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CaliforniaZEV

Investment

Plan:Cycle1

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March8,2017

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Contents
1. Executive summary 3
2. California ZEV Investment Plan 13
2.1. Overview 13
2.2. Investment types and descriptions 14
2.2.1. Infrastructure 14
2.2.2. Green City 23
2.2.3. Public Education 25
2.2.4. Public access initiatives 28
2.3. Anticipated Creditable Costs 28
2.4. Advancement of ZEV technology in the United States 29
2.5. Certification of activities 30
2.6. Supporting literature 30

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1.Executivesummary

AsrequiredbyAppendixCtothe2.0LiterPartialConsentDecreeenteredbytheU.S.
DistrictCourtfortheNorthernDistrictofCaliforniaonOctober25,2016,VolkswagenGroupof
Americaisinvesting$800millionoverthenext10yearsonzeroemissionvehicle(ZEV)
infrastructure,education,andaccessactivitiestosupportincreasedadoptionofZEVtechnology
inCalifornia.Thisrepresentsoneofthelargestcommitmentsofitskindtodate,and
VolkswagenGroupofAmericaisoptimisticthatZEVinvestmentsatsuchascalewillmakea
materialdifferenceinadoptionofZEVsinCalifornia.Thereisaseparateinvestmentof$1.2
billionoutsideofCaliforniathatisthesubjectofaNationalZEVInvestmentPlanbeing
submittedtotheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency.VolkswagenGroupofAmericaandthe
CaliforniaAirResourcesBoard(ARB)willmeetbiannually,andVolkswagenwillsubmitan
annualreportdetailingitsprogressinimplementingtheCaliforniaZEVInvestmentPlan.

Theinvestment:The$800millioncommitmentwillbespentin$200millionincrementsover
four30monthcycles.Thisreportdescribesthe$200millionininvestmentsthatwillbemadein
thefirst30monthcycle,whichrunsfromQ12017throughQ22019,tomeetthisgoal.

Cycle1(Q12017 Cycle2(Q32019 Cycle3(Q12022 Cycle4(Q32024 Full10years


Q22019) Q42021) Q22024) Q42026)
$200M $200M $200M $200M $800M

TheZEVinvestmentsbeingmadebyVolkswagenGroupofAmericawillmakeiteasier
formillionsofCalifornianstochargetheirelectricvehicles.Inaddition,VolkswagenGroupof
AmericawillbroadlypromotethebenefitsofZEVstoconsumersthroughpubliceducation
campaignsandalsotakestepstoincreaseexposuretoZEVs.Manyconsumersdonoteven
considerpurchasingaZEVbecauseofwidespreadmisconceptionsaboutsuchvehiclesand
rangeanxietyresultingfrominadequatecharginginfrastructure.Investmentsin
infrastructure,education,andaccesscangoalongwaytoresolvethoseconcernsandincrease
ZEVadoption.VolkswagenGroupofAmericahascreatedawhollyownedsubsidiary,called
ElectrifyAmerica,thatwillbeanentityfocusedonZEVsthatcanefficientlyandeffectivelyfulfill
theZEVinvestmentcommitmentsundertheAppendixC.
ElectrifyAmericaispleasedtohighlightthemanywaysthatitsZEVinvestmentsduring
thefirst30monthperiodwillbenefitallCalifornians,includingthoseinunderserved
communities.HighlightedintheplanareinfrastructureinvestmentsandaGreenCityproject
thathavethepotentialtosupportincreasingaccesstoZEVsforabroadvarietyofCalifornia
communities,includingcurrentlyunderservedcommunities.
ElectrifyAmericahascarefullyconstructedaplanthatconsidersexistingZEV
infrastructureinvestmentsinCaliforniaandprojecteddemand.VWiscommittedtomakingZEV

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investmentsthatareincrementaltothosebeingmadebyotherprivateandpublicentities,and
notsimplyduplicatingeffortsofothers.Thebrandneutraleducationcampaignswillbe
designedtofosterincreasedinterestinZEVsgenerally,benefittingbothautomanufacturers
andZEVcharginginfrastructureproviders,andpotentiallyincreasinginvestmentintheseareas
totheadvantageofthemarketatlarge.

TheCycle1plan:InthefirstZEVinvestmentcycle,ElectrifyAmericawillfocusonfouractivities
aimedatincreasingtheuseofZEVsand
showingmoreCaliforniansthatgoing
electricispossibleandbeneficialtoday:
(1)Installingcharginginfrastructure
(approximately$120million),(2)Buildinga
GreenCitytoshowcasethebenefitsof
ZEVsandpromoteincreasedZEVusage
(approximately$44million),(3)Public
Educationinitiatives(approximately$20
million),(4)Accessinitiativeslikerideand
driveevents,andanadditional
approximately~$16millionspentonthe
operationalcostsofrunningElectrify
America(e.g.,personnel,otherbusiness OverviewofCycle1CaliforniaPlan
expenses).Notethatthefocusofthe
Cycle1planisalignedwithCARBsInvestmentPlanGuidanceissuedinearlyFebruary,in
particularSectionII.A.1referringtoprioritizationofinfrastructure,publiceducation,access,
andmakingearly/visibleprogress.

INSTALLINGCHARGINGINFRASTRUCTURE(~$120million)
ElectrifyAmericaplanstobuildcharginginfrastructurethatwillprimarilyconsistof
(1)Communitychargingand(2)Alongdistancehighwaynetwork.Inaddition,otheruse
cases/technologiesarealsounderconsiderationincludingdestinationchargingatCalifornia
stateparkstoincreaseaccesstoL2s,and,forhigherpowerDCchargingapplications,targeted
batterystoragetomanagepeakdemand,easegridloads,etc.
Aseriesofguidingprincipleswereappliedtoidentifyappropriateinfrastructureinvestments:

FocusonaccessiblelocationswhereutilizationisexpectedtobehighforZEVdrivers
FocusonavarietyofusecasesbasedontheanticipatedchargingbehaviorsofZEV
drivers
IncorporateanticipatedchangesintheZEVindustrytomaximizeusefulnessofstations
inthemediumtolongterm

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Considerationforlongtermsustainabilityofthenetwork

ChargingstationswillbelocatedfirstintheareaswiththehighestanticipatedZEV
demand;thisisbasedontheforecastpenetrationratesofZEVsineachregionandthe
estimatedgapbetweenthesupplyanddemandofcharginginfrastructureinthoseregions.In
aggregate,theElectrifyAmericafirstcycleinvestmentwillaimtoestablishanetworkof
approximately20003000nonproprietarychargersacross400+individualstations.Ahighlevel
overviewofstationlocationsforthehighwaynetworkaswellastheusecasesforthelocal
communitybasednetworkareprovidedinSection2.2.1.3.
ElectrifyAmericastationswillbedesignedtoprovideaccessbysupportingmany
existingandanticipatedchargingtechnologyneeds(L2PHEVs,50kW+DCfastcharging),the
adoptionofnonproprietarychargingstandards(suchasCombinedChargingSystem(CCS)and
CHAdeMO),andsupportforopenprotocolsincludingOpenChargePointProtocol(OCPP).
Tosimplifytheconsumerexperience,ElectrifyAmericawillseekbilateralaccess
agreementswithownersofotherchargingnetworkstomakeiteasyforasmanyZEVdriversas
possibletoenjoythecollectivechargingnetworksavailable.
Communitycharging(approximately$45million)
ThroughtheNationalOutreachPlanprocess,ElectrifyAmericareceivedmany
commentsandproposalsfromstates,localgovernmentsandotherstakeholdersexpressing
supportforconcentratedEVinfrastructureinvestmentsinspecificmetropolitanareas.
ElectrifyAmericahasidentified5metropolitanareasforthecycle1investment(Los
Angeles,SanFrancisco,SanJose,SanDiego,andSacramento).Additionalmetroareaswillbe
targetedinfutureinvestmentcycles.Withinselectedmetros,ElectrifyAmericaplanstobuild
350+stationsacrossfivemajorusecases(multifamilyhomes,workplace,commercial/retail,
community,andmunicipallots/garages).AdeploymentmixofL2,50kW,and150kWchargers
willbeofferedacrosstheseusecasestohelpbestmeettheanticipatedneedsofEVdrivers.
NotethatthetargetedmetrospendisalignedwithCARBsInvestmentPlanGuidanceissuedin
earlyFebruary,inparticularSectionII.A.3referringtotransformationalprograms.
Ahighspeedhighwaynetwork(approximately$75million)
ThroughtheNationalOutreachPlanprocess,ElectrifyAmericareceivedmany
commentsexpressingsupportforinvestmentinanationwidenetworkofhighspeedEV
charginginfrastructurealongournationshighways.

ElectrifyAmericawillbuildalongdistancehighspeedhighwaynetworkconsistingof
approximately50+chargingstationsalonghightrafficcorridorsbetweenmetropolitanareas.
Thesestationswillfocuson150kWand320kWDCfastchargers;eachstationwillhave5plugs
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onaverage.Thesechargerswillrepresentstateofthearttechnologywiththefastestcharging
speedsavailable.MostcurrentlyinstallednonproprietaryDCfastchargersareinthe2550kW
range,soElectrifyAmericasstationswillbeatleast36timesfaster,whichreducescharging
timestoapproximately1520minutesinsomecasesfornewgeneration,largerbatterycapacity
ZEVs.
Thehighwaynetworkwill,inadditiontoservinghighwayZEVtraffic,alsohelptoserve
disadvantagedcommunities.Inananalysisoftheproposedhighwaynetwork,roughly25%of
stationswillfallinareaswhichscoreinthebottomquartileontheCalEnviroScreen,andover
50%ofstationswillfallinareasthatscoredinthebottomhalfontheCalEnviroScreenindex.
Thiswillhelpprovidestateoftheartinfrastructuretodisadvantagedcommunitiesnearmajor
highways,andespeciallythosecommunitiesthathavesignificantairpollutionissuesasaresult
ofbeinglocatednearahighway.Furthermore,infutureinvestmentcycles,ElectrifyAmerica
willconductadditionalgapanalysisasitrelatestoinfrastructureneedsindisadvantaged
communities.NotethatthisisalignedwithCARBsInvestmentPlanGuidanceissuedinearly
February,inparticularSectionII.A.4referringtodisadvantagedcommunities.


FIGURE1:OVERVIEWOFCALENVIROSCREENBYREGION(RED=BOTTOMQUARTILE,ORANGE=THIRDQUARTILE,
YELLOW=SECONDQUARTILE,GREEN=TOPQUARTILE).
Buildingtheinfrastructure

PreliminarymilestonesforthenetworkconstructionprogressisshowninTable1.Site
developmentforthefirstElectrifyAmericastationswillbegininQ22017,withdevelopment
initiatedforallstationsbyQ22018.Thesefirststationsareexpectedtobecompletedand
operationalforlocalcommunitycharginginQ32017andforhighwaycharginginQ22018.
Givenlongleadtimesintermsofsiteacquisitionandpermittingprocesses,themajorityofthe
stationsareexpectedtobecompletedneartheendofthe30monthcycle,fromfewerthan
approximately100150operationalstationsinQ12018to400+stationsbytheendofQ22019.

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CaliforniaZEVinfrastructure
Presiteselection Indevelopment Operational
Q22017 300350 100150 0
Q42017 100150 200250 50100
Q22018 0 200250 150200
Q42018 0 50100 300350
Q22019 0 0
400+
TABLE1:PRELIMINARYMILESTONESFORNETWORKCONSTRUCTIONFORTHECALIFORNIAINFRASTRUCTUREPLAN
Muchofthisproposedscheduleisdeterminedbytheleadtimesassociatedwithvarious
preinstallationtasks,includingfindingandacquiringsites,permitting,andsecuringavailable
hardware,eachofwhichcanvaryconsiderablybasedonlocalfactors,theavailabilityofnew
150kWDCfastcharginghardwaresystemsandsupplychain.Muchoftheuncertaintyaround
timelinesisassociatedwith(1)thesiteacquisitionanddesignprocess,whichrequirescontract
negotiationswithpropertyowners/developers,customizationofengineeringdrawingsfor
specificsites,andtheneedtoidentifyapproximately5sitesforevery1finallocationdueto
uncertaintiesthroughtheimplementationcycle;and(2)thepermitting/approvalprocess,
whichcantakeanywherefrom3to9monthsdependingonthepermitsrequiredatthevarious
levelsofgovernment(e.g.,localvs.state).

BUILDINGAGREENCITYFORZEVACCESS(~$44million)
ElectrifyAmericahasidentifiedthreepotentialGreenCityinitiativesonwhichtofocus:
ZEVcarsharing,ZEVdeliveryfleet,andZEVtaxifleetprovider.Thefirst30monthinvestment
cycleforGreenCitywillconcentrateapproximately$44Moffundingondevelopingthe
foundationalinfrastructureandplanningforthelaunchofGreenCityinitiatives(currently
anticipatedtobeinSacramento)aswellasthelaunchofservices.
FoundationalworkforthefirstGreenCityinitiativesisplannedtobegininQ32017,
includingtheinstallationofapproximately75supportingchargers.Sitedevelopmentforthe
estimated75supportingchargersisplannedtobeginbyQ12018,withdevelopmentcompleted
forallstationsbyendofQ42019.ThisinfrastructureassociatedwithGreenCityisexpectedto
costapproximately$11million.

BRANDNEUTRALPUBLICEDUCATIONACTIVITIES(~$20million)
ElectrifyAmericareceivedmanysubmissionsthroughtheNationalOutreachPlan
processthatexpressedsupportforinvestmentsthatwillincreasepublicawarenessofZEVs
attributesandbenefits.
Inordertoinformthepubliceducationcampaign,ElectrifyAmericahasperformeda
segmentationanalysisofthegeneralcarbuyingpopulationtoevaluatethepenetrationofZEVs

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invariouscarbuyingpopulationsegmentsandregions,thepositioningofZEVsrelativeto
competition,thebarrierstoadoptionofZEVsbypopulationsegment,andthekeymessagesto
communicatetothegeneralpopulationinordertoimprovepenetrationofZEVs.Basedonthis
analysisandanadditionalanalysisofconsumermediaconsumptionhabits,ElectrifyAmerica
hasdevelopedacomprehensiveplantodeliverpersuasivemessagingagainstbothZEVbenefits
andovercomingbarrierstoZEVadoption.MediawillbeusedtoputZEVsonthebigstagein
ordertohelpconsumersunderstandthatZEVsnotonlymeetthemajorityoftheirneedstoday,
butevenmoresoasthecharginginfrastructurenetworkgrows.Themessagingwillbesplit
acrosstraditionaladvertisingchannelssuchastelevision,targeteddigital,includingdigital
radio,socialmedia,websites,andpartnerships,withvariousplatformstofurtherspread
messagingtoavarietyofdemographicsegmentsinCalifornia.Inordertoquicklymaximize
messagingpresence,acoordinatednational/localmediastrategywasdeveloped.Thisallows
forquickrampupacrossthecountry,followedbysustainedmessagingintop,highpotential
ZEVmarkets.
Theeducationcampaignsaimtoincreasethepublicsawarenessofandexposureto
ZEVsthroughtargetedcampaignsinmarketswheretherearesignificantopportunitiesto
increasetheadoptionofZEVs.ThecampaignswillhighlightthatZEVstodaycanmeetmost
consumersneeds,andthiswillonlyimproveasnewvehicleshitthemarketplaceandas
charginginfrastructuregrows.Intermsofcontent,educationalcampaignswillsimultaneously
communicatethebenefitsofZEVs(performance,acceleration,quietness,comfort,andthe
overallenjoymentoftheride)andaddressbarrierstoadoption(rangeanxiety,golfcart
misperception,chargeravailability).

ZEVACCESSINITIATIVES
NumerousgovernmentsandotherstakeholdersproposedZEVaccessprogramsintheir
commentstoElectrifyAmerica.Experientialinitiativeslikerideanddriveeventsarebeing
plannedtohelpincreaseZEVaccessandexposureforasmanyCaliforniansaspossible.
AccordingtotheU.S.DepartmentofEnergy,experientiallearningactivitiesareoneofthemost
effectivewaystodriveZEVadoptionbecausetheyallowconsumerstodiscoverthatZEVsare
funtodriveandhaveotherbenefitsrelativetocarswithinternalcombustionengines[DOE
WorkplaceChargingChallenge].Thepurposeoftheseactivitiesistoincreasethepublics
awarenessofandaccesstoZEVsandallowthemtoexperienceZEVswithouthavingto
purchaseavehicle.

1.2SummaryofPublicCommentsandtheirConsideration

1.2.1.Summaryofpubliccomments
AspartoftheNationalOutreachPlan,ElectrifyAmericasolicitedproposalsand
recommendationsfromoutsidepartiestohelpsubstantiateandimprovethisplan.Electrify

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AmericanotifiedstakeholdersidentifiedinAppendixC(i.e.,states,municipalgovernments,
federallyrecognizedIndiantribes,andfederalagencies)oftheproposalsubmissionperiod,
whichwasopenfromDecember9,2016toJanuary16,2017.Furtherdetailonoutreachefforts
canbefoundintheNationalOutreachPlansubmittedtoEPAandCARBonNovember9,2016.
ElectrifyAmericawillcontinuetoconsiderinputfromstakeholdersoverthe10yearlifeof
AppendixC.
Forthefirst30monthinvestmentcycle,ElectrifyAmericaalloweda3weekgrace
periodandconsideredsubmissionsreceivedthroughFebruary6,2017.Atotalof484
submissionswerereceivedasofFebruary6,2017,194ofwhichwerefromCalifornia.Figure2
providesanoverviewoftheproposalsbytopicandbytypeofsubmitter.


FIGURE2:PROPOSALSUBMISSIONSFROMCALIFORNIABYTOPICANDSOURCE
WithinCalifornia,33%ofsubmissionswerereceivedfromtheSouthernCalifornia
region,29%fromtheBayArea,16%fromGreaterSacramento,7%eachfromtheCentralCoast
andSouthernBorderregions,5%fromSanJoaquinValley,and1%eachfromtheNorthern
CaliforniaandNorthernSacramentoValleyregions,asdefinedbytheCaliforniaEconomic
StrategyPanelsEconomicRegions(seeFigure3).

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FIGURE3:PROPOSALSUBMISSIONSBYGEOGRAPHY

1.2.2.Considerationofcomments
Submissionswereinitiallyevaluatedacrossavarietyoffactorsincluding,butnotlimited
to,submissionsource,speedofimplementation,likelychargerutilization,anddevelopment
synergies.Followingtheinitialevaluation,proposalsarebeingcategorizedbasedon
actionabilityandforwardedforthoroughprofessionalreviewandsortingtotheappropriate
internalworkingteamsatElectrifyAmerica.Workingteamswillfollowupwithproposal
submittersinordertoclarifysubmissions,discussspecificideas,andincorporatesomeorallof
thesubmissionintotheplanasElectrifyAmericabeginsimplementingtheCaliforniaZEV
InvestmentPlan.ThereishighlikelihoodthatElectrifyAmericawillactonproposalsthat
overlapwithoroptimizeprioritiesidentifiedbyElectrifyAmericainthefirstcycle.Notethat
ElectrifyAmericaintendstorespondtoeveryonewhosubmittedaproposal.Anoverviewofthis
processisshowninFigure4.

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FIGURE4:OVERVIEWOFPROCESSFORCONSIDERATIONOFPUBLICCOMMENTS

1.2.3.Samplesofsubmittedproposals

Aselectionofsubmittedproposalsincludesthefollowing:

Advancedcharginginfrastructureforunderserved(airquality)community:proposalto
install8090L2chargersand1020DCfastchargersinadvanced,netzeroenergy
consumptionCarsoncommunityforworkplace,destination,andcommutercharging
thatisadjacentto405/110freeways.
GreenCityproposals:anumberofcitiessubmittedproposalsforGreenCityorrelated
topics,assummarizedinTable2.

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TABLE2:SUMMARYOFCITIESTHATSUBMITTEDPROPOSALSFORGREENCITYORRELATEDTOPICS.

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2.CaliforniaZEVInvestmentPlan

2.1.Overview
Overthecourseofthefirst30monthinvestmentcycle,ElectrifyAmericawillinvest
$200millioninCaliforniaacrossfourprimaryareas:

1. ZEVcharginginfrastructure
2. GreenCityinitiative
3. ZEVpubliceducationcampaign
4. Accessinitiatives(underdevelopment)

Approximately$120millionwillbespentoncharginginfrastructure1,approximately$44million
onGreenCity,approximately$20milliononeducationcampaigns,andtheremainder
(approximately$16million)onoperationalexpensesforElectrifyAmerica2.Notethatall
numbersandactivitiesreferencedinthisinvestmentplanrefertoCaliforniaspend(i.e.,
excludesspendundertheNationalZEVInvestmentPlan)unlessotherwiseindicated.Figure5
providesanoverviewoftheseplannedcosts.


FIGURE5:OVERVIEWOFCOSTSACROSSCATEGORIES

Anoverviewofthethreemaininvestmentcategoriesisprovidedbelow:

1 Inclusive of both capital expenses and certain creditable expenses including station fixed costs and demand
charges.
2 Inclusive of overhead.
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1. ZEVcharginginfrastructure:ElectrifyAmericawillfocusontwoprimaryareasfor
infrastructureinvestment:longdistancehighwaychargersandcommunitybased
metropolitanchargers.AnoverviewoftheseinvestmentsisprovidedinTable3.


TABLE3:OVERVIEWOFLONGDISTANCEHIGHWAYANDCOMMUNITYBASEDLOCALNETWORKSIN
CALIFORNIA.
Indevelopingthisplan,anumberofsourcesweredrawnuponfromacademia,
industry,andgovernment(seeSection2.6.Supportingliterature)toensure
investmentsarefocusedonhighpriorityareaswherethereisclearneedfor
investmentinZEVinfrastructureandwherelikelihoodofutilizationishighest.
Notethatapproximatespendonthehighwaynetworkis$65million,the
communitybasednetworkis$40million,andthereareanadditional$15million
increditableexpensesassociatedwithstationoperations(fixedcostsaround
maintenanceandnetworking,peakdemandcharges).
2. GreenCityinitiative:ElectrifyAmericawillbegintoestablishagreenmobility
habitatthroughdevelopmentofpublicprogramsutilizingZEVs,likelyincluding
servicessuchascarsharinganddeliveryfleet.
3. Publiceducationcampaigns:Thepurposeofthesecampaignsistodevelopa
portfolioofbrandneutralmediaandexperientialinitiativesthatincreasethe
numberofpeopleawareofandwillingtoconsiderZEVs.
4. ZEVaccessinitiatives:Variousexperientialinitiativeslikerideanddriveeventsare
beingconsideredtofurtherincreaseZEVaccess.

OverheadandothercostsrelatedtoimplementingthisCaliforniainvestmentplanare
expectedtoaccountforapproximately$16millionofElectrifyAmericasspendinthefirst30
monthinvestmentcycle.Themajorityofthisspend(approximately$15million)willbe
attributabletooperatingthebusiness(e.g.,personnel).

2.2.Investmenttypesanddescriptions

2.2.1.Infrastructure

2.2.1.1.Guidingprinciples

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ElectrifyAmericasmissionistoestablishoneofthelargest,mosttechnicallyadvanced
andcustomerfriendlychargingnetworksintheU.S.topromoteandsupporttheincreased
adoptionofZEVs.Keyguidingprinciplesusedtodesignthenetworkincludethefollowing:

Focusonlocationswhereaccessandutilizationisexpectedtobehighest:Investments
targethighwaysandmetropolitanareaswithhighcurrentandprojectedconcentrations
ofZEVdriverstomaximizepotentialnetworkutilization.Infuturecycles,thehighway
chargernetworkcanactasananchorforgrowthintonewermarketsalongheavily
traffickedcorridors.ElectrifyAmericaalsobelieveitispossiblethathavingchargers
availableincommunitiesthatadjoinhighwaysmayincreaseZEVusageinthose
communities,someofwhicharecurrentlyunderserved.
FocusonavarietyofusecasesbasedonanticipatedchargingbehaviorsofZEVdrivers:
ElectrifyAmericawillbuildchargerstocatertodriversonhighways,inpublicareas
(commercial/retaillocations,parkinggarages),inworkplacesandmultifamilydwellings,
andinotherviableusecaseswhereappropriate.
IncorporateanticipatedchangesintheZEVindustrybyfutureproofingstationsto
maximizetheirusefulnessinthemediumtolongterm:Investmentwillincludethe
latesttechnology(fromL2supto320kWDCfastcharging)andoperateacross
standards(CCSandCHAdeMO)tomaximizeaccessandhelpensurefuturecompatibility
inarapidlyevolvingindustry.ElectrifyAmericawillalsocontinuallylookfornew
technologiesandworktoincorporatetheminfutureinvestmentcycles.Byfocusingon
openstandardsandcrossplatformcompatibilityinthefirst30monthcycle,Electrify
Americawillbewellpositionedtoadoptnewtechnologies.
Focusonasustainablebusinessmodel:theElectrifyAmericanetworkisbeingdesigned
toensurethatthenetworkiseconomicallyviableandcanbeoperatedandmaintained
forthelongterm.
Focusoninteroperabilityandsuitablesignage:theElectrifyAmericanetworkwill
representanadvancedB2BandB2Cplatformtosupportotherstakeholderswhowish
tomanagethecustomerrelationshipthemselvesaswellasB2Ccapabilitiesfor
customermanagementbyElectrifyAmerica.Wherepossible,bilateralagreementswill
becreatedwiththeownersofotherchargingnetworkstosimplifyandimproveEV
chargingforalldriversonmultiplenetworks.BothElectrifyAmericaandavailablestate
andfederalsignageresourceswillbeusedtotheextentpossibletofurtherresolve
consumerlackofawarenessofexistingcharginginfrastructure.

2.2.1.2.Investmentselectionmethodology
TheZEVinfrastructureinvestmentplanincludestwokeycomponents:(1)ahighspeed
Californianetworktofacilitatehighwaytravelbetweenmajormetropolitanareas;and(2)
communitybasedchargingstationsin5majormetropolitanareas.Forbothcomponents,the
followingthreefactorswereusedtodeterminetherequiredinvestment:(a)locationswiththe
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highestZEVdemand;(b)thegapbetweentheexistingcharginginfrastructuresupplyand
projecteddemandateachlocation;and(c)thechargercountandtypeneededtomeetthe
excesschargingdemandateachlocation.Byadoptingthismethodology,ElectrifyAmericais
wellpositionedtoinstallchargingstationswheretheyaremostneeded,asAppendixC
requires,andmostlikelytobeused.Notethat,throughoutthisprocess,ElectrifyAmerica
utilizedacademic,government,andindustryreportsonEVcharginginfrastructureinvestment,
advertising,andprojectionstodevelopthisplan.ElectrifyAmericausedpeerreviewedreports
totheextenttheywereavailable.Thereportsreviewedarereflectedinthesourceslistedat
theconclusionofthisreport.

2.2.1.2.1.Communitybasedlocalnetworkinvestmentselectionmethodology
Thefirststepintheselectionprocesswastodeterminethelistofmetropolitanareasto
prioritizeforinvestment.AnoverviewoftheprocesscanbeseeninFigure6andcomprisestwo
keysteps:

1. Narrowingdownthelistofmetropolitanareasto5basedonkeydemographicfactors
andcurrenthybridandforecastZEVsales.
2. Furtherprioritizingthislistbasedontheextentofgovernmentincentivesand
regulation,localawarenessofZEVs,feedbackfromutilitiesandotherstakeholders,and
qualityoffitwiththelongdistancehighwayplan.


FIGURE6:OVERVIEWOFMETROPOLITANAREASELECTIONMETHODOLOGY

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2.2.1.2.2.Longdistancehighwaynetworkinvestmentselectionmethodology
TheCaliforniahighwaynetworkwasdesignedtoplacehighspeedchargingstations
alongthelongdistancerouteswiththehighestestimatedZEVtrafficaswellastolink
prioritizedmetroareasfromthepriorsectioninordertoformacohesivestatewidenetwork.
SeveralpotentialroutesshowninTable4wereidentifiedfrom:(1)theCensusBureauStatistical
Areas(CBSAs)withthehighestprojectedZEVpenetration[Navigant;Experian];and(2)the
mosthighlyusedroutesforlongdistancetravelbetweentheseCBSAsbasedontheFHWA
TravelerAnalysisFramework[FederalHighwayAdministrationframework].

2.2.1.3.Specificdescriptionofinvestments
Thissectionprovidesanoverviewof:(1)thequantitiesandlocationsofcharging
stationsand(2)thechargersandtype/numberofconnectorsperstation.

2.2.1.3.1.COMMUNITYBASEDLOCALNETWORK
Fivepriorityusecaseswillbesupportedinthelocalcommunitybasednetworkinthe
firstinvestmentcycle:(1)multifamilydwellings,(2)workplace,(3)commercial/retaillocations,
(4)communitydepots3,and(5)municipallots/garages.Notethat,bysupportingavarietyof
usecases,especiallymultifamilydwellings,ElectrifyAmericawillhelpincreaseaccessto
charginginfrastructureforunderservedcommunities(andthisisconsistentwithCARBs
guidanceonthetopic).Thesewillbefocusedinfivemetropolitanareas:LosAngeles,San
Francisco,SanDiego,SanJose,andSacramento.4Infutureinvestmentcycles,ElectrifyAmerica
mayincreasethenumberofusecasessupported.

3 Community depots are fast-charging stations (similar to highway stations) that are meant for quick charges for
commuters.
4 San Joaquin Valley metros, while scoring low across metrics used here, will be explored as potential destinations
for future community-based investments in subsequent cycles.
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FIGURE7:OVERVIEWOFMAJORUSECASESTOBEPRIORITIZEDINFIRSTCYCLE
Acrossusecases,amajorityofspendingisexpectedtobedevotedtopublicusecases
(commercial/retailcenters,communitydepots,andmunicipalparkinglots/garages),
approximatelyonethirdofinvestmentwillsupportworkplacecharging,andtheremainderwill
bespentinmultifamilydwellings.Inadditiontotheseusecases,thereareother
programs/technologiesunderconsideration,includinganAdoptaChargerpartnershipwith
CaliforniastateparkstofurtherbuildoutL2destinationcharging.

2.2.1.3.2.LONGDISTANCEHIGHWAYNETWORK
ThehighwaysmostlikelytobetargetedinthefirstinvestmentcycleareshowninTable
4.Theplannedtypicalstationconfigurationforahighwaynetworkstationistwotothree320
kWandtwotothree150kWchargers(fivetotalchargers).

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TABLE4:OVERVIEWOFCALIFORNIAHIGHWAYSTARGETEDFORINVESTMENTINFIRST30MONTHCYCLE

2.2.1.4.Infrastructureinvestmenttimelineandmilestones

Theestimateddevelopmentschedulesforboththehighwayandlocalcommunityand
networksareshowninTable5.Theendtoendprocessfromsitedevelopmentisalengthy
processwithmultiplestepsandincludesthefollowing:

Orderingequipment
Developmentofnewpropertyleads
Signingofleaseagreements(or,whereappropriate,purchasingproperty)
Developmentofpermitting/preconstructionpackages
Filingpermits
WarehousingequipmentandQualityAssurance/QualityControl
Permitapproval
Sitepreparation
Equipmentdeliverytosite
Completionofsiteconstruction
Landscaping
Utilityconnectiontothegrid/inspectionandanyadditionalutilitypreparationincluding
newtransformersorupgradedsubstations
Commissioning

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Notethatthelengthoftimeneededtocompleteeachstepcanvaryconsiderablyacross
usecasesaswellasacrossgeographies(e.g.,permitapprovaltimelinescandiffersubstantially
fromcitytocityandstatetostate).ElectrifyAmericahasalreadybegunengagingkey
stakeholdersandpartnerstobeginimplementationplanning.Astheserelationshipsdevelop
further,ElectrifyAmericawillbeabletostartidentifyingandacquiringspecificlocationsfor
chargers.Untilvendorsarecontractedandtheinvestmentplanisapproved,however,more
specificsitelocationdatacannotbeprovided.

DevelopmentofthefirststationisexpectedtobegininQ22017,withthefirstlocal
communityandhighwaychargingstationsexpectedtobeoperationalinQ32017andQ22018
respectively.Theprocessisexpectedtotakelongerforthehighwaychargingstationsdueto
thehigherchargingpowerandmorecomplextechnical,realestate,andutilityrequirements
involved.Interimmilestonesforeach6monthperiodforthepaceofnetworkconstructionfor
boththehighwayandlocalcommunitychargingstationsareshowninTable5.

Communitybasedlocalnetwork Longdistancehighwaynetwork
Presiteselection Indevelopment Operational Presiteselection Indevelopment Operational
Q22017 250300 100150 0 050 050 0
Q42017 100150 150200 50100 050 050 0
Q22018 0 150200 150200 0 50+ 050
Q42018 0 050 300350 0 050 050
Q22019 0 0 350+ 0 0 50+
TABLE5:INTERIMINFRASTRUCTUREDEVELOPMENTMILESTONES(NUMBEROFSTATIONS)DURINGTHEFIRST
INVESTMENTCYCLE


ElectrifyAmericahasmadesignificantprogressinselectingvendorstomeetthese
ambitiousinfrastructurebuildoutschedules.Todate,ElectrifyAmericahasalreadymetwitha
largenumberofvendorsacrossthechargingspaceinaseriesofVendorDaysandwill
prioritizeseveralvendorsacrosskeyprocurementcategoriesfromsiteidentificationand
acquisitiontositemaintenance.NotethattheRFIprocess(shownbelow)isnotlimitinginthat
potentialpartnerswhodidnotparticipateintheRFIprocessmaystillbeapartofthe
implementationmovingforwardwhenappropriate,andElectrifyAmericawillwelcomesuch
activities.AnoverviewoftheprocessisshowninFigure8.Keystepsincludedthefollowing:

RFIissuance(Dec.9th):45+vendorsacrosstheZEVspacesentlettersrequesting
information(capabilitiesacrossthevaluechain,relevantexperiences,and
product/serviceofferings).
FAQissuance(Dec.19th):VendorquestionsansweredtoclarifyRFIwhereneeded.
RFIresponsereview(Jan.6th):informationcollectedandscoredbasedonvendors
capabilities,experience,andfitwithElectrifyAmericasoverallmission.Thisprocess

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followedarigorous,objectivescoringmethodologytobestidentifyvendorspositioned
tohelpElectrifyAmerica.
VendorDays(Jan.17th19th):Detailedpresentationsweregivenbyselectvendors
acrossprocurementcategoriestoprovidequalitativehighlightsoftheircapabilitiesand
futureplansthatElectrifyAmericashouldconsiderinitsforwardplanning.
RFPissuance(Feb.onwards):Forpriorityprocurementareas,RFPsaretobeissuedas
soonaspossible.


FIGURE8:OVERVIEWOFRFI/RFPPROCESS

2.2.1.5.MaintenanceplanforZEVinfrastructure

ElectrifyAmericaisintheprocessofissuingRFPstoexternalvendorstoensurethat
periodicmaintenancewillbeavailableacrossthenetworkfor10yearsaftertheEffectiveDate
andthehardwareremainsoperationalovertheentire10yearperiod.Furthermore,contract
termsnegotiatedaftercompletionoftheRFPprocesswillensurethatthechargingequipment
ismarkedwithatollfreecustomerservicehotlineavailable24/7andthatthisnumberwillbe
answeredbyaliveoperatorifanymaintenanceissueshouldarise.Additionally,service
responsetimemetricswillbetracked.

2.2.1.6.Datacollectionandutilizationstatistics

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AspartofdevelopmentoftheElectrifyAmericanetwork,anetworkplatformservices
providerwillbecontractedtoinstallbackendconnectivityacrossthechargers.Standard
featuresofthesenetworkplatforms,ofwhichthereareseveralexistinginthemarkettoday,
includeutilizationstatistics(chargingeventfrequency,chargingeventlength,kWhdispensed),
paymentprocessing,maintenancetracking,downtime,ticketmanagement,andahostofother
dataservices.ThechosenplatformwillbeusedbyElectrifyAmericatocollectdataandmonitor
networkperformance.NotethatthisisalignedwithCARBsInvestmentPlanGuidanceissuedin
earlyFebruary,inparticularSectionII.A.6referringtodatacollectionandreporting.
2.2.1.6.Interoperability,openaccess,andcompetition

Inordertomaximizepublicaccesstoitschargingnetwork,infrastructuredevelopedby
ElectrifyAmericawillhavetheabilitytoserviceallpluginZEVsusingareasonablemixofnon
proprietaryconnectorsthroughthesupportofmultiplechargingstandards(e.g.,CHAdeMOand
CCS)acrossthestations.ElectrifyAmericawillalsoworktomaintainOCPPcomplianceand
othermeasurestohelpmaximizeinteroperability.

Infrastructurewillalsohavetheabilitytoacceptmultiplepaymentmethods(e.g.,
subscriptions,mobilepay,RFID,creditcards)tosimplifyusageasmuchaspossible.In
particular,akeypartofthebusinessmodelwillbeprovidingtruepayasyougoaccessto
potentialcustomers,whowillbeabletouseacreditcardorotherpotentialpaymentmethods
torechargetheirvehicleswithouthavingapreexistingrelationshipwithachargingnetwork
operator.Notethatthereisalsoadisproportionatefocusonpubliclyaccessibleinfrastructure
(e.g.,highwaychargers,communitydepots,municipalparkinglotsandgarages)tomaximize
accessaswellaspromoteexposureasbroadlyaspossible.

Throughthesupportofmultiplechargingstandards,theabilitytoacceptmultiple
paymentmethods,andastrongfocusonpubliclyaccessibleinfrastructure,ElectrifyAmerica
willbebuildingahighlyinteroperablenetworkthatprovidesaccesstoasmanyconsumersas
possible.ThisisconsistentwithElectrifyAmericasvisiontopromoteuniversalaccessasmuch
aspossible,wellbeyondthestandardsofmanycurrentplayersintheindustry.

ElectrifyAmericaintendstoworkcloselywithexistingsuppliersinthechargingindustry
inordertoavoidduplicatingtheireffortsandtotakeadvantageoftheirknowledgeand
experience.Totheextentpossible,ElectrifyAmericawillpurchaseequipmentandobtain
servicesfromcompaniesthatarealreadyinthebusiness,ratherthanspendingmoneyto
reinventthewheel.ElectrifyAmericaplanstobuildacharginginfrastructurethatis
sustainableoverthelongterm,whichmeansitwilloperateinlinewiththesameeconomic
constraintsfacedbyothersinthechargingindustry.ElectrifyAmericahasnoincentiveto
engageinconductthatcouldbeviewedaspredatory,suchasbelowcostpricing,anditwillbe

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boundbythesamelawsgoverningacceptablebusinesspracticesaseveryothercompanyinthe
chargingindustry.ThisisalignedwithCARBsInvestmentPlanGuidanceissuedinearly
February,inparticularSectionII.A.7referringtobusinesscompetitionandconduct.

2.2.2.GreenCity

2.2.2.1.Guidingprinciples

TheGreenCityinvestmentsguidingprinciplesareinformedbyafewkeyobjectives.The
GreenCityinvestmentshouldofferasetofZEVinitiativesthatareaccessibletothecity
inhabitantsandcreateagreenmobilityhabitat.Theseinitiativesshouldbeleveragedtooffer
residentsbetterqualityoflifethroughenhancedmobilityandimprovedairquality.The
initiativescanserveasapilottohelpspurthewidespreadadoptionofZEVsandmobility
services.

Inordertoachievetheseobjectives,theGreenCityinitiativesshouldbeguidedbyafew
keyprinciples.Theinitiativesshouldbedesignedtobeselfsustainableandscalabletoother
citiesinCaliforniaandbeyond.Initiativesshouldshowcaseinnovativeurbangreenmobility
utilizingZEVtechnology,improvingpublicawarenessandperception.

2.2.2.2.Investmentselectionmethodology

InordertodeterminethelocationoftheinitialGreenCityinvestments,Californiacities
wereevaluatedacrossthreeprimarydimensions:
1:Citysize
2:Mobilityfit
3:Potentialforimpact
ThesecriteriawereselectedwiththeassumptionthatZEVcarsharingwouldbeoneof
theprimaryinitiativesdevelopedoverthefirstandsecond30monthinvestmentcycles.They
wereintendedtoensurethattheGreenCityinitiativeswerebeingdeveloped1)inasizeable
marketwheretheinitiativescouldbescaledupovertime,2)inamarketwheretherewas
demandforcarsharinginitiatives,suitablecommutepatterns,andagapbetweensupplyof
existingcarsharingfleetsandpotentialdemand,and3)inamarketwhichhadahigh
potentialforimpact,basedonthepotentialofincreasingZEVaccesstodisadvantaged
communities,thelikelihoodthattheinitiativeswouldbedevelopedinanecosystem
supportiveofZEVmobility,andacitywiththeabilitytoinfluencebroaderawarenessin
California,Nationally,andmorebroadly.

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CitysizeselectioncriteriawasfirstappliedinordertodevelopashortlistofCalifornia
cities[AutoBild].Theshortlistwasthenscoredacrossvarioussubcriteria(detailedbelow)
withinthemobilityfitandpotentialimpactandweightedbasedonrelativeimpactofeach
subcriteria(seeFigure9).


Figure9:Overviewofcityselectionmethodology

2.2.2.3.GreenCityinvestmenttimelineandmilestones
AllGreenCityinitiativesrequiresignificantleadtimefordevelopmentandpreparation
beforeservicescanbelaunched.Creatingthefoundationalorsupportinginfrastructureto
servicetheseZEVs(i.e.,chargingstations)willtakeroughlytwoyearsasitincludesdefining
chargingrequirements,identifyingchargerlocations,acquiringsites,developingland,installing
chargers,testingchargers,developingbatterybackupandsolarenergygeneration,
collaboratingwithlocalutilities,etc.beforeuse.
Inadditiontodevelopingtheinfrastructure,eachGreenCityinitiativemustbeplanned
andsetupappropriatelyinordertoensuresuccessfullaunchandoperationofservices,which
couldtakeuptotwoyears.Suchpreparationcouldincludesecuringcitysupport(e.g.,
operationalpermits,parkingpermits),establishingcontractswithvendors(e.g.,garageowners,
maintenanceproviders),developingsoftware(e.g.,backend,customerfacingapp),placing
ordersforequipment(e.g.,ZEVs,customhardware),andidentifyingandhiringstaff(e.g.,
customersupport).

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OnceaGreenCityinitiativehasitssupportinginfrastructureestablishedandplanning
andpreparationarecomplete,theservicecanbeginoperations.Featuresoflaunchingand
operatingtheservicecouldincludedeployingtheZEVs,incorporatingfeedbackfromvarious
stakeholders(e.g.,customers,cityofficials),andcontinuingtorefinethebusinessmodelin
ordertoensurelongertermsustainability.
GiventhedevelopmentandpreparationrequiredbyGreenCityinitiativesandthe
investmenttradeoffsbetweenGreenCityandInfrastructurefunding,thefirstGreenCitys
initiativesareplannedtobegindevelopmentandinitiallaunchduringthefirst30month
investmentcycle(i.e.,late2017).Forplanningpurposes,ElectrifyAmericahasdevelopedplans
forlaunchingtheZEVcarsharingserviceandZEVdeliveryfleetdescribedabove.Technology
willbeevolvingoverthisperiodwithmobilitypatternsandplatformsevolvingandbeing
adoptedatdifferentratesandtheGreenCityinitiativeswillberefinedoverthistimeto
maximizeaccess,utilization,andtheoverallsustainabilityofeachoftheinitiatives.
PreparationforthefirstGreenCitywillincludebuildingroughly50electricvehicle
chargerstosupporttheZEVcarsharinginitiativeand26DCFCchargerstosupporttheZEV
deliveryfleet.ChargerstosupportbothinitiativesareplannedtobeginsiteidentificationbyQ3
2017,startconstructionofthefirststationsbyQ12018,andcompleteconstructionofall
chargersbytheendofQ42019.

2.2.3.PublicEducation

2.2.3.1.Investmentselectionmethodology

Totalspendallocationwithinthefirst30monthinvestmentcycleforeducationwillbe
approximately$20millioninCalifornia($4350millionnationally).Thisspendwillbeallocated
acrossmultiplemediachannelstoreachconsumersatcriticaltouchpointsbasedontheir
consumptionhabits,asshowninFigure10.

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FIGURE10
0:OVERVIEWO MPTIONHABITS
OFGENERALMEDIACONSUM

2.2.3.2.SSpecificdescriptionofinvvestments

Basedonsegmentationaanalysisandconsumerm mediaconsumptionhabits,wehave
develope edacomprehensiveplan ntodeliverm
messagingaagainstbothZEVbenefittsand
overcomingbarrierstoZEVadop ption.MediaawillbeuseddtoputZEVVsonbigstaggesinorderto
helpconssumersseetthatZEVsno otonlymeettthemajorittyoftheirneeedstoday,butalso,as
infrastructurenetwo orksgrowfurrther,adopttionbarrierscontinueto obereducedd.

Apreliminary
A yillustrationofthis360degreemesssagingissum mmarizedin nFigure11.A A
moredettailedviewo ofthisisstillunderdeveelopmentbythecreativeeandmediaaagencies,b but
themesssagingwillbe esplitacrosstraditionaladvertisinggchannelslikkeTV,targetteddigital
advertisingchannelsincludingdiigitalradio,ssocialmediaa,websites,andpartnerrshipswith
variouspplatformstofurtherspre eadmessaging.

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FIGURE11
1:PRELIMINARRYMULTICHAN
NNELAPPROAC UCHPOINTS
CHTOREACHCCONSUMERSATTCRITICALTOU

In
nordertoqu
uicklymaximmizemessagiingpresencee,acoordinaatedNationaal/Localmed
dia
strategywasdevelop ped.Thisallo
owsforaqu
uickrampuppacrossthecountry,followedby
sustaineddmessaginggintophighpotentialZEEVmarkets.Anoverviewwofthesepllanning
principlescanbeseeeninFigure1
12.

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ersion27


FIGURE12
2:PRELIMINARRYNATIONALAANDLOCALMED
DIAPLANNINGPRINCIPLES


2.2.3.3.P
Publiceducationtimelineeandmilestones

ElectrifyAme
ericahashire
edanoutsidecreativeaggencytoreffinethebran
ndneutral
creativecontentbasedonthese egmentation nanalysis(hiighlightingth
hemostimp
pactfulbeneefits
ofZEVs), andcreativeconceptssshouldbefin
nalizedintheenextmontth,followedbyfinalization
ofmediaplanningbyysummer.

2.2.4.Publicaccesssinitiativees

Exxperientialinitiativeslikkerideandd
driveeventsarebeingplannedtoheelpincreaseZEV
accessan
ndexposureforasmanyyCalifornian nsaspossiblee.Thepurpooseoftheseactivitiesisto
increasethepublics awarenessofandaccessstoZEVsanndallowtheemtoexperienceZEVs
withouth
havingtopuurchaseavehicle.Option nshereareccurrentlybeeingexplored
d,andupdatted
informationwillbep
providedinffuturereporttingcycles.

2.3.An
nticipated
dCreditab
bleCosts

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Creditablecostsforthefirst30monthinvestmentcyclehavebeenidentifiedacrossthe
twelvecategoriesspecifiedin2.5.3ofAppendixC.ThecreditablecostsreflectElectrify
Americascurrentperspectiveandbestestimateofanticipatedcosts,butaresubjecttochange
asthebusinesscontinuestodevelop(e.g.,vendorsidentified,fullorganizationhired,office
leasesigned)andactualcostsareincurred.WhichcostsincurredbyElectrifyAmericaare
creditablecostsisdeterminedbytheFinalCaliforniaCreditableCostGuidancesubmittedto
CARBinFebruary2017.

Specificcreditablecoststhatfallwithinthetaxesandgovernmentalfeeslineitemhave
notyetbeenidentifiedandwillbedetailedinfutureAnnualZEVInvestmentReports.Utility
costsaredetailedseparatelyforInfrastructureandGreenCityinvestments.Servicesprovided
throughSLAs(ServiceLevelAgreements)betweenElectrifyAmericaandotherVolkswagen
groupcompaniesincludefinance,tax,treasury,humanresources,legal,andpurchasing.Asthe
vastmajorityofcreditablecostsaredrivenbygoodsandservicesobtainedpursuanttothird
partycontracts,additionaldetailhasbeenprovidedformajorinvestmentcategories(i.e.,
Infrastructure,GreenCity,Education/Access,Outreach,otherOverhead).

2.4.AdvancementofZEVtechnologyintheUnitedStates

TheactivitiesdescribedintheCaliforniaZEVinvestmentplanaredesignedtopromote
andsupporttheincreaseduseofZEVtechnologyinanumberofways:

TheZEVinfrastructureplanisdesignedtoincreasetheuseofZEVsinCalifornia.The
supportofmultipleusecasesinthelocalcommunitynetworkandthespatialcoverage
ofthehighwaynetworkareintendedtoreducerangeanxiety,whichiscitedasa
primarybarriertoZEVadoptionbyprospectivebuyers.

Thegapbetweenthecurrentexistingenergysuppliedbycharginginfrastructureand
theprojecteddemandcalculatedintheZEVinfrastructureinvestmentselection
methodologyillustratesthereisaclearlyexistingpresentandprojectedneedforthe
additionalZEVcharginginfrastructurethattheElectrifyAmericanetworkwillhelp
satisfy.Aspartofthis,itisimportanttonotethatElectrifyAmericaaccountedfor
existinginfrastructureonprioritizedhighwaysandinprioritizedmetros.

ElectrifyAmericawillbuildchargingstationsintheareasofhighestZEVdemand,where
thereisthehighestlikelihoodofutilizationandprovidesaccessibility/availability
wheremostneededandmostlikelytoberegularlyused.

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TheZEVinfrastructureisintendedfor,andcompatiblewithZEVtechnologiesthatare
notlimitedtoonessupportedbyVWgroupbrands.Instead,thegoalistopromote
universalaccesstotheextentpossible.Inparticular,multipletechnologies(L2,DCFC)
andmultiplenonproprietaryconnectorsandchargingprotocols(e.g.,CHAdeMO,CCS)
willbeofferedtomaximizepublicaccesstoElectrifyAmericascharginginfrastructure.

Thecombinationoftheabovefactorswillhelptosupportand/oradvancethemarket
penetrationofZEVsintheUSandhelptobuildpositiveawarenessofZEVs.

2.5.Certificationofactivities
ElectrifyAmericacertifiesthatnoneoftheactivitiesdescribedintheZEVinvestment
plandescribedabovewas/is:

approvedbytheBoardofManagementpriortoSeptember18,2015

requiredbyacontractenteredpriortothedateoflodgingoftheConsentDecree

apartofajointeffortwithotherautomobilemanufacturerstocreateZEV
infrastructure

requiredtobeperformedbyanyfederal,state,orlocallaw,oranticipatewillbe
requiredtoperformduringtheplanned30monthperiod

inclusiveoffundingforresearch

2.6.Supportingliterature

IndevelopingthemethodologyfortheCaliforniaZEVInvestmentPlan,anumberof
sourcesfrompeerreviewedacademicliterature,government,andindustrywereused.
Importantdataandinformationfromthesesourceswasusedtoensurethat,indevelopingour
plan,theinvestmentshavethehighestlikelihoodofincreasingtheuseofZEVsintheU.S.,
addressaclearlyexistingneed,haveahighlikelihoodofutilizationandprovideaccessibility
wheremostneeded,supportthemarketpenetrationofZEVs,andhelpbuildpositive
awarenessforZEVs.Forexample,indevelopingourlocalcommunitybasedchargerplan,a
numberofsourcesprovidinginformationonmajorU.S.metropolitanareaswereusedto
determinethesuitabilityofinvestmentneededacrossmetroareas,allowingustoselectmetros
withthemostsignificantneedforinvestmentinZEVinfrastructure.Bydoingthis,the

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methodologyisselectingforthoseareaswherethereisaclearlyexistingneedandwhere
stationsaremostlikelytobehighlyutilized.

Aselectionofkeysourcesusedisincludedbelow:

AutoBild.http://www.autobild.de/artikel/car2gogibtgruendungsstandortulmauf
5419106.html

CaliforniaCenterforSustainableEnergy.Californiapluginelectricvehicledriversurveyresults.
Mar2013.

ClarkSutton,Kyle,Siddiki,Saba,Carley,Sanya,Wanner,Celeste,Rupp,John,andGraham,John
D.(2016).Pluginelectricvehiclereadiness:RatingcitiesintheUnitedStates.The
ElectricityJournal,29,1,3040.

DaleKardosandAssociates.EVincentivesbystateQ22016update.

EdisonElectricInstitute(2016).EVmarketassessmentandsurveynarrativesummary.Thiswas
commissionedbyus!

Esristreetdata.EsriGISmappingsoftware.

Experian(estimated2020totalvehiclesbyCBSA).http://www.experian.com/automotive/auto
vehicledata.html

FactivapresssearchormarketreportsonEVincentives/regulations.http://global.factiva.com

FHWA(annualmilesdriven),https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/bar8.htm

FHWATravelerAnalysisFramework(hightrafficlongdistanceroutesbetweenCBSAs),
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/analysisframework/01.cfm

ICCT(InternationalCouncilonCleanTransportation).Assessmentofleadingelectricvehicle
promotionactivitiesinUnitedStatescities.Whitepaper(2015).

IdahoNationalLaboratory(2015).Pluggedin:HowAmericanschargetheirelectricvehicles
findingsfromthelargestpluginelectricvehicleinfrastructuredemonstrationinthe
world.

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IHSMarkit(2016).Alternativepowertrainforecasts:USAmarketframeworkfactorsimpacting
electrification.PreparedforVWAGKGVSV3.

Kneebone,Elizabeth,&Holmes,Natalie(2015).Thegrowingdistancebetweenpeopleandjobs
inmetropolitanAmerica.WashingtonD.C.:BrookingsInstitute,MetropolitanPolicy
Program.

Kwan,Irene,Lutsey,Nic,Slowik,Peter,&Lingzhi,Jin(2016).Identifyingtheleadingregional
electricvehiclemarketsintheUnitedStates.InternationalCouncilonClean
Transportation,workingpaper201620.

Lutsey,Nic,Searle,Stephanie,Chambliss,Sarah,&Bandivadekar,Anup(2015).Assessmentof
leadingelectricvehiclepromotionactivitiesinUnitedStatescities.InternationalCouncil
onCleanTransportation,whitepaper.

Melaina,Marc,&Helwig,Michael(2014).Californiastatewidepluginelectricvehicle
infrastructureassessment.Golden:NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory,Alternative
andrenewablefuelandvehicletechnologyprogramfinalprojectreport.

Morsy,Salim(2016).PeakdemandchargesandDCfastchargingcoststructuresand
commercialviability.BloombergNewEnergyFinance.

Plugshare(existingchargerlocationsandcounts),http://www.plugshare.com/

Searle,Stephanie,Pavlenko,Nikita,&Lutsey,Nic(2016).Leadingedgeofelectricvehicle
marketdevelopmentintheUnitedStates:ananalysisofCaliforniacities.International
CouncilonCleanTransportation,whitepaper.

Shepard,Scott,&Jerram,Lisa(2016).Electricvehiclegeographicforecastsbatteryandplugin
hybridelectricvehiclesalesandpopulationsinNorthAmerica.Boulder:Navigant
Research.

Supercharge.info(locationoffastchargerstations),https://supercharge.info/

USCensusBureau(populationstatistics),https://www.census.gov/

USDepartmentofEnergy(2015).Workplacechargingchallengemidprogramreview:
employeesplugin.

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USDepartmentofEnergy.WorkplaceChargingChallenge:WorkplacePEVRideandDrive,
https://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/workplacechargingchallengeworkplacepevride
anddrive

USEnergyInformationAdministration(nationwideelectricityprices),
http://www.eia.gov/electricity/data/browser/

USDepartmentofTransportation(2003).NHTS2001HighlightsReport.WashingtonD.C.:
BureauofTransportationStatistics.

USDepartmentofTransportation(2011).Summaryoftraveltrends2009nationalhousehold
travelsurvey.WashingtonD.C.:FederalHighwayAdministration.

USUtilityRateDatabase(URDB;utilityrateplaninformation),
http://en.openei.org/wiki/Utility_Rate_Database

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