Sie sind auf Seite 1von 53

Aim: Write a program to find admittance matrix of a given system

( 1 ) Y-BUS FORMATION

% THE Y-BUS FORMATION


clear;
clc;
basemva=100;
nbus=5;
% lp lq r x ysh tap
linedata =[ 1 2 0.02 0.06 0.03 1
1 3 0.08 0.24 0.025 1
2 3 0.06 0.18 0.02 1
2 4 0.06 0.18 0.02 1
2 5 0.04 0.12 0.015 1
3 4 0.01 0.03 0.01 1
4 5 0.08 0.24 0.025 1 ];
nline=length(linedata(:,1));
j=sqrt(-1);
i=sqrt(-1);
for k=1:nline
lp(k)=linedata(k,1);
lq(k)=linedata(k,2);
r(k)=linedata(k,3);
x(k)=linedata(k,4);
ysh(k)=linedata(k,5);
a(k)=linedata(k,6);
z(k)= r(k)+j*x(k);
y(k)=1/z(k);
end
ybus=zeros(nbus,nbus);
yln =zeros(nbus,nbus);
% PI METHOD FOR OFF-NOMINAL ADMITTANCE OF TRANSFORMER
for k=1:nline
ylp(k)=[1/(a(k)^2)-1/a(k)]*y(k);
ylq(k)=[1-1/a(k)]*y(k);
y(k)=y(k)/a(k);
end
for k=1:nline
ybus(lp(k),lq(k))=ybus(lp(k),lq(k))-y(k);
ybus(lq(k),lp(k))=ybus(lp(k),lq(k));
ybus(lp(k),lp(k))=ybus(lp(k),lp(k))+y(k)+ylp(k)+j*ysh(k);
ybus(lq(k),lq(k))=ybus(lq(k),lq(k))+y(k)+ylq(k)+j*ysh(k);
end
ybus
OUTPUT :-

Y-BUS =

6.2500 -18.695i -5.000 + 15.000i -1.250 + 3.750i 0 0

-5.0000 +15.000i 10.833-32.415i -1.667 + 5.000i -1.6667 + 5.000i -2.500 + 7.500i

-1.2500 + 3.750i -1.667 + 5.000i 12.9167 -38.695i -10.000 +30.000i 0

0 -1.667+ 5.000i -10.000 +30.000i 12.9167 -38.695i -1.250 + 3.750i

0 -2.500 + 7.500i 0 -1.250 + 3.750i 3.750 -11.210i


ii) Formation of Ybus without mutual coupling using Singular Transformation

Single Line Diagram of Transmission Network:


(1) (3) (4)

(2) (5)

Impedances and line charging admittances for the power system:

Bus Code Impedance HLC Admittance


1-2 0.02 + j 0.06 0.0 + j 0.030
1-3 0.08 + j 0.24 0.0 + j 0.025
2-3 0.06 + j 0.18 0.0 + j 0.020
2-4 0.06 + j 0.18 0.0 + j 0.020
2-5 0.04 + j 0.12 0.0 + j 0.015
3-4 0.01 + j 0.03 0.0 + j 0.010
4-5 0.08 + j 0.24 0.0 + j 0.025
Program for Ybus formation without mutual coupling using Singular Transformation:
clc;
clear;
Dm=input('Enter the Line data : ');
fb=Dm(:,1);
tb=Dm(:,2);
z=Dm(:,3);
hlc=Dm(:,4);
nb=max(max(fb),max(tb));
e=length(z);
% Formation of Bus Incidence matrix
a=zeros(e,nb);
for i=1:1:e
p=fb(i);
a(i,p)=1;
q=tb(i);
a(i,q)=-1;
end
a
%Formation of the Primitive Admittance matrix
Zpri=zeros(e,e);
for j=1:1:e
Zpri(j,j)=z(j);
end
Ypri=inv(Zpri);
% Ybus formation
Ybus=a'*Ypri*a;

%Addition of Half Line Chaging Admittance


for r=1:1:nb-1
for s=1:1:e
if fb(s)==r|tb(s)==r
Ybus(r,r)=Ybus(r,r)+hlc(s);
end
end
end
Ybus

INPUT Data:
Enter the Line data : [1 2 0.02+0.06i 0.03i;1 3 0.08+0.24i 0.025i;2 3 0.06+0.18i 0.02i;
2 4 0.06+0.18i 0.02i;2 5 0.04+0.12i 0.015i;3 4 0.01+0.03i 0.01i;4 5 0.08+0.24i 0.025i]

OUTPUT:
a=

1 -1 0 0 0
1 0 -1 0 0
0 1 -1 0 0
0 1 0 -1 0
0 1 0 0 -1
0 0 1 -1 0
0 0 0 1 -1
Ybus =

6.2500 -18.6950i -5.0000 +15.0000i -1.2500 + 3.7500i 0 0

-5.0000 +15.0000i 10.8333 -32.4150i -1.6667 + 5.0000i -1.6667 + 5.0000i -2.5000 + 7.5000i

-1.2500 + 3.7500i -1.6667 + 5.0000i 12.9167 -38.6950i -10.0000 +30.0000i 0

0 -1.6667 + 5.0000i -10.0000 +30.0000i 12.9167 -38.6950i -1.2500 + 3.7500i

0 -2.5000 + 7.5000i 0 -1.2500 + 3.7500i 3.7500 -11.2500i


iii) Formation of Ybus with mutual coupling using Singular Transformation

Program for Ybus formation with mutual coupling using Singular Transformation:
clc;
clear;
Dm=input('Enter the Line data : ');
Mc=input('Enter the Mutual Coupling data : ');
fb=Dm(:,1);
tb=Dm(:,2);
z=Dm(:,3);
hlc=Dm(:,4);
nb=max(max(fb),max(tb));
e=length(z);
%Formation of Bus Incidence Matrix
a=zeros(e,nb);
for i=1:1:e
p=fb(i);
a(i,p)=1;
q=tb(i);
a(i,q)=-1;
end
a
%Formation of the Primitive Admittance matrix
Zpri=zeros(e,e);
for j=1:1:e
Zpri(j,j)=z(j);
end
%Addition of Mutual Coupling elements
[x,y]=size(Mc);
for i=1:1:x
m=Mc(i,1);
n=Mc(i,2);
Zpri(m,n)=Mc(i,3);
Zpri(n,m)=Zpri(m,n);
end
Ypri=inv(Zpri);
%Ybus formation
Ybus=a'*Ypri*a;
%Addition of Half Line Charging Admittance
for r=1:1:nb-1
for s=1:1:e
if fb(s)==r|tb(s)==r
Ybus(r,r)=Ybus(r,r)+hlc(s);
end
end
end
Ybus

INPUT Data:
Enter the Line data : [1 2 0.6j 0;1 3 0.5j 0;3 4 0.5j 0;1 2 0.4j 0;2 4 0.2j 0]
Enter the Mutual Coupling data : [1 2 0.1j;1 4 0.2j]

OUTPUT:
a=

1 -1 0 0
1 0 -1 0
0 0 1 -1
1 -1 0 0
0 1 0 -1

Ybus =

0 - 4.6875i 0 + 2.8125i 0 + 1.8750i 0


0 + 2.8125i 0 - 8.0208i 0 + 0.2083i 0 + 5.0000i
0 + 1.8750i 0 + 0.2083i 0 - 4.0833i 0 + 2.0000i
0 0 + 5.0000i 0 + 2.0000i 0 - 7.0000i

Aim: Perform simulation analysis of a power system and find the values of RMS voltages
at all buses for faults such as LG, LL, LLG, LLLG fault.
Figure shows a single line diagram of a 6-bus system with two identical generating units, five lines and two
transformers. Per-unit transmission line series impedances and shunt susceptances are given on 100 MVA base,
generator's transient impedance and transformer leakage reactances are given in the accompanying table.

If a 3-phase to ground fault occurs at bus 5, find the fault MVA. The data is given below.

Bus-code Impedance Line Charging


p-q Zpq Ypq/2
3-4 0.00+j0.15 0
3-5 0.00+j0.10 0
3-6 0.00+j0.20 0
5-6 0.00+j0.15 0
4-6 0.00+j0.10 0

Generator details:
G1= G2 = 100MVA, 11KV with Xd =10%

Transformer details:
T1= T2 = 11/110KV , 100MVA, leakage reactance = X = 5%
**
All impedances are on 100MVA base

Mi Power Data Interpretation:


SOLUTION:

In transmission line data, elements 3 4 & 5 6 have common parameters. Elements 3 - 5 &
4 6 have common parameters. Therefore 3 libraries are required for transmission line.

As generators G1 and G2 have same parameters, only one generator library is required. The same applies for
transformers also.

Procedure to enter the data for performing studies using Mi Power

Mi Power - Database Configuration

Open Power System Network Editor. Select menu option DatabaseConfigure. Configure Database dialog
is popped up. Click Browse button.

Enter here to
specify the name

Open dialog box is popped up as shown below, where you are going to browse the desired directory and specify
the name of the database to be associated with the single line diagram. Click Open button after entering the
desired database name. Configure Database dialog will appear with path chosen.
Select the folder and give database name in File name window with .Mdb extension.
And now click on Open.

Click OK

Click on OK button in the Configure database dialog, the following dialog appears.

Uncheck the Power System Libraries and Standard Relay Libraries. For this example these standard libraries are
not needed, because all the data is given on p u for power system libraries (like transformer, line\cable,
generator), and relay libraries are required only for relay co-ordination studies. If Libraries are selected, standard
libraries will be loaded along with the database. Click Electrical Information tab.
Since the impedances are given on 100 MVA base,
check the pu status. Enter the Base MVA and Base
frequency as shown below. Click Breaker Ratings
tab. If the data is furnished, modify the breaker ratings
for required voltage levels. Otherwise accept the
default values. Click OK button to create the database
to return to Network Editor.

Bus Base Voltage Configuration

In the network editor, configure the base voltages for


the single line diagram. Select menu option Configure
Base voltage. Dialog shown below appears. If
necessary change the Base-voltages, color, Bus width
and click OK.

Procedure to Draw First Element - Bus

Click on Bus icon provided on power system tool bar. Draw a bus and a dialog appears prompting to give the
Bus ID and Bus Name. Click OK. Database manager with corresponding Bus Data form will appear. Modify
the Area number, Zone number and Contingency Weightage data if it is other than the default values. If this data
is not furnished, keep the default values. Usually the minimum and maximum voltage ratings are 5% of the
rated voltage. If these ratings are other than this, modify these fields. Otherwise keep the default values.

Bus description field can be effectively used if the bus name is more than 8 characters. If bus name is more than
8 characters, then a short name is given in the bus name field and the bus description field can be used to
abbreviate the bus name. For example let us say the bus name is Northeast, then bus name can be given as NE
and the bus description field can be North East.
After entering data click save, which invokes Network Editor. Follow the same procedure for remaining buses.
Following table gives the data for other buses.

Bus data
Bus Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
Bus Name Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6
Nominal voltage 11 11 110 110 110 110
Area number 1 1 1 1 1 1
Zone number 1 1 1 1 1 1
Contingency Weightage 1 1 1 1 1 1

Procedure to Draw Transmission Line

Click on Transmission Line icon provided


on power system tool bar. To draw the line
click in between two buses and to connect to
the from bus, double click LMB (Left Mouse
Button) on the From Bus and join it to
another bus by double clicking the mouse
button on the To Bus .Element ID dialog
will appear.

Enter Element ID number and click OK. Database manager with corresponding Line\Cable Data form will be
open. Enter the details of that line as shown below.

Enter Structure Ref No. as 1 and click on Transmission Line Library >> button. Line & Cable Library
form will appear. Enter transmission line library data in the form as shown for Line3-4.

After entering data, Save and Close. Line\Cable Data form will appear. Click Save, which invokes network
editor. Data for remaining elements given in the following table. Follow the same procedure for rest of the
elements.
Transmission Line Element Data
Line Number 1 2 3 4 5
Line Name Line3-4 Line3-5 Line3-6 Line4-6 Line5-6
De-Rated MVA 100 100 100 100 100
No. Of Circuits 1 1 1 1 1
From Bus No. 3 3 3 4 5
To Bus No. 4 5 6 6 6
Line Length 1 1 1 1 1
From Breaker Rating 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000
To Breaker Rating 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000
Structure Ref No. 1 2 3 2 1

Transmission Line Library Data


Structure Ref. No. 1 2 3
Structure Ref. Name Line3-4 & 5-6 Line3-5 & 4-6 Line3-6
Positive Sequence Resistance 0 0 0
Positive Sequence Reactance 0.15 0.1 0.2
Positive Sequence Susceptance 0 0 0
Thermal Rating 100 100 100

Procedure to Draw Transformer

Click on Two Winding Transformer icon provided on power system tool bar. To draw the transformer click
in between two buses and to connect to the from bus, double click LMB (Left Mouse Button) on the From Bus
and join it to another bus by double clicking the mouse button on the To Bus Element ID dialog will appear.
Click OK.
Transformer Element Data form will be open. Enter the Manufacturer Ref. Number as 30. Enter
transformer data in the form as shown below. Click on Transformer Library >>button.

Transformer library form will be open. Enter the data as shown below. Save and close library screen.

Transformer element data form will appear. Click Save button, which invokes network editor. In the similar way
enter other transformer details.
2nd Transformer details
Transformer Number 2
Transformer Name 2T2
From Bus Number 6
To Bus Number 2
Control Bus Number 2
Number of Units in Parallel 1
Manufacturer ref. Number 30
De Rated MVA 100
From Breaker Rating 5000
To Breaker Rating 350
Nominal Tap Position 5

Procedure to Draw Generator

Click on Generator icon provided on power system tool bar. Draw the generator by clicking LMB (Left Mouse
Button) on the Bus1. Element ID dialog will appear. Click OK.
Generator Data form will be opened. Enter the Manufacturer Ref. Number as 20. Enter Generator data in the
form as shown below.

Click on Generator Library >> button. Enter generator library details as shown below.
Save and Close the library screen. Generator data screen will be reopened. Click Save button, which invokes
Network Editor. Connect another generator to Bus 2. Enter its details as given in the following table.

2nd Generator details


Name GEN-2
Bus Number 2
Manufacturer Ref. Number 20
Number of Generators in Parallel 1
Capability Curve Number 0
De-Rated MVA 100
Specified Voltage 11
Scheduled Power 20
Reactive Power Minimum 0
Reactive Power Maximum 60
Breaker Rating 350
Type of Modeling Infinite
Note: To neglect the transformer resistance, in the multiplication factor table give the X to R Ratio as 9999.

To solve short circuit studies choose menu option Solve Short Circuit Analysis or click on SCS button on
the toolbar on the right side of the screen. Short circuit analysis screen appears.

2 Click here to open short circuit studies screen

1 Click here to select case no

Study Information.
3. Click here
. Click here
1. Click here
. Click here 2. Click here
. Click here

In Short Circuit Output Options select the following.

Click OK

Afterwards click Execute. Short circuit study will be executed. Click on Report to view the report file.
1 Click here
to execute

2 Click here
for report

Exercise: Simulate single line to ground fault, line to line fault for the above case.

Exercise problems:

1. Using the available software package determine (a) fault current (b) post fault voltages at all buses (c) fault
MVA , when a line to ground fault with / with out Zf = ___ occurring at _____ bus for a given test system.
( Assume pre fault voltages at all buses to be 1 pu) compare the results with the symmetrical fault.

2. Using the available software package determine (a) fault current (b) post fault voltages at all buses (c) fault
MVA , when a line to line & ground fault with / with out Zf = ___ occurring at _____ bus for a given test
system.( Assume pre fault voltages at all buses to be 1 pu) compare the results with the symmetrical fault.

Refer below question for Q.(1) & Q(2)

Reactance of all transformers and transmission lines = 0.1 pu


Zero sequence reactance of transmission line = 0.25 pu
Negative sequence reactance of generator = Subtransient reactace
Zero sequence reactance of generator = 0.1 pu
G2
G1
X= 0.2
X= 0.3

G3
X= 0.1

3. For the given circuit, find the fault currents, voltages for the following type of faults at Bus3.
1. Single Line to Ground Fault
2. Line to Line Fault
3. Double line to Ground Fault
For the transmission line assume X 1=X 1, X 0=2.5 XL

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3

Y
G

Xd= 0.3 Xt = 0.1 XL= 0.4

4. For the given circuit, find the fault currents, voltages for the following type of faults at Specified location.
1. Single Line to Ground Fault
2. Double line to Ground Fault
3. Line to Line Fault
Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4
Y Y
G1 G2
X1= X2= 20
100MVA
100MVA X0= 60 100MVA
13.8kV/138kV
13.8 kV 13.8 kV
X = 0.1pu
X= 0.15 X= 0.2
X2 = 0.17 X2 = 0.21
X0= 0.05 X0= 0.1
Xn = 0.05pu
Aim: Perform load flow studies for a given power system data using Gauss-Seidel and
Newton-Raphson methods and compare the results.
G
Figure below shows a single line diagram of (3) a 5bus system with (4)2 generating units, 7 lines. Per unit
(1)
transmission line series impedances and shunt susceptances are given on 100MVA Base, real power
generation, real & reactive power loads in MW and MVAR are given in the accompanying table with bus1 as
slack, obtain a load flow solution with Y-bus using Gauss-Siedel method and Newton Raphson method. Take
acceleration factors as 1.4 and tolerances of 0.0001 and 0.0001 per unit for the real and imaginary components
of voltage and 0.01 per unit tolerance for the change in the real and reactive bus powers.

(2) (5)
G
IMPEDANCES AND LINE CHARGING ADMITTANCES FOR THE SYSTEM

Table: 1.1
Bus cone Impedance Line Charging
From-To R+jX B/2
1-2 0.02+j0.06 j 0.030
1-3 0.08+j0.24 j 0.025
2-3 0.06+j0.18 j 0.020
2-4 0.06+j0.18 j 0.020
2-5 0.04+j0.12 j 0.015
3-4 0.01+j0.03 j 0.010
4-5 0.08+j0.24 j 0.025

GENERATION, LOADS AND BUS VOLTAGES FOR THE SYSTEM

Table: 1.2
Bus Bus Generation Generation Load Load
No Voltage MW MVAR MW MVAR
1 1.06+j0. 0 0 0 0
0
2 1.00+j0. 40 30 20 10
0
3 1.00+j0. 0 0 45 15
0
4 1.00+j0. 0 0 40 5
0
5 1.00+j0. 0 0 60 10
0

Procedure to enter the data for performing studies using MiPower

MiPower - Database Configuration



Open Power System Network Editor. Select menu option Database Configure. Configure Database dialog
is popped up as shown below. Click Browse button.

Open dialog box is popped up as shown below, where you are going to browse the desired directory and
specify the name of the database to be associated with the single line diagram. Click Open button after
entering the hired database name. Configure Database dialog will appear with path chosen.

Note: Do not work in the MiPower directory.


Click OK button on the Configure database dialog. The dialog shown below appears.
Uncheck the Power System Libraries and Standard Relay Libraries. For this example these standard libraries
are not needed, because all the data is given on pu for power system libraries (like transformer, line\cable,
generator), and relay libraries are required only for relay co-ordinate studies. If Libraries are selected, standard
libraries will be loaded along with the database. Click Electrical Information tab. Since the impedances are
given on 100 MVA base, check the pu status. Enter the Base and Base frequency as shown below. Click on
Breaker Ratings button to give breaker ratings. Click OK to create the database to return to Network Editor.

Bus Base Voltage Configuration


In the network editor, configure the base voltages for the single line diagram. Select menu option
ConfigureBase voltage. The dialog shown below appears. If necessary change the Base-voltages, color,
Bus width and click OK.

Procedure to Draw First Element - Bus

Click on Bus icon provided on power system tool bar. Draw a bus and a dialog appears prompting to give the
Bus ID and Bus Name. Click OK. Database manager with corresponding Bus Data form will appear. Modify
the Area number, Zone number and Contingency Weightage data if it is other than the default values. If this
data is not furnished, keep the default values. Usually the minimum and maximum voltage ratings are 5% of
the rated voltage. If these ratings are other than this, modify these fields. Otherwise keep the default values.
Bus description field can be effectively used if the bus name is more than 8 characters. If bus name is more
than 8 characters, then a short name is given in the bus name field and the bus description field can be used to
abbreviate the bus name. For example let us say the bus name is Northeast, then bus name can be given as NE
and the bus description field can be North East.
Results:
Exercise Problems:
1. Using the available software package conduct load flow analysis for the given power system using
Gauss-Siedel / Newton-Raphson / Fast decoupled load flow method. Determine
(a) Voltage at all buses
(b) Line flows
(c) Line losses and
(d) Slack bus power.
Also draw the necessary flow chart ( general flow chart)
2. Using the available software package conduct load flow analysis for the given power
system using Gauss-Siedel / Newton-Raphson / Fast decoupled load flow method.
Determine
(a) Voltage at all buses
(b) Line flows
(c) Line losses and
(d) Slack bus power.
Also draw the necessary flow chart ( general flow chart), Compare the results with
the results obtained when (i) a line is removed (ii) a load is removed.

Refer below question for Q.(1) & Q(2)


Consider the 3 bus system of figure each of the line has a series impedence of
(0.02 + j0.08) p.u. & a total shunt admittance of j 0.02 p.u. The specified quantities at
the buses are tabulated below on 100 MVA base.

Bus Real Load Reactive Load Real Power Reactive Power Voltage
No. Demand PD Demand QD Generation PG Generation QG Specification
1 2.0 1.0 Unspesified Unspesified V1 = (1.04 + j 0)
(Slack Bus)
2 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 Unspesified
(PQ Bus)
3 0.5 0.6 0.0 QG3 = ? V3 = 1.04
(PV Bus)
Controllable reactive power source is available at bus 3 with the constraint
0 QG3 1.5 p.u.
Find the load flow solution using N R method. Use a tolerance of 0.01 for power mismatch.

G1 G2

(1) (2)

(3)
G3
3. Figure shows the one line diagram of a simple three bus system with generation at bus 1, the voltage at bus 1
is V1 = 1.0<00 pu. The scheduled loads on buses 2 and 3 are marked on diagram. Line impedances are marked
in pu on a 100MVA base. For the purpose of hand calculations line resistances and line charging susceptances
are neglected. Using Gauss-Seidel method and initial estimates of V 2 = 1.0<00 pu & V3 = 1.0<00 pu. Conduct
load flow analysis.

G
Slack bus Bus 2
V1=1.0+j0.0 j0.03333 (400+j320) MW

j0.0125 j0.05

Bus 3
(300+j270) MW
Aim: Perform load flow studies for a given power system data using Gauss-Seidel and
Newton-Raphson methods and compare the results using MATLAB.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB 8.5

THEORY

The GAUSS SEIDEL method is an iterative algorithm for solving a set of non-linear load flow
equations.

The non-linear load flow equation is given by

1 Pp j Qp p-1 n
Vpk+1
= - Ypq Vq - Vq
k+1 k

Ypp (Vpk)* q = 1 q=p+1

The reactive power of bus-p is given by

p-1 n
QPk+1 =(-1) x Im (Vpk)* Ypq Vqk+1 + Ypq Vqk
q=1 q=p

PROCEDURE
1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
2. Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File.
3. Type and save the program in the editor Window.
4. Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.
5. View the results.

EXERCISE

The figure shows the single line diagram of a simple 3 bus power system with generator at bus-1. The
magnitude at bus 1 is adjusted to 1.05pu. The scheduled loads at buses 2 and 3 are marked on the diagram.
Line impedances are marked in p.u. The base value is 100kVA. The line charging susceptances are
neglected. Determine the phasor values of the voltage at the load bus 2 and 3.
(i) Find the slack bus real and reactive power.
(ii) Verify the result using MATLAB.
Program

clc;
clear all;
V=[1.05 1 1]';
P=[0 -2.5616 -1.366]';
Q=[0 -1.102 -0.452]';
linedata=[1 2 10-20i
2 3 16-32i
1 3 10-30j];
ns=linedata(:,1);
nr=linedata(:,2);
yy=linedata(:,3);
nl=length(ns);
nb=max(max(ns),max(nr));
y=zeros(nb);
for i=1:nl
y(ns(i),nr(i))=-yy(i);
end
y=y+y.';
for i=1:nb
y(i,i)=-sum(y(i,:));
end
y
S=complex(P,-Q);
for i=2:nb
V(i)=S(i)/(y(i,i)*conj(V(i)));
for j=1:nb
if j~=i
V(i)=V(i)-(y(i,j)*V(j)/y(i,i));
end
end
end
disp('Phasor Voltages:');
V
Ss=conj(V(1))*y*V;
disp('Slack bus real Power:');
Ps=real(Ss(1))
disp('Slack bus reactive Power:');
Qs=-imag(Ss(1))

OUTPUT

y=
20.0000 -50.0000i -10.0000 +20.0000i -10.0000 +30.0000i
-10.0000 +20.0000i 26.0000 -52.0000i -16.0000 +32.0000i
-10.0000 +30.0000i -16.0000 +32.0000i 26.0000 -62.0000i
Phasor Voltages:
V=
1.0500
0.9826 - 0.0309i
1.0012 - 0.0349i
Slack bus real Power:
Ps = 2.9705
Slack bus reactive Power:
Qs = 2.2603

RESULT
Load flow solution for the given problem was solved using Gauss-Seidal method and verified using
MATLAB software.
SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW USING NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD

SOFTWARE REQUIRED : MATLAB 8.5

THEORY
The Newton Raphson method of load flow analysis is an iterative method which approximates the set
of non-linear simultaneous equations to a set of linear simultaneous equations using Taylors series expansion
and the terms are limited to first order approximation.
The load flow equations for Newton Raphson method are non-linear equations in terms of real and
imaginary part of bus voltages.
n
PP = ep(eq Gpq + fq Bpq) + fp (fq Gpq - eq Bpq)
q=1

n
QP = fp (eq Gpq + fq Bpq) - ep (fq Gpq - eq Bpq)
q=1

Vp 2 = ep2 + fp2

where, ep = Real part of Vp


fp = Imaginary part of Vp
Gpq, Bpq = Conductance and Susceptance of admittance Ypq respectively.

EXERCISE
1. Consider the 3 bus system each of the 3 line bus a series impedance of 0.02 + j0.08 p.u and a total shunt
admittance of j0.02 p.u. The specified quantities at the bus are given below.
Real load Reactive Load Real power Reactive Power Voltage
Bus
demand, PD demand, QD Generation, PG Generation, QG Specified
1 2 1 - - V1=1.04
Unspecifie
2 0 0 0.5 1
d
3 1.5 0.6 0 QG3 = V3 = 1.04

2. Verify the result using MATLAB

PROGRAM
%NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD
clc;
clear all;
% Given data
Pd=[2 0 1.5];Qd=[1 0 0.6];Pg=[0 0.5 0];Qg=[0 1 0];
Pnet=Pg-Pd;Qnet=Qg-Qd;
V=[1.04 1 1.04];
Vm=abs(V);Va=angle(V);
% Ybus formation
Yse=2.94-11.76i;Ysh=0.01i;
Yd=2*(Yse+Ysh);
Y=[Yd -Yse -Yse; -Yse Yd -Yse;-Yse -Yse Yd];
Ym=abs(Y); Ya=angle(Y);
% Calculation
P=[0 0 0];
for i=2:3
for j=1:3
P(i)=Vm(i)*Vm(j)*Ym(i,j)*cos(Va(i)-Va(j)-Ya(i,j));
Q(i)=Vm(i)*Vm(j)*Ym(i,j)*sin(Va(i)-Va(j)-Ya(i,j));
end
end
delP=Pnet-P;delQ=Qnet-Q;
A=zeros(3);B=zeros(3);C=zeros(3);D=zeros(3);
% Jacobian Matrix formation
for i=2:3
for j=1:3
if i~=j
A(i,j)=Vm(i)*Vm(j)*Ym(i,j)*sin(Va(i)-Va(j)-Ya(i,j));
B(i,j)=Vm(i)*Vm(j)*Ym(i,j)*cos(Va(i)-Va(j)-Ya(i,j));
C(i,j)=-B(i,j);
D(i,j)=A(i,j);
end
end
A(i,i)=-Q(i)-((V(i)^2)*Ym(i,i)*sin(Ya(i,i)));
B(i,i)=P(i)+((V(i)^2)*Ym(i,i)*cos(Ya(i,i)));
C(i,i)=P(i)-((V(i)^2)*Ym(i,i)*cos(Ya(i,i)));
D(i,i)=Q(i)-((V(i)^2)*Ym(i,i)*sin(Ya(i,i)));
end
J=[A(2:3,2:3) B(2:3,2);C(2,2:3) D(2,2)]
V=inv(J)*[delP(2:3) delQ(2)]';
Vm=abs(V);Va=angle(V);
disp('Real Power:');P
disp('Reactive Power:');Q
disp('Phase Angle Profile:');V(1:2)*180/pi
disp('Voltage Profile:');V(3)

Output:
y=

20.0000 -50.0000i -10.0000 +20.0000i -10.0000 +30.0000i


-10.0000 +20.0000i 26.0000 -52.0000i -16.0000 +32.0000i
-10.0000 +30.0000i -16.0000 +32.0000i 26.0000 -62.0000i

Phasor Voltages:

V=

1.0500 + 0.0000i
0.9826 - 0.0309i
1.0012 - 0.0349i

Slack bus real Power:

Ps =

2.9705

Slack bus reactive Power:

Qs =

2.2603

J=

35.7304 -12.2304 2.8224


-12.2304 0 -3.0576
-8.9376 3.0576 11.2696
Real Power:

P= 0 -3.0576 6.3598

Reactive Power:

Q= 0 -12.2304 25.4176

Phase Angle Profile:

ans = 19.9296
57.1488

Voltage Profile:

ans = 1.1792

RESULT
Thus the power flow for the given problem was solved using Newton Raphson method and verified
using MATLAB software.
AIM: To perform short circuit study of a given system

PROGRAM REQUIRED: MATLAB 8.5

THEORY

Symmetrical Fault

Three phase fault

From the thevenins equivalent circuit


Vth
Fault current, If =
Z th

Where Vth = Thevenins Voltage


Z th = Thevenins Impedance

Unsymmetrical Fault

Single line to ground fault

Fault current, If = Ia = 3Ia1

Ia1 = Ea
Z1+Z2+Z0

Line to line fault

Fault current, If= Ia1(a2 a )

Ea
Ia1 =
Z1+Z2
Double Line to ground fault

Fault current, If = 2 Ia0 + (Ia1+ Ia2) (a2 + a)

Ea
Ia1 =
Z1 + Z0Z2

(Z0 + Z2)
(- Ia1) * Z0

Z0 + Z2

Ia0 = (Ia1 Ia2)

Fault MVA = 3 * If * Vpu

where, Ia1, Ia2 and Ia0 are positive, negative and zero phase sequence currents.

Z1 ,Z2 and Zo are positive, negative and zero phase sequence impedances.

PROCEDURE

1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.


2. Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File
3. Type and save the program.
4. Execute the program by pressing Tools Run.
5. View the results.

EXERCISE
The one line diagram of a simple power system is shown in figure. The neutral of each generator is
grounded through a current limiting reactor of 0.25/3 per unit on a 100MVA base. The system data
expressed in per unit on a common 100 MVA base is tabulated below. The generators are running on no
load at their rated voltage and rated frequency with their emf in phase.
Determine the fault current for balanced three phase fault at bus 3 through a fault
impedance, Zf = j0.1 per unit.

Item Base Voltage Rating X1 X2 X0


MVA kV
G1 100 20 0.15 0.15 0.05
G2 100 20 0.15 0.15 0.05
T1 100 20/220 0.10 0.10 0.10
T2 100 20/220 0.10 0.10 0.10
L12 100 220 0.125 0.125 0.30
L13 100 220 0.15 0.15 0.35
L23 100 220 0.25 0.25 0.7125

Verify the result using MATLAB program.

PROGRAM

clc;
clear all;
Zm=[1 2 0.125 0.3
1 3 0.15 0.35
2 3 0.25 0.7125];
Zs1=[0.25 0.25 0];
Zs0=[0.4 0.4 0];
Ns=Zm( :,1); Nr=Zm( :,2) ;
Y1=zeros(3); Y0=zeros(3);
for i=1 :3
Y1(Ns(i),Nr(i))=-1/(j*Zm(i,3));
Y0(Ns(i),Nr(i))=-1/(j*Zm(i,4));
end
Y1=Y1+Y1.';Y0=Y0+Y0.';
for i=1:3
if Zs1(i)==0
Y1(i,i)=-sum(Y1(i,:));
else
Y1(i,i)=(1/(j*Zs1(i)))-sum(Y1(i,:));
end
if Zs0(i)==0
Y0(i,i)=-sum(Y0(i,:));
else
Y0(i,i)=(1/(j*Zs0(i)))-sum(Y0(i,:));
end
end
Z1=inv(Y1);Z0=inv(Y0);Z2=Z1;
Zf=0.1j;Vpf=1;Ib=100/20;
Zf1=Z1(3,3);Zf2=Z2(3,3);Zf0=Z0(3,3);
disp('Symmetrical three phase fault current:kA');
If=abs(Vpf/(Zf1+Zf))*Ib
disp('Single Line to Ground Fault Current:kA');
If=abs((3*Vpf)/(Zf1+Zf2+Zf0+Zf))*Ib
disp('Line to Line Fault Current:kA');
If=abs(-j*sqrt(3)*(Vpf/(Zf1+Zf2+Zf)))*Ib
disp('Double Line to Ground Fault Current:kA');
Ifa1=Vpf/(Zf1+(Zf2*(Zf0+(3*Zf))/(Zf2+Zf0+(3*Zf))));
Ifa0=-Ifa1*(Zf2/(Zf2+Zf0+(3*Zf)));
If=abs(3*Ifa0*Ib)

OUTPUT
Symmetrical three phase fault current:kA
If = 15.6250
Single Line to Ground Fault Current:kA
If = 15.3065
Line to Line Fault Current:kA
If = 16.0375
Double Line to Ground Fault Current:kA
If = 8.8238

RESULT

Modeling and analysis of power systems under faulted condition was studied. Fault level, post-fault
voltages and currents for different types of faults, for the given network under symmetric and unsymmetrical
conditions were computed and verified using MATLAB Software.
AIM: To perform transient stability analysis of a given power system.

PROGRAM REQUIRED : MATLAB 8.5

THEORY

Stability : Stability problem is concerned with the behavior of power system when it is
subjected to disturbance and is classified into small signal stability problem if the
disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large.

Transient stability: When a power system is under steady state, the load plus
transmission loss equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at
synchronous speed and system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady.
When a large disturbance such as three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc.,
occurs the power balance is upset and the generating units rotors experience either
acceleration or deceleration. The system may come back to a steady state condition
maintaining synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one or more machines may
pull out of synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable and in the
later case it is said to be unstable.

Small signal stability: When a power system is under steady state, normal operating
condition, the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in
load and generation, change in field voltage, change in mechanical toque etc., the
nature of system response to small disturbance depends on the operating conditions,
the transmission system strength, types of controllers etc. Instability that may result
from small disturbance may be of two forms,
(i) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronizing torque.
(ii) Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping
torque.

FORMULA
Reactive power Qe = sin(cos-1(p.f))
S*
Stator Current It =
Et *

Pe - jQe
=
Et *
Voltage behind transient condition
E1 = Et + j Xd1It

Voltage of infinite bus


EB = Et - j( X3 + Xtr )It
X1 X2
where, X3 =
X1 + X2

Angular separation between E1 and EB


o = E1 - EB

Prefault Operation:
X1 X2
1
X = j Xd + jXtr +
X1 + X2

E1 x EB
Power Pe = sino
X

Pe * X
o = sin -1

E1 * EB

During Fault Condition:

Pe = PEii = 0

Find out X from the equivalent circuit during fault condition

Post fault Condition


Find out X from the equivalent circuit during post fault condition

E1 x EB
Power Pe = sino
X

max = - o

Pm
Pe =
sinmax

Critical Clearing Angle


Pm( max - o ) + P3maxcos max - P2maxcos o
Coscr =
P3max - P2max

Critical Clearing Time

2H (cr - o)
tcr =
fo Pm Secs

PROCEDURE
1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.
2. Create a new M file by selecting File - New M File
3. Type and save the program.
4. Execute the program by pressing Tools Run
5. View the results.

EXERCISE
1. A 60Hz synchronous generator having inertia constant H = 5 MJ/MVA and a direct
axis transient reactance Xd1 = 0.3 per unit is connected to an infinite bus through
a purely reactive circuit as shown in figure. Reactances are marked on the
diagram on a common system base. The generator is delivering real power
Pe = 0.8 per unit and Q = 0.074 per unit to the infinite bus at a voltage of V = 1
per unit.

a) A temporary three-phase fault occurs at the sending end of the line at point
F.When the fault is cleared, both lines are intact. Determine the critical
clearing angle and the critical fault clearing time.
.
b) Verify the result using MATLAB program.
PROGRAM

clc;
clear all;
Pm=0.8;E=1.2;V=1;H=5;f=60;
X1=0.65;X2=1.8;X3=0.8;
Pm1=E*V/X1;
Pm2=E*V/X2;
Pm3=E*V/X3;
Do=asin(Pm/Pm1)
Dm=pi-asin(Pm/Pm3)
A1=Pm*(Dm-Do);A2=Pm3*cos(Dm); A3=Pm2*cos(Do);
Dcr=acos((A1+A2-A3)/(Pm3-Pm2))
disp('Critical Clearing Angle:');
Dcr*180/pi
disp('Critical Clearing Time:');
Tcr=sqrt((2*H*(Dcr-Do))/(pi*f*Pm))
D=1:180;Dr=D*pi/180;
P1=Pm1*sin(Dr);
P2=Pm2*sin(Dr);
P3=Pm3*sin(Dr);
Pm=0.8;
plot (D,P1,D,P2,D,P3,D,Pm);
legend('Prefault','Underfault','Postfault');

OUTPUT:
Do = 0.4482
Dm = 2.5791
Dcr = 1.7701
Critical clearing angle:
ans = 101.4190
Critical clearing time:
Tcr = 0.2961
POWER ANGLE CURVE: