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IJPBCS

International Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science


Vol. 4(1), pp. 166-177, March, 2017. www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 2167-0449

Research Article

Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance,


genetic advance as percent mean and character
association of Ethiopian mustard (Brasica carinata A.
Braun) land races
1*
Fekadu Amsalu, 2Sentayehu Alamerew,1Bulecha Woyessa
1
Holetta Agricultural Research Center P. O. Box 2003, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Email:fekiamsalu@gmail.com
2
Department of Plant science and Horticulture, Jimma University P. O. Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Field experiment was conducted to estimate genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance,
genetic advance as a percent mean and character association for forty nine genotypes of
Ethiopian mustards collected from different agro ecologies. The experiment was carried out
in a simple lattice design. The analysis of variance showed that there were significant
differences among genotypes for all traits compared. The significant difference indicates the
existence of genetic variability among the accessions which is important for improvement.
High genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations were observed in seed yield per
plot, oil yield per plot, and plant height. This shows that selection of these traits based on
phenotype may be useful for yield improvement. The highest heritability in broad sense was
recorded for thousand seed weight (68.80%) followed by days to flowering (65.91%), stand
percent (63.14%), linolenic acid(62.58%), days to maturity (60.43%), plant height (59.63%),
palmitic acid (58.19%), linoleic acid (57.46%),oil content (50.33%), oil yield (44.84%), seed
yield per plot(42.99%),and primary branches(34.20%). This suggests that large proportion of
the total variance was due to the high genotypic and less environmental variance. In the
correlation coefficient analysis, seed yield per plot showed positive correlation with oil
content, oil yield, plant height and seed yield per plant. In the path analysis, number of
primary branches and oil yield showed positive direct effect on seed yield per plot. In this
study, seed yield per plot, oil content, oil yield and primary branches were found to be the
most important components for the improvement of seed and oil. Therefore more emphasis
should be given for highest heritable traits of mustard and to those positively correlated
traits to improve these characters using the tested genotypes.

Keywords: Ethiopian mustard, variability, Genetic advance, heritability; correlation, path analysis.

INTRODUCTION

Ethiopian mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) is variability. Selection by plant breeders or by farmers
believed to be originated in the highlands of the can be intense and has resulted in major
Ethiopian plateau and the adjoining portion of East improvements.
Africa and the Mediterranean coast (Gomez-Campo
and Prakash, 1999). It evolved as a natural cross
between B. nigra (BB) (n=8) and B. oleracea (CC)
(n=9) and underwent further chromosomal doubling
(2n=34; UN, 1935).It is partially amphidiploids. Crop *Corresponding author: Fekadu Amsalu, Holetta
improvement program through plant breeding, as a Agricultural Research Center P. O. Box 2003, Addis
result, occurs through selection operating on genetic Ababa, Ethiopia.Email:fekiamsalu@gmail.com
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Amsalu et al. 167

However, continued success in plant breeding can only Data Collected


be realized in so far as new variability is available for
selection (Copper et al., 2001). Such variability The data was collected on plot basis for Days to
provides adaptability, which is the capacity for genetic flowering, Days to maturity, Seed yield per plot, Oil
change in response to selection (Sigmmonds, 1962). content, thousand seed weight, Oil yield, Stand percent
Genetic variability is therefore essential for crop and Oil quality traits. On the other hand the data was
improvement. Therefore the present study was, also collected on plant basis from five plants randomly
executed with the objectives of estimating the genetic selected from the central rows of each plot for Number
variability, heritability and genetic advance, genetic of Primary branches per plant, Number of Secondary
advance as a percent mean and estimating the extent branches per plant, Plant height and Seeds yield per
of correlation between seed yield and its related traits plant on respective plants.
of Ethiopian mustard traits.
Data Analysis

MATERIALS AND METHODS Analysis of variance


The data collected for traits were subjected to analysis
Experimental Site of variance (ANOVA) for simple lattice design. Analysis
of variance was done using Proc lattice and Proc GLM
The experiment was conducted at Holetta Agricultural procedures of SAS version 9.2, (SAS Institute, 2008).
Research Center (HARC) in 2013/2014 from June to Analysis of variance (Table 2) for the considered traits
December 2013. Holetta (West Shewa Zone of Oromia was done using the model for lattice design as follows:
Yil ( j ) u ti rj (b / r )l ( j ) eil( j )
o o
Region) is located at latitude 9 N and longitude 38 E,
altitude of 2400 m a.s.l situated 30km West of Addis
Ababa. It is one of the representatives of oil seed Where, Yil ( j ) is the observation of the treatment
Brassica growing areas in the central highlands of
Ethiopia (Nigussie and Mesfin, 1994). The area has
i(i 1,....V , k 2 ) , in the block l (l 1,...k ) of the
mean annual rainfall of 1059 mm and temperatures of replication j ( j 1,..., m) ;
o o
23 C (maximum) and 8 C (minimum). The soil type is is a constant common to all observations;
Nitisols with soil ph in the range of 6.0 -7.5(Nigussie ti is the effect of the treatment i;
and Mesfin, 1994). rj is the effect of the replication j;
(b|r) l (j) is the effect of the block l of the replication j;
Description of Test Materials
eil ( j ) is the error associated to the observation
A total of forty-nine mustard land races that include one Yil(j), Where eil(j) ~N(0,s) independent. Estimation of
local check and one standard check were used in this phenotypic and genotypic variability
study. The majority of the accessions represent the
national collection from different major mustard growing The variability present in the population was estimated
regions of the country and that are maintained at by simple measures, namely range, mean, standard
Holetta Agricultural Research center. The accessions error, and phenotypic and genotypic variances and
were obtained kindly from Holetta agricultural research coefficients of variations. The phenotypic and genotypic
center of highland oil crops improvement project. The variance and coefficients of variation was also
details of the accessions utilized in the experiment are estimated as per the procedure suggested by Burton
given in Table 1. and De Vane (1953) as follows:
Experimental Design, Management and Season 2 p 2 g 2e
MSg MSe
The experiment was executed from June 2013 to
December 2013. The experiment was laid out in simple
2g
r
lattice design 7X7 with two replications. A plot of four
central rows each three-meter long and 30Cm spacing Where,
2g =Genotypic variance
between rows were used for data collection. Each
replication had seven blocks and each block was P 2
= Phenotypic variance
represented by seven plots. The path between blocks 2e = Environmental (error) variance or Error mean
was 2 meters and the spacing between plots with in
square
sub-blocks was also 0.6 meters. Each entry was
manually drilled, a rate of 10 kg/ha and urea and MSg = mean sum square due to genotypes
phosphorous fertilizers were applied at the rates of (accessions)
46/69 kg/ha N/P2O5 respectively following the national
recommendations. All other recommended agronomic MSe =mean sum square of error (environmental
and cultural practices were carried out following variance)
practices described by Adefris (2005).
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Int. J. of Plant Breeding and Crop Sci. 168

Table 1. List of 49 Ethiopian mustard genotypes used in the study and their origin
No. Accession number Area of collection Altitude(m) Latitude Longitude
1 PGRC/E20001 West Wollega/Arjo 2420 08-44-00N 36-40.00E
2 '' 20002 Bale Zone/Kitu 2500 06-.59.00N 39-12-00E
3 '' 20004 South Gonder/Liba 1980 12-.05-00N 37-44-00E
4 '' 20005 SouthGonder/Debretabor 1830 11-57-00N 37-37-00E
5 '' 20006 South Gonder/Debretabor 1980 11-50-00N 37-37_00E
6 '' 20007 North Gonder/Woger/Dabat 2500 * *
7 '' 20017 West Gojiam /Awi /Dangila 1980 11-.20-00N 36-58-00E
8 '' 20056 West Shewa/Jibatenamecha 2200 09-01-00N 38.-20-00E
9 '' 20065 West Shewa/Jibatena mecha 2200 08-58-00N 37-30.00E
10 '' 20066 West Shewa/Ambo 1950 08-.59.00N 37-48-00E
11 '' 20067 West Shewa/Ambo 2010 08-.58-00N 37-52-00E
12 '' 20076 SNNP/Wenago 1853 06-23-00N 38-20-00E
13 '' 20077 South East Tigray/Inderta 2000 13-29-00N 39-30.00E
14 '' 20112 West Gojam/JabiTehnan 1980 10-.39.00N 37-24-00E
15 '' 20117 West Shewa/Jibatnamecha 2050 08-.58-00N 38-01-00E
16 '' 20127 West Shewa/chelia 1700 09-03-00N 37-10-00E
17 '' 20133 West Shewa/Menagesha 2600 09-11-00N 39-09.00E
18 '' 20134 West Shewa/Jibat 2200 08-.58.00N 37-30-00E
19 '' 20146 West Gojam/Bahirdarzuria 1980 11-.25-00N 37-12-00E
20 '' 20165 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 1980 11-20-00N 36-58-00E
21 '' 20166 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 1980 11-20-00N 36-58.00E
22 '' 21008 Arsi/Gedeb 2380 07-.12.00N 38-09-00E
23 '' 21012 West shewa/Dendi 2900 09-.14-00N 38-53-00E
24 '' 21017 West Shewa/Gendbert 2470 09-43-00N 37-46-00E
25 '' 21026 West Gojiam Awi/Dangila 2000 11-18-00N 36-58.00E
26 '' 21035 West Gojam/Sekela 2540 10-.50-00N 37-04-00E
27 '' 21037 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 2165 11-.14-00N 36-51-00E
28 21037 West Gojiam/Awi/Dangila 2165 11-.14-00N 36-51-00E
29 '' 21068 Bale/Adaba 2500 07-01-00N 39-25-00E
30 '' 21157 SNNP /South omo 2830 06-19-00N 38-52-00E
31 '' 21225 East Gojam/Enemay 2000 10-.32-00N 38-09-00E
32 '' 208411 West Gonder/Debretabor 2150 11-.50-00N 37-35-00E
33 '' 229665 West Gojam/Burie 2050 10-33-00N 37-34-00E
34 '' 237048 Arsie-Robe 2350 07-08-00N 40-00.00E
35 '' 241907 South Gonder/Fogera 1825 12-.01-00N 37-43-00E
36 '' 241910 South Gonder/Farta 2289 11-.49-00N 38-00-00E
37 '' 242856 Arsi zone /Sherka 2360 07-32-64N 39-37-87E
38 '' 242858 Arsi zone /Sherka 2360 07-34-27N 39-31-24E
39 '' 243738 South Wollo/Desiezuria 2928 11-08-00N 39-13-00E
40 '' 243739 South Wollo/Tenta 2950 11-.14-00N 39-15-00E
41 '' 21256 West Gojam/Bahirdarzuria 1940 11-16-00N 36-59-00E
42 '' 243750 Wollo/kalu 2020 11-45-00N 39-47.00E
43 '' 243756 South Gonder/ Debark 3115 11-.08.00N 37-56-00E
44 '' 243761 Gonder Zuria 2050 12-.19-00N 37-33-00E
45 '' 243763 South Gonder/Kemkem 2070 11-57-00N 37-37-00E
46 '' 208556 West Shewa/Adis Alem 2200 * *
47 '' 208585 East Shewa/yerer 1600 * *
48 Yellow dodolla Bale/Dodolla 2500 06-.59-00N 39-12-00E
49 (ZemXYellow Dodolla) Cross 2400 09-00-00N 38-00-00E
50 Local check Holetta area 2400 09-00-00N 38-00-00E
Source: Holetta highland oil crops research program,*=information not found

r = number of replications Genotypic coefficient of Variation (GCV),


Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV),
2g
p2
GCV x100
PCV
__
__
x100 x
x

Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Amsalu et al. 169

Table 2. Simple Lattice analysis of variance and expected mean squares

Source of variation Df SS MS F-value


Replication(r) r-1 SSr MSr MSr/MSe
Genotype(g) g-1 SSg MSg MSg/MSe
Block within replication r(b-1) SSb MSb MSb/MSe
Intra-block error (b-1)(rb-b-1) SSe MSe
Total rb2-1 SST
Where, Df = degree of freedom, SS sum of squares; MS: mean of squares, SSr and MSr sum of squares
and mean of replication, respectively: SSg and MSg are sum of squares and mean of genotypes,
respectively: SSb and MSb are sum of squares and mean of blocks within replication respectively. SSe
and MSe are sum of squares and mean of intera-block error.

__ Where, COVg (xy) is the genotypic covariances of two


x = Population mean of the character being variables (X and Y), respectively. g (x) and g (y) are
evaluated the genotypic standard deviations for variables, X and
Y, respectively.
Heritability (In Broad Sense)
Path-coefficient analysis
Heritability in the broad sense for the quantitative of
different characters was computed using the formula The path coefficient was estimated with the formula
suggested by Singh and Chaudhary (1985): given by Dewey and Lu (1959)

2g rij Pij rik Pkj


H 2 x100
p Where, rij mutual association between the
Where, H= heritability in the broad sense.

independent character i (yield related trait) and
2
g = Genotypic variance and dependent character, j(seed yield ) as measured by the

2

p = Phenotypic variance.
P
genotypic correlation coefficient ; ij is components of
direct effect of the independent character (i) on the
Expected genetic advance (GA)
dependent character (j) as measured by the genotypic
The genetic advance (GA) for selection intensity (K) at path coefficients; and rik pjk =summation of
5% was calculated by the formula suggested by Allard components of indirect effects of a given independent
(1999) as:
characters (i) on the given dependent character (j) via
GA K P H all other independent characters (k).
The residual factor can be estimated as described in
Dewy and Lu(1959)
RR 1 PIJ RIJ
p
Where, GA = expected genetic advance,
=phenotypic standard deviation on mean basis, H=
Heritability in broad sense, K =selection differential
(k=2.06 at 5% selection intensity)
Genetic advance (as percent of mean) (GA) was
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
computed to compare the extent of predicted genetic
advance of different traits under selection using the
The analysis of variance for the 17 traits studied is
formula:
given in Table 3. The analysis of variance showed that
GA there were significant differences among genotypes for
GAM ___
100
all traits compared. The significant difference indicates
X the existence of genetic variability among the
__ accessions that is important for selection and breeding.
Where, x =population mean of the quantitative Similarly Yared (2010) studied thirty six genotypes of
character, GAM =genetic advance as percent of mean. mustard for date of flowering, date of maturity, seed
yield per plot, oil content, oil yield, number of seed per
Correlation coefficient plant, thousand seed weight, number of primary
Genotypic correlation coefficients branches, number of secondary branches, plant height,
palmatic, stearic, oleic, linoleic linolenic and erucic acid
Estimation of genotypic correlation coefficients was of traits found the same result. Abebe(2006) studied
done based on the procedure of Dabholkar (1992). sixty accessions of Ethiopian mustard for seventeen
Genotypic correlation coefficient (rg) = COVg (xy)/ g (x) traits and reported the existence of large amount of
* g (y) genetic variability. In similar way the studies of Nigussie

Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Int. J. of Plant Breeding and Crop Sci. 170

Table 3. Mean squares for different sources of variations for 17 agronomic and quality traits of 49 Ethiopian mustard

Characters Genotype (48) Block (12) Replication(1) Intera-block error (36)


Date of flowering 141.98** 6.39 0.91 9.96
Date of maturity 284.69** 45.67 84.5 44.36
Seed yield per plot 503441* 925530 7543862 231667
Oil content 3.4446** 1.3825 217.51 1.1283
Oil yield 108661* 167934 2098030 46331
Seed yield per plant 18.2377* 15.9527 88.2551 9.6692

Thousand seed weight 0.1939** 0.06957 0.1111 0.06942


Stand percent 208.34** 721.28 4676.83 23.4813

Number of primary branches 9.8346* 6.07095 24.7004 6.1063

Number of primary branches 0.3389* 4.0816 4.0816 0.2421

Plant height 1004.12** 1102.13 2812.5 169.46

Palmic acid
0.2691** 0.0661 0.0072 0.05179
Stearic acid
0.034** 0.0073 0.0002 0.00757
Oleic acid
2.2211** 1.1983 4.1164 0.598
Linoleic acid
2.2839** 1.5701 4.1291 0.4673
Linolenic acid
11.342** 1.444 7.3909 1.3781
Erucic acid
7.165** 4.959 23.078 1.846
*, ** significant at p = 0.05 and 0.01 significance level, respectively

(2001) on thirty six accessions of Ethiopian mustard for maturity, plant height, erucic acid, linoleic, stearic,
several characters revealed that the existence of palmitic and oil content in Ethiopian mustard. Low
genetic variability. Variation in fatty acid compositions genotypic variance as compared to environmental
among the Ethiopian mustard germplasm accessions variance was recorded for traits such as stearic
has also been reported by Nigussie et al., (1999) and (0.0132).Thousand seed weight (0.062),
Adefris(2005). palmitic(0.01087), number of secondary branches per
plant(0.0484),oleic(0.811),linoleic(0.908),linolenic(4.98),
Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation erucic(2.65) and oil content(1.158). However, high
genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) and
Estimates of genotypic and phenotypic variances, phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV)were shown in
genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic traits such as seed yield per plot (82.46, 191.78) and oil
coefficients of variation (PCV), heritability in broad yield per plot(60.00,133.81)respectively, which means
sense, expected genetic advances and genetic selection of these traits based on phenotype
advances as percent mean are given in Table 4. characteristics may be useful for seed yield and oil
Estimated genetic variance ranged from 0.0132% for yield improvement. This result agrees with the findings
stearic to 135887% for seed yield (Table 4). Likewise of Abebe (2006) and Aytac and Kinaci (2009).
phenotypic variance ranged from 0.04159% for stearic
to 735108% for seed yield kg/ha. Phenotypic Heritability in the Broad Sense
coefficients of variation ranged from 2.09% for
thousand seed weight to 191.78% for seed yield per Heritability estimated using the total genetic variance is
plot. Genotypic coefficients of variation ranged from called broad sense heritability. Heritability in the broad
1.20% for stearic acid to 82.46 % for seed yield per sense of the traits is presented in Table 4. Breeders
plot. Days to flowering (151.94,66.01), Days to maturity can make rapid progress where heritability is high by
(329.05,120.16), seed yield per plot (735108,135887), using selection methods that are dependant solely on
stand percent (231.82,92.42), plant height phenotypic characteristics of traits. However, where
(1173.58,417.33) and oil yield (154992, 31165) Showed heritability is low methods of selection based on
high phenotypic and genotypic variances, respectively families and progeny testing are more effective and
indicating that the genotypes could be reflected by the efficient. In this study, heritability values except
phenotype and the effectiveness of selection based on secondary branches per plant were found to be
the phenotypic performance for these characters. sufficiently high for the whole all important yield
Likewise, Yared (2010) reported high genotypic and component characters. Dabholkar (1992) generally
phenotypic variance for days to flowering, days to classified heritability estimates as low (5-10%), medium
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Amsalu et al. 171
Table 4. Components of variance, coefficients of variability, heritability and genetic advance and Genetic advance as percent of mean of studied traits

GA GA/Grand mean *100 k 5%


2 2 2 2
Character g e ph GCV PCV hb k = 5%
Date of flowering 66.01 85.93 151.94 8.41 12.76 65.91 14.36 15.39
Date of maturity 120.16 208.89 329.051 8.18 13.53 60.43 20.24 11.26
Seed yield per plot 135887 599221 735108 82.46 191.78 42.99 806.89 40.37
Seed yield per plant
4.2843 23.62 27.9069 7.15 18.25 39.18 4.75 56.65
Thousand seed weight 0.062 0.07 0.131 1.44 2.09 68.80 0.43 14.36
Stand percent 92.429 139.39 231.821 10.38 16.43 63.14 17.36 20.23
Number of primary branch 1.8642 14.08 15.9409 4.09 11.97 34.20 3.35 30.10
Number of secondary branch 0.0484 0.53 0.581 1.21 4.20 28.86 0.59 17.81
Plant height 417.33 756.25 1173.58 15.18 25.45 59.63 37.97 20.96
Oil yield 31165 123827 154992 60.00 133.81 44.84 378.38 43.71
Palmic acid 0.1087 0.21 0.32089 1.69 2.91 58.19 0.62 16.32
Stearic acid 0.0132 0.03 0.04159 1.20 2.13 56.39 0.22 23.89
Oleic acid 0.8116 2.01 2.8191 2.94 5.48 53.65 1.77 18.78
Linoleic acid 0.9083 1.84 2.7512 2.28 3.96 57.46 1.80 10.31
Linolenic acid 4.9822 7.74 12.7205 6.39 10.21 62.58 4.05 33.19
Erucic acid 2.65935 6.352 9.0115 2.46 4.53 54.32 3.18 7.23
Oil content 1.1582 3.41 4.5729 1.64 3.27 50.33 2.18 5.08
2g = Genotypic variance, 2e = Error variance, 2ph = Phenotypic variance, GCV = Genotypic coefficient of variability,
PCV = Phenotypic coefficient of variability, h2b = Broad sense heritability, GA = Genetic advance and K = Selection intensity

Table 5. Genotypic correlation coefficients among 11 agronomic traits in 49 Ethiopian mustard genotypes tested at Holetta, 2013

Date of Date of Seed yield Oil Oil Seed yield per Stand Number of primary Number of secondary Plant Thousand seed
flowering maturity per plot cotent yield plant percent branch branch height weight
Date of flowering 0.828** -0.095 0.068 -0.076 -0.157 0.081 0.235 -0.101 0.109 0.087
Date of maturity -0.228 -0.042 -0.213 -0.412** -0.069 0.074 -0.410 -0.066 0.135
Seed yield per plot 0.613** 0.993** 0.295 * 0.627 -0.047 0.075 0.543** 0.415
Oil content 0.659** 0.322* 0.521** 0.056 0.057 0.450** 0.331*
Oil yield 0.309* 0.642* -0.046 0.049 0.701** 0.162
Seed yield per plant 0.092 0.239 0.517 0.326 0.101
Stand percent 0.008 0.049 0.701* 0.162
Number of primary 0.299* 0.155 -0.141
branch
Number of secondary 0.174 0.053
branch
Plant height -0.001
Thousand seed
weight
*, ** Indicate significance at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively.
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land races
Int. J. of Plant Breeding and Crop Sci. 172

(10-30%) and high (30-60%). Based on this (7.23%). Low genetic advance as percent means
classification, thousand seed weight (68.80%), days to observations in this study indicates that characters
flowering (65.91%), stand percent (63.14%), linolenic probably were under environmental influence than the
(62.58%), days to maturity (60.43%), plant height genotypic expression and that selection based on these
(59.63%), palmitic (58.19%), linoleic (57.46%), stearic traits would be ineffective.
(56.39%), erucic acid content (54.32%), oleic
(53.65%),oil content (50.53%), oil yield (44.84%), seed Character Associations
yield per plot(42.99%) and number of primary
branches per plants (34.20%) exhibited high heritability Improvement for a target character can be achieved by
estimates. Almost all studied traits except secondary indirect selection using other characters that are more
branches per plant showed the highest percent broad heritable and easy to select. This selection strategy
sense heritability character. From all studied traits requests understanding of the interrelationship of the
thousand seed weight was found to be the most characters among themselves and with the target
heritable trait in the genotype, with heritability of 68.80 character.
%, followed by days to maturity (65.91%) and stand
percent (63.14%).This phenomenon indicates that
selection for these traits in the genotype would be most Correlation of Seed Yield with other Traits
effective for the expression of these traits in the
succeeding generations. Therefore, good improvement Genotypic correlation coefficients of the agronomic
can be made if some of these traits are considered as traits are presented in Table 5. Seed yield per plot
selection criteria in future breeding program. Similar showed highly significant and positive correlation with
findings had been reported by Yared (2010) for oil content (0.613),oil yield (0.993), plant height (0.543)
thousand seed weight, date of flowering, date of seed yield per plants (0.295), Taking into account seed
maturity, plant height, palmatic, lenoleic and stearic oil yield per plant, oil content, oil yield and plant height as
content of seeds. High heritability value for thousand selection parameter will be an effective way to increase
seed weight, date to flowering, days to maturity plant seed, oil content and oil yield. This result is in
height, linoleic, erucic acid, stearic and palmatic acid agreement with the findings of Abebe (2006), Aytac and
content of seeds recorded in the current study was also Kinac(2009) and Jeromela et al. (2007) who reported
recorded by Yared (2010) and Abebe (2006). According positive correlation of seed yield per plot with oil yield
to Singh (1993), if the heritability of a character is high, per plot and seed yield per plant. Seed yield of plot also
selection for such character is fairly easy as selected showed positive associations between the stand
character will be transmitted to its progeny. This is percent and thousand seed weight. Days to maturity
because there would be a close correspondence showed significant positive correlation between number
between genotype and phenotype due to a relatively of primary branches (0.074) and thousand seed weight
similar contribution of the environment to the genotype. (0.135), while highly significant but negative correlation
In this study of traits in broad sense heritability only was found with seed yield per plant (-0.412) and
secondary branches per plant trait (28.86%) exhibit negative correlation with seed yield per plot (-0.228), oil
medium heritability estimates. content (-0.042), oil yield (-0.213), stand percent(-
0.069), number of secondary branches per plant (-
Genetic advance 0.410) and plant height(-0.066). Hence making
simultaneous increase for these characters with yield
Concerning the genetic advance at 5% intensity the per plot is difficult. From these results, we may extract
highest genetic gain was predicted for seed yield per that indirect selection for earliness for days to maturity;
plot (806.89kg/ha) followed by seed oil yield shortness of plant height will be worthwhile in
(378.38kg/ha) and while the lowest genetic advance improvement of the seed and oil yield. Result of
was predicted for stearic (0.22%). Genetic advance as positive correlation of days to flowering with days to
a percent mean ranged from 5.08% for oil content to maturity as well as negative correlation of these two
56.65% for seed yield per plant (Table 4). Within this traits with seed yield per plant and oil yield are in
range, a relatively high genetic advance as a percent agreement with the result of Abebe (2006) and
mean was observed for seed yield per plant (56.65%) Yared(2010). Association of plant height with seed yield
and oil yield (43.71%) followed by seed yield per plot per plot (0.543), oil content percent (0.450), oil yield
(40.37%). On the other side high genetic advance with (0.701), stand percent (0.711) was significant and
high heritability was shown for seed yield per plot and positive, while its association with date of maturity (-
seed oil yield which may be because of the presence of 0.066) was found negative. Number of primary
both additive and non-additive gene action (Liang et al., branches per plant showed positive correlation with
1972).Traits having medium heritability along with high number of secondary branches per plant (0.299). Seed
genetic advance could be improved using breeding yield per plant showed positive correlation with stand
procedure such as pedigree method. On the other percent (0.092), primary branches (0.239), secondary
hand, the lowest genetic gain as percent of means was branches (0.517), plant height (0.326) and thousand
observed for oil content (5.08 %) next to erucic acid seed weight (0.101).
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Amsalu et al. 173

Table 6. Genotypic correlation coefficients among 10 agronomic and 7 quality characters in 49 Ethiopian mustard
genotypes studied at Holetta , 2013/2014 cropping season

Traits DF DM SYPP OY SYPPL SP PB SB PHT TSW

Palmic -0.155 -0.187 -0.040 -0.080 0.066 -0.050 0.285* 0.275* 0.094 -0.161
Stearic 0.674** 0.669** 0.054 0.085 -0.135 0.038 0.201 -0.277 0.032 -0.055
Oleic 0.517** 0.581** -0.044 -0.028 -0.261 0.038 0.163 -0.306* 0.045 -0.123
Linolic -0.594** -0.556** -0.101 -0.135 -0.067 -0.157 -0.146 0.125 -0.145 -0.217
Linolenic -0.750** -0.764** 0.016 -0.003 0.236 -0.064 -0.253 0.270 -0.099 0.0132
Erucic -0.517** -0.590** -0.031 -0.068 0.228 -0.051 -0.038 0.364** 0.024 -0.125
Oc 0.068 -0.042 0.613** 0.659** 0.322* 0.521** 0.056 0.057 0.450** 0.331**
*, ** Indicate significance at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively. DF =Days to flowering, DM =Days to maturity,
SYPP =Seed yield per plot, SYPPL = Seed yield per plants, TSW =Thousand seed weight, SP=stand percent, PB primary
branches per plant, SB=secondary branches per plant, PHT=Plant height, OC=Oil content

Table 7. Genotypic correlation coefficients among 7 quality traits in 49 Ethiopian mustard genotypes tested
at Holetta, 2013/14

Traits Palmitic Stearic Oleic Linoleic Linolenic Erucicacid Oil content


Palmitic 0.302* -0.015 0.430** 0.220 0.517** -0.274*
Stearic 0.794** -0.726** -0.909** -0.766** 0.183
Oleic -0.468** -0.716** -0.760** 0.031
Linoleic 0.715** 0.528** -0.317*
Linolenic 0.630** -0.104
Erucic acid -0.200
Oil content
*, ** significant at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 significance level respectively

Genotypic correlation coefficients between Genotypic correlation coefficients among quality


agronomic and quality traits traits

Genotypic correlation coefficients between agronomic Genotypic correlation coefficients among quality traits
and quality traits are presented in Table 6. Correlation are presented in Table 7. A highly significant but
of palmitic acid to days to flowering (-0.155), date of negative correlations were observed between oleic acid
maturity (-0.187), seed yield (-0.040), oil yield (-0.080), and linoleic(-0.468),linolenic(-0.716) and erucic acid (-
stand percent (-0.050) and thousand seed weight (- 0.760).Since for edible purpose oleic acid is considered
0.161) was negative. However palmitic acid showed as preferred fatty acid increased level of the three
significant positive correlation with number of primary linoleic, linolenic and erucic acid is not nutritionally
branches (0.285) and secondary branches (0.275) and desirable. This relationship had practical advantage
positive correlation with plant height (0.094). The result towards selecting high oleic, but low linoleic, linolenic
of the current study also showed a highly significant and erucic acid containing genotypes which is in
and positive association of oil content with seed yield agreement with Islam (2009), Patel et al. (2003), Sia et
per plot (0.613) and oil yield per plot (0.659) stand al. (2004), Nigussie (2001); Adefris (2005) and Tsege
percent (0.521), plant height (0.450) and thousand et al. (2004) who found similar results., However Khan
seed weight (0.331). Oleic acid showed a positive and et al.(2008) reported the opposite. Highly significant
highly significant association with date of positive correlation was found between palmitic (0.302),
flowering(0.517) and days to maturity(0.581) where as linoleic (0.430)and erucic acid content (0.517), where
it showed a negative correlation with seed yield per as negative association was observed between palmitic
plot (-0.044) , oil yield per plot (-0.028), seed yield per and oleic acid (-0.015), which indicates that some sort
plants(-0.261) and thousand seed yield (- of compromise may be needed in order to increase
0.123).Positive association of oil content with number of palmitic acid for edible purposes for which Islam (2009)
primary branches, secondary branches and date of reported the opposite. Erucic acid showed negative
flowering was recorded. On the other hand, negative correlation with oil content (-0.200) though it was
correlation of erucic acid was observed between seed insignificant which implies increasing oil content, favors
yield per plot (-0.031), oil yield (-0.068), stand percent (- the oil for edible purpose in terms of erucic and oleic
0.051), primary branches (-0.038) and thousand seed acid content. Likewise, highly significant negative
weight (-0.125). correlation was found between linolenic and oil content
(-0.104). There was also highly negative correlation
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Int. J. of Plant Breeding and Crop Sci. 174

Table 8. Genotypic direct (underlined) and indirect effects of 10 characters on seed yield

Traits DF DM Oc Oy Syppl SP PB SB PHT TSW rg


Date of flowering(DF) -0.0021 -0.0123 -0.0048 -0.0799 0.0008 -0.0002 0.0029 0.0014 -0.0009 -0.0007 095
Date of Maturity(DM) -0.0018 -0.0149 0.0029 -0.2235 0.0022 0.0002 0.0009 0.0056 0.0005 -0.0011 -0.228
Oil content(Oc) -0.0001 0.0006 -0.0692 0.6910 -0.0017 -0.0011 0.0007 -0.0008 -0.0036 -0.0027 0.613**
Oil yield (Oy) 0.0002 0.0032 -0.0456 1.0471 -0.0016 -0.0014 -0.0006 -0.0012 -0.0044 -0.0016 0.993**
Seed yield per plant(Syppl) 0.0003 0.0061 -0.0223 0.3243 0.0053 -0.0002 0.0029 -0.0071 -0.0026 -0.0008 0.295*
Stand percent(SP) -0.0002 0.0010 -0.0361 0.6726 -0.0005 -0.0022 0.0001 -0.0007 -0.0055 -0.0013 0.625
Number of primary branches(PB) -0.0005 -0.0011 0.0007 -0.0485 -0.0013 0.0000 0.0123 -0.0041 -0.0012 0.0011 -0.047
Number of secondary branches(SB) 0.0002 0.0061 -0.0039 0.0881 -0.0027 -0.0001 0.0037 -0.0138 -0.0014 -0.0004 0.075
Plant height(PHT) -0.0002 0.0010 -0.0312 0.5853 -0.0017 -0.0015 0.0019 -0.0024 -0.0079 0.0000 0.543**
Thousand seed weight(TSW) -0.0002 -0.0020 -0.0229 0.2009 -0.0005 -0.0004 -0.0017 0.0019 0.0000 -0.0081 0.0415
Residual=0.395,*, ** significance at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively. Rg = genotypic correlation coefficient

Table 9. Genotypic direct (underlined) and indirect effect of quality traits on oil content

Traits Palmitic Stearic Oleic Linoleic Linolenic Erucic Rg


Palmitic -0.104 -0.016 0.005 0.026 0.000 -0.073 -0.274*
Stearic 0.031 0.553 -0.248 -0.108 0.000 0.109 0.183
Oleic 0.001 0.439 -0.312 -0.085 0.000 0.108 0.031
Linoleic -0.023 -0.503 0.223 0.119 0.000 -0.089 -0.317*
Linolenic 0.023 -0.503 0.223 0.119 0.000 -0.089 -0.104
Erucic acid 0.054 -0.424 0.237 0.075 0.000 -0.142 -0.200

* Significant at p < 0.05 significance level, rg= genotypic correlation coefficient

Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land races
Amsalu et al. 175

between oleic linoleic (-0.468) and linolenic acid (- Whereas days to flowering (-0.0021), days to maturity (-
0.716), which is in agreement with the findings of 0.0149), oil content (-0.0692), number of secondary
Adefris (2005) and Kumar and Tsunda (1980), branches per plant (-0.0138), plant height (-0.0079) and
respectively. The traits association which contradicted thousand seed weight (-0.0081) had negative direct
with the previous findings might have been as a result influence. Traits like, days to flowering, days to
of synchronized selection applied on the traits maturity, primary branches per plant exhibited a
concerned. negative genotypic correlation with seed yield. Similar
results were reported by Nigussie (1990) for plant
Path Coefficient Analysis height and number of primary branches.

Path coefficient analysis provides more effective means Path coefficient analysis for oil content
of separating direct and indirect factors, permitting a
critical examination of the specific forces acting to As dependent trait such as oil content and independent
produce a given correlation and measuring the relative traits such as palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic
importance of the causal factors. Therefore, path and erucic acids were considered in the analysis and
coefficient analysis was carried out to partition the Genotypic direct and indirect effect of quality traits
correlation coefficients into direct and indirect effects as on oil content are presented in Table 9. Stearic (0.553)
described by (Giriraji and Vijayakumar, 1974). and linoliec (0.119) had positive direct effect on oil
content, while their correlation with oil content was
Path coefficient analysis for seed yield per plot positive for stearic and significantly negative for linoleic.
On the other hand, palmitic (-0.104), oleic (-0.312) and
Here, for path analysis, seed yield per plot was erucic (-0.142) showed negative direct effect, while there
considered as a dependent trait (Table8). Seed yield was also negative correlation of palmatic and erucic acid
per plants (0.0053), number of primary branches per of these traits with oil content, which indicates efforts in
plant (0.0123) and oil yield per plot (1.0471) showed increasing these traits for the improvement of the oil of
positive direct effect on seed yield per plot. From these Ethiopian mustard genotypes may be at the expense of
traits, seed yield per plant and oil yield per plot also oil content. In this analysis, in general, erucic acid was
showed a positive and significant correlation with seed found the most important component in the
yield per plot. Therefore, considering of seed yield per improvement of edibility of Ethiopian mustard seed oil.
plants, number of primary branches and oil yield per
plot as selection criteria will be advantageous in studied
that aimed at improving seed yield. This result is CONCLUSION
consistent with findings of Singh and Singh (1997),
Dilek (2008) and Yared(2010). Days to maturity showed In this study, 49 Ethiopian mustard genotypes acquired
a negative direct effect (-0.0149) on seed yield per plot. from diverse zones/regions of Ethiopia were evaluated
On the other hand, days to flowering had a negative in simple lattice design with two replications at Holetta
direct effect (-0.0021) on seed yield per plot which had Agricultural Research Center, West Shewa zone, with
also been negatively correlated with seed yield per plot. the objectives of estimating the genetic variability,
This implies consideration days to maturity in breeding heritability, genetic advance, genetic advance as
programs for achieving earliness in days to flowering. percent mean and estimating the extent of genetic
Seed yield per plant revealed a positive direct effect correlation and path analysis among the studied traits.
(0.0053) on seed yield per plot that indicates the The analysis of variance showed the presence of highly
indirect effect through oil yield per plot was positive. significant differences among the tested genotypes for
Direct effect of 1000-seed weight on seed yield per plot all of characters considered, indicating the existence of
was negative (-0.0081), which indicates selection of this variability among the tested genotypes for these
trait may be ineffective in improving the seed yield per characters. High phenotypic coefficient of variation
plot. However, its effect via yield of seeds per plant and (PCV) was recorded for seed yield per plot, oil yield and
oil yield per plot is help full. Moreover, seed yield per plant height. But low PCV was detected for thousand
plant, numbers of primary branches per plant and oil seed weight, stearic and palmatic acid. Generally, the
yield were considered as yield components. The magnitudes of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV)
residual that represent other factors affecting seed yield and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were high
but not included in this study was also considered. for seed yield per plot and oil yield. Heritability in broad
Based on genotypic path coefficient analysis, the sense estimates were high for thousand seed weight,
highest and favorable direct effect was exerted on seed days to flowering, stand percent, linolenic, days to
yield by oil yield per plot (1.0471), followed by number maturity, plant height, palmatic, linoleic, stearic, erucic
of primary branches per plot (0.0123) and seed yield acid and oleic . Likewise, the heritability values for
per plants (0.0053). From these traits only oil yield per secondary branches were also medium. Genetic
plot was also correlated strongly and positively with advance as percent of the mean (GAM) was high for
seed yield per plot. Hence, this character could be seed yield per plants, and where as the rest shows low
considered in the improvement of seed yield per plot. GAM below 50%. Seed yield per plot showed
Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races
Int. J. of Plant Breeding and Crop Sci. 176

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Accepted 19 December, 2016.

Citation: Amsalu F, Sentayehu A, Bulecha W (2017).


Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance,
Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character
Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A.
Braun) Land races. International Journal of Plant
Breeding and Crop Science, 4(1): 166-177.

Copyright: 2017 Amsalu et al. This is an open-access


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Genetic Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic advance as Percent Mean and Character Association of Ethiopian Mustard (Brasica carinata A. Braun) Land
races