistors from the same pro-
has facilitated the use of silicon rather than duction line having less rigorous specifica-
germanium, which aids the power capability tions often fall into the first, and least -
of the unit. Diffused junction transistors may expensive, category. Semiconductors are type
be subdivided into single diffused (home - numbered by several systems. The oldest
taxial) , double diffused, double diffused standard is the f EDEC system. The first
planar and triple diffused planar types. number of the identifier establishes the num-
Epitaxial Transistors -These junction ber of junctions (1 = diode, 2 = triode,
transistors are grown on a semiconductor 3 = tetrode) the letter N stands for a

wafer and photolithographic processes are semiconductor, followed by a sequential

used to define emitter and base region dur- number under which the device was regis-
ing growth. The units may be subdivided tered.
into epitaxial -base, epitaxial- layer, and over- European manufacturers employ an iden-
lay transistors. A representation of an cpi- tifier consisting of a type number composed
taxial -layer transistor is shown in figure 18. of two or three letters followed by two or
Field -Effect Transistors-Developed in the three numbers, the letters indicating the
last decade from experiments conducted over type of transistor and use and the numbers
forty years ago, the field -effect (FET) indicating the sequential number in the
transistor may be expected to replace many particular classification. Japanese transistors
more common transistor types. This majority are usually identified by the code 2S, fol-
carrier device is discussed in a later section lowed by an identifying letter and sequen-
of this Handbook. tial number. In addition to these generally
Manufacturing techniques, transistor recognized codes, numerous codes adapted
end -use, and patent restrictions result in a by individual manufacturers are also in use.
multitude of transistors, most of which fall
into the broad groups discussed previously. The Junction The junction transistor is
Transistors, moreover, may be grouped in Transistor fabricated in many forms,
families wherein each member of the family with the planar silicon type
is a unique type, but subtile differences exist providing the majority of units. A pictorial
between members in the matter of end -use, equivalent of a silicon planar power transis-
gain, capacitance, mounting, case, leads, tor is shown in figure 19. In this type of
breakdown -voltage characteristics, etc. The transistor the emitter and base junctions
differences are important enough to warrant are often formed by a photolithographic
individual type identification of each mem- process in selected areas of the silicon dice.
ber. In addition, the state of the art permits Many variations of this technique and de-
transistor parameters to be economically de- sign are in use.
signed to fit the various equipment, rather The transistor has three essential actions
than designing the equipment around avail- which collectively are called transistor ac-
able transistor types. This situation results in tion. These are: minority carrier injection,

EMITTER neighboring electrons, finally increasing the

DIFFUSED BASE CONTACT available supply of conducting electrons in
SILICON DIOXIDE COLLCCTOR the collector loop. As a result, the collector
loop possesses lower resistance whenever the
emitter circuit is in operation. In junction
Figure 19 transistors this charge transport is by means
DIFFUSED JUNCTION TRANSISTOR of diffusion wherein the charges move from
a region of high concentration to a region
Emitter and base junctions are diffused into
some side of semiconductor wafer which of lower concentration at the collector. The
serves as collector. Junction heat is dissipated collector, biased in the opposite direction,
through solder joint between collector and
package. acts as a sink for these holes, and is said to
collect them.
transport, and collection. Fig. 20 shows a
simplified drawing of a PNP junction -type Alpha Itis known that any rectifier biased
transistor, which can illustrate this collec- in the forward direction has a very
tive action. The PNP transistor consists low internal impedance, whereas one biased
of a piece of N -type silicon on opposite in the back direction has a very high internal
sides of which a layer of P-type material impedance. Thus, current flows into the
has been grown by the fusion process. Ter- transistor in a low -impedance circuit, and
minals are connected to the two P- sections appears at the output as current flowing in
and to the N -type base. The transistor may a high -impedance circuit. The ratio of a
be considered as two PN junction rectifiers change in d -c collector current to a change
placed in close juxtaposition with a semi - in emitter current is called the current
conduction crystal coupling the two recti- amplification, or alpha:
fiers together. The left -hand terminal is
biased in the forward (or conducting) direc-
tion and is called the emitter. The right - a = -
hand terminal is biased in the back (or
a equals current amplification,
---1 Nb i,. equals change in collector current,

-4 Pe le
A Pc
ir equals change in emitter current.
Values of alpha up to 3 or so may be ob-
tained in commercially available point -con-
*{l tact transistors, and values of alpha up to
about 0.999 are obtainable in junction
Figure 20
Beta The ratio of change in d -c collector
current to a change in base current(ib)
is a measure of amplification, or beta:
reverse) direction and is called the collec- a
tor. The operating potentials are chosen
with respect to the base terminal, which 1 -a ib
may or may not be grounded. If an NPN
transistor is used in place of the PNP, the Values of beta run to 100 or so in inex-
operating potentials are reversed. pensive junction transistors. The static d -c
The Pr-Nb junction on the left is biased forward current gain of a transistor in the
in the forward direction and holes from the common -emitter mode is termed the d-c
Peregion are injected into the Nb region, pro- beta and may be designated F or hFE.
ducing therein a concentration of holes sub-
stantially greater than normally present in Cutoff Frequencies The alpha cutoff frequen-
the material. These holes travel across the cy (An)) of a transistor
base region toward the collector, attracting is that frequency at which the grounded-

base current gain has decreased to 0.7 of the the transition region. A transistor may be
gain obtainable at 1 kHz. For audio transis- used as a switch by simply biasing the base -
tors the alpha cutoff frequency is about 1 emitter circuit on and off. Adjusting the
MHz. For r -f and switching transistors the base -emitter bias to some point in the tran-
alpha cutoff frequency may be 50 MHz or sition region will permit the transistor to
higher. The upper frequency limit of opera- act as a signal amplifier. For such operation,
tion of the transistor is determined by the base -emitter d -c bias will be about 0.3 volt
small but finite time it takes the majority for many common germanium transistors,
carriers to move from one electrode to the and about 0.6 volt for silicon transistors.
The beta cutoff frequency (AO is that Handling Used in the proper circuit under
frequency at which the grounded- emitter Transistors correct operating potentials the
current gain has decreased to 0.7 of the life of a transistor is practically
gain obtainable at 1 kHz. Transconductance unlimited. Unnecessary transistor failure
cutoff frequency (f ,,n) is that frequency at often occurs because the user does not know
which the transconductance falls to 0.7 of how to handle the unit or understand the
that value obtainable at 1 kHz. The maxi- limitations imposed on the user by virtue of
mum frequency of oscillation (fmax) is that the minute size of the transistor chip. Micro-
frequency at which the maximum power wave transistors, in particular, are subject
gain of the transistor drops to unity. to damage due to improper handling. The
Various internal time constants and tran- following simple rules will help the user
sit times limit the high- frequency response avoid unnecessary transistor failures:
of the transistor and these limitations are Know how to handle the transistor. Static

summarized in the gain- bandwidth product discharges may damage microwave transis-
(f ,) , which is identified by the frequency at tors or certain types of field -effect transis-
tors because of small emitter areas in the

which the beta current gain drops to unity.
These various cutoff frequencies and the former and the thin active layer between
gain -bandwidth products arc shown in fig- the channel and the gate in the latter. The
ure 21. transistor should always be picked up by
the case and not by the leads. The FET,
1111111111111111111 ft ,
fAfexhf moreover, should be protected against static


1 0

11l= =2511\I
,1111O 11 6 DB P
R oCrA\ E electricity by wrapping the leads with tin-
foil when it is not in use, or otherwise inter-
connecting the leads when the unit is moved
about or stored. Finally, no transistor should



001 01 10
F u*u
Figure 21
10 ioo
f Afa

be inserted into or removed from a socket
when power is applied to the socket pins.
Never use an ohmmeter for continuity
checks. An ohmmeter may be used at some
risk to determine if certain types of transis-
tors are open or shorted. On the low ranges,
however, an ohmmeter can supply over 250
GAIN -BANDWIDTH CHART FOR milliamperes into a low- resistance load. Many
TYPICAL H -F TRANSISTOR small transistors are rated at a maximum
emitter current of 20 to 50 milliamperes
The Transition Region A useful rule common and should be tested only in a transistor test
to both PNP and NPN set wherein currents and voltages are adjust-
transistors is: moving the base potential to- able and limited. Don't solder transistor
ward the collector voltage point turns the leads unless you can do it fast. Always use a
transistor on, while moving the base poten- low- wattage (20 watts or so) pencil iron
tial away from the collector voltage point and a heat sink when soldering transistors
turns the transistor off. When fully on, the into or removing them from the circuit.
transistor is said to be saturated. When fully Long -nose pliers grasping the lead between
off, the transistor is said to be cut off. The iron and transistor body will help to prevent
region between these two extremes is termed transistor chip temperature from becoming

excessive. Make the joint fast so that time off. As shown in the illustration, capital let-
does not permit the chip to overheat. ters are used for d -c voltages. The important
In- circuit precautions should also be d -c voltages existing in transistor circuitry
observed. Certain transistors may be damaged are: base- emitter voltage (VE), collector -
by applying operating potential of reversed emitter voltage (VcE), and collector -base
polarity, applying an excessive surge of tran- voltage (VcE). Signal and alternating volt-
sient voltage, or subjecting the equipment to ages and currents are expressed by lower -case
excessive heat. Dissipation of heat from letters.
intermediate -size and power transistors is
vital and such units should never be run
without an adequate heat -sink apparatus. 4 -6 Transistor
Finally, a danger exists when operating a Characteristics
transistor close to a high- powered trans-
mitter. The input circuit of the transis- The transistor produces results that may
torized equipment may be protected by be comparable to a vacuum tube, but there
shunting it with two small diodes back to is a basic difference between the two devices.
back to limit input voltage excursions. The vacuum tube is a voltage -controlled
device whereas the transistor is a current-
controlled device. A vacuum tube normally
operates with its grid biased in the negative,
NPN SYMBOL PNP SYMBOL or high -resistance, direction, and its plate
biased in the positive, or low- resistance, di-
rection. The tube conducts only by means
of electrons, and has its conducting counter-
part in the form of the NPN transistor,
whose majority carriers are also electrons.
There is no vacuum -tube equivalent of the
PNP transistor, whose majority carriers are
Figure 22


Moving the base potential toward the collector
t he transistor on. Moving the base po-
tential away from the collector turns the MiM
\A/L /iM== FgR=M=
transistor off. Voltage notations are: Col-
lector- to-base voltage, VcB; base -to- emitter
voltage, VBS; collector- to-emitter voltage, Vcs. B\PraIi"
%I ,M.i==ig=1iii''

The electrical symbols for corn-
mon three- terminal transistors
are shown in figure 22. The left

_ :
drawing is of a PNP transistor. The symbol
for an NPN transistor is similar except that
the direction of the arrow of the emitter iiiiiiiiiMiiiii:ii
{ 6 B O 12
points away from the base. This suggests


that the arrow points toward the negative
terminal of the power source, and the source Figure 23
potentials are reversed when going from CHARACTERISTIC PLOT OF
NPN to PNP transistors, or vice -versa. As JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
stated earlier, a useful rule -of -thumb com-
mon to both NPN and PNP transistors con- Characteristics of junction transistor biased in
active region may be expressed in terms of
cerns the base -emitter bias: Moving the base plot of collector voltage versus collector cur-
toward the collector voltage turns the tran- rent. Load line and limits of operation (points
A, C) are plotted, as well as operating point
sistor on, and moving the base away from (0) in the m hown in Chapter Six for
the collector voltage turns the transistor vacuum -tube plots.

As discussed earlier, the transistor may be for current gain, voltage gain, power gain,
turned off and on by varying the bias on the and other important information necessary
base electrode in relation to the emitter to establish proper transistor operation. A
potential. Adjusting the bias to some point complete discussion of hybrid parameters and
approximately midway between cutoff and transistor circuitry may be obtained in the
saturation will place the transistor in the book Basic Theory and Application of Tran-
active region of operation. When operated sistors, technical manual TM-I1-690, avail-
in this region the transistor is capable of able from the Superintendent of Documents,
amplification. The characteristics of a tran- U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing-
sistor biased in the active region may be ton, D.C. 20402.
expressed in terms of electrode voltages and Some of the more useful parameters for
currents as is done for vacuum tubes in transistor application are listed below:
Chapter Five. The plot of VcE versus is The resistance gain of a transistor is ex-
(collector- emitter voltage versus collector pressed as the ratio of output resistance to
current) shown in figure 23, for example, input resistance. The input resistance of a
should be compared with figure 17, Chapter typical transistor is low, in the neighbor-
Five, the plot of 11, versus El, (plate current hood of 500 ohms, while the output resist-
versus plate voltage) for a pentode tube. ance is relatively high, usually over 20,000
Typical transistor graphs are discussed in ohms. For a junction transistor, the resist-
this chapter, and the use of similar vacuum- ance gain is usually over 50.
tube plots is discussed in Chapter Six. The voltage gain of a transistor is the
product of alpha times the resistance gain.
Transistor Transistor behavior may be A junction transistor which has a value of
Analysis analyzed in terms of mathema- alpha less than unity nevertheless has a
tical equations which express the resistance gain of the order of 2000 because
relationships among currents, voltages, resis- of its extremely high output resistance, and

tances, and reactances. These relationships the resulting voltage gain is about 1800 or
are termed hybrid parameters and define so. For this type of transistor the power gain
is the product of alpha squared times the
instantaneous voltage and current values
existing in the circuit under examination. resistance gain and is of the order of 400 to
The parameters permit the prediction of 500.
the behavior of the particular circuit with- The ouput characteristics of the junction
out actually constructing the circuit. transistor are of great interest. A typical
Equivalent circuits constructed from example is shown in figure 24. It is seen

parameter data allow formulas to be derived that the junction transistor has the charac-

teristics of an ideal pentode vacuum tube.
The collector current is practically inde-
pendent of the collector voltage. The range

1111PI of linear operation extends from a minimum
voltage of about 0.2 volts up to the maxi-
mum rated collector voltage. A typical load

' (/Y!I
line is shown, which illustrates the very high
load impedance that would be required for
maximum power transfer. A common -emit-
ter circuit is usually used, since the output
impedance is not as high as when a common -
-I 0 -0.5 0 +5 e f 3 f20 +25
base circuit is used.

Equivalent Circuit As is known from net -

Figure 24
of a Transistor work theory, the small -
PLOT OF JUNCTION TRANSISTOR signal performance of
any device in any network can be represented
Plot resembles that of a pentode tube ex-
cept that emitter current, not grid voltage, by means of an equivalent circuit. The most
defines each member of the curve family. convenient equivalent circuit for the low -
Collector current is practically independent frequency small -signal performance of junc-
of collector voltage.

d le to output circuit. The grounded- emitter cir-

cuit has a higher input impedance and a
lower output impedance than the grounded -
base circuit, and a reversal of phase be-
tween the input and output signal occurs.
This usually provides maximum voltage gain
from a transistor. The grounded -collector


circuit has relatively high input impedance,
low output impedance, and no phase reversal
ISTOR of signal from input to output circuit.
(lvE 1

MA , VC 3 v.)

Power and voltage gain are both low.

1Y[GONY Bias Stabilization To establish the correct
0.07 operating parameters of
the transistor, a bias voltage must be estab-
Figure 25
lished between the emitter and the base.
LOW- FREQUENCY EQUIVALENT Since transistors are temperature -sensitive
(COMMON -BASE) CIRCUIT FOR devices, and since some variation in charac-
JUNCTION TRANSISTOR teristics usually exists between transistors
of a given type, attention must be given to
Parameter r, is equivalent to 52 /ie for sili- the bias system to overcome these difficulties.
con and 26/Io for germanium
The simple self -bias system is shown in
tion transistors is shown in figure 25. re, figure 27A. The base is simply connected
rt and re are dynamic resistances which can to the power supply through a large resist-
be associated with the emitter, base, and ance which supplies a fixed value of base
collector regions of the transistor. The cur- current to the transistor. This bias system
rent generator al,., represents the transport is extremely sensitive to the current- trans-
of charge from emitter to collector. fer ratio of the transistor, and must be
adjusted for optimum results with each
Transistor There are three basic transis- transistor.
Configurations tor configurations; grounded - When the supply voltage is fairly high
base connection, grounded - and wide variations in ambient temperature
emitter connection, and grounded -collector do not occur, the bias system of figure 27B
connection. These correspond roughly may be used, with the bias resistor connected
to grounded -grid, grounded- cathode, and from base to collector. When the collector
grounded -plate circuits in vacuum -tube ter- voltage is high, the base current is increased,
minology (figure 26). moving the operating point of the transistor
The grounded -base circuit has a low input down the load line. If the collector voltage
impedance and high output impedance, and is low, the operating point moves upward
no phase reversal of signal occurs from input along the load line, thus providing auto-


Figure 26



Re= 10 Re
Re = soo- l000 n.

Figure 27


The voltage divider system of C is recommended for general transistor use. Ratio of R, /R
establishes base bias, and emitter bias is provided by voltage drop
across R.. Battery polarity is reversed for NPN transistors.

matit control of the base bias voltage. This 2. Collector load resistor (R3) is calcu-
circuit is sensitive to changes in ambient lated so that the collector voltage is
temperature, and may permit transistor fail- a little more than one -half the supply
ure when the transistor is operated near voltage.
maximum dissipation ratings. 3. A -c gain value (A) is chosen and
These circuits are often used in small im- emitter resistor R4 calculated, letting
ported transistor radios and are not recom- R4 =R3 /A.
mended for general use unless the bias resis- 4. Emitter resistor R5 is calculated to
tor is selected for the value of current gain raise emitter voltage (E,.) to about
of the particular transistor in use. A better 10% to 1 f % of supply voltage:
bias system is shown in figure 27C, where
the base bias is obtained from a voltage R5= (Ee /1e) -R4
divider, (R1, R2), and the emitter is for- 5. Total base voltage (En) is sum of Ee
ward- biased. To prevent signal degeneration, plus base -to- emitter voltage drop
the emitter bias resistor is bypassed with a (about 0.7 volt for small-signal silicon
large capacitance. A high degree of cir- devices).
cuit stability is provided by this form of 6. The sum of base bias resistors R1 and
bias, providing the emitter capacitance is of R2 is such that one -tenth the value
the order of SO sfd for audio - frequency of the d -c collector current flows
applications. through the bias circuit.
7. Values of resistors R, and R2 are cal-
Bias Circuitry The voltage- divider bias tech - culated, knowing current and value
Calculation nique illustrated in figure of base voltage at mid -point of R,
27C is redrawn in generalized and R2.
form in figure 28. This configuration divides 8. The a -c input impedance is approxi-
the emitter resistor into two units (R4 and mately equal to the parallel combina-
R5), one of which is bypassed. This intro- tion of R,, R2, and hte X R,.
duction of a slight degree of feedback allows
the designer more freedom to determine a -c To illustrate the design method, an ex-
gain, while maintaining good d -c stability. ample based on the 2N3565 is chosen. It
The assumption is made that a modern is assumed that 1 ma of collector- emitter
junction transistor is used having a hfe of at current flows. Collector load resistor R3 is
least 40 and a low value of Iceo (collector - estimated to be 6.2K, so that the voltage drop
cutoff current, emitter open). The proced- across it is 6.2 volts, placing the collector
ure to determine bias circuitry is given in at a potential of 15 6.2 - 8.8 volts. -
the following steps: The data sheet of the 2N3565 shows that
the range value of ht,, at 1 ma of collector
1. Collector current (Ir) is chosen from current is 150 to 600. An a -c gain value (A)
the data sheet. of 62 may be chosen, which is well below

the ultimate current gain of the device. are made to avoid doing the design over at
Emitter resistor R, is now calculated, being the end of the process.
equal to R3 /A = 6200/62 = 100 ohms.
Emitter resistor R -, is now calculated to be Output Characteristic Calculation of the
1.8K, which raises the emitter voltage to Curves current, voltage and
1.9 volts. power gain of a com-
The base -emitter drop is between 0.6 to mon- emitter amplifier may be accomplished
0.7 volt for small- signal silicon devices, so by using the common -emitter output static
this places the base at approximately 2.6
volts. Assuming no base current, the values o
Ie- rC

of resistors R, and R2 can now be determined Ri VIBE E VCE

as they are a simple voltage divider. The V

series current through R, and R2 is to be


one -tenth of the collector current, or 100 p.a.

Resistor R2 = 2.6v/.0001 ma = 26,000
ohms and R, = 15 - 2.6v/.0001 ma =
124,000 ohms. These are nonstandard values
of resistance so 27K and 130K are used. CURRENT
\ i
Once these calculations have been com-
pleted, the approximate value of the a -c
input impedance may be determined. This
is the parallel combination of R1, R_, and
hr,. X R,. Thus, R, and R_ in parallel are




0 I5 I 1 0



i I I

Figure 29



BIAS CIRCUITRY CALCULATION Calculation of c , voltage and power gain

of a common -emitter transistor amplifier can
Generalised form of voltage -divider bias be accomplished by using output characteristic
curves as di owl in the text.
characteristic curves (figure 29) which plot
22.3K and hte X R, is UK. Finally, 22.3K collector current against collector voltage
and 15K in parallel are 9K. with the base current as a fixed value. In
Actually, the a -c input impedance will be this example, the collector voltage supply
higher than 9K because a minimum value is 10 volts, the load resistance is 1500 ohms,
of hr,. was used. Also, it is worth noting that the emitter resistance is 500 ohms, the peak -
the d -c collector voltage is 8.8 volts. This is to -peak input current is 20 microamperes
about half -way between +15v and + 2.6v, and the operating point (X) is chosen at
permitting the collector to swing 6 volts 25 microamperes of base current and 4.8
in response to the a -c input voltage without volts on the collector.
clipping the peaks of the waveform. The first step is to establish a load line
This method of determining circuit pa- on the characteristic curves representing
rameters is quite simple and effective for RC the voltage drop across the load resistor
amplifier design. With practice, the designer (R2). When the collector current is zero,
can juggle resistance values as calculations the total collector supply voltage (10 volts)

equals the collector voltage, VcE. 'oint Z where,

(one point of the load line) then at the A, is voltage gain,
10 -volt mark on the collector age axis AT V( 1.; is collector to emitter voltage,

(x- axis). When the collecto 's zero, V1;t; is base to emitter voltage.
the total collector supply volt. ; volts) 1

is dropped across load resistor R2. The total (Note: The change in input voltage is
current (1c) then is: the change in input current multiplied by
the input impedance. In this case the input
]0 voltage is: 20 microamperes times 500 ohms,
= 0.0066 amp = 6.6 ma or 0.01 volt).

Voltage Gain (A, - -

6.7 2.7 = 400
Point Y (a second point of the load line ) 0.01
then is at the 6.6 -ma mark on the collector.
current axis (y- axis). Connect points Y Power gain is voltage gain times current
and Z to establish the load line. The oper- gain:
ating point is located at point X on the load -
line. Since the peak -to -peak input current is Power gain = 130 X 400 = 52,000
20 microamperes, the deviation is 10 micro-
Power gain in decibels is:
amperes above the operating point (point
M) and 10 microamperes below the oper- Gain = 10 log 52,000 = 10 X 4.7
ating point (point N). = 47 decibels
The input current, output current, and
output voltage waveforms may now be es- Constant- Power-Each transistor has a maxi-
tablished by extending lines from the oper- Dissipation Linemum collector power that
ating point perpendicular to the load line it can safely dissipate
and to the y and x axes respectively and without damage to the transistor. To ensure
plotting the waveforms from each deviation that the maximum collector dissipation rat-
point along the load -line excursions between
points M and N. CONSTANT POWER
Current gain (beta) in this configuration

is the ratio of the change in collector cur- -so

rent to the change in base current: i

A/ it
I((maxl- Ir(min)
IBlmaxl - I1(min)
yir0I 1111

A is
i current gain,
14- is collector current,

11, is base current,

A equals a small increment.

Substituting known values in the formula:

Current Gain (Ai)
2.6 ma
- 130

- - -sue
.LOAD 10



Figure 30
Voltage gain in this configuration is the
ratio of the change in collector voltage to CONSTANT POWER -DISSIPATION LINE
the change in base voltage: Constant power- dissipation line is placed on
output characteristic , with collector load
line positioned so it falls within area bounded
AV('I< V('M:(mnx) -V CE(min) by vertical and horizontal axes and constant
power-dissipation line. Load line tangent at
AVM.: V1iFllnmxl -V F:(miu) (X) permits maximum power gain within
maximum collector dissipation rating.

ing is not exceeded, a constant-power- dissi- pedance transformation applications. Exam-

/ation line (figure 30) is drawn on the ples of these circuits will be given in this
characteristic curves, and the collector load section.
resistor is selected so that its load line falls
in the area bounded by the vertical and Audio As in the case of electron -tube
horizontal axes and the constant- power -dissi- Circuitry amplifiers, transistor amplifiers can
pation line. The dissipation line is determined be operated Class A, class AB,
by selecting points of collector voltage and class B, or class C. The first three classes are
current, the products of which are equal used in audio circuitry. The class -A tran-
to the maximum collector power rating of sistor amplifier is biased so that collctor
the transistor. Any load line selected so that current flows continuously during the com-
it is tangent to the constant- power -dissipa- plete electrical cycle, even when no drive
tion line will ensure maximum permissible signal is present. The class -B transistor am-
power gain of the transistor while operating plifier can be biased either for collector cur-
within the maximum collector power- dissi- rent cutoff or for zero collector voltage. The
pation rating. This is important in the de- former configuration is most often used,
sign and use of power amplifiers. since collector current flows only during
that half -cycle of the input signal voltage
4 -7 Transistor Audio that aids the forward bias. This bias tech-
nique is used because it results in the best
Circuitry power efficiency. Class -B transistor ampli-
fiers must be operated in push -pull to avoid
The transistor can be connected as either severe signal distortion. Class -AB transistor
a common -base, common -collector, or com- amplifiers can be biased so that either collec-
mon- emitter stage, as discussed previously. tor current or voltage is zero for less than
Similar to the case for vacuum tubes, choice half a cycle of the input signal, and the
of transistor circuit configuration depends above statements for class -B service also
on the desired operating characteristics of apply for the class -AB mode.
the stage. The over -all characteristics of A simple small -signal voltage amplifier
these three circuits are summarized in figure is shown in figure 32A. Direct -current
31. Common- emitter circuits are widely used stabilization is employed in the emitter cir-
for high gain amplification, and common - cuit. Operating parameters for the amplifier
base circuits are useful for oscillator circuits are given in the drawing. In this case, the
and high- frequency operation, and common - input impedance of the amplifier is quite
collector circuits are used for various im- low. When used with a high -impedance
driving source such as a crystal microphone,

5.1 K 2N3565's

2N3641 / .01

INPUT Z 500 -I.5R 30 -1500. 20E -500E

OUTPUT Z 30E -50K 3008 -5008 Son -IK
VOLTAGEGAIN 300 -1000 50 -1500 LEU THAN 1


Figure 31 Figure 32
Common -emitter circuits are used for high -gain AMPLIFIERS
amplification, common -base circuits are use-
ful for oscillator circuits and common-collector A-Low impedance, d-c stabilized amplifier
circuits are used for various impedance trans- Il-Two stage amplifier features high input
formations. impedance



QI 0.2 2N3565 OR NEPSS

QI . Q= 2N7563 OR N CPSS =

Figure 33


A -Input Impedance of amplifier is about 1600 ohms.
II-Feedback amplifier with feedback loop from collector of Q, to base of Q,.

an emitter -follower input should be em- in figure 33B. A direct -coupled version of
ployed as shown in figure 32B. the resistance- coupled amplifier is shown in
The circuit of a two -stage resistance - figure 34.
coupled amplifier is shown in figure 33A. It is possible to employ NPN and PNP
The input impedance is approximately 1600 transistors in a common complementary cir-
ohms. Feedback may be placed around such cuit as shown in figure 35. There is no equiv-
alent of this configuration in vacuum -tube
technology. A variation of this interesting
concept is the complementary -symmetry cir-
cuit of figure 36 which provides all the ad-
vantages of conventional push -pull operation
plus direct coupling.

The EmitterThe emitter- follower configura-

Follower tion can be thought of as being
QI =Q2 =2N3565 OR REPS! very much like the vacuum -
Figure 34 tube cathode follower, since both have a
high input impedance and a relatively low
DIRECT-COUPLED TWO -STAGE output impedance. The basic emitter fol-



QI= 2N3565. NEPSS

Q2= 2N36
Figure 36
Figure 35
Crossover distortion Is reduced by use of
diodes D, and D. Forward voltage drop in
an amplifier from the collector of the second diodes is equal to the emitter -base forward
stage to the base of the first stage, as shown voltage drop of transistors Q, and Q,.


Figure 37


A- Output voltage of emitter- follower is about 0.7 volt below input voltage
B- Complementary emitter follower
C-Darlington pair emitter follower. Q, and Q, are often on one chip

lower is shown in figure 37A. The output figure 38A. This circuit exhibits an inherent
voltage is always 0.6 to 0.7 volt below the distortion in the form of a "dead zone"
input (for silicon small- signal devices) and which exists when the input voltage is too
input and output impedances are approxi- low to turn on transistor Q, and too high
mately related by htr, the current gain of to turn on transistor Q. Thus, a sine wave
the transistor. Thus, a simple emitter fol- would be distorted so as to appear as shown
lower with an emitter resistance of 500 ohms in figure 38B. The circuit of figure 36 cor-
using a transistor having an ir,. of 150 can rects this problem by making the forward
have an input impedance of over 75,000 voltage drop in diodes D, and D_ equal to
ohms. A complementary emitter follower is the emitter -base forward voltage drop of
shown in figure 37B. transistors Q, and Q.
A variation of the emitter -follower design
is the Darlington pair (figure 37C) . This ar-
rangement cascades two emitter -follower Power-Amplifier Circuits The transistor may
stages with d -c coupling between the devices. also be used as a
Darlington -pair -wired dual transistors in class -A power amplifier as shown in figure
monolithic form (for near -perfect tempera- 39.
ture tracking) are available in both NPN Commercial transistors are available that
and PNP pairs, even for power applications. will provide five or six watts of audio power
A disadvantage of the Darlington pair when operating from a 221'2-volt supply.
emitter follower is that there are two The smaller units provide power levels of a
emitter -base diode voltage drops between few milliwatts. The correct operating point
input and output. The high equivalent hr,. is chosen so that the output signal can
of the Darlington pair, however, allows for swing equally in the positive and negative
very large impedance ratios from input to directions, as shown in the collector curves
output. of figure 39B.
For power output stages another type of The proper primary impedance of the
emitter follower is often used. A hush -hull output transformer depends on the amount
complementary emitter follower is shown in of power to be delivered to the load:

Ecc Figure 38


A-Crossovr distortion exists
when input voltage is too low
to turn on Q, and too high to
turn on Q..
B- Waveform distortion. Circuit of
figure 36 corrects this problem.

ply voltage. The collector -to- collector im-

Ri, = 2 P
pedance of the output transformer is:

The collector current bias is:
- -P
1, In the class -B circuit, the maximum a -c
power input is approximately equal to three
In a class -A output stage, the maximum times the allowable collector dissipation of
a -c power output obtainable is limited to each transistor. Power transistors, such as the
0.5 the allowable dissipation of the transistor. 2N514 have collector dissipation ratings of
The product 1,1?, determines the maximum 80 watts and operate with class -B efficiency
collector dissipation, and a plot of these of about 67 percent. To achieve this level of
values is shown in figure 39B. The load line operation the heavy -duty transistor relies on
should always lie under the dissipation curve, efficient heat transfer from the transistor
and should encompass the maximum possible case to the chassis, using the large thermal
area between the axes of the graph for max- capacity of the chassis as a beat sink. An in-
imum output condition. In general, the load finite heat sink may be approximated by
line is tangent to the dissipation curve and mounting the transistor in the center of a
passes through the supply -voltage point at 6" X 6" copper or aluminum sheet. This
zero collector current. The d -c operating area may be part of a larger chassis.
point is thus approximately one -half the The collector of most power transistors is
supply voltage. electrically connected to the case. For appli-
The circuit of a typical push -pull class -B cations where the collector is not grounded
transistor amplifier is shown in figure 40A. a thin sheet of mica may be used between
Push -pull operation is desirable for transistor the case of the transistor and the chassis.
operation, since the even -order harmonics
arc largely eliminated. This permits transis- The "Bootstrap" The bipolar transistor in
tors to be driven into high collector- current Circuit common- emitter configur-
regions without distortion normally caused ation presents a low input
by nonlinearity of the collector. Crossover impedance unsuitable for use with high -
distortion is reduced to a minimum by pro- impedance driving sources such as a crystal
viding a slight forward base bias in addition microphone or a diode voltmeter probe.
to the normal emitter bias. The base bias The bootstrap circuit of figure 41 provides
is usually less than 0.5 volt in most cases. a very high input impedance for these spe-
Excessive base bias will boost the quiescent cial circuits. The low -impedance base -bias
collector current and thereby lower the network is isolated from the input circuit by
over -all efficiency of the stage. the 100K resistor. The signal is fed to the
The operating point of the class -B ampli- hase of the transistor and the output signal,
fier is set on the L. = 0 axis at the point taken across the emitter resistor, is also
where the collector voltage equals the sup- coupled to the bottom of the 100K isolating
22 5v
RE =,R
,, 0.5wATT CURVE T =25

Figure 39

Operating point is chosen so that
output signal can swing equally
in o positive or negative direction
without exceeding maximum col-
lector dissipation.
10 20 30 0 5o

4. 7 R
12 V.
ZS= 3000 C.T. ZP- S001L C.T.
Figure 40
200 MW

resistor via a capacitor. When a signal ap- now, operation into the gigahertz region is
pears at the base, it also appears at the emit- feasible. External feedback circuits are often
ter in the same phase and almost the same used to counteract the effects of internal
amplitude. Thus, nearly identical signal transistor feedback and to provide more
voltages appear at the ends of the isola- stable performance at high gain figures.
ting resistor and little or no signal cur- It should be noted, however, the bipolar
rent flows through it. The resistor then transistor is not like a vacuum tube or
resembles an infinitely high impedance to FET device and must have its base- emitter
the signal current, thus effectively iso- junction forward- biased to display gain.
lating the base -bias resistors. Since the The result of this requirement is that the
isolating resistor has no effect on the bias driving stage is driving a nonlinear diode
level, the base bias remains unchanged. In into forward conduction by the r -f sig-
practice, the signal voltage at the emitter nal intended to be amplified. This indi-
is slightly less than at the base, thus limiting cates the bipolar device is a nonlinear ampli-
the over -all effectiveness cf the circuit. For fier, to a greater or lesser degree. If the bi-
example, if the emitter -follower voltage polar transistor is only required to amplify
gain is 0.99, and the value of the isolating one frequency at a time, and that frequency
resistof is 100K, the effective resistance to is of constant amplitude, the bipolar transis-
the a -c input signal is 100K raised to 10 tor makes a satisfactory amplifier. When an
megohms, an increase in value by a factor of ensemble of signals of different frequencies
100 times. and /or amplitudes is present, the typical bi-
2N3428 /HEP -254 polar device will demonstrate the effect of its
inherent nonlinearity in a high level of cross -
INPUT modulation distortion. The fact the bipolar
transistor exhibits such nonlinearity makes it
useful as a frequency multiplier and mixer.
The severity of the nonlinearity of a bi-
polar device depends to a degree upon how it
is used in a given circuit. The current gain
Figure 41


High input impedance provided by simple
feedback circuit makes this amplifier attractive
for use with crystal microphones and other
high -impedance devices. Input impedance may
run from 100K to 10 megohms.

4 -8 R -F Circuitry
Figure 42

The bipolar transistor, almost from its COMMON EMITTER R -F AMPLIFIER

commercial inception, proved to be operable Linearity is improved by leaving a portion
up into the h -f range. The device has been of the emitter resistor unbypassed. Stage
gain and cross-modulation are both re-
refined and improved to the point where, duced.

(he,.) of a transistor drops rapidly with in- verter. Figure 44 shows two widely used
creasing frequency (figure 21) and the ten- transistor mixer circuits. The local oscillator
dency is to use the transmitter in a common - signal can be injected into the base circuit
emitter configuration to optimize gain. This in parallel with the r -f signal, or injected
circuit configuration also unfortunately opti- separately from a low- impedance source into
mizes nonlinearity. The common emitter cir- the emitter circuit. The mixer products ap-
cuit may be improved by leaving a portion pear in the collector circuit and the desired
of the emitter resistor unbypassed as shown one is taken from a selective output circuit.
in figure 42. This reduces stage gain, but A single transistor may be used in an
also reduces nonlinearity and resultant cross - autodyne converter circuit, as shown in fig-
modulation problems to a greater degree. The ure 45. This is a common- emitter mixer
unbypassed emitter resistor also boosts the with a tuned feedback circuit between
input impedance at the base of the ampli- emitter and collector and is often used in
fier. inexpensive transistorized broadcast receivers.
R -FAmplifiers A representative common- The circuit has only economy to recommend
it and often requires selection of transistors
base r -f amplifier is shown in
to make it oscillate.
figure 43. This configuration generally has
lower gain than the common -emitter circuit Transistor The bipolar transistor may be
and is less likely to require neutralization. Oscillators used in the oscillator circuits dis-
The linearity is better than that of the com- cussed in Chapter 11 (Generation
mon- emitter circuit because of matching of Radio Frequency Energy). Because of the
considerations. The input impedance of a base -emitter diode, the oscillator is of the
common -base amplifier is in the region of 50 self -limiting type, which produces a wave-
form with high harmonic content. A repre-
sentative NPN transistor oscillator circuit is
shown in figure 46. Sufficient coupling be-


9 zN
i +9V.

Figure 43
Linearity of this circuit is better than that
of common -emitter configuration.
ohms, so no voltage step up is involved in
matching the transistor to the common 50-
ohm antenna circuit. In the common -emitter
stage the input impedance of a small h -f I r OUT

transistor is about 500 ohms and a step -up

impedance network must be used, causing
the base voltage to be higher and aggrava-
ting the crossmodulation problem.
The relatively low gain of the common -
base circuit may not be a detriment for h -f
operation because good receiver design calls
for only enough gain to overcome mixer
noise at the frequency of operation.
Figure 44
Mixers and As mentioned previously, the bi-
Converters polar transistor is an inherently
nonlinear device and, as such, A --lase circuit injection of local oscillator.
can be used as an effective mixer or con- B-Emitter injection from low -impedance source.

parallel -mode type crystal is used in one of

these series circuits, it will oscillate at its
series- resonant frequency which is slightly
lower than that frequency marked on the
Transistor The bipolar device can be used
Detectors as an amplitude detector, very
TO 1

-F much as a diode is used since
the emitter -base junction is, after all, a
diode. The transistor detector offers gain,
however, since current passed by the base -
emitter diode is multiplied by the factor hr,..
The detected signal is recovered at the col-
Figure 45 lector. Since germanium transistors have a
lower forward conduction voltage than sili-
con types, they are often used in this circuit.
This allows the detector to operate on a few
tween input and output circuits of the tran- tenths of a volt (peak) as opposed to about
sistor via collector -base capacitance or via 0.6 volt (peak) required for a silicon tran-
external circuitry will permit oscillation up sistor. The bipolar transistor can also be used
to or slightly above the alpha -cutoff fre- as a product detector for SSB and c -w, such
quency. as shown in figure 48.

RFC 0.1

Figure 46
External feedback path permits oscillation Figure 48
up to approximately the alpha-cutoff fre-
quency of device.
life is injected into the emitter circuit from
a low -impedance source. Audio is rec d
in the collector circuit.
f, zf, af
R -F


Figure 47
Figure 49

Crystal is placed in feedback path and os- Automatic Gain The gain of a transistor am-
cillates in series mode. Control plifier stage will decrease as
Because of the relatively low impedance the emitter current is de-
associated with bipolar transistors, they are creased. This property can be used to control
best used with crystals operating in the series the gain of an r -f or i -f amplifier strip so
mode, as shown in figure 47. If a standard that weak and strong signals will produce the

operating cycle. This generally means zero -

bias operation since it is necessary to place
several tenths of a volt between emitter and
base of a transistor (in forward conduction
direction) before collector current flows. A
typical class -C r-f stage is shown in figure
Figure 50 49; it can be either an amplifier or a fre-
quency multiplier depending on the fre-
COMPLEMENTARY BASE -DRIVEN quency to which the output circuit is ad-
Circuit may be considered to be either push The input and output impedances of such
pull or push push depending on phasing of a class -C stage are generally quite low. Ex-
the collector windings. Only one winding cept for low power stages (under 100 mW
need be reversed to change mode of opera-
tion. or so) coupling networks other than the pi
or tuned transformer are used, as discussed
same audio output level. Automatic gain in the next section. This is not to say that
control voltage may be derived as described the pi and tuned transformer will not work,
in Chapter 10 (Radio Receiver Fundamen- but only that their element values often
tals). If NPN transistors are used in the become unwieldy at the impedance levels
gain controlled stages, a negative agc voltage and transformations encountered in solid -
is required which reduces the fixed value of
state circuitry.
forward bias on the stage, decreasing the Although single -transistor frequency mul-
o tipliers are most common, it is possible to
use the push -pull multiplier for high order
fl odd multiples and the push -push multiplier
for high order even multiples of the funda-
mental frequency (see Chapter 11, Genera-
tion of R -F Energy) .

It is possible to build multipliers using

bipolar transistors that are impossible to
realize with tubes, because both NPN and
Figure 51 PNP types of active devices are available.
Figure 50 shows a complementary base -
driven frequency multiplier. It may be con-
Balancing potentiometer permits attenuation sidered to be either a push -pull or a push -
of fundamental and third harmonic levels push configuration depending upon the phas-
when circuit is used as a frequency doubler.
ing of the collector windings. Only one
emitter current. If PNP transistors are used, winding need be reversed to change from
a positive agc voltage is required. one design to the other since it is the balance
of the circuit, in addition to the selectivity
Class -C Amplifier/
As in vacuum -tube cir- of the output tank, that attenuates adjacent
Multipliers cuitry, class -C operation harmonics in the output. A broadband h -f
of a transistor implies push -push doubler is shown in figure 51.
conduction for less than 90 degrees of the In this configuration, the amplitude of the
Figure 52
2N4012 10 CAVITY

Bipolar transistor makes use of

base -collector depletion capaci-
tance to work as frequency multi-
plier. Idler circuits are used to re-
flect undesired harmonics back to
collector -base capacitance.

fundamental and third -harmonic signals are junction temperature is a complex function
respectively -28 db and 32 db below the of device dissipation, which includes r -f
level of the second harmonic output signal. losses introduced in the pellet mounting
A second mechanism that may be used for structure. The package, then, is an integral
frequency multiplication makes use of the part of the r -f power transistor having
base -collector depletion capacitance and is thermal, capacitive, and inductive proper-
called parametric multiplication (figure 52). ties. The most critical parasitic features of
A number of idler circuits are used to reflect the package are the emitter and base lead
undesired harmonics back to the collector - inductances. These undesired parameters
base capacitance. can lead to parasitic oscillations, most of
which occur at frequencies below the fre-
quency of operation because of the increased
4 -9 Silicon Power gain of the transistor at lower frequencies.
Transistors Because transistor parameters change with
power level, instabilities can be found in
Most high - frequency power transistors both common- emitter and common -base cir-
are silicon, planar, diffused NPN structures cuits. Some of the more common difficulties
having a high ratio of active to physical are listed below:
area. Upwards of 200 watts average power Parametric Oscillation- Parametric in-
at frequencies in the neighborhood of 450 stability results because the transistor col-
MHz may be handled by modern silicon lector -base capacitance is nonlinear and can
power transistors of advanced design. In cause low- frequency modulation of the out-
the coming decade the efficiency, power put frequency. This effect can be suppressed
gain, and temperature stability of these by careful selection of the bypass capacitors,
devices will lead to their use in many and by the addition of a low- frequency by-
r -f amplifier applications heretofore solely pass capacitor in addition to the high -fre-
reserved for electron tubes. quency bypass capacitor (figure 53).
Low Frequency Oscillation -With transis-
Circuit The power output capability tor gain decreasing at about 6 decibels per
Considerations of a transistor is determined octave, any parasitic low- frequency circuit
by current and voltage limi- can cause oscillation. Inadequate bypassing
tations at the frequency of operation. The plus the use of high -Q, resonant r -f chokes
maximum current capacity is limited by can lead to this difficulty. This effect can
emitter area and layer resistivity, and the be eliminated by placing small resistances
voltage- handling capacity is limited by in series with the r -f choke, or by the use
maximum breakdown limits imposed by of low -Q chokes of the ferrite -bead variety.
layer resistivity and by the penetration of
the junction. The high- frequency current R-F IN

gain figure of merit UT) defines the fre- RFC 2

quency at which the current gain is unity, R FC I

and a high value of f T at high emitter or

collector current levels characterize a good
r -f transistor.
In many cases, components and construc-
tion techniques used for vacuum tubes are RFC
not appropriate for transistor circuits. This +TD
variance in circuit considerations results Figure 53
mainly because of the lower circuit imped-
ances encountered in transistor circuits. The WIDEBAND DECOUPLING CIRCUIT
most troublesome areas are power dissipa- FOR POWER TRANSISTOR
tion and parasitic oscillation. In the case To suppress parametric oscillation collector
of power dissipation, the levels reached bypass circuit must be effective at very low
under a given r -f power input are consider- frequencies. Multiple bypass capacitors and
series r -f chokes provide an adequate filter
ably higher than equivalent levels achieved when used in conjunction with regular h -f
under d -c operating conditions, since the and vhf filtering techniques.

Hysteresis- Hysteresis refers to discon- use the chassis of the equipment as a heat
tinuous mode jumps in output power that sink. The heat dissipation capability of the
occur when the input power or operating heat sink is based on its thermal resistance,
frequency is increased or decreased. This is expressed in degrees per watt, where the
caused by dynamic detuning resulting from watt is the rate of heat flow. Low power
nonlinear junction capacitance variation semiconductor devices commonly employ a
with change in r -f voltage. The tuned cir- clip -on heat sink while higher power units
cuit, in other words, will have a different require a massive cast -aluminum, finned,
resonant frequency for a strong drive signal radiator -style sink.
than for a weak one. Usually, these difficul- The interface between transistor case and
ties can be eliminated or minimized by sink is extremely important because of the
careful choice of base bias, by proper choice problem of maintaining a low level of
of ground connections, and by the use of thermal resistance at the surfaces. If it is
transistors having minimum values of para- required to electrically insulate the device
sitic capacitance and inductance. Circuit from the sink a mica washer may be used
wiring should be short and direct as possible as an insulator and the mounting bolts are
and all grounds should be concentrated in isclated with nylon or teflon washers. Some
a small area to prevent chassis inductance case designs may have a case mounting stud
from causing common -impedance gain de- insulated from the collector so that it can
generation in the emitter circuit. In com- be connected directly to the heat sink.
mon- emitter circuits, stage gain is dependent If the transistor is to be soldered into the
on series emitter impedance and small circuit, the lead temperature during the
amounts of degeneration can cause reduced soldering process is usually limited to about
circuit gain at the higher frequencies and 250 C for not more than 10 seconds and
permit unwanted feedback between output the connections should not be made less than
and input circuits. 1, 32 inch away from the case.
The use of a thermal conductive com-
pound such as a zinc -oxide, silicone com-
Thermal All semiconductor devices pound (Corning PC -4), for example is rec-
Considerations are temperature sensitive to ommended to fill the air insulating voids
a greater or lesser degree and between the transistor case and the sink to
the operating temperature and power dissi- achieve maximum heat transfer across the
pation of a given unit must be held below interface.
the maximum specified rating either by lim- Figure 54 is a nomograph for obtaining
iting the input power or by providing the physical dimensions of a heat sink as a
some external means of removing the excess function of its thermal resistance. The data
heat generated during normal operation. pertain to a convection- and radiation -
Low power devices have sufficient mass and cooled sink that is unpainted.
heat dissipation area to conduct away the
heat energy formed at the junctions, but
higher power devices must use a heat sink Input Circuits Once the dynamic input im-
to drain away the excess heat. pedance has been determined
Transistors of the 200 -watt class, for ex- from published data or from measurements,
ample, have a chip size up to 1/4-inch on a the input circuit may be designed. In prac-
side and the excess heat must be removed tice, the input circuit must provide a match
from this very small area. For silicon de- between a source impedance that is high
vices, the maximum junction temperature is compared to the input impedance of the
usually in the range of 13 5C to 200C. The transistor, which may be of the order of a
heat generated in the chip is passed directly few tenths of an ohm. Lumped LC circuits
to the case through the collector -case bond. are used in the high- frequency region and
The heat sink is a device which takes the air -line or strip -line circuits are used in the
heat from the transistor case and couples it vhf region, as shown in figure 55.
into the surrounding air. Discrete heat sinks The reactive portion of the input circuit
are available in various sizes, shapes, colors is a function of the transistor package in-
and materials. It is also common practice to ductance and the chip capacitance; at the


J4 J4
4 Z
rc 17:

> _ >
6 32 6 2 6 2 16 32
- - O
m .,- - -N N -
n -'

O -
.-- N --- N
- - - n
-N N
_ rp -- n
n -
- ---
- in
- n --
__ v N

_ n N N
-- --N -
_-_ --
-_ -_

--pf .- -
-- -
-- ---- --
-=n --=a -=M
SINK OR _^ =-. pr)
= a

- =-
= n
- - --
-_ -_
= =
-.- r -_ m
_ Ill

-= - ==
E,- ,g)
E- =

_ -

= m
Figure 54



lower frequencies the input impedance is a resistive load (R1) to the collector of the
capacitive, and at the higher frequencies it driver stage. The collector of the driving
becomes inductive; at some discrete inter- transistor in each case is shunt -fed by a high
mediate frequency, it is entirely resistive. impedance r -f choke.
The inductive reactance present at the higher At the very high frequencies, the input
frequencies may be tuned out by means of impedance of a power transistor is commonly
a line section presenting capacitive reactance inductive and the interstage network of
to the transistor. This advantageously results figure 57 is often used. A representative 20-
in an appreciable increase in over -all line watt, 150-MHz silicon device may have a
length, as compared to the more common series input impedance of about +j2 ohms. 1

quarter -wave matching transformer (figure Because of the low input impedance, net-
5 5D) . work design and assembly is critical and care
For the low and medium -high frequen- should be taken to observe the high circula-
cies where the input impedance of a power ting currents flowing in the final network
transistor is capacitive, the interstage net- loop, particularly through the shunt capaci-
works shown in figure 56 are commonly tance (C:,). Current values in the amperes
used. The interstage network must tune out range may flow through this capacitor at
the capacitive portion of the input imped- drive powers of well less than S watts or
ance (CO of the driven stage and provide so. Special ceramic microwave capacitors

Figure 55
Gain of common -emitter circuit is
very dependent on emitter series
impedance which should be low.
lase input impedance is usually
less than one ohm and a match-
ing circuit must be provided from
a source impedance that is high
compared to input impedance.
A low- impedance inductive circuit
(A) may be used, or various
tuned networks that combine im-
pedance transformation with re-
jection of harmonic frequencies
(l). A linear pi network is shown
at C. If the input circuit is ins
dustive, the reactance may be O O
tuned out by means of a line
section (L,) that presents a ca-
pacitive reactance to the transis-
tor (D).
having an extremely high value of O and dictated by the required power output and
low lead inductance are available for con - the allowable peak d -c collector voltage,
figurations of this type. The low -loss porce- and thus is not made equal to the output
lain units are expensive, but their cost is resistance of the transistor. The peak a -c
still small compared to the expensive transis- voltage is always less than the supply volt-
tors needed to produce appreciable power at age and the collector load resistance may be
the very high frequencies. expressed as:

Output Circuits In most transistor power (V,70z

amplifiers, the lead imped- 2 X Po
ance (RL) presented to the collector is

Co Li
L 'CO ICz Rz-

XLI >XCI ANO RI >R2.= rbb' RI >R2= rbb'

I) XLI ` QLR2 = QL rbb I) XLI QL

2) XCi XCO [VQLZ1 ) rbb 1

2) XL2 Rz Rz -I

rbb(QLz+I) I
3) XCi
Ri I- RI
QL 1'RIrbb(QL2+1) QL RI
'- V XC QLz
4)XC2 - QL RI

Figure 56


A- Driver transistor shunt fed by high -impedance r -f choke.
coil L,
Driver transistor is parallel -tuned and
in place of r -f choke.

where, R I C, L2

V,,,. equals supply voltage,

P equals peak power output. L, RL

The nonlinear transfer characteristic of

the transistor and the large dynamic voltage Xc, QL R,
and current swings result in high -level har- Xcz=
monic currents being generated in the col-
lector circuit. These currents must be sup-
Vcc R2 (QLZ+i)
pressed by proper design of the output Xc,
coupling network, which offers a relatively xLZ' Xc, (1 + R2
S0II IN Figure 59
Figure 57 This circuit provides proper collector loading
and suppresses collector harmonic currents.
TRIPLE L- NETWORK INPUT CIRCUIT The formulas for determination of constants
are given in the Illustration.
Network steps down 50 -ohm termination to
low input Impedance of base circuit. In the
vhf region, the input impedance Is com- A second output network, especially suited
monly Inductive, making up the missing to the vhf strip -line circuitry is shown in
series inductance of the third L network.
figure 60. Typically, the measured output
Cz impedance of a 25 -watt, vhf power transis-
tor is of the order of 3+ j2 ohms. This com-
pares favorably with the formula derived
value given earlier in this section. The values
of resistive and capacitive reactance may be
used in figure 60 to determine the component
parameters of the network. A circuit Q of
Figure 58 2 to 5 is usually chosen to provide adequate
harmonic attenuation and practical com-
MATCHING CIRCUITRY ponent values. Component values and a sche-
matic of a 40 -watt, 175 -MHz three stage
The reactive corn t of the output circuit
of the transistor stage may be tuned out by
proper design of the collector r -f choke
(RFC,). Tuning is accomplished by capacitor
C, and load matching by capacitor C,.

high impedance to the harmonic currents P1J

and a low impedance to the fundamental TRANSISTOR LI
current (figure 5 8) . Parallel- tuned, or pi-
network circuitry may be used, with the RO
reactive component of the output admit-
tance tuned out by proper design of the I) cErB=Ro(1+QL2)
series choke (RFC,). At the lower frequen- A=

cies, the collector of the transistor may be 2) XCz A RL

tapped down the tank coil as shown in
3) XCI-
the illustration. Capacitor C, provides tun-
ing, and capacitor C_ provides load match- 4) XLI = (QLRo) + XCI
ing. If the value of the inductor is properly Figure 60
chosen, harmonic suppression may be ade-
quate. A form of this circuit is shown in TRANSISTOR OUTPUT CIRCUIT
figure 59, which provides better harmonic COUPLING NETWORK
suppression with proper collector- circuit Network stops up low output impedance of
loading. collector to 50 -ohm termination.


oo J2
/7s MHz
i7a YHz


L,-# 16 wire, 1/2-inch long turns, as L.
L,, L,-4,16 wire about s/4 -Inch long formed L, -5 turns, as L.
into "U" Q,-CTC type 83 -12
L,, L.-1/4"x %s" strap, .005" thick about W' Q,-CTC type 812 -12
long Q,-CTC type 840-12
x 1/2" strap, .005" thick about %2" Note: 100-pF capacitors are mica compres-
long sion type). (All transistors by Communica-
L,-8 turns #16 e., %" diem. tions Transistor Corp.)

amplifier using interstage circuits of this value. A compromise amount is usually

type are shown in figure 61. chosen as excessive emitter resistance can
limit power gain and output. Developmental
Mode of Operation From the stability stand- transistors designed for linear amplifier serv-
point, the common -emit- ice have emitter resistance in the chip, in
ter configuration provides a more stable amounts of a fraction of an ohm. Other
circuit at the higher frequencies than does transistor types may incorporate a zener
the common -base circuit. Collector effici- diode on the chip to provide controlled,
ency in either case is about the same. Gen- positive base voltage.
erally speaking, breakdown voltages under The forward bias must, in any event, be
r -f conditions are considerably lower than maintained over a wide temperature range
the normal d -c breakdown voltages, and to prevent an increase in idling current ac-
the capability of the r -f power transistor companied by a rise in chip temperature,
to work into loads having a high value of which leads to a destructive runaway con-
SWR is limited. A well- designed circuit dition under maximum output conditions
operated at low supply voltage where power when transistor temperature is highest.
gain is not excessive is found to be less prone
to SWR mismatch. High values of SWR H -F Linear The operating parameters
mismatch lead to excessive r -f peak volt- Power-Amplifier for linear service present
ages, poor efficiency, and instability. Design severe circuit problems for
Single -sideband, linear operation calls for the solid -state device, among which is the
class -AB transistor operation. Most high - wide variation in the base input impedance,
frequency power transistors are designed for which may vary widely with frequency and
on -off (class -C) operation and the forward tuning, because of the low value of imped-
bias necessary to place them in a class -AB ance and the relatively large value of col-
mode leaves them susceptible to second lector -base capacitance. A representative 50-
breakdown, a destructive phenomenon watt transistor designed for linear service
characterized by localized heating within may have a series input impedance ranging
the transistor pellet, which leads to a regen-
erative layer damage.
from 4 -j2 ohms at 3.5 MHz to 0.5 -j
ohms at 30 MHz.
Second breakdown may be controlled by The transistor for linear service should be
the addition of emitter resistance of low chosen on the basis of good current -gain

linearity at high values of collector current. cent) collector current range from 5 to 50
A transistor having rapid lit,. falloff at high ma for devices in the 10- to 100 -watt PEP
collector currents will generally have poor range. Such values fall under the definition
intermodulation distortion characteristics. In of class -B operation. Class -B operation is
addition to good linearity, the device should complicated by thermal runaway problems
have the ability to survive a mismatched and large variations in the transistor base
load and maintain a low junction tempera- current as the r -f drive level is varied. For
ture at full power output. Transistors are best linearity, the d -c base bias should re-
available which combine these attributes, at main constant as the r -f drive level is varied.
power levels up to 100 watts PEP output, This is in conflict with the conditions re-
having intermodulation distortion levels of quired to prevent thermal runaway. A
-30 db for the ratio of one distortion representative bias circuit that meets these
product to one of two test tones. Power critical requirements is shown in figure 63.
gain and linearity are shown in figure 62 This circuit supplies an almost constant base
for the 2N5492 Motorola silicon transistor, bias by virtue of the zener diode (D,) which
specifically designed for linear amplifier is also used to temperature -compensate the
service up to 30 MHz. transistor. The diode is thermally coupled to
Operation of a solid -state linear amplifier the transistor by mounting it on the same
at reduced collector voltage drastically re- heat sink, thus providing temperature com-
duces the maximum power output for a pensation due to its decrease in forward
given degree of linearity since the device voltage drop with increasing temperature.
must deliver correspondingly higher collector Using this particular transistor, base current
peak currents for a given power output, thus rises from the no- signal value of 3 ma tu
placing a greater demand upon the bl,. about 200 ma at 80 watts output with a
linearity at high values of collector current. two -tone test signal. The current through
the diode at the no- signal condition is about
Bias typical class -C solid -state
A 260 ma and when r -f drive is applied, the
Considerations device is operated with transistor receives its additional base current
both the base and emitter from the diode, since the voltage drop across
grounded and the transistor is cut off when the diode is always slightly greater than the
no driving signal is present. The linearity of base -emitter voltage of the transistor due to
a solid -state device requires operation with the voltage drop in choke RFC,.
forward bias, as stated previously. This im- Resistor R, has a dual function in that it
plies a finite no- signal value of collector cur- causes current to flow through RFC, in the
rent. Optimum values of no- signal (quics- no- signal condition and it also reduces the

3 m
25 O -10
61 20
O -30
D -O
o o
a o
5 a -50
z 60
2 3 3 10 20 30 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Figure 62


Motorola 2N5492 power transistor is designed for linear amplifier service up to 30 MHz and has
intermodulation distortion level better than -30 db.

IN4719 4 -10 VHF Circuitry

Power transistors are available that pro-
vide up to 150 watts power output to over
200 MHz and up to 100 watts power output
to 500 MHz for class -C service. Experimen-
tal transistors can provide upward of 50
watts in class -C operation at frequencies in
Figure 63 excess of 1000 MHz. These devices make
BASE BIAS CIRCUIT FOR 2NS070 IN practical, low cost solid -state power ampli-
LINEAR AMPLIFIER SERVICE fiers for amateur f -m service up through
432 MHz.
Zener diode D, is also used to temperature - Vhf power transistors are tailored for
compensate the transistor by mounting it on
common heat sink. operation over certain popular frequency
ranges (25 -80 MHz, 100 -200 MHz, or 200-
impedance from base to ground, helping to 600 MHz, for example) and the power
iml;rove the stability of the amplifier. capability and reliability require that the
user operate the device within the intended
Wideband 'l'hc use of transmission -line type range, since the ruggedness of the vhf power
Circuitry broadband transformers permits transistor is a function of both voltage and
the construction of a wideband frequency. A transistor rated for operation
amplifier whose power gain versus frequency near 175 MHz, will be less rugged at 100
performance is shown in figure 62. The spe- MHz and may be too delicate for use at
cial transformers consisted of low- imped- 30 MHz. In addition, the device must be
ance, twisted wire transmission lines wound operated well within the manufacturer's
about a ferrite toroid. Impedance ratios of rating and due attention paid to the stand-
4:1 or 9:1 may be achieved with the proper ing-wave ratio appearing on the transistor
winding connections. Two series- connected output load network.
transformers may be used to achieve greater For f -m service, the vhf transistor is oper-
step -down ratios, if required. The design of ated in the zero bias, class -C mode and strip -
effective transformers for this class of serv- line circuitry is commonly employed.
ice is covered in "Broadband 60 -W HF
Linear Amplifier," by Pitzalis, Horn, and Circuit Transistor input and output
Baranello in IEEE Journal of Solid State Techniques impedances are extremely low
Circuits, Volume SC -6, No. 3; June, 1971. and stray circuit inductance
A representative broadband amplifier sche- and ground current return paths play a
matic is shown in figure 64. large role in circuit design. Impedance levels

IN4719 10 LIM AND I.0
2N5070 = 0.1 = J2

l .4.

4 1
(2 -30 MHZ)

Figure 64


Nominal 50 -ohm input is stepped down to the base impedance by series -connected 4:1 balen trans-
formers. Single 4:1 balen transformer steps up collector impedance to 50 -ohm level.

of one ohm, or less, are common and lead VHF TRANSISTOR

length in r -f circuitry of 0.1 inch or so be- -FOIL
come quite critical. Special vhf ceramic PRINTED
capacitors having ribbon leads may be used CIRCUIT
in impedance matching circuits and uncased BOARD
mica /porcelain chip capacitors used for high
r -f current paths. The technique of ground-
ing the r -f components becomes a very criti-
cal aspect of the circuit design as a result Figure 66
of the very low impedance characteristics
of the transistor. STUD -MOUNTED TRANSISTOR IS
The common-base or common- emitter BOLTED TO HEAT SINK
lead should be grounded at the body of the
transistor for proper performance. With the Flange c tions of transistor should not
be twisted or bent. Printed -circuit board is
strip -line package, the device may be elevated above the heat sink so that Range
mounted to a ground plane (such as a leads are not stressed and provide shortest
possible connection to the strip line. Silicon
GROUND PLANE B grease is used on the stud to lower thermal
resistance between transistor and heat sink.

capacitors are often used in parallel at this
111'055+7: point, as shown in the illustration.
The stud -mounted transistor should be
mounted on a flat surface (figure 66) for
SECTIONTNRU BOARD proper heat transfer. The flange connections
Ar B-B
should not be twisted or bent, and should
not be stressed when the transistor is
torqued to the heat sink. Silicone grease
should always be used on the stud to lower
the thermal resistance between transistor
and sink.
The transistor user should remember that
the vhf power transistor will not tolerate
overload as the thermal time constant of the
Figure 65 small chip is very fast, thus, the allowable
VHF TRANSISTOR MOUNTED IN dissipation rating of the transistor must be
capable of handling momentary overloads.
Generally speaking, for class -C operation,
(A) Two emitter leads of transistor are con-
the r -f output level of the vhf power tran-
nected to ground plane. lass and collector sistor should be held to about 50 percent of
leads are soldered to resonant strip lines. the power dissipation rating.
Dual -surface board is used with top and
bottom ground planes connected together
with straps under each emitter lead (B).
Small ceramic chip capacitors are often VHF Circuit Vhf transistor circuitry in-
placed in parallel at base terminal to form
portion of input matching network (C). Ex- Design volves impedance matching
tremely low impedance to ground is re- networks and d -c feed systems.
quired at this point because current flow- It is common practice to make networks up
ing in capacitors is heavy.
of simple, cascaded L- sections which pro-
vide low -pass filter characteristics and ample
printed- circuit board) as shown in figure impedance transfer (figures 59 and 60). If
65. Dual -surface board is used, with the the Q of each step of the network is held
top and bottom ground planes connected to a low figure (2 or 3) , the bandwidth of
together using straps under each emitter the amplifier will be wide enough to cover
lead. Capacitors in the input matching net- any of the vhf amateur bands. Representa-
work require a good ground and extremely tive two- section networks for input and
low inductive impedance. Two small chip output terminations are shown in figure 67.


O50 IN


Figure 68



Figure 67
ance is usually given by the manufacturer.
INPUT AND OUTPUT A series inductance (circuit B, inductor L1)
MATCHING NETWORKS equalizes the series capacitance of the de-
vice and two series -connected L- sections step
(A) Input impedance of vhf transistor, typi- the transistor impedance level up to 50
cally, is inductive. Two -section network with ohms.
center impedance of 1S ohms matches 50-
ohm input to the base circuit of the transis-
tor. (0) Output impedance presents a low D -C Feed Systems The d -c feed network
value of series reactance. Two-section net- Design permits the operating
work with center impedance of 10 ohms
provides proper match to S0 -ohm termina- voltages to be applied to
tion. Circuit Q of networks is held to 2 or the transistor without interfering with the
3 for optimum bandwidth.
r -f circuitry. Voltages may be fed to the
The transistor input impedance in the vhf transistor via r -f chokes, which must be
range is usually inductive and a shunt ca- carefully designed in order to prevent low -
pacitor (circuit A, capacitor CO is used to frequency parasitic oscillations. Transistor
cancel the reactive portion of the imped- gain increases rapidly with decreasing signal
ance. Two series -connected L- sections are frequency and a figure of 40 decibels is not
used, the first matching the 50 -ohm input uncommon for low- frequency gain. The d -c
impedance down to 15 ohms and the second feed network therefore must present a load
matching down from 15 ohms to the 5 -ohm impedance which will not sustain low -fre-
impedance level of the transistor. The inter- quency oscillation. This may be done by
mediate impedance point is often chosen as using as small r -f chokes as possible con-
the mean value between the output and in- sistent with the operating frequency and
put impedance levels. If a strip -line config- impedance level and large bypass capacitors
uration is used, line impedance may be taken (figure 53).
as the mean value to simplify calculations. In addition negative collector feedback
The vhf transistor generally has a capaci- can be used to decrease the stage gain be-
tive reactance and the proper load imped- low the design frequency (figure 68).

Part Il- Field-andEffectNumeric

Devices, Integrated Circuits

4 -11 Field- Effect Devices visualized as a bar, or channel, of semicon-

ductor material of either N -type or P-type
The junction field- effect transistor silicon. An ohmic contact is made to each
(JFET) , or unipolar transistors, was explored end of the bar as shown in figure lA, which
in 1928 but it was not until 1958 that the represents an N -type field -effect transistor
first practical field -effect transistor was de- in its simplest form. If two P- regions are
veloped. This device may be most easily diffused into a bar of N- material (from




Figure 1

A -Bo sic JFETchannel of N- or P -type

material with contact at each end. Two P Figure 2
or N regions are diffused into the bar. B-
If a positive voltage is applied across con- SYMBOLS AND NOMENCLATURE FOR
tacts a current flows through the gate re- FIELD- EFFECT TRANSISTORS
gion. Control of gate bias changes current
flow from source contact to drain contact. described for NPN and PNP bipolar transis-
Drain current is thus controlled by gate
voltage. tors. The symbols used to depict N- channel
and P- channel JFET's are shown in figure 2.
opposite ends of the N- channel) and ex- The Insulated Gate Field -Effect Transis-
ternally connected together electrically, a tor (IGFET) differs from the JFET in a
gale is produced. One contact is called the number of ways. The gate element is in-
source and the other the drain; it matters sulated from the rest of the device and con-
not which if the gate diffusion is in the cen- trol is by means of capacitance variation.
ter of the device. If a positive voltage is ap- The IGFET may be visualized as in figure
plied between drain and source (figure 1B) 3, again an N- channel device. The basic
and the gate is connected to the source, a forni of the device is P -type material, into
current will flow. This is the most important which have been diffused two N -type regions
definitive current in a field -effect device and to form the source and drain. The gate is a
is termed the :ero bias drain current (Us). layer of metalization laid down directly over

This current represents the maximum cur- the P -type region between source and drain,
rent flow with the gate- source diode at zero but separated from the region by a thin
bias. As the gate is made more negative rela- layer of insulating silicon dioxide (silicon
tive to the source, the P- region expands cut- nitride is also used in some types). If a pos-
ting down the size of the N- channel through itive voltage is applied to the drain, relative
which current can flow. Finally, at a nega-
tive gate potential termed the pine% -off SOURCE LATE DRAIN
cottage, conduction in the channel ceases. ZATION

The region of control for negative gate BBB SILICON

voltages lies between zero and the gate -to-
source cutoff voltage (V05.,I1,) . These volt- \SUISTRATe
ages cause the gate- source junction to be N CHANNEL
back -biased, a condition analogous to the CATE 2

vacuum tube, since drain current is con-

trolled by gate voltage. In the vacuum tube Figure 3

a potential on the grid affects the plate cur- INSULATED -GATE FIELD -EFFECT
rent, however the charge carrying the sig- TRANSISTOR
nal does not flow in the region between
cathode and plate to any significant extent. IGFET has insulated gate element and cur-
It is possible to build a P- channel JFET rent control is by means of capacitance
device that requires a negative drain voltage variation. Enhancement mode (positive gate
control) and depletion mode (negative gate
and is biased with positive gate voltage. control) IGFETs are available. Gate voltage
Combining both N- channel and P- channel limitation is point of breakdown of oxide
dielectric in the gate. Diode -protected
JFET's makes it possible to design comple- IGFET has zener diodes on the chip to limit
mentary circuits as in the manner previously potential between gate and body of device.

to the source, and there is no potential dif- and drain to cause conduction even if there
ference between gate and substrate, no cur- is no voltage applied between gate and sub-
rent will flow because the path appears as strate. Similar to the JFET, this depletion
two back -to -back diodes (NP -PN) . If a mode IGFET must have its gate reverse -
positive voltage is applied to the gate relative biased to reduce source -to -drain current. The
to the substrate, it will induce an N- region depletion mode IGFET is used in the sanie
between source and drain and conduction manner as the JFET except that the gate
will occur. This type of IGFET is termed an may also be driven forward and the drain
enhancement mode type; that is, application current can be increased to values even
of forward bias to the gate enhances current greater than the zero-bias drain current,
flow from source to drain. (It is not possible I1INS.
Gate voltage of the JFET is limited in the
METALI2ATION reverse direction by the avalanche breakdown
potential of the gate- source and gate -drain
DIOXIDE circuits. In the IGFET, on the other hand,
the gate voltage limitation is the point of
destructive breakdown of the oxide dielectric
under the gate. This breakdown must be
Figure 4
avoided to prevent permanent damage to
the oxide.
DUAL -GATE IGFET Static electricity represents the greatest
Depletion type, dual -gate IGFET is intended threat to the gate insulation in IGFET de-
for r -f use through the vhf range. One port vices. This type of charge accumulation can
is for input signal and the other for ags
control. be avoided by wrapping the leads in tinfoil,
to build an enhancement mode JFET because or by otherwise connecting the leads when
the gate is a diode which will conduct if the devices are being transported and in-
forward- biased) . stalled. The user of the device, moreover,
A depletion mode IGFET is built by dif- may accumulate a static potential that will
fusing small N- region between the source damage the IGFET when it is handled or

Is installed and a grounding strap around the
,.O iVCTo electrodes is recommended. Gate protection

is often included within the device in the
I. ,.,,loir... form of zener diodes on the chip between the
Is 1 V.
gate and the body, forming a diode -pro-
tected IGFET.

FET Terminal Note in figures and 3 there
? e 1.0 V. 1

Leads are really four terminations

e Ill
associated with any FET de-

11E1 1111_11.--.x..
2 //I..... - 20 V
vice. In the JFET they are source, drain, and
the two connections to the two P- diffusions
made in the channel. In the IGFET they are
source, drain, gate, and substrate. In some
4 e 12 II 20 \24 2e
JFETs all four leads are brought out of the
package and in others only three leads arc
Figure 5 available. In a three -lead configuration, it
is considered that the two P- diffusion gate
DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF connections are tied together inside the pack-
E300 FET age. In the case of the IGFET, all four leads
are generally available for use; but more
Drain characteristic curves of FEY resemble often than not, the substrate is externally
the characteristic f pentode m
tube as the current plots are nearly hori- connected to the source in the actual circuit.
zontal in slope above V,, of about 6 volts. The advantage of the four -lead package is
Load line is drawn on plot for gate bias of
- volt, drain voltage of +15 volts, and
the ability to allow separate control ports,
drain carrent of 7 milliamperes. much like a multigrid vacuum tube.

+22V. +22V. horizontal in slope. The FET, then, like the

pentode, is generally used in circuits in this
7MAi IK 7 IJAh 1K
so- called constant current region of the
INPUT INPUT characteristics.
H .01 .01
C .01
A 1000 -ohm load line is drawn on the
+I V. characteristic plot in the same manner as
1.3 one is drawn on a vacuum -tube plate char-
acteristic curve (see figure 17, Chapter 5
and figure 4, Chapter 7 ) . The load line is
marked for a gate-bias voltage of -1 volt,
a drain voltage of +15 volts, and a resting
Figure 6 drain current of 7 milliamperes. The circuit
of a common -source amplifier operating
under these conditions is shown in figure 6.
E300 FET
It can be observed from the load line that,
at the bias point of -1 volt, as the input
signal swings plus and minus volt, the 1
Common-source amplifiers operating under
conditions shown in figure 6. A- Separate drain voltage will swing between +8 to
gate bias. II-Source self -bias. +20 volts. The gate bias may be supplied
either from a separate supply or from a
An improved dual -gate IGFET of the de- source resistor (equivalent to a cathode resis-
pletion type has recently become available, tor in vacuum -tube technology). Typical
intended for r -f use through the vhf range. input impedance of the common-source
The 3N140, 3N141, and 40673 of RCA, small-signal audio amplifier is quite high,
and the Motorola MFE -3006 and MFE -3007
with 10 megohms a not -uncommon value
are representative types. Their construction
for low leakage JFETs and values higher
is shown in figure 4. These devices serve
than this for IGFETs.
where dual ports are required, such as in The common -gate configuration shown in
mixers, product detectors, and agc- controlled
figure 7 may be compared in performance to
stages, with one gate used as the signal port
and the other the control port.
7 MA
E300 .01
4 -12 FET Circuitry LOW
Z H +I V. +1lV F- OUTPUT
JFET and depletion -mode IGFET devices
are used in linear circuitry in very much the 50 +
same way as are vacuum tubes, but at lower
voltages. As an example, the drain charac-
teristics of an inexpensive and popular FET Figure 7
(Silironix E300) are shown in figure 5. The COMMON -GATE AMPLIFIER
line that is labeled V0, = 0 is the one that USING E300 FET
represents the zero -bias drain current state,
or Id,. At a drain to source potential of 10 input impedance of common -geto circuit is
volts, Id is 15 milliamperes and, according to about 1S0 ohms. Sage gain is lower than
the data sheet, Id could be any value between common -source circuit.
6 ma and 30 ma at this potential. This
spread of Id is fairly typical of the lower the cathode- driven vacuum -tube amplifier,
cost FETs and the curve shown is also having a rather low value of input imped-
typical, as is the value of Id read from it. ance. A typical value of input impedance
The E300 drain characteristics look very is approximately 1 ,'r, where gr, is the trans -
similar in shape to the characteristics of a conductance (similar to g,n in the vacuum
pentode vacuum tube; that is, at Vd0 (drain tubes) . The gr0 is approximately 1/gr, for
to source potential) greater than about 6 the E300 device is about 6600 microhmos;
volts, the drain current curves are nearly so the circuit of figure 7 will have an input

impedance around 150 ohms. The common - good mixers having little intermodulation
gate configuration will have somewhat lower distortion. The use of FET devices in re-
gain than the common- source circuit, but ceivers is discussed in Chapter 10.
has other advantages discussed later. Aside from common usage discussed else-
The FET analogy to the cathode follower where in this handbook, the characteristics
is shown in figure 8. This source f ollou er, of the FET permit it to do a good job in
shown with self -bias, has a very high input specialized circuits. A phase -shift audio os-
impedance and very low output impedance cillator using the HEP 801 is shown in fig-
(1 /gf ).
+9 V.


Figure 8
USING E300 FET ure 10. This configuration employs the
tapered RC network wherein each RC pair
Source- follower circuit has very high input has the same time constant but successively
impedance and low output impedance.
higher impedance. The bridge -T and Wien
bridge circuits also adapt themselves easily
The FET in The VET makes a very to the FET as shown in figures 11 and 12.
Specialized Circuitsgood r -f device because IS V.

of some of its unique

characteristics. In particular, the FET has HEP801 2N3643
a transfer characteristic that is remarkably
free of third -order curvature, which en-
sures that intermodulation distortion and
crossmodulation will be at a minimum in a OUTPUT
properly designed circuit. A typical IGFET
(depletion mode) vhf r -f amplifier is shown
in figure 9.
FET devices have second order curvature
in their transfer functions and operate as 6.eN; I

LI VHF OUT Figure 11

HEP 801 AND 2N3643

RFC I,- Sylvania 120 M! lamp.

.001 1 .00
-14 V. = +16 V.
Since the FET is commonly operated in
Figure 9 the constant- current region, it is often used
IGFET DEPLETION -MODE as a constant -current generator with the
VHF AMPLIFIER gate and source connected together to form
a two -terminal device. A linear ramp gener-

3N121 is neutralized for best circuitry sta- ator using a FET in place of a transistor to
bility and optimum noise figure. charge a capacitor is shown in figure 13. A

the experimenter can use nearly any small

JFET in a similar manner by connecting the
gate to the source. If the 1'ET is used with
a variable resistance in the source lead, as
shown in figure 14B, an adjustable but con-
stant- current source is available.
The enhancement -mode IGFET (P -chan-
nel) is almost exclusively used as a switch
for computing or for logic circuits and
the basic building block upon which one
form of logic integrated circuit is based, as
Figure 12 discussed in a later chapter. Discrete en-
15V. +15V
1,- Sylvania 120 Mll lamp. SUR

unijunction transistor is used to discharge

the capacitor.
A combination FET and zener diode cir-
cuit (figure 14A) provides improved regu- PULSE
-5 6 V.

lation since the current flow through the

zener is constant. Special JFETs that serve 15V.
as constant- current diodes are available, but Figure 15
5 V.


Input waveform is sampled only
when negative sample pulse ap-
nnn plied between substrate and gate
of IT -1701 IGFET is present. Ca-
pacitor C is then charged to value
of input voltage and drives sens-
Figure 13 ing amplifier through operational
amplifier LM310H, at right. Capaci-
LINEAR RAMP GENERATOR tor holds charge because IGFET
represents open circuit after pulse
HEP 803 FET used as constant current source
to ge fie linear ramp waveforms. hancement -mode IGFETs are used in .sample
and hold circuits, such as shown in figure
+15V +IS V. I f. The waveform at the input is sampled

only when the negative sample pulse, applied

between substrate and gate, is present. The
HE P801 HEP801 capacitor (C) is then charged to whatever
value the input received during the sample
pulse, and holds this value because the
IGFET represents an open circuit at all
HEP 102
other times. The voltage on the capacitor
may be used to drive another FET (depletion
Figure 14
mode) so that the input impedance of the
sensing amplifier does not discharge the ca-
FET AND ZENER DIODE PROVIDE pacitor to any degree during sampling times.
IMPROVED REGULATION The enhancement -mode IGFET also serves
as a fast switch in chopper service or as a
A- Constant current source. 8- Variable cur- series switch in certain types of noise sup-
rent source. pression devices.

As the technology of FET construction size metal can that has the same pin config-
develops, JFETSs and IGFETs continue to uration as the tube it replaces. The JFET
invade new circuit areas. JFETs for 1 -GHz characteristics can be chosen to simulate the
operation are available and so are 10 -watt dynamic performance of a tube. Two JFETs
stud- mounted types for lower- frequency are required to simulate the performance of
power application. IGFETs are being de- a pentode. Fetrons feature long life, low

signed for 1 -GHz operation to satisfy the aging, and reduced power consumption as
demands of UHF -TV reception. Some ex- compared to an equivalent vacuum tube.
perimental FETs have been built to operate
at 10 GHz. Other experimental JFETs avail- Microwave Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
FETs FETS have been developed
that promise superior low -
noise performance for microwave applica-
tions. Typical noise figures for these devices
are about 3 db at 4 GHz, 4 db at 8 GHz,
and 5 db at 12.5 GHz. Developmental
GaAs FETs with a Schottky -barrier gate ex-
hibit a noise figure of 3.3 db at 10 GHz and
a power gain of 9 db. Many of these new ex-
perimental FETs have an f,,,;,, in excess of
30 GHz. Enhanced noise figures have been
produced by cooling the FET device with
liquid nitrogen to 77 K.

4 -13 Integrated Circuits

The integrated circuit (IC) comprises a
Figure 16 family in the field of microelectronics in
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT ASSEMBLY which small, conventional components are
This 36 -lead integrated circuit complex is combined in an orderly fashion in compact,
smaller than a postage stamp and includes high- density assemblies (micromodules) as
285 gates fabricated on a single chip. It shown in figure 16. Integrated circuits may
is used for a o computer memory cir-
cuits. (Fairchild TTL 9035). be composed of passive elements (resistors,
capacitors, and interconnections), and active
able for low- frequency work can withstand elements such as diodes and transistors. The
100 volts between source and drain. IC family may be divided into monolithic
It appears that virtually every circuit and multichip, or hybrid, circuits. The for-
that can be realized with receiving type vac - mer category consists of an entire circuit
uum tubes can also be eventually dupli- function constructed in a single semicon-
cated with some sort of FET package and ductor block. The latter consists of two or
interesting variations of this efficient and more semiconductor blocks, each containing
inexpensive solid -state device that will apply active or passive elements interconnected to
to high- frequency communication are on form a complete circuit and assembled in a
the horizon. single package.
Integrated circuits offer relief in complex
The Fetron A JFET called Fetron has
a systems by permitting a reduction in the
been developed that replaces a number of pieces and interconnections mak-
vacuum tube in a circuit directly, without ing up the system, a reduction in overall
requiring major modifications in the circuit. system size, better transistor matching and
High -voltage FETS are used and the Fetron potentially lower system cost.
can either be a single JFET or two cascode Using very small monolithic IC's makes
connected JFETs in a hybrid integrated it possible to make thousands of circuits
circuit. The Fetron is packaged in an over- simultaneously. For example, several hundred

dice (plural of die) may be produced side strate may be used. Dielectric insulation,
by side from a single silicon slice in the making use of a formed layer around a
simultaneous processing of about a hundred sensitive region is also employed. Successive
slices. Each die contains a complete circuit diffusion processes produce transistors and
made up of ten to one hundred or more circuit elements of microscopic size, ready
active and inactive components. to have external leads bonded to them, and
The silicon slice is prepared by an epita.s- suitable for encapsulation.
ial process, which is defined as "the place- Typical IC dice range in size from less
ment of materials on a surface." Epitaxy than 0.02" square up to 0.08" X 0.2 ".
is used to grow thin layers of silicon on the Many package configurations are used, the
slice, the layer resistivity controlled by the most popular being the nrultipin TO -S
addition of N -type or P -type impurities package, the dual in -line package, the flat
(diffusion) to the silicon atoms being de- package, and the inexpensive rpnvy package.
posited. When localized regions arc diffused
into the base material (substrate), isolated
circuits are achieved. Diffusion of additional
P -type or N -type regions forms transistors.
Once the die is prepared by successive
diffusions, a photomasking and etching proc- EXTERNAL

ess cuts accurately sized- and -located win- COMPENSATION

dows in the oxide surface, setting the circuit GROUN LAG 1

element dimensions simultaneously on every INVERTING


circuit in the slice. The wafer is then coated NON- INVENTING

with an insulating oxide layer which can be INPUT

opened in areas to permit metalization and .

The metalization process follows next,
connecting circuit elements in the substrate.
Electrical isolation barriers (insulators) may
be provided in the form of reverse -biased
PN junctions, or the resistance of the sub-

Figure 18

*1 4E2 Digital and Integrated circuits may be clas-
Linear IC's sified in terms of their func-
tional end -use into two fami-

INPUT 3 lies:
Digital -A
family of circuits that oper-
ate effectively as "on -of" switches. These
circuits are most frequently used in com-
puters to count in accord with the absence
or presence of a signal.
Linear (Analog) -A
family of circuits
that operate on an electrical signal to change
its shape, increase its amplitude, or modify
it for a specific use.
The differential amplifier is a basic cir-
Figure 17 cuit configuration for ICs used in a wide
variety of linear applications (figure 17).
AMPLIFIER The circuit is basically a balanced amplifier

Figure 19


Complicated circuitry is reduced to printed- circuit board, eight "in- line" IC's and ten TO -5
style IC's. Transistor version would occupy many times this volume and have hundreds of
discrete components. Final voltage regulator IC is at left with heat sink.
in which the currents to the emitter -cou- a triangle, with the apex pointing in the
pled differential pair of transistors are sup- direction of operation.
plied from a constant- current source, such
as a transistor. An operational amplifier is
The MOSFET The basic monolithic bipolar
a high -gain direct-coupled amplifier utilizing IC
frequency compensation (feedback) for con- IC requires a seven -mask
trol of response characteristics (figure 18) . process; that is, seven differ-
The circuit symbol for these amplifiers is ent photographic masks (negatives) must be
used in diffusion, etching, and oxidizing
cycles. The necessity for all of these masks
to exactly overlay (or register) is one very
critical factor in getting the yield of an IC
fabrication process up to a reasonable per-
centage of functional chips.
Another monolithic IC, that is more
simple to fabricate, is the MOSFET type.
The MOSFET 1C is principally used in logic
type functional blocks. Unlike the bipolar
monolithic IC, no separate diffusion is
necessary to make resistors -FETs are used
Figure 20 as resistors as well as active devices. Since
BASIC MOS INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MOSFET's have capacitors inherent in them
(gate to channel capacitance), the small
Device Q serves as active device and Q, capacitors needed are already present. So,
serves as drain resistor. with every device on the chip a MOSFET,

only several maskings must be made. The RTL is the inverter or NOT gate (figure
smaller number of mask processes has the 22A), whose output is the opposite or com-
effect of increasing yields, or alternately al- plement of the input level. The output and
lowing more separate elements to be put on input levels, thus, are not the same. The
the chip. NOR gate is shown in figure 22B. These
gates, plus the NAND gate permit the de-
signer to build up OR and AND gates, plus
AND NAND multivibrators and even more complicated
logic functions.
The NOR gate (not OR) makes use of
OR EXCLUSNE OR two or more bipolar devices. If both NOR
inputs are at ground (state "0 "), then the
output level is at + 3.6 volt in this example
NOT NOR NAND (state "1 "). However, if either input A
Figure 21 or input B is at a positive level, then the
output level drops to a voltage near ground.
EXAMPLES OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC The logic statement expressed in binary
CIRCUITRY mathematics by the NOR gate is (in Boole-
A simple MOS -IC circuit is shown in fig- an algebra) A +B =C, or if A or B is one,

ure 20. This is a digital inverter, Q, serving then C is zero. Simply, the statement says
as the active device and Q_ functioning as input at gate 1 or gate 2 yields a zero
a drain resistor. A typical MOS -IC chip has (NOR) at the output.
literally hundreds or thousands of circuits By adding a NOT circuit after the NOR,
such as this on it, interconnected as a rela- an OR circuit is formed (figure 22C) ;
tively complex circuit system block, such now if either A or B are one, then C is one.
as a shift register. In Boolean notation: A B=C.
If one is termed true and zero termed
false, these terms relate the circuits to logic
4 -14 Digital -Logic ICs in the common sense of the word. An AND
An electronic system that deals with dis-
gate is shown in figure 22D.
These simple AND, OR, and NOT cir-
crete events based on digits functions on an
"on -off" principle wherein the active de- cuits can be used to solve complex prob-
vices in the system are either operating in
lems, and systems may be activated by the
desired combination of true and false input
one of two modes: cutoff or saturation (on).
Operation is based on binary mathematics statements. In addition to use in logic func-
using only the digits zero and one. In gen- tions, NAND, NOR, and NOT gates can
be wired as astable (free- running) multivi-
eral, zero is indicated by a low signal voltage
and one by a higher signal voltage. In a brators, monostable (one -shot) multivibra-
negative logic system the reverse is true, one tors, and Schmitt triggers. Representative
being indicated by the most negative voltage. examples of such functions are shown in
In either case, the circuits that perform figure 23.
digital logic exercises may be made up of
hundreds or thousands of discrete compon- DTL Logic Some logic ICs are diode tran-
ents, both active and inactive. Logic dia- sistor logic (DTL) as shown
grams show symbols based on the specific in figure 24. Illustration A shows one -quar-
functions performed and not on the com- ter of a quadruple- two -input NAND gate.
ponent configuration which may consist of The I)TL configuration behaves differently
many microscopic particles on a semicon- than the RTL devices. If the two inputs of
ductor chip. Typical examples of symbolic figure 24A are open ( "high," or one), the
circuitry are shown in figure 21. output is 'low," (or zero). If any input is
grounded (zero), the output remains high.
RTL Logic The earliest practical IC logic Current has to flow out of the diode inputs
form was resistor -transistor to place the output level at zero. This ac-
logic (RTL). A basic building block of tion is termed current sinking.

i 3.6 *3.6 V.

640 640




\ 0




Figure 22


A- Inverter, or NOT gate. B- Noninverting NOR gate. C-NOR plus NOT gates form OR gate. D -Two
NOT gates plus NOR got. form AND gate.

The portion of the two -input NA NI)

EP584 a,l HEP584
gate shown in figure 24B is a member of
the TTL family, all of which can be inter -
OUTPUT faced electrically with each other and with
N4454 I)TL as far as signal levels arc concerned. It
is possible to use logic ICs in linear circuits
and figure 25 shows two crystal oscillators
built around RTI. and TTL integrated cir-
RTL and DTL devices are inexpensive
+ 7401N
3 and easily used in system designs. The RTL
devices require a + 3.6 volt supply and the
DTL devices require a + 5.0 volt supply.
Both these families suffer the disadvantage cf
low immunity to transient noise and arc
sensitive to r -f pickup.

i 7400N

Flip Flops
and Counters
a device which
A flip flop is
provides two outputs which
can be driven to zero- and
one -level combinations. Usually when one
output is zero, the other is one. Flip -flop
devices may be interconnected to provide a
Figure 23 decade counter (a divide -by -ten operation
RTL GATES USED AS with ten input pulses required to provide
MULTIVIBRATORS AND TRIGGERS one output pulse) . A programmed counter
can be used to divide frequencies by 2 ", 10,
A -Free- runningmultivibrator using RTL dual or any programmed number for service in
gate. B- Monostable multivibrator (one -shot) frequency counters and synthesizers. A dec-
mode from half of a TTL quad -gate. C- ade divider made up of four flip flops is
Schmitt trigger mode from half of a TTL
quad -gate. shown in figure 26. These flip flops are

toggled or clocked devices which change

state as a result of an input change.
Flip -flop devices to divide by a common
integer are available on a single chip, a di-
vide -by -ten counter such as shown being

HTL Logic Another form of DTL type logic

device is designed to operate at
a higher signal level for noise and transient
immunity. High Threshold Logic (HTL)
and High Noise Immunity Logic (HNIL)
+5 V.
are devices often used in circuits that have
relays and control power, such as those
found in industrial systems. These families
of ICs are generally operated from +12 to
+ 15 volts and special HTL 'HNIL devices
are available to interface with the less ex-
N A OUT pensive RTL, DTL, and TTL families.

SN7400N ECL Logic Emitter coupled logic (ECL)

is a very high speed system cap-
Figure 24 able of operation up to 350 MHz with cer-
tain devices. A typical ECL configuration
DTL LOGIC GATES is shown in figure 27. ECL operates on the
A -DTL two input NAND gate using 1
of ,L946.
4 principle of nonsaturation of the internal
B -TTL two input NAND gate using 1
of SN7400N. transistors. Logic swings are reduced in
amplitude and the fact that the stored charge
of a saturated transistor does not have to
be discharged results in the speed increase.
INTERNAL INTERNAL ECL is, by convention, operated from a
-5.2 volt source and the swing from zero
Xi to one in logic levels is comparatively small;
cero being -1.55 volt and one being -0.7S
volt. This is still considered to be "posi-
tive" logic because the most negative volt-
age level is defined as zero.
Representative nonlogic IC usage as a
crystal- controlled oscillator and an astable
multivibrator is shown in figure 28. Inter-
face ICs are available to or from ECL and
RTL, DTL, and TTL.

4 -15 MOS Logic

Digital MOS devices have been recently

developed that handle logic problems whose
Figure 25 solution is impractical in other logic fami-
lies, such as problems requiring very high
AND TTL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS capacity memories. Complementary MOS
(CMOS) will interface directly with RTL,
DTL, TTL, or HTL if operated on a com-
A -7 MHz oscillator using RTL dual buffer.
B -1 MHz oscillator using TTL gates. mon power buss. Because of the low power

014 120 09 Os 011

-- J Q2 3 Z Q


2 Q

Ro I p

e 0

- IS PIN 10

Figure 26


Decode divider is made up of four flip -flop devices which provide zero and one level combinations.
If R and R terminals ore grounded and terminals and 12 jumpered, input frequency applied to

terminal 14 will be divided by 10 and appear at terminal 11. Output waveform has 20% on- cycle.

consumption of CMOS, it is widely used for

the frequency- divider IC in quartz- crystal-
controlled watches.



5 2v. CMOS
Figure 27

ECL device operates up to 350 MHz with
nonsaturation of internal transistors.

Figure 29

S0-I00 MHZ

Our CMOS device makes use c P- channel, N-

0.33 channel, enhancement -mode devices and pro-
uH S M 35 OUT
vides low current consumption which is pro-
i - portional to switching speed.

MC O23I -f MC 1023
.1 typical CMOS inverter is shown in
2 v.
figure 29. It makes use of a P- channel,
Figure 28 N- channel pair (both enhancement -mode
types). If the gates are high (one), then
the N- channel MOSFET is on and the P-
OSCILLATOR channel is off, so the output is low (zero).
If the gates are low (zero), then the P-
Frequency range is 50 MHz to 100 MHz de- channel MOSFET is on and the N- channel is
pendent on crystal and resonant circuit
tuning. off, so the output is high (one). Note that in



Figure 30


A- Astable multivibrator using CD4001 /D dual gates. 8- One -shot multivibrator using dual CMOS
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
either state one device or the other is off 1

and the inverter pair draws only a very

small leakage current, with appreciable cur- B
rent being drawn only during the transi-
tion from one to zero and vice versa. The
more transitions per second, the higher is D

the average current drawn, thus the power E

consumption of CMOS is directly propor- F

tional to the frequency at which it is G

As a result of the low power consump-
tion and the simplifications of MOS -type

fabrication CMOS is moving rapidly through J

medium scale integration (MSI) , with hun- K

dreds of FETs per chip, into large scale

integration (LSI), with thousands of FETs
per chip -all in one package and at a rela- Figure 31
tively low cost. FERRITE -CORE MEMORY
The CMOS devices now available allow Representation of core memory showing
for quite a large variety of circuitry, and like cores and sensing wires. Address of repre-
the types previously discussed, they may be sentative sample core is D -5. This configura-
tion is termed a matrix.
used in nonlogic ways. Figure 30 shows how
CMOS gates may be used as an astable multi- white marbles indicate a zero value. The
vibrator and a one -shot multivibrator. sum of marbles makes up a 256 -bit binary
word. The pipe is assumed to be opaque so
P -MOS (Memory) Conventional P -MOS (P- the sequence of marbles cannot be seen. In
Logic channel, enhancement order to determine the binary word, it is
mode) logic provides low necessary to push 256 marbles in at the
cost, high capacity shift registers and mem- input end of the pipe and observe each
ories. The shift register is a unique form of marble exiting from the output, noting the
memory device which has one input and binary sequence of the marbles. Each marble
one output, plus a clock (timing) input. pushed in the pipe is the equivalent of a
One commonly used P -MOS shift register clock pulse. In a real shift register the out-
has 256 bits of storage in it. The shift regis- put is wired back to the input, 256 clock
ter may be compared to a piece of pipe just pulses are triggered, and the content of the
long enough to hold 256 marbles which are register is read and the binary word is loaded
randomly colored white and black. The back into the register.
black marbles indicate a one value and the The shift register form of memory repre-

sents a valid way of storing binary informa- of, and are used for purposes where the
tion but it is slow because interrogating the stored information is of a changing nature,
register takes as many clock pulses as the such as in signal processing systems. For this
register is long. To speed up access to the reason a RAM is often referred to as a
content of a memory, it is possible to array scratch -pad memory.
the bits of storage in better ways. There is a feature about MOS devices
A more efficient organization of .t large which is unique and which allows the manu-
memory bank is the use of a ferrite -core facture of shift registers and RAMs that
memory, such as shown in figure 31. A bit arc unlike any other semiconductor mem-
of information can be permanently stored ory. Sinre the gate of a MOSFET is a ca-
in a core by having it magnetized or not pacitor it will store a charge, making a com-
magnetized. If the memory has a 30 X 30 plete two -state flip flop to store ones and
matrix, there are 900 cores and 900 bits of zeros unnecessary if the data rate is high
storage. Any X -line and Y -line combination enough. Such a dynamic register will only
locates one particular core; this location is hold data for about one millisecond. Each
referred to as the core address. cell of the dynamic shift register is simpler
If, instead of ferrite memory cores, a than a cell of a static shift register so the
large number of MOS two -state circuits are dynamic type permits more bits on a chip
arranged in a similar matrix, an IC memory and is cheaper per bit to manufacture.
is produced. Most small ICs, however, are
pin- limited by their packaging and to bring The Read- The read -only memory
out 60 leads from one package is a mechan- Only Memory (ROM) can only be pro-
ical problem. The common package has 10 grammed once and is read in
leads brought out for addressing purposes; sequence. Certain ROMs, however, are made
five leads for the X -line, and five for the in reprogrammable versions, where the
Y -line. By using all the lines in X and Y to stored information can be changed. The
define a location, 2' =32 X and Y coordi- ROM is used in a type of Morse code auto-
nates are available, thus the total bit stor- matic keyer which employs a 256 -bit device
age is thus 2' X 25= 1024 bits of informa- custom- programmed to send a short message,
tion. such as: CQ CQ DE W6SAI K. This type
of program is permanently placed in the
The Random - A random - access memory chip matrix in the manufacturing process
Access Memory device (RAM) is organ- by a photomask process. However, at least
ized in the above fashion one semiconductor manufacturer makes a
and 32 X 32 is a common bit size. These programmable ROM (pROM) that may be
memories can be written -into and read -out programmed in the field. The way in which
A3 A2 AI Os OR 03 Oz OI

0 0

0 0

Figure 32


Signetics 2513 ROM device produces letters

and figures on screen of a cathode -ray tube
from an ASCII teletype code input. ROM il-
lustrates letter "S" readout.

AA As AR A7 As A9

a pROM is programmed is by subjecting the Other ROM There are several standard
bits desired to be zeros to a pulse of current Devices ROMS available that have fac-
which burns out a fusible link of nichromc tory mask programs of poten-
on the chip. Some manufacturers will pro- tial interest to the radio amateur. The char-
gram a pROM for the buyer to his specifi- acter generator is useful for presenting let-
cation for a nominal charge. ters and numerals on a cathode -ray tube
Another type of pROM has been devel- such as is done in various electronic RTTY
oped that is not only programmable, but (radio teletype) terminal units. An example
which may be erased and reprogrammed. of such an ROM is the Siguetics 2513 which
The avalanche- induced charge - migration creates readable characters from an ASCII
pROM is initially all zeros. By pulsing high 8 -level teletype code used in most time-
current into each location where a one is shared computer terminals (figure 32).
desired, the device is programmed. This Radio amateurs use the older 5-level Bau-
charge is apparently permanent, until a dot code in their RTTY systems, but an-
flash of ultraviolet light is directed through other ROM device can make the translation
the quartz window atop the chip. Following from Baudot to ASCII code. Still another
the ultraviolet erasure, the pROM can be ROM is now available to generate "The
programmed again. Some pROMs are avail- quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
able in up to 2048 bits, with 4096 -bit ca- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0."
pacity expected shortly.

R5 R6 1114
10 60 10k0 20kO


R1 R2

25 AO 25 k0
3 k0

R8 89
3.6 k0 10 SO OUTPUT
18 kO
111111 012
0ii O 10
10 k0

R11 1113
2.4 AO 750
Figure 33



C2 'Use R2. 500when the Integrated circuits are designed te replace

1 amplilier is operated with discrete components and perform functions
capacitive loading. heretofore noble.

4 -16 Linear ICs

The linear integrated circuit is a device
whose output signal is a replica of the input
signal. Some linear ICs are designed to re-
place nearly all the discrete components used
in earlier composite equipment. Others per- Ed. JEidt Ed.-RICI dt'
form unique functions heretofore unavail-
Operational amplifiers, differential ampli- Figure 35
fiers and diode- transistor arrays are impor-
tant members of the linear IC family. AMPLIFIERS
The Fairchild A700 series of linear mono-
lith IC devices and particularly the A709,
are the most widely used linear IC types
A- Inverting integrating circuit.
differentating circuit.
and more recent IC operational amplifiers
(op -amps) are compatible in their pin con- put is grounded and the amplifier is in the
figuration to this basic family of devices. The inverting mode. The stage gain is the ratio
basic A709 schematic is shown in figure R2/R, and the input impedance is R,. The
33, along with the equivalent op -amp sym- circuit may be modified so that input to the
bol. Compensating networks may be re- positive gate is subtractive. Other inputs
quired for stable operation and some of the may be connected (illustration B) and the
newer op -amps have the necessary compen- op -amp is now considered to be a summing
sation built inside the package. amplifier.
The op -amp can be connected to perform
the integral or differential of the input volt-
age as shown in figure 35. By combining
these operations in a number of coordinated
op -amps an analog computer may be con-

Eo - EiR+E2qe+Ea Rc]
Figure 34


A- Differential amplifier in inverting mode.

II-Summing amplifier. If input is applied to
positivo gato, output is subtractive.

The Operational The perfect operational GROUND

Amplifier amplifier is a high -gain d -c Figure 36
coupled amplifier having
two differential inputs of infinite imped- DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
ance, infinite gain, zero output impedance,
and no phase shift. (Phase shift is 180` The differential op -amp is a dual input d -c
between the output and inverting input coupled amplifier comparable to a push -pull
stage fed from a constant -current source.
and 0 between the output and non- invert-
ing input).
Two voltages may be added in a differ- strutted. This type of machine represents the
ential amplifier as shown in figure 34. In use of an electrical system as a model for
illustration A, the noninverting (plus) in- a second system that is usually more difficult

0.05 uf
0.01 uF

R2 pF 82 pf B2 pf 82 pf 82 pF 82 pF
30 pl

5 8 5 8 5. 8

pA 703 uA703 704


T0.05uf U.05yI 0.05 pf

Figure 37


FAIRCHILD 0A703 op -amps used in f -m -f amplifier and limiter.


or more expensive to construct or measure, A widely used differential amplifier is the

and that obeys the equations of the same amplifier device used as an i -f ampli-
r -f 'i -f
form. The term analog implies similarity of fier at 10.7 MHz in f -m tuners. The Fair-
relations or properties between the systems. child A703, Motorola HEP -590 and the
Signetics NE -510 are typical examples of
The Differential The differential amplifier is this device. A representative amplifier -lim-
Amplifier a d -c coupled amplifier iter is shown in figure 37. These ICs can be
used for a variety of other purposes and an
having similar input cir-
a -m modulator using the HEP -50 is shown
cuits. The amplifier responds to the differ-
in figure 38.
ence between two input voltages or currents
(figure 36). The differential amplifier may The National Semiconductor LM -373 IC
may be used for the detection of a -m, f -m,
c -w, or SSB signals, as shown in figure 39.
Note that the gain of the LM -373 has been
divided into two blocks, with provisions for
insertion of an i -f bandpass filter between
the blocks.
Various ICs have been developed for use
32 WIRE T 20 2 CORE
as i -f 'f
-m detectors in TV receivers. One
45 MHt
IM 1.1yH unit comprises a complete 4.5 -MHz TV
RE ULN T2. 30 3 TURNS sound system using the quadrature method
-36 WIRE T 20 2 CORE
SOURCE Lry1 = 2.5 yH of f -m detection similar to that employed
with the 6BN6 tube. A second unit has a
quadrature f -m detector, 10.7 -MHz i -f, and
Figure 38 limiter in one package (figure 40).
An IC package that is useful in signal
processing applications-especially SSB-is
shown in figure 41. The circuit is a balanced
modulator for SSB detection.
be compared to a push -pull stage fed from
a constant current source.
Differential amplifiers are useful linear de- The PLL IC A recent development is the
vices over the range from d -c to the vhf phase -locker/ loop integrated
spectrum and are useful as product detect- circuit which performs a remarkable range
ors, mixers, limiters, frequency multipliers of functions: selective amplifier, f -m detec-
and r -f amplifiers. Various versions of the tor, frequency multiplier, touchtone decoder,
differential amplifier are discussed in the a -m detector, frequency synthesizer, and
following sections. many more. The Signetics NE -560B shown








B Vr,
12V Vrr



0.101 T AGC
5 6K

Figure 39



A-A-m detector. I -F-m

detector. C -5511

product detector. O.IUF SOmV RMS




in figure 42 is configured as an f -m detector. particular configuration. Because of pin lim-
In this circuit the voltage- controlled oscil- itations there are necessarily some intercon-
lator (VCO) in the PLL locks itself into a nections inside the package but there is still
90 phase relationship with the incoming great flexibility to interconnect the transis-
carrier signal. Variations of this circuit are tors for a specific purpose. Examples of these
useful in solid -state color -TV receivers. array devices are the CA 3018, CA 3036,
etc. of RCA. A voltage regulator built
around the CA 3018 is shown in figure 43.
Diode -Transistor category of linear ICs
A Note that one of the internal transistor base -
Arrays that is of great use com- emitter junctions of the IC has been used as
prises the diode- transistor a breakdown diode for a voltage reference.
array family, or array for short. The various This is only one of many circuits possible
types of arrays available contain a number using an IC array.
of bipolar transistors inside the package Many other types of linear ICs exist: video
which are more or less uncommitted to any amplifiers, logarithmic amplifiers, TV

chroma demodulators, stereo- multiplex de-
modulators, squelch amplifiers, and so on.
These represent special interest areas and it
would be impossible to treat each category
here. Looking at the large market areas
wherein linear electronics is used, the ex-
perimenter will find ICs available or being
designed for TV receivers, auto ignition sys-
tems, CATV distribution, a -m /f -m radios,
OUTPUT stereo gear, and camera equipment. Doubt-
less many of the ICs developed for these mar-
kets will be readily usable in the radio
communications field.

4 -17 Solid -State Light


Figure 40
Sources and Numeric Displays
A recent development is the light-emit-
ling diode (LED) which promises to replace
the incandescent lamp as a light source in
displays-especially those subject to heavy
The first LEDs were a deep red in color
and made of Gallium- Arsenide -Phosphide
5580 E and produced about 30 to 100 microwatts
ooUTPUT of light power output. More recently, the
green LED of Gallium- Phosphide and the
i 665Ta665

amber LED of Gallium- Arsenide -Phosphide

have been made available.
V Figure 41 Small LEDs have a forward voltage drop
of about 1.5 to 2.0 volts and they can be
MC -1596G AS BALANCED driven up to about 40 ma. The LED does
MODULATOR FOR SSB not have a sudden end -of -life as does an in-


200 p f






**PART OF 510A.

Figure 42



I N3253 2N5035
Figure 43 ov

RCA CA -3018 AS

TI -10/20 40 volts center tap. Triad

F -91 X. Use red and yellow leads.

candescent lamp, instead the LED loses optimum sensitivity of most LEDs, light -
brilliance with age. Predicted life (to half sensitive transistors, and FETs. The IR diode
brilliance) of a typical LED is 10" hours. can be modulated (even at megahertz rates)
Another type of LED is the infrared diode and serves as a transmitter in voice and data
which has maximum radiation at about 9000 links or as an intruder alarm. A Gallium
Angstrom units (10- 1" meters) wavelength Arsenide emitter and Silicon detector may
be combined in an optically coupled isolator
(opto- electronic switch) which combines
the pair in an opaque, plastic package. Light
then couples the input circuit of the emitter
to the output circuit of the detector, with
no electrical coupling between the ports.
This isolator is the equivalent of a relay,
with none of the mechanically fragile com-
An array of LEDs can be configured as a
seven -segment display for numeric indica-
tion and integrated circuits are available
that will convert the binary -coded decimal
system to the seven -segment coding required
for this display.
A solid -state numeric indicator is shown
in figure 44. This small unit is a hybrid
microcircuit consisting of a decoder- driver
Figure 44
and an array of light -emitting diodes. The
numeric indicator is enabled by a pulse and
HEWLETT-PACKARD SOLID -STATE the display will follow changes on the logic
inputs as long as the enable port is held at
zero (low). In this mode the device is oper-
in the near- infrared region. Because it radi- ated as a real -time display. When the enable
ates just outside the visible spectrum, the line rises (high), the latches retain the cur-
infrared produced by this Gallium -Arsenide rent inputs and the display is no longer
diode is treated in the same manner as visible affected by changes on the logic input ports.
light, using conventional optics. The IR The decimal point voltage low corresponds
output of these diodes is very close to the to point illumination.
.. . MI ... . .


Vacuum -Tube Principles

In the previous chapters we have seen the electrons which have been emitted. The
manner in which an electric current flows electron source is called the cathode, and the
through a metallic conductor as a result of electron collector is usually called the anode.
an electron drift. This drift, which takes Some external source of energy must be ap-
place when there is a difference in potential plied to the cathode in order to impart suffi-
between the ends of the metallic conductor, cient velocity to the electrons within the
is in addition to the normal random electron cathode material to enable them to overcome
motion between the molecules of the con- the surface forces and thus escape into the
ductor. surrounding medium. In the usual types of
The electron may be considered as a min- electron tubes the cathode energy is applied
ute negatively charged particle, having a in the form of heat; electron emission from
mass of 9 X 10-24 gram, and a charge of a heated cathode is called thermionic emis-
1.59 X 10-19 coulomb. Electrons are always sion. In another common type of electron
identical, regardless of the source from tube, the photoelectric cell, energy in the
which they are obtained. form of light is applied to the cathode to
An electric current can be caused to cause photoelectric emission.
flow through other media than a metallic
conductor. One such medium is an ionized 5 -1 Thermionic Emission
solution, such as the sulfuric acid electrolyte
in a storage battery. This type of current
flow is called electrolytic conduction. Fur- Electron Emission of electrons from the
ther, it was shown at about the turn of the Emission cathode of a thermionic electron
century that an electric current can be tube takes place when the cath-
carried by a stream of free electrons in an ode of the tube is heated to a tempera-
evacuated chamber. The flow of a current ture sufficiently high that the free elec-
in such a manner is said to take place by trons in the emitter have sufficient velocity
electronic conduction. The study of elec- to overcome the restraining forces at the
tron tubes (also called vacuum tubes, or surface of the material. These surface forces
valves) is actually the study of the control vary greatly with different materials. Hence
and use of electronic currents within an different types of cathodes must be raised
evacuated or partially evacuated chamber. to different temperatures to obtain adequate
Since the current flow in an electron tube quantities of electron emission. The several
takes place in an evacuated chamber, there types of emitters found in common types of
must be located within the enclosure both transmitting and receiving tubes will be
a source of electrons and a collector for the described in the following paragraphs.


Figure 1


At the left are two Nuvistor
types intended for vhf op-
eration in TV tuners and
receivers up to ISO MHz or
so. Next is a typical mini-
ature glass receiving tube
alongside an old -style
metal, octal-based tube. At
the right are an octal -
based glass audio tube and

111''1 I I I III IIIII

. I I 1 I 1 I I I I'

(at far right) a nine -pin
based sweep tube intended
for use in color television
receivers (type 6LQ6). This
type of tube is often used
as a linear amplifier in
I..A.-.I...I...I...A......I....I....i,.......i..I...I..I..B..I..-Im I...I....I...L...I...I.....A..I...A...I...L..
amateur -type single -side-
band transmitting equip-

Cathode Types The emitters or cathodes as tubes. Tungsten is not adversely affected by
used in present -day thermi- such bombardment.
onic electron tubes may be classified into The Thoriated- In the course of experi-
two groups; the directly heated or fila-
ment type and the indirectly heated or
Tungsten Filament ments made upon tung-
heater- cathode type. Directly heated emit-
sten emitters, it was found
ters may be further subdivided into three
that filaments made from tungsten having a
important groups, all of which are common- small amount of thoria (thorium oxide) as
an impurity had much greater emission than
ly used in modern vacuum tubes. These
those made from the pure metal. Subsequent
classifications are: the pure- tungsten fila-
development has resulted in the highly effi-
ment, the thoriated -tungsten filament, and
cient carburized thoriated- tungsten filament
the oxide -coated filament.
as used in many medium -power trans-
The Pure -Tung- Pure -tungsten wire was used mitting tubes today.
sten Filament as the filament in nearly all Thoriated- tungsten emitters consist of a
the earlier transmitting and tungsten wire containing from 1% to 2%
receiving tubes. However, the thermionic thoria. The activation process varies between
efficiency of tungsten wire as an emitter different manufacturers of vacuum tubes,
(the number of milliamperes emission per but it is essentially as follows: (1) the tube
watt of filament- heating power) is quite is evacuated; (2) the filament is burned for
low; the filaments become fragile after use; a short period at about 2800 Kelvin to
their life is rather short, and they are sus- clean the surface and reduce some of the
ceptible to burnout at any time. Pure -tung- thoria within the filament to metallic thor-
sten filaments must be run at bright white ium; (3) the filament is burned for a longer
heat (about 2500 Kelvin). For these rea- period at about 2100 Kelvin to form a
sons, tungsten filaments have been replaced layer of thorium on the surface of the
in all applications where another type of tungsten; (4) the temperature is reduced
filament could be used. They are, however, to about 1600 Kelvin and some pure hy-
occasionally employed in large water -cooled drocarbon gas is admitted to form a layer
tubes and in certain large, high -power of tungsten carbide on the surface of the
air -cooled triodes where another filament tungsten. This layer of tungsten carbide re-
type would be unsuitable. Tungsten fila- duces the rate of thorium evaporation from
ments are the most satisfactory for high - the surface at the normal operating temper-
power, high- voltage tubes where the emitter ature of the filament and thus increases the
is subjected to positive ion bombardment operating life of the vacuum tube. Tho-
caused by the residual gas content of the rium evaporation from the surface is a natu-


Figure 2
At the left is an 8058 nuvistor tetrode, rep - X-843 (Elmac) planar triode designed to de-
tative of the family of small vhf types liver over 100 watts at 2100 MHz The tube is
useful in receivers and low power transmitters. used in a grounded-grid cavity configuration.
The d type is an 6816 planar tetrode The tube to the right is a 7213 planar tetrode,
rated at 180 watts input fo 1215 MHz. The rated at 2500 watts input to 1215 MHz. All of
third tube from the left is a 3CX 100S planar these vhf uhf negative -grid tubes make use
triode, an improved and ruggedized version of ceramic insulation for lowest envelope loss
of the 2C39A, and rated at 100 watts input to at the higher frequencies and the larger ones
2900 Mil:. The fourth tube from the left is the have coaxial bases for use in resonant cavities.

ral consequence of the operation of the as a result of insufficient filament voltage, a

thoriated- tungsten filament. The carburized severe temporary overload, a less severe ex-
layer on the tungsten wire plays another tended overload, or even normal operation
role in acting as a reducing agent to produce may quite frequently be reactivated to their
new thorium from the thoria to replace that original characteristics by a process similar
lost by evaporation. This new thorium con- to that of the original activation. However,
tinually diffuses to the surface during the only filaments which have not approached
normal operation of the filament. too close to the end of their useful life may
The last process, (5) , in the activation of be successfully reactivated.
a thoriated- tungsten filament consists of re- The actual process of reactivation is rel-
evacuating the envelope and then burning or atively simple. The tube which has gone
aging the new filament for a considerable "flat" is placed in a socket to which only
period of time at the normal operating the two filament wires have been connected.
temperature of approximately 1900 K. The filament is then "flashed" for about 20
One thing to remember about any type of to 40 seconds at about 11, , times normal
filament, particularly the thoriated type, is rated voltage. The filament will become ex-
that the emitter deteriorates practically as tremely bright during this time and, if
fast when "standing by" (no plate cur- there is still some thoria left in the tungsten
rent) as it does with any normal amount of and if the tube did not originally fail as a
emission load. Also, a thoriated filament may result of an air leak, some of this thoria
be either temporarily or permanently dam- will be reduced to metallic thorium. The
aged by a heavy overload which may strip filament is then burned at 15 to 25 percent
the surface layer of thorium from the fila- overvoltage for from 30 minutes to 3 to 4
ment. hours to bring this new thorium to the
Reactivating Thoriated- tungsten fila- The tube should then be tested to see if
Thoriated- Tungsten ments (and only thori- it shows signs of renewed life. If it does, but
Filaments ated- tungsten filaments) is still weak, the burning process should be
which have lost emission continued at about 10 to 15 percent over-

voltage for a few more hours. This should

bring it back almost to normal. If the tube
checks still very low after the first attempt
at reactivation, the complete process can
be repeated as a last effort.
The Oxide - The most efficient of all
Coated Filament modern filaments is the
oxide -coated type which
consists of a mixture of barium and stron-
tium oxides coated on a nickel alloy wire or Figure 3
strip. This type of filament operates at a
dull -red to orange-red temperature (1050 CUTAWAY DRAWING OF A 6C4 TRIODE
to 1170 K) at which temperature it will
emit large quantities of electrons. The oxide - would be destroyed in an exceedingly short
coated filament is somewhat more efficient period of time.
than the thoriated- tungsten type in small The activation of oxide -coated filaments
sizes and it is considerably less expensive to also varies with tube manufacturers but
manufacture. For this reason all receiving consists essentially in heating the wire which
tubes and quite a number of the low -pow- has been coated with a mixture of barium
ered transmitting tubes use the oxide- coated and strontium carbonates to a temperature
filament. Another advantage of the oxide -
coated emitter is its extremely long life
the average tube can be expected to run
- of about 1500 Kelvin for a time and then
applying a potential of 100 to 200 volts
through a protective resistor to limit the
from 3000 to 5000 hours, and when loaded emission current. This process thermally
very lightly, tubes of this type have been reduces the carbonates to oxides, cleans the
known to give 50,000 hours of life before filament surface of foreign materials, and
their characteristics changed to any great activates the cathode surface.
extent. Reactivation of oxide -coated filaments is
Oxide filaments are unsatisfactory for use not possible since there is always more than
at very high plate voltage because: (1) sufficient reduction of the oxides and diffu-
their activity is seriously impaired by the sion of the metals to the surface of the
high temperature necessary to de -gas the filament to meet the emission needs of the
high -voltage tubes and, (2) the positive ion cathode.
bombardment which takes place even in the
best evacuated high -voltage tube causes de- The Hester The heater -type cathode was de-
struction of the oxide layer on the surface of Cathode veloped as a result of the re-
the filament. quirement for a type of emitter
Oxide -coated emitters have been found which could be operated from alternating
capable of emitting an enormously large current and yet would not introduce a -c
current pulse with a high applied voltage ripple modulation even when used in low -
for a very short period of time without level stages. It consists essentially of a small
damage. This characteristic has proved to nickel -alloy cylinder with a coating of
be of great value in radar work. For example, strontium and barium oxides on its surface
the relatively small cathode in a microwave similar to the coating used on the oxide-
magnetron may be called on to deliver 25 to coated filament. Inside the cylinder is an
50 amperes at an applied voltage of perhaps insulated heater element consisting usually
25,000 volts for a period in the order of one of a double spiral of tungsten wire. The
microsecond. After this large current pulse heater may operate on any voltage from 2
has been passed, plate voltage normally will to 117 volts, although 6.3 is the most com-
be removed for 1000 microseconds or more mon value. The heater is operated at quite
so that the cathode surface may recover hieh temperature so that the cathode itself
in time for the next pulse of current. If the usually may be brought to operating tem-
cathode were to be subjected to a contin- perature in a matter of 15 to 30 seconds.
uous current drain of this magnitude, it Heat -coupling between the heater and the

emitting surface b (which is a measure of

the surface forces of the material and hence
of the energy required of the electron be-
fore it may escape), and of the constant
(A) which also varies with the emitting
surface. The relationship between emission
current in amperes per square centimeter
(1) and the above quantities can be ex-
pressed as:

1 = AT2E -oar
Figure 4
Secondary The bombarding of most metals
CUTAWAY DRAWING OF A 6CB6 PENTODE Emission and a few insulators by electrons
will result in the emission of other
cathode is mainly by radiation, although electrons by a process called secondary emis-
there is some thermal conduction through sion. The secondary electrons are literally
the insulating coating on the heater wire, knocked from the surface layers of the bom-
since this coating is also in contact with the barded material by the primary electrons
cathode thimble. which strike the material. The number of
Indirectly heated cathodes are employed secondary electrons emitted per primary
in all a -c operated tubes which are designed electron varies from a very small percent-
to operate at a low level either for r -f or age to as high as S to 10 secondary electrons
a -f use. However, some receiver power tubes per primary.
use heater cathodes (6L6, 6V6, 6F6, and The phenomena of secondary emission is
6K6 -GT) as do some of the low -power undesirable for most thermionic electron
transmitter tubes (802, 807, 815, 3E29, tubes. However, the process is used to ad-
2E26, 5763, 6146, etc.). Heater cathodes vantage in certain types of electron tubes
are employed almost exclusively when a such as the image orthicon (TV camera
number of tubes are to be operated in series tube) and the electron- multiplier type of
as in an a -c /d -c receiver. A heater cathode photoelectric cell. In types of electron tubes
is often called a unipotential cathode be- which make use of secondary emission, such
cause there is no voltage drop along its as the type 931 photocell, the secondary -
length as there is in the directly heated or electron emitting surfaces are specially
filament cathode. treated to provide a high ratio of secondary
to primary electrons. Thus a high degree of
The Emission The emission of electrons from
Equation a heated cathode is quite sim- SOO

ilar to the evaporation of mole- TYPE 6W4 -GT

Er p 3 VOLTS
cules from the surface of a liquid. The mole-

cules which leave the surface are those .00 /

having sufficient kinetic (heat) energy to W
overcome the forces at the surface of the o.

liquid. As the temperature of the liquid is < 400 /

raised, the average velocity of the molecules
is increased, and a greater number of mole- 5
cules will acquire sufficient energy to be F 200

evaporated. The evaporation of electrons

from the surface of a thermionic emitter is
similarly a function of average electron ve- 0 10 20 30 0 50
locity, and hence is a function of the tem- D-C PLATE VOLTS
perature of the emitter.
Figure 5
Electron emission per unit area of emitting
surface is a function of the temperature (T) AVERAGE PLATE CHARACTERISTICS
in degrees Kelvin, the work function of OF A POWER DIODE

current amplification in the electron- multi-

plier section of the tube is obtained.

The Space- As a cathode heated so that


Charge Effect it begins to emit, those elec- z

trons which have been dis- TUNGSTEN FILAMENT

charged into the surrounding space form a U POINT OF MAXIMUM SPACE -

negatively charged cloud in the immediate CHARGE -LIMIIMITED EMISSION

vicinity of the cathode. This cloud of elec-


trons around the cathode is called the space O.

charge. The electrons comprising the charge

are continuously changing, since those elec- PLATE VOLTAGE
trons making up the original charge fall Figure 6
back into the cathode and are replaced by
others emitted by it. MAXIMUM SPACE -CHARGE -LIMITED

5 -2 The Diode values of plate voltage will tend to neutral-

ize a greater portion of the cathode space
If a cathode capable of being heated either charge and hence will cause a greater cur-
indirectly or directly is placed in an evacu- rent to flow.
ated envelope along with a plate, such a Under these conditions, with plate cur-
two- element vacuum tube is called a diode. rent limited by the cathode space charge, the
The diode is the simplest of all vacuum tubes plate current is not linear with plate voltage.
and is the fundamental type from which all In fact it may be stated in general that the
the others are derived. plate- current flow in diode tubes does not
obey Ohm's Law. Rather, plate current in-
Characteristics When the cathode within a creases as the three -halves power of the
of the Diode diode is heated, it will be plate voltage. The relationship between plate
found that a few of the elec- voltage, (E) and cathode current (I) can
trons leaving the cathode will leave with be expressed as:
sufficient velocity to reach the plate. If the
plate is electrically connected back to the I = K E312
cathode, the electrons which have had suf-
ficient velocity to arrive at the plate will where,
flow back to the cathode through the ex- K isa constant determined by the geome-
ternal circuit. This small amount of initial try of the element structure within the
plate current is an effect found in all two - diode tube.
element vacuum tubes. Plate- Current As plate voltage is raised to
If a battery or other source of d -c voltage
Saturation the potential where the
is placed in the external circuit between the
cathode space charge is neu-
plate and cathode so that it places a posi- tralized, all the electrons that the cathode is
tive potential on the plate, the flow of cur- capable of emitting are being attracted to
rent from the cathode to plate will be in- the plate. The electron tube is said then to
creased. This is due to the strong attraction have reached saturation plate current.
offered by the positively charged plate for Further increase in plate voltage will cause
any negatively charged particles (figure S) .
only a relatively small increase in plate cur-
rent. The initial point of plate- current sat-
The Three -Halves At moderate values of uration is sometimes called the point of
Power Law plate voltage the cur- Maximum Space -Charge- Limited Emission.
rent flow from cath- The degree of flattening in the plate -volt-
ode to anode is limited by the space charge age plate- current curve after the limited -
of electrons around the cathode. Increased emission point will vary with different types

of cathodes. This effect is shown in figure 6. such an element will be able to control by
The flattening is quite sharp with a pure electrostatic action the cathode -to-plate cur-
tungsten emitter. With thoriated tungsten rent of the tube. The new element is called
the flattening is smoothed somewhat, while a grid, and a vacuum tube containing a cath-
with an oxide- coated cathode the flattening ode, grid, and plate is commonly called a
is quite gradual. The gradual saturation in triode.
emission with an oxide -coated emitter is Action of If this new element through which
generally considered to result from a lower- the Grid the electrons must pass in their
ing of the surface work function by the
course from cathode to plate is
field at the cathode resulting from the plate
made negative with respect to the cathode,
the negative charge on this grid will effec-
tively repel the negatively charged electrons
(like charges repel; unlike charges attract)
back into the space charge surrounding the
cathode. Hence, the number of electrons
which are able to pass through the grid
mesh and reach the plate will be reduced,
and the plate current will be reduced ac-
cordingly. If the charge on the grid is made
sufficiently negative, all the electrons leav-
Figure 7 ing the cathode will be repelled back to it
and the plate current will be reduced to
ACTION OF THE GRID IN A TRIODE zero. Any d -c voltage placed on a grid is
(A) shows the triode tube with cutoff bias on
called a bias (especially so when speaking
the grid. Note that all the electrons emitted of a control grid). The smallest negative
by the cathode remain inside the grid mesh. voltage which will cause cutoff of plate cur-
(6) shows the same tube with an intermediate
value of bias on the grid. Note the medium rent at a particular plate voltage is called
value of plate current and the fact that there the value of cutoff bias (figure 7).
is a reserve of electrons remaining within the
grid mesh. (C) shows the operation with a
relatively small amount of bias which with Amplification The amount of plate current
certain tube types will allow substantially all Factor in a triode is a result of the
the electrons emitted by the cathode to reach
the plate. Emission is said to be saturated in net field at the cathode from
this case. In a majority of tube types a high interaction between the field caused by the
value of positive grid voltage is required be-
fore plate -current saturation takes place. grid bias and that caused by the plate volt-
age. Hence, both grid bias and plate voltage
Electron Energy The current flowing in the affect the plate current. In all normal tubes
Dissipation plate -cathode space of a con- a small change in grid bias has a consider-
ducting electron tube repre- ably greater effect than a similar change in
sents the energy required to accelerate elec- plate voltage. The ratio between the change
trons from the zero potential of the cathode in grid bias and the change in plate current
space charge to the potential of the anode. which will cause the same small change in
Then, when these accelerated electrons strike plate current is called the amplification fac-
the anode, the energy associated with their tor or p. of the electron tube. Expressed as
velocity is immediately released to the anode an equation:
structure. In normal electron tubes this
energy release appears as heating of the plate
or anode structure.
with 1,, constant (.1 represents a small incre-
5 -3 The Triode ment) .

The iz can be determined experimentally

If an element consisting of a mesh or by making a small change in grid bias, thus
spiral of wire is inserted concentric with the slightly changing the plate current. The
plate and between the plate and the cathode, plate current is then returned to the original

value by making a change in the plate volt- Transconductance The mutual conductance,
age. The ratio of the change in plate voltage also referred to as trans -
to the change in grid voltage is the p. of the conductance, is the ratio of a change in the
tube under the operating conditions chosen plate current to the change in grid voltage
for the test. The of modern triodes ranges which brought about the plate- current
from 5 to 200. change, the plate voltage being held con-
stant. Expressed as an equation:
Current Flow In a diode it was shown that
in a Triode the electrostatic field at the
cathode was proportional to Gm
the plate potential (E1,) and that the total
cathode current was proportional to the
three- halves power of the plate voltage. where,
Similarly, in a triode it can be shown that E,, is held constant.
the field at the cathode space charge is pro-
portional to the equivalent voltage (E, +
E1110, where the amplification factor () The transconductance is also numerically
actually represents the relative effectiveness equal to the amplification factor divided by
of grid potential and plate potential in pro- the plate resistance. Gm =
ducing a field at the cathode. Transconductance is most commonly ex-
It would then be expected that the cath- pressed in microreciprocal-ohms or micro -
ode current in a triode would be proportion- rhos. However, since transconductance ex-
al to the three- halves power of (Ee + presses change in plate current as a function
E,, /). The cathode current of a triode can of a change in grid voltage, a tube is often
be represented with fair accuracy by the said to have a transconductance of so many
expression: milliamperes per volt. If the transconduct-
ance in milliamperes per volt is multiplied
Eb by 1000 it will then be expressed in mi-
cathode current = K Ec + b
cromhos. Thus the transconductance of a

si/ii,l i

6A3 could be called either 5.25 ma /volt or

where, 5250 micromhos.
K is a constant determined by element

geometry within the triode.

Plate Resistance The dynamic plate resist-

ance of a vacuum tube is
2 8Amu
E i=

the ratio of a change in plate voltage to the

change in plate current which the change
in plate voltage produces. To be accurate,
the changes should be very small with respect -
to the operating values. Expressed as an
equation: 1111111111111111
. _.

Ic O
GL too 200
400 500

The dynamic plate resistance can also be Figure 8

determined by the experiment mentioned
above. By noting the change in plate cur- NEGATIVE -GRID CHARACTERISTICS
rent as it occurs when the plate voltage is (I., VS. E, CURVES) OF A

changed (grid voltage held constant), and TYPICAL TRIODE

by dividing the latter by the former, the Average plate characteristics of this form
are most commonly used in determining the
plate resistance can be determined. Plate Blass -A operating characteristics of a triode
resistance is expressed in ohms. amplifier stage.

30 iI, is the plate current,

00 RI, is the load resistance in ohms.

Assuming various values of il, flowing in


the circuit, controlled by the internal resist-
ance of the tube (a function of the grid


100 W

-e -4 -2 0 W 20 30 40 50 00 f0 80 0 100 f

Figure 9
-20 -1S -0 -5 0 +S +10 + 0 +20

Plate characteristics of this type are most

commonly used in determining the pulse - Figure 10
signal operating characteristics of a triode
amplifier stage. Note the large emission cap- CONSTANT CURRENT (Et, vs. Er)
ability of the oxide- coated heater cathode in
tubes of the general type of the 6J5. CHARACTERISTICS OF A
Characteristic Curves The operating charac- This type of graphical rep tation Is used
for class -C amplifier calculations since the
of a Triode Tube teristics of a triode operatin, characteristic of a class -C amplifier
tube may be summa- is a straight line when drawn on a constant -
current graph.
rized in three sets of curves. The II, vs. El,
curve (figure 8), the II, vs. E,. curve (figure bias), values of plate voltage may be plotted
9) and the E1, vs. Er curve (figure 10). as shown for each value of plate current
The plate resistance (rn) of the tube may (i1,). The line connecting these points is
be observed from the Ib vs. Eh curve, the called the load line for the particular value
transconductance (Gm) may be observed of plate load resistance used. The slope of
from the II, vs. E. curve and the amplifica-
tion factor (io) may be determined from the
Et, vs. Er. curve. ()sA1
o 300
The Load Line A load line is a graphical s 250
10 200
representation of the voltage IS ISo
on the plate of a vacuum tube and the cur- 20
2s So
rent passing through the plate circuit of the 30 0

tube for various values of plate load resist-

ance and plate supply voltage. Figure 11 3
illustrates a triode tube with a resistive plate STATIC LOAD LINE
load, and a supply voltage of 300 volts. The FOR RL= 100001L

voltage at the plate of the tube (eb) may be

expressed as:
o--- ----- 1


eb= EI, (ii, X R1,) 0 100


200 300

Figure 11
where, The static load line for a typical triode tube
E_I, is the plate supply voltage, with a plate load resistance of 10,000 ohms.

the load line is equal to the ratio of the

lengths of the vertical and horizontal pro-
jections of any segment of the load line. RL=en

For this example it is:

= - C.01-.02\
100 - 200 1
Figure 12
The slope of the load line is equal to
- /R,,. At point A on

voltage across the tube

the load line, the
is zero. This would

be true for a perfect tube with zero inter-

nal voltage drop, or if the tube is short -cir- cuit no plate current will flow, and there is
cuited from cathode to plate. Point B on the no voltage drop across the plate load re-
load line corresponds to the cutoff point of sistor (RI.). The plate voltage on the tube
the tube, where no plate current is flowing. is therefore 300 volts. If, on the other hand,
The operating range of the tube lies between the tube is considered to be a short circuit,
these two extremes. For additional informa- maximum possible plate current flows and
tion regarding dynamic load lines, the reader the full 300 volt drop appears across RI,.
is referred to the Radiotron, Designer's
The plate voltage is zero, and the plate cur-
Handbook distributed by Radio Corporation rent is 300 /1000, or 37.5 milliamperes.
of America. These two extreme conditions define the
ends of the load line on the I1, vs. E,, char-
Application of Tube As an example of the acteristic curve figure 13.
Characteristics application char- For this application the grid of the tube
acteristics, the constants is returned to a steady biasing voltage of -4
of the triode amplifier circuit shown in fig- volts. The steady or quiescent operation of
ure 12 may be considered. The plate supply the tube is determined by the intersection of
is 300 volts, and the plate load is 8000 ohms. the load line with the -4 -volt curve at
If the tube is considered to be an open cir- point Q. By projection from point Q
37 5


' OJ
LDAD LIME 000n 1


,v 1
t.g El Figure 13

. S

- t
E %:.
` Mak.11111

200 t
300 400



., a

negative direction to -8 volts, and estab-
lishes the operating region of the tube along
E DC BIAS LEVEL (EC) the load line between points A and B. Thus
the maxima and minima of the plate voltage
and plate current are established. By projec-
T tion from points A and B through the plate -
current axis the maximum instantaneous
plate current is found to be 18.25 milliam-
peres and the minimum is 7.5 milliamperes.
STEADY -STATE ) By projections from points A and B through
the plate -voltage axis the minimum instan-
taneous plate- voltage swing is found to be
154 volts and the maximum is 240 volts.
By this graphical application of the I,, vs.
E,, characteristic of the 6SN7 triode the
operation of the circuit illustrated in figure
+240 12 becomes apparent. A voltage variation of
8 volts (peak to peak) on the grid produces
STEADY -STATE a variation of 84 volts at the plate.

Polarity Inversion When the signal voltage
applied to the grid has its
maximum positive instantaneous value the
T plate current is also maximum. Reference to
Figure 14 figure 12 shows that this maximum plate
current flows through plate -load resistor
POLARITY REVERSAL BETWEEN GRID R,,, producing a maximum voltage drop
AND PLATE VOLTAGES across it. The lower end of RI, is connected
through the plate -current axis it is found to the plate supply, and is therefore held at
that the value of plate current with no sig- a constant potential of 300 volts. With max-

nal applied to the grid is 12.75 milliamperes. imum voltage drop across the load resistor,
By projection from point Q through the the upper end of R,, is at a minimum in-
plate -voltage axis it is found that the quies- stantaneous voltage. The plate of the tube
is connected to this end of RI, and is there-
cent plate voltage is 198 volts. This leaves
a drop of 102 volts across R,, which is
borne out by the relation 0.01275 X 8000 TYPE 24 -A
ecz = to y.
102 volts.
An alternating voltage of 4 volts maxi- eus
mum swing about the normal bias value of
- 4 volts is applied now to the grid of the 4 ec
triode amplifier. This signal swings the grid
in a positive direction to 0 volts, and in a
ec, _ _*

100 200 300 400 500

Figure 16
Figure 15
fore at the same minimum instantaneous
OF INTERELECTRODE This polarity reversal between instantane-
CAPACITANCE ous grid and plate voltages is further clari-

tied by a consideration of Kirchhoff's law as ,o

it applies to series resistance. The sum of the
IR drops around the plate circuit must at all
times equal the supply voltage of 300 volts.
Thus when the instantaneous voltage drop
across R,, is maximum, the voltage drop
across the tube is minimum, and their sum
must equal 300 volts. The variations of grid
voltage, plate current and plate voltage
about their steady -state values is illustrated
I 00 200 300 400 500
in figure 14. VOLTS (E5)

Interelectrode Capacitance always exists be- Figure 17

Capacitance tween any two pieces of metal
separated by a dielectric. The TYPICAL 1,, vs. E,, PENTODE
exact amount of capacitance depends on the CHARACTERISTIC CURVES
size of the metal pieces, the dielectric be-
is called a screen, as a result of its screening
tween them, and the type of dielectric. The
or shielding action, the tube is often called a
electrodes of a vacuum tube have a similar
screen -grid tube. The interposed screen grid
characteristic known as interelectrode capac- acts as an electrostatic shield between the
itance, illustrated in figure 15. These direct grid and plate, with the consequence that
capacitances in a triode are: grid -to- cathode
the grid -to -plate capacitance is reduced.
capacitance, grid -to -plate capacitance, and
Although the screen grid is maintained at a
plate -to- cathode capacitance. The interelec- positive voltage with respect to the cathode
trode capacitance, though very small, has a
of the tube, it is maintained at ground po-
coupling effect, and often can cause un- tential with respect to r.f. by means of a
balance in a particular circuit. At very -high
bypass capacitor of very low reactance at
frequencies (vhf) , interelectrode capaci- the frequency of operation.
tances become very objectionable and pre-
In addition to the shielding effect, the
vent the use of conventional tubes at these screen grid serves another very useful pur-
frequencies. Special vhf tubes must be used
pose. Since the screen is maintained at a
which are characterized by very small elec- positive potential, it serves to increase or
trodes and close internal spacing of the ele-
accelerate the flow of electrons to the plate.
ments of the tube.
There being large openings in the screen
mesh, most of the electrons pass through it
5 -4 Tetrode and and on to the plate. Due also to the screen,
Screen -Grid Tubes the plate current is largely independent of
plate voltage, thus making for high ampli-
Many desirable characteristics can be ob- fication. When the screen voltage is held at
tained in a vacuum tube by the use of more a constant value, it is possible to make large
than one grid. The most common multiele- changes in plate voltage without appreciably
ment tube is the tetrode (four electrodes). affecting the plate current, (figure 16).
Other tubes containing as many as eight When the electrons from the cathode ap-
electrodes are available for special applica- proach the plate with sufficient velocity,
tions. they dislodge electrons on striking the plate.
This effect of bombarding the plate with
The Tetrode The quest for a simple and high- velocity electrons, with the consequent
easily usable method of elimi- dislodgement of other electrons from the
nating the effects of the grid -to -plate plate, gives rise to the condition of second-
capacitance of the triode led to the develop- ary emission which has been discussed in a
ment of the screen -grid tube, or tetrode. previous paragraph. This effect can cause no
When another grid is added between the particular difficulty in a triode because the
grid and plate of a vacuum tube the tube is secondary electrons so emitted are eventually
called a tetrode, and because the new grid attracted back to the plate. In the screen-

grid tube, however, the screen is close to the tion by varying the control -grid bias. The
plate and is maintained at a positive poten- characteristic curve of an ordinary screen -
tial. Thus, the screen will attract these elec- grid tube has considerable curvature near
trons which have been knocked from the the plate- current cutoff point, while the
plate, particularly when the plate voltage curve of a remote -cutoff tube is much more
falls to a lower value than the screen volt- linear (figure 19). The remote -cutoff tube
age, with the result that the plate current is minimizes cross -talk interference that would
lowered and the amplification is decreased. otherwise be produced. Examples of remote
In the application of tetrodes, it is neces- cutoff tubes are: 6BD6, 6BA6, 6SG7 and
sary to operate the plate at a high voltage in 6SK7.
relation to the screen in order to overcome Beam -Power A beam -power tube makes use
these effects of secondary emission. Tubes of another method of suppres-
The Pentode The undesirable effects of sec- sing secondary emission. In this
ondary emission from the plate tube there are four electrodes: a cathode, a
can be greatly reduced if yet another ele- grid, a screen, and a plate, so spaced and
ment is added between the screen and plate. placed that secondary emission from the
This additional element is called a suppres- plate is suppressed without actual power loss.
sor, and tubes in which it is used are called Because of the manner in which the elec-
pentodes. The suppressor grid is sometimes trodes are spaced, the electrons which travel
connected to the cathode within the tube; to the plate are slowed down when the plate
sometimes it is brought out to a connecting voltage is low, almost to zero velocity in a
pin on the tube base, but in any case it is certain region between screen and plate. For
established negative with respect to the this reason the electrons form a stationary
minimum plate voltage. The secondary elec- cloud, or space charge. The effect of this
trons that would travel to the screen if GRID -61110
there were no suppressor are diverted back AMOK rCATn0Oa

to the plate. The plate current is, therefore,

not reduced and the amplification possibili-
ties are increased (figure 17).
Pentodes for audio applications are de-
signed so that the suppressor increases the
limits to which the plate voltage may swing;
therefore the consequent power output and REMOTE CUTOFF SHARP CUTOFF
gain can be very great. Pentodes for radio - GRID GRID

frequency service function in such a man- Figure 18

ner that the suppressor allows high voltage REMOTE -CUTOFF GRID STRUCTURE
gain, at the same time permitting fairly
high gain at low plate voltage. This holds space charge is to repel secondary electrons
true even if the plate voltage is the same or emitted from the plate and thus cause them
slightly lower than the screen voltage. to return to the plate. In this way, secondary
emission is suppressed.
Another feature of the beam -power tube
Remote -Cutoff Remote- cutoff tubes (vari- is the low current drawn by the screen. The
Tubes able - p. ) are screen- grid screen and the grid are spiral wires wound
tubes in which the control so that each turn in the screen is shaded
grid structure has been physically modified from the cathode by a grid turn. This align-
so as to cause the plate current of the tube ment of the screen and the grid causes the
to drop off gradually, rather than to have a electrons to travel in sheets between the
well- defined cutoff point (figure 18) . A non- turns of the screen so that very few of them
uniform control -grid structure is used, so strike the screen itself. This formation of
that the amplification factor is different for the electron stream into sheets or beams in-
different parts of the control grid. creases the charge density in the screen -plate
Remote -cutoff tubes are used in circuits region and assists in the creation of the space
where it is desired to control the amplifica- charge in this region.

Because of the effective suppressor action well as the screen current since the plate
provided by the space charge, and because of current is essentially independent of the
the low current drawn by the screen, the plate voltage in tubes of this type. In other
beam -power tube has the advantages of high words, when the tube is operated at cutoff
power output, high power sensitivity, and bias as determined by the screen voltage and
high efficiency. The 6AQ5 is such a beam - the grid- screen factor (determined in
power tube, designed for use in the power - the same way as with a triode, by dividing
amplifier stages of receivers and speech am- the operating voltage by the p. factor), the
plifiers or modulators. Larger tubes employ- plate current will be substantially at cutoff,
ing the beam -power principle are being made as will be the screen current. The grid- screen
, factor is numerically equal to the am-
plification factor of the same tetrode or
pentode tube when it is triode connected.

Current Flow The following equation is the

in Tetrodes expression for total cathode
and Pentodes current in a triode tube. The
expression for the total cathode

current of a tetrode and a pentode tube is
the same, except that the screen -grid voltage
- GRID VOLTS o and the grid- screen ,u factor are used in
place of the plate voltage and of the
Figure 19 triode.
by various manufacturers for use in the Cathode current = K Eel - Eel + l

radio -frequency stages of transmitters. These

tubes feature extremely high power sensitiv-
ity (a very small amount of driving power Cathode current, of course, is the sum of
is required for a large output), good plate
the screen and plate currents plus control-
efficiency, and low grid -to -plate capacitance.
grid current in the event that the control
Examples of these tubes are 813, 4 -250A, grid is positive with respect to the cathode.
4CX250B, etc. It will be noted that total cathode current
is independent of plate voltage in a tetrode
Grid -Screen The grid-screen p. factor (p.)
or pentode. Also, in the usual tetrode or
Mu Factor is analogous to the amplification pentode the plate current is substantially
independent of plate voltage over the usual
factor in a triode, except that
operating range-which means simply that
the screen of a pentode or tetrode is sub-
the effective plate resistance of such tubes
stituted for the plate of a triode. p., denotes is relatively high. However, when the plate
the ratio of a change in grid voltage to a
voltage falls below the normal operating
change in screen voltage, each of which will
range, the plate current falls sharply, while
produce the same change in screen current.
the screen current rises to such a value that
Expressed as an equation:
the total cathode current remains substan-
AE,.Z tially constant. Hence, the screen grid in a
DEoI tetrode or pentode will almost invariably
where be damaged by excessive dissipation if the
plate voltage is removed while the screen
1,2 is held constant.
voltage is still being applied from a low -
impedance source.
The grid- screen p. factor is important in
determining the operating bias of a tetrode The Effect of The current equations show
or pentode tube. The relationship between Grid Current how the total cathode current
control -grid potential and screen potential in triodes, tetrodes, and pen-
determines the plate current of the tube as todes is a function of the potentials applied

to the various electrodes. If only one elec- ance of a tetrode or pentode tube can be
trode is positive with respect to the cathode calculated through use of the expression:
(such as would be the case in a triode acting
as a class -A amplifier) all the cathode cur- Alb
Gm = AE,
rent goes to the plate. But when both screen
and plate are positive in a tetrode or pentode, with Ems_ and constant.
the cathode current divides between the two
elements. Hence the screen current is taken The plate resistance of such tubes is of
from the total cathode current, while the less importance than in the case of triodes,
balance goes to the plate. Further, if the though it is often of value in determining
control grid in a tetrode or pentode is the amount of damping a tube will exert on
operated at a positive potential the total the impedance in its plate circuit. Plate re-
cathode current is divided between all three sistance is calculated from:
elements which have a positive potential. In
a tube which is receiving a large excitation rp =
voltage, it may be said that the control grid Alb
robs electrons from the output electrode with E,., and Ee2 constant.
during the period that the grid is positive,
making it always necessary to limit the peak -
positive excursion of the control grid.
5 -5 Mixer and
Coefficients of In general it may be stated Converter Tubes
Tetrodes and that the amplification factor
Pentodes of tetrode and pentode tubes The superheterodyne receiver always in-
is a coefficient which is not cludes at least one stage for changing the
of much use to the designer. In fact the frequency of the incoming signal to the
amplification factor is seldom given on the fixed frequency of the main intermediate -
design -data sheets of such tubes. Its value frequency amplifier in the receiver. This fre-
quency- changing process is accomplished by
SCREEN GRID selecting the beat -note difference frequency
between a locally generated oscillation and
the incoming signal frequency. If the oscil-
lator signal is supplied by a separate tube,
the frequency changing tube is called a
mixer. Alternatively, the oscillation may be
generated by additional elements within the
frequency- changer tube. In this case the
frequency changer is commonly called a
converter tube.