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Early Childhood

Explains at least two physical developmental milestones that typically developing children

should attain during this period of development,

At the age of three the physical developmental milestones is that the child should be able

to stand on one foot for five seconds. A three year old should be able to hop on one foot. The

development of gross motor skill plays important role in maintaining stability and coordinating

good movement, (Lestair, I. and Ratnaningsih, T. 2016). Gross motor skills involve the large

muscles of the body that enable such functions as maintaining balance, walking, climbing,

jumping, pushing, pulling and ball skills. They are building blocks for the development of fine

motor skills. Appropriate play activities are key to providing children with the stimulation to

help their motor skills development, (Lestair, I. and Ratnaningsih, T. 2016).

Explains at least two language developmental milestones that typically developing children

should achieve in this period of development.

Young children that are three year old should be able to answer simple questions. They

should be able to say their first and last names. Language is the foundation for learning to read

and write (Dockrell, Lindsay & Palikara, 2011) and is the means through which children make

sense of their world. Indeed, talk is the main way children get to know the world, understand

complex events, and encounter different perspectives (Resnick & Snow, 2009, p. 3). A large

portion of a childs language learning occurs during the first five years of life, making it

especially important for teachers of preschool and primary school children to be knowledgeable

about ways to support childrens receptive and expressive semantic and syntactic development

(Brice & Brice, 2009). Encouraging childrens parents to interact with their children in their
mother tongue at home and promoting childrens first languages in classrooms are important to

providing a foundation for learning English, (Peterson, S. S., McIntyre, L. J. and Forsyth, D.

2016).

Explains at least two cognitive developmental milestones that typically developing children

should achieve in this period of development

Young children by end of third year, they should be able to have 1,500 words in

vocabulary. Three year olds are developing how to remember parts of a story. To stimulate

cognitive flexibility, fixed roles for taggers and non-taggers where substituted by dual roles: in a

rock, paper and scissors game-like fashion, children (e.g., rock-children) had to tag some mates

(e.g., scissors-children), while avoiding to be tagged by other mates (e.g., paper-children)

(Tomporowski et al., 2015b). Cognitively challenging task demands were not only an issue of

PE content, but also of delivery. In fact, they were generated employing a constraints-led

approach to motor problem solving in which children alternately searched for the optimal

solution, or for a wider range of pertinent solutions, alternating repetition and change,

stabilization and destabilization of movement patterns (Renshaw et al., 2010; Pesce et al., in

press).

Explains at least one sign that may signal atypical development during this period of

development.

Theory of mind involves the perception and appreciation for others' cognitive and

emotional states, including their beliefs, knowledge, intentions, and feelings. Theory of mind is

thought to be especially pertinent to the development of moral reasoning and empathy in

typically developing children and adolescents. As neuroscience research has suggested, moral
reasoning and empathy involve complex interplays between cognitive and affective processing

(Decety et al., 2012; Decety & Howard, 2013).

Describes at least one strategy that families can use to influence their childrens learning

and development during this period of development

Parents can help with the developmental learning by interacting with their children on a

daily basis and asking open and ended questions about their day at school to help with their

cognitive skills. If encouragement produces a positive affective state in children, classical

conditioning can create a positive affective significance for the associated activity. Preliminary

work supports the positive associations between encouragement and activity participation. For

example, parents general encouragement of children (i.e., encouragement not associated with a

specific activity) was positively related to childrens participation in community activities

(Fletcher, Elder, & Mekos, 2000). If encouragement produces a positive affective state in

children, classical conditioning can create a positive affective significance for the associated

activity. Preliminary work supports the positive associations between encouragement and

activity participation. For example, parents general encouragement of children (i.e.,

encouragement not associated with a specific activity) was positively related to childrens

participation in community activities (Fletcher, Elder, & Mekos, 2000).


Reference

Peterson, Shelley Stagg; McIntyre, Laureen J.; Forsyth, Donna. In: Australasian Journal of Early

Childhood. Sept, 2016, Vol. 41 Issue 3, p11, 9 p.; Early Childhood Australia Inc. (ECA)

Language: English, Database: General OneFile Supporting young childrens oral language and

writing development