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Policy Manual on

Thesis and
Dissertation
Writing
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Research, Development and Production Center
Sta. Mesa, Manila
Published by
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila
www.pup.edu.ph

Philippine Copyright 2007


by the Graduate School
Polytechnic University of the Philippines

ISBN 978-971-781-017-1

All rights reserved. Portions of this manual may not be


reproduced in any form without prior written permission
from the PUP Graduate School.

Inquiries should be addressed to:

Research, Development and Production Center


Graduate School
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Valencia St. cor. R. Magsaysay Blvd., Sta. Mesa,
Manila, Philippines
Tel No: (632) 716-0933
Telefax: (632) 713-3818
Website: http://www.pup.edu.ph
E-mail: gs@pup.edu.ph

Editors:

Mely M. Padilla
Elmer G. De Jose

Typeset/Layout:

Nancy L. Doria
Foreword

This manual is produced by the PUP Graduate School


Research, Development and Production Center (GSRDPC)
primarily to standardize the writing of masters thesis and
doctoral dissertation as final requirements for the completion
of graduate degrees.

The manual contains guidelines on the format and style of the


manuscript as well as the procedures to be undertaken in the
preparation and submission of theses and dissertations.

Through the initiative of Dr. Juan C. Birion, former Dean of the


Graduate School, this project was completed after a series of
meetings and consultations with the different program
chairpersons, and was approved by the University Executive
Committee.

The GSRDPC would like to express its profound thanks to the


members of the GS Research Council, SY 2006-2007, who
zealously shared their time and expertise for the completion
of this manual. Special mention is given to Dr. Mely M. Padilla
and Prof. Elmer G. De Jose for its editing.

It is hoped that through this manual, the faculty and the


students would find more ease and enjoyment in doing
research.

DR. AMALIA CULLARIN ROSALES


Dean
Table of Contents

I Introduction ........ 1

II Parts of a Thesis/Dissertation Proposal ..... 1

III Application for Thesis/Dissertation ...... 3

IV The Three-Tiered Defense Process ...... 4


First Stage : Proposal Presentation 4
Second Stage : Preoral Defense 5
Third Stage : Oral Defense 5

V Manuscript Submission and Defense Schedules ..... 6

VI Parts of a Thesis/Dissertation ........... 8

VII Manuscript Preparation ........... 10


Paper and Printing Specifications .... 10
Font Specifications ..... 10
Spacing ..... 10
Margins ..... 10
Page Numbering ..... 11
Other Typing Instructions ...... 11
Preliminaries .... 11
Copyright Page 11
Cover and Title Pages 12
Certification-and-Approval Sheet . 12
Acknowledgments 12
Certification of Originality ...... 13
Abstract . 13
Table of Contents 13
List of Tables 14
List of Figures 14
The Text or Body of the Paper .... 14
Chapter and Subheadings .. 14
Definition of Terms ... 15
Review of Related Literature and Studies .. 17
Tables and Figures ..... 17
Drawings ... 18
Photographs ..... 18
Italics ..... 19
In-Text Citation .... 19
Long Quotations ...... 20
Chapter 4 Subheadings ..... 20
Chapter 5 Subheadings ..... 21
Bibliography/References/Works Cited . 21
Appendices ... 22
Curriculum Vitae ......... 22

VIII Conducting Oral Defense .... 23

IX Grading System .. 24

X Time-Frame for the Completion of


Thesis/Dissertation ............................................ 25

XI Statistical and Editorial Consulting . 26

XII Required Number of Final Copies ............... 26

XIII Binding Specifications and Submission of Final


Manuscripts .............................................. 26

References ...... 28

Appendices
Appendix 1: PUP GS Research Agenda .... 29
Appendix 2: Functions of the Thesis/Dissertation 37
Evaluation Committee .....
Appendix 3: Proposal Evaluation Sheet ..... 39
Appendix 4: Preoral Evaluation Sheet ..... 40
Appendix 5: Functions of the Panel on Oral
Examination ... 41
Appendix 6: Oral Defense Evaluation Sheet .......... 42
Appendix 7: Cover Page Format ...... 43
Appendix 8: Title Page Format ......... 44
Appendix 9: Copyright Page Format................... 45
Appendix 10: Certification-and-Approval Format . 46
Appendix 11: Certification of Originality Format ... 47
Appendix 12: Abstract Format ........ 48
Appendix 13: Thesis/Dissertation Spine Format ...... 49
Appendix 14: Table of Contents Format ... 50
1

Introduction

The PUP Graduate School (PUPGS) expects graduate


students to produce original research papers that manifest
their ability to undertake and present quality paper that will
contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their
respective fields of study. It is required that the chosen
research topic of the thesis or dissertation falls within the
program research agenda as defined by the PUP Graduate
School (see Appendix 1: GS Research Agenda).

In writing a thesis or dissertation, students shall


comply with the standards set by the PUP Graduate School.
They are responsible for consulting the GS Office regarding
the requirements for writing their manuscripts and are
discouraged from just following the format of another thesis or
dissertation.

The Graduate School approves the final thesis or


dissertation and deserves the right to reject documents that
deviate from the guidelines specified in this manual. Students
are advised to read this manual carefully, paying close
attention to the details of manuscript preparation, including
the samples in the Appendices. In addition to structural
formatting, they are also responsible for assuring that their
manuscript follows conventional rules of grammar,
punctuation, and spelling. The Graduate School requires that
they seek the assistance of a professional editor to help them
improve their work.

II. Parts of a Thesis/Dissertation Proposal

The thesis/dissertation proposal shall contain the


following parts:

Preliminaries
Title Page
2

Table of Contents
List of Tables (if any)
List of Figures (if any)

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction
Background of the Study
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Hypothesis (if any, depending on the nature of
the problem)
Scope and Limitations of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND


STUDIES
Foreign Literature
Local Literature
Foreign Studies
Local Studies
Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and
Studies

Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Method of Research to be Used
Population, Sample Size, and Sampling
Technique
Description of Respondents (if any)
3

Research Instrument
Data-Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment of Data (may not be
applicable in qualitative research)

BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES/WORKS CITED

(Note: Use only one term. For instance, REFERENCES


is used in MP and MC theses, WORKS CITED is
used in MAELT)

APPENDICES
Questionnaire
Curriculum Vitae
Calendar of Activities (in matrix or Gantt Chart)
Estimated Expenses (if research is funded by an
agency)

Except for Statistical Treatment of Data, all parts of


Chapter 3 (Research Methodology) are generally required for
theses/dissertations, whether quantitative or qualitative
research design.

In case sampling of respondents is not appropriate,


the parts of Chapter 3 may be modified with the approval of
the Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee. For example,
Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique may be
replaced with Source of Data (especially in qualitative
designs).

III. Application for Thesis/Dissertation Writing

Students who have taken Seminar in


Thesis/Dissertation Writing or Research Seminar 2 are
required to submit a thesis/dissertation proposal.
4

After passing the comprehensive examinations, a


student shall present a copy of the proposal to the Program
Chair for approval and for presentation to an evaluation
committee. If the proposal is in order, the Chair will advise the
student to prepare five (5) copies for a thesis or six (6) copies
for a dissertation. When the copies are ready, these will be
submitted to the Dean of the Graduate School, together with a
letter from the Chair requesting that the student be allowed to
present the proposal.

Upon the recommendation of the Program Chair, the


Dean creates the Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee
and schedules the proposal presentation. The committee
shall be composed of an adviser and evaluators (two for a
thesis and three for a dissertation) whose main tasks are to
critique the paper, make necessary suggestions for its
improvement, and recommend its approval (see Appendix 2:
Functions of the Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation
Committee). The copies shall be distributed to the
evaluators, the adviser, the GS Secretary, and the candidate.

IV. The Three-Tiered Defense Process

First Stage: Proposal Presentation


The student presents his/her proposal for the approval
of the Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee. The
Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee scrutinizes the
proposal and gives suggestions for its improvement.

After the presentation, the Committee members shall


submit the completed Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Forms
(see Appendix 3: Proposal Evaluation Sheet) containing
their respective comments/recommendations. The student
and the adviser shall take note of the recommendations of the
Committee. The student shall photocopy the accomplished
forms before submitting them to the GS Office. The GS Office
shall provide the student with a summary of the
recommendations to serve as guide to making the necessary
revisions.
5

If given the remark Passed with Revisions, the


student shall submit to the GS Office a copy of the revised
proposal before being allowed to proceed with the data-
gathering and the rest of the thesis-/dissertation-writing
process.
Second Stage: Preoral Defense
Upon completion of Chapters 4 and 5 of the paper,
and upon the recommendation or endorsement of the adviser
and the Program Chair, the student shall now proceed with
the Preoral Defense. During this stage, the completed
research shall be presented for evaluation by the same
thesis/dissertation committee (see Sec. VI for the complete
parts of the thesis/dissertation).

Five (5) copies of thesis (or six (6) copies of


dissertation) must be submitted to the GS Office at least
seven (7) days before the preoral defense schedule.

The Committee, assisted by the GS Secretary or the


Chief of GSRDPC, shall go over the paper page by page to
determine if the paper follows the format and style prescribed
by the PUPGS and if the recommendations provided by the
Committee during the proposal presentation have been
incorporated. At this stage, some other recommendations/
suggestions may be provided to further improve the paper
both in content and in format.

The Committee shall submit the Thesis/Dissertation


Evaluation Forms (see Appendix 4: Preoral Evaluation
Sheet) containing their respective comments/
recommendations. The GS Office shall provide the student
with a summary of the recommendations, which shall serve
as guide to making necessary revisions.

Third Stage: Oral Defense


After complying with the preoral recommendations, the
student shall submit the revised manuscript to the GS Office,
together with a Certification from the Thesis or Dissertation
6

Committee, which shall be duly noted by the Program Chair,


that the candidate is ready for the oral defense.

Six (6) copies of the thesis or eight (8) copies of the


dissertation shall be submitted at least seven (7) days before
the final oral defense schedule. The copies shall be
distributed to the members of the Panel on Oral Examination
(POE), the adviser, and the GS Secretary. The student shall
get the last copy.

The Dean shall create/appoint the Panel on Oral


Examination (POE) who will undertake the final evaluation of
the thesis/dissertation. The POE for a thesis shall be
composed of a chairman and two members; for a dissertation,
a chair and four members. The thesis/dissertation evaluators
shall also sit as members of the POE. When appropriate, a
non-PUPGS faculty member or outsider (researcher or
practitioner from any other university/agency) shall also sit as
a panel member upon the approval of the Dean (see
Appendix 5: Functions of the Panel on Oral Examination).

V. Manuscript Submission and Defense Schedules

The student or candidate shall submit the proposal


and be scheduled for presentation anytime within the school
year (including summer term). The required number of copies
shall be submitted to the GS Office and received by the GS
Secretary at least seven (7) days before the schedule of
presentation to allow the members of the evaluation
committee to adequately scrutinize the proposal.

After the proposal presentation, and upon submission


of the revised copy of the proposal, the candidate shall have
at least six (6) weeks to gather data and construct the last two
chapters of the paper.

The preoral defense shall be scheduled at least seven


(7) days after the submission of the five (5) copies of thesis
(or six (6) copies of dissertation) to the GS Office. After the
defense, the candidate shall be given at least one (1) week to
7

revise the manuscript and incorporate the evaluators


suggestions.

The oral defense shall be scheduled at least one (1)


week after the six (6) copies of thesis or eight (8) copies of
dissertation have been received by the GS office.

NB: The last date of oral defense shall be held one (1)
week before the Graduate School Academic
Council meeting for the student to be included in
the list of candidates for graduation.

The candidate shall ensure that the manuscript (for all


three tiers of defense) is duly acknowledged by the GS
Secretary who shall also issue the formal notice of schedule
of defense, specifying the names of the members of
Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee (for the proposal
presentation and the preoral defense) and the Panel on Oral
Examination (for the oral defense), signed by the GS Dean.

Matrix of the Number of Copies and Schedule for


Submission of the Thesis/Dissertation
for Oral Examination
Tier of Number of Copies Schedule of Schedule of
Defense Thesis Dissertation Submission Defense
At least seven
Proposal 5 6 (7) days before
the schedule of Varied
proposal
presentation
At least seven At least six (6)
Preoral 5 6 (7) days before weeks after the
the schedule of proposal
preoral defense defense
At least seven At least two (2)
Oral 6 8 (7) days before weeks after the
the schedule of preoral
oral defense defense
8

The members of the POE shall submit their final


evaluation of the thesis/dissertation with their comments/
recommendations. The GS Office shall provide the student
with a summary of the recommendations to serve as guide to
making the revisions for the final copy to be submitted as the
final requirement for graduation. (See Appendix 6: Oral
Defense Evaluation Sheet).

VI. Parts of a Thesis/Dissertation

The parts of the thesis/dissertation for preoral and oral


defense shall be as follows:

Preliminaries
Copyright Page
Title Page
Certification-and-Approval Sheet
Certification of Originality
Acknowledgments
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
NB: Pagination of preliminaries shall be in lowercase
Roman numerals placed at the bottom center of
the page.

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction
Background of the Study
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Hypothesis (if any)
Scope and Limitations of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms
9

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND


STUDIES
Foreign Literature
Local Literature
Foreign Studies
Local Studies
Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies

Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Method of Research
Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique
Description of Respondents
Research Instrument
Data-Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment of Data

(Format of Chapter 3 may vary depending on the


research design, subject to the approval of the
Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee).

Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND


INTERPRETATION OF DATA
(Only the main topics per problem shall appear as
headings. The number of subheadings shall be
consistent with the number of subproblems posed in
Chapter 1.)

Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND


RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary (Gist of statement of the problem,
hypothesis [if any], research method and sampling
designs, instrument/s and statistical tools used,
and the major findings)
Conclusions
Recommendations

Bibliography/References/Works Cited
10
Books
Journals
Unpublished Theses/Dissertations
Electronic Sources
Other Print Sources
Non-Print Sources

Appendices
Questionnaire (with cover letter)
Request letter indicating receipt and approval by
proper authority to conduct survey
Documents, memoranda, data/figures (if any)
Sample statistical computations or printouts
(if quantitative design)
Curriculum Vitae
Certification of Editing

VII. Manuscript Preparation

In the preparation of the manuscript, care shall be


taken to ensure that the following specifications are followed:

Paper and Printing Specifications


Print the final copy with a laser printer using only one
side of a standard-sized PUPGS bond paper (8.5 x 11
inches).

Font Specifications
Use a 12-point, Arial font throughout the thesis or
dissertation, except to compress a large table (see Tables
and Figures on page 14).

Spacing
Double-space the text; single-space long quotations,
table and figure captions, and similar special materials (e.g.,
table legend). Type triple-spaced from the top margin,
centered, boldfaced, and in ALL CAPS all headings of the
11

preliminary section (except the Copyright Page and Title


Page) and all chapter titles.

Margins
Leave 1.5 inches for the left margin to allow for
binding and trimming and 1 inch for the top, bottom, and right
margins.

Page Numbering
Paginate the preliminaries by using lower case Roman
numerals, centered, flush with bottom margin.

Use Arabic numerals to paginate the text,


references/works cited, and appendices. Number all the
pages consecutively starting at number 2 on the second page
of the first chapter. The first page of each chapter, though
counted, shall not be numbered.

Type the page number in the upper right-hand corner


of the paper with either a portrait layout or a landscape layout
with visuals (i.e., tables and figures).

Other Typing Instructions


1. The impression on the typed/printed copies shall be
black in color.
2. Symbols, characters, or markings not found on the
computer keyboard shall be handwritten using India
ink.
3. Corrections, interlineations, and crossing out of
letters or words shall not be permitted in any of the
copies of the manuscript intended for final
submission. Erasures, if made, shall be neatly carried
out in all copies.

Preliminaries
The preliminaries include the copyright page, title
page, certification-and-approval sheet, certification of
12

originality, acknowledgments, abstract, table of contents, list


of tables, and list of figures.

Copyright Page
Include a Copyright Page in each final copy to show
that the research has been copyrighted and put it before
the Title Page. (See Appendix 9: Copyright Page
format and text).

Apply for the copyrighting of the manuscript at the


Copyright Division of the National Library. Submit two extra
copies (other than the number of copies required by the PUP
Graduate School) to the National Library, and pay the
copyright and documentation fees. All copies of final
manuscript to be submitted to the GS Office shall bear a proof
that the paper has been copyrighted by the National Library.

Cover and Title Pages


Follow the instructions on the attached sample-form
pages. Note which items are in ALL CAPS and which are not.
Note the approximate size of the print (see Appendix 7:
Cover Page Format; and Appendix 8: Title Page Format).

Certification-and-Approval Sheet
Prepare a Certification-and-Approval Sheet. Refer to
the attached sample for the wording and format that shall be
followed faithfully. Include this sheet in each final copy of the
research.

The CERTIFICATION is an attestation by the


Thesis/Dissertation Evaluation Committee that the paper has
been examined and recommended for oral examination.
Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered, boldfaced,
and in ALL CAPS the heading CERTIFICATION.

The APPROVAL contains the formal approval or


commendation of the Panel on Oral Examination (three
members for a thesis and five members for a dissertation,
13

both headed by a chair). (See Appendix 10: Certification-


and-Approval Format.)

Acknowledgments
Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered,
boldfaced and in ALL CAPS the heading
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. Double-space the text that begins
three single spaces from the heading.

Certification of Originality
Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered,
boldfaced, and in ALL CAPS the heading CERTIFICATION
OF ORIGINALITY. Double-space the text that begins three
spaces from the heading.

All copies to be submitted shall contain an original


Certification of Originality bearing the actual (not photocopied)
signature of the researcher. (See Appendix 11: Certification
of Originality Format.)

Abstract
The abstract is a brief descriptive summary of the
thesis or dissertation. It contains the main objective of the
study, a brief description of the research method, major
findings, conclusions or main arguments, and
recommendations.

Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered,


boldfaced, and in ALL CAPS the heading ABSTRACT. Type
triple-spaced from the heading the following data that are
double-spaced, flush with the left margin: thesis/dissertation
title, researchers name, degree, name of granting institution,
year of completion, and advisers name.

The abstract, which shall not exceed five (5) pages, is


double-spaced, except the title of the thesis or dissertation
which is typed single-spaced. (See Appendix 12: Abstract
Format.)
14

Table of Contents
The Table of Contents comes after the abstract. It
shall list all elements of the preliminaries, the chapter titles,
the main headings, the references, and the appendices. The
beginning page number of each section is indicated along the
right margin. The numbering of the chapters and the wording,
capitalization, and punctuation of titles and headings, shall be
exactly the same as they are in the text. (See Appendix 14:
Table of Contents Format).

Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered,


boldfaced, and in ALL CAPS the heading TABLE OF
CONTENTS.

List of Tables
Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered,
boldfaced, and in ALL CAPS the heading LIST OF TABLES.
Type double-spaced from the heading the following data in
three columns: number, title, and page. Single-space the title
of each table, but double-space between titles. An example is
given below.

LIST OF TABLES

Number Title Page

1 Distributions of the Population and


Sample per Sector 35

2 Frequency and Percentage Distributions


of the Respondents According to
Sex, Age, and Educational
Attainment 37

List of Figures
Follow the format of the List of Tables for the List of
Figures.
15

The Text or Body of the Paper

1. Chapter and Subheadings


1.1 Begin each chapter on a new page.
1.2 Capitalize only the first letter of the heading
Chapter but type in ALL CAPS and centered the
title of the chapter. Both the chapter heading and
the title are typed in bold font.
1.3 Use Arabic numerals for the chapter numbers.
1.4 Type triple-spaced from the top margin and
centered the chapter number heading. Type
double-spaced below the chapter heading the title
of the chapter.

Example:
Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

1.5 Type the subheading or the first line of the


introductory paragraph of the chapter (if there is
no subheading) three spaces below the chapter
title.
1.6 Type subheadings of a chapter in a bold face,
flush with the left margin, capitalizing only the
first word, all major words, and prepositions of
five (5) or more letters e.g., Background of the
Study. Subheadings do not have any end
punctuation.
1.7 Start another subheading with one triple space (or
three spaces) below the last line of the
immediately preceding paragraph.
1.8 Have at least two full lines below a subheading at
the bottom of a page, or else carry over the
subheading to the next page.
16

2. Definition of Terms
2.1 Only the variables or key terms included in the
study shall be defined.
2.2 Acronyms need not be defined if their meanings
have been mentioned in the text.

Example:

The Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board

(HULRB), the agency that provides for the

preparation and implementation of the

comprehensive land use plans for local government

units

2.3 A term shall be defined operationally (i.e., how it


is used or measured in the study), or
theoretically/technically (i.e., how it is defined in
published resources).
2.4 Definitions taken from a published source shall
bear an appropriate in-text citation and have a
corresponding entry in the reference list/works
cited.
2.5 The terms shall be sequenced in alphabetical
order.
2.6 If the terms consist of more than one word,
capitalize every major word.
2.7 The term to be defined shall be indented, typed in
a bold face, and punctuated with a period. Two
spaces shall separate the period from the
definition.
2.8 Each definition shall be expressed in a complete
sentence, NOT a phrase.
2.9 Symbols and abbreviations shall be enclosed in
parentheses following their spelled-out
nomenclatures.
17

Example:

Pi ( ). This term refers to a mathematical

constant and a transcendental real

number,

approximately equal to 3.14159, which is the ratio of a

circle's circumference to its diameter in Euclidean

geometry, and has many uses in mathematics, physics,

and engineering. In this study, the was used to

calculate

3. Review of Related Literature and Studies


3.1 The Review of Related Literature and Studies
shall only have five subheadings, namely,
Foreign Literature, Local Literature, Foreign
Studies, Local Studies, and Synthesis of the
Reviewed Literature and Studies.
3.2 Except for classical theories and any other
relevant literature, all the literature and studies
included in the review shall have been
published or written (if unpublished, such as
theses and dissertations) at least ten (10)
years before the conduct of the current study.
3.3 Except for exploratory studies, the minimum
number of literature and studies to be
reviewed shall be pegged at ten (10) each for
foreign literature, local literature, foreign studies,
and local studies. These include at least 10
journal articles for a thesis and 15 for a
dissertation.

4. Tables and Figures


4.1 Type above every table its number and title.
18
4.2 Type the table number in a bold font, centered,
and triple-spaced from the last line of the
immediately preceding paragraph.
4.3 Type the title of the table in a bold font,
centered, double-spaced from the table
number, and triple-spaced to the table.
4.4 Type triple-spaced below the figure its number
and title.
4.5 Type the title of the figure in a bold font,
centered, and double-spaced from the figure
number.
4.6 If the title is long, type single-spaced, aligned
to the first word of the title, the rest of the title.
4.7 Capitalize only the first word, all major words,
and prepositions with five or more letter in all
titles.
4.8 Use the landscape page layout for large tables.
4.9 If the table is still too large to fit a single page,
reduce the Arial font to a minimum of 8 points.
4.10 If the table does not fit the page even after the
font-size reduction, continue the rest of its part
to the next page, but the cut part shall bear the
subtitle Continuation flush with the left margin
(e.g., Continuation of Table 14). The cut part/s
shouldshall also show the column headings
and the legend (if any) like those in the first
part of the table.
4.11 Put two or more small tables or figures on a
single page if the page is big enough to
accommodate them all.
4.12 Have small tables and figures appear on the
same page along with the text; however, leave
three spaces between every table/figure and
the texts above and below it.

5. Drawings
5.1 Use permanent blank ink and heavy lines to
draw any materials (e.g., graphs, maps, etc.)
that cannot be typed or computer-generated.
Photographs of drawings are also acceptable.
19

5.2 Use photocopied reproductions of drawings if


they are reproduced on the right paper and if
they are of high contrast. No pressed-on letters
may, however, be used.

6. Photographs
6.1 Label as figures photographs to be included as
part of the text.
6.2 Properly scan or print photographs; do NOT just
mount them using any dry mounting material
(e.g., paste or glue).
6.3 Use full-page photographs on 8.5 x 11 heavy
photography stock, as well as high clarity
photocopies of photographs.
6.4 In all copies, use originally scanned
photographs (or reproduced on a full sheet of
photographic paper), not mere clear
photocopies.
6.5 Reduce large-sized figures and photographs to
the appropriate size before their insertion into
the text.
6.6 Put more than one photograph on a single page
if the page has sufficient space for them all.

7. Italics
Italicize Filipino and any other foreign terms
used in the text. When analyzing items from tables or
figures, use quotation marks, NOT italics, to cite the
statement or phrase.

Example:

The item Establish a risk-based plan to determine

the priorities of the internal audit activities obtained a

weighted mean of 3.51, which indicates a very satisfactory

rating by the respondents.


20
8. In-Text Citation
Use the American Psychological Association
(APA) style in the in-text citation of theses/
dissertations of all programs except the
MAELT/MATESL and MAF programs that shall use the
Modern Language Association (MLA) style.

The APA style follows the author-date method


of in-text citation. This means that the author's last
name and the year of publication for the source shall
appear in the text, e.g., (Jones, 2006) or According to
Jones (2006). A page number of the source,
however, shall be included in the in-text citation in
case of direct quotations, e.g., (Jones, 2006, p. 199).

The MLA style follows the author-page method


of in-text citation. This means that the author's last
name and the page number(s) from which the
quotation or paraphrase is taken shall appear in
the text. The author's name may appear either in the
sentence itself or in parentheses following the
quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) shall
always appear in parentheses, not in the sentence,
e.g., (Wordsworth 263).

Refer to the PUPGS Guidelines for Writing


Source Materials for complete details.

9. Long Quotation
Place direct long quotations (four or more
lines) in a free standing block of typewritten lines and
omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new
line, with the entire quotation indented five spaces
from the left margin. Indent the first line of any
subsequent paragraph within the quotation. Maintain
single-spacing throughout the quotation and put the
parenthetical citation after the closing punctuation
mark.
21

10. Chapter 4 Subheadings


Subheadings in Chapter 4 are the findings
of every problem stated in Chapter 1. These
subtitles are numbered following the sequence of
the statement of the subproblems in the Statement
of the Problem and typed in block style and
single-spaced and in a bold face.

Do not put any enumeration under each


subtitle, whose first word, all major words, and
prepositions of five or more letters shall be capitalized.

Example:

1. Profile of the Respondents According to Sex, Age,


Civil Status, Religion, Educational Attainment,
Employment Status, Position, Eligibility, and
Number of Years in the Service

11. Chapter 5 Subheadings


Chapter 5 shall only have the following three
subheadings: Summary, Conclusions, and
Recommendations.

Follow the rules of spacing for subheadings.

12. Bibliography/References/Works Cited


The American Psychological Association (APA)
or the Modern Language Association (MLA) style of
documentation shall be used.

The references (for APA style) and works cited


(for the MLA style) shall include all references cited in
the text, and the entries shall be arranged
alphabetically and double-spaced from one another.
22
With the exception of exploratory researches,
there shall be a citation of at least twenty (20)
research articles from refereed professional journals
and unpublished theses/dissertations for a thesis, and
at least thirty (30) research articles for a dissertation.
These shall be added to the references taken from
books, papers presented, manuals and any other
publications, and electronic sources.

Each reference shall be single-spaced with the


first line typed flush with the left margin and the
succeeding lines indented five spaces from the left
margin.

The references/works cited shall contain the


following parts that shall be arranged accordingly:
books, journals and monographs, unpublished theses/
dissertations, periodicals, electronic sources, other
print sources, non-print sources. (See Parts of
Thesis/Dissertation on Section VI.)

13. Appendices
Appendices shall be provided to give
supplementary materials that are not appropriate for
inclusion in the text.

13.1 Number the appendices using Arabic numerals,


e.g., Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.
13.2 Type the appendix title centered and triple-
spaced from the top margin.
13.3 If lengthy, supplementary illustrative materials
such as tables, figures, and references appear in
appendices, refer to them at appropriate places
in the text.
13.4 List the appended work/document in the Table of
Contents as it is numbered and entitled in the
23

appendices, e.g., Appendix 1: Research


Instrument.

14. Curriculum Vitae


Limit the curriculum vitae to five (5) pages.
Include only relevant personal and professional data
such as educational attainment, employment
background, professional development (seminars,
conferences/trainings attended), extension services
(lectures, speakerships, projects organized, etc.),
publications (books, researches, etc.) if any, and
professional affiliations.

VIII. Conducting Oral Defense

Every oral defense shall have the parts as given


below.

I. Opening Prayer Candidate


II. Greetings and Introductions
Greetings Panel on Oral
Examination
(POE) Chair
Introduction of the Candidate Research Adviser
Introduction of the Panel on
Oral Examination POE Chair
Introduction of POE Members . POE Chair
III. Announcement of the Rating
System POE Chair
IV. Oral Examination Proper
Brief Presentation of the Study Candidate
Question-and-Answer Phase
(General to specific questions) . Panel on Oral
Examination,
Candidate and
24
Adviser
Helping Phase
(Recommendations/
Suggestions to improve
the study). Panel on Oral
Examination
V. Concluding Remarks POE
Chair
VI. Deliberation (Candidate and
guests leave the room) POE Chair
VII. Announcement of Results/
Congratulatory Remarks POE Chair

IX. Grading System

The POE shall use an evaluation sheet whose


duplicate is provided below. (see Appendix 6: Oral Defense
Evaluation Sheet).

Criteria Weight

I. Oral Defense

1. Presentation 20%
1.1 Style of presentation
1.2 Oral articulation
2. Argumentation 40%
2.1 Mastery of the topic/Ability
to answer questions
2.2 Accuracy and relevance
of works cited

Criteria Weight
II. Manuscript

1. Contribution to the field of specialization/


discipline (theory testing for thesis/
theory building for dissertation;
25

applicability) 10%
2. Substance and Content (logical
organization, accuracy of the research
process, and depth of discussion) 20%
3. Form and Writing Style (use of GS format;
proper application of rules of style
and grammar, scholarly language) 10%

Total 100%

Final Rating . ______

Rating Scale
Percentage Numerical Descriptive
Range Rating Rating

97 100 1.00 Outstanding


94 96 1.25 Very Good
91 93 1.50 Good
88 90 1.75 Fair
85 87 2.00 Passed
Below 85 -0- Failed
No Grade -0- Deferred

_______________________
Signature of Examiner

Comments/Remarks
______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

Note: Average Passing Grade: 2.0 for a thesis and 1.75 for a
Dissertation

X. Time-Frame for the Completion of Thesis/ Dissertation


26

A masters student is given five (5) years, while a


doctorate student has seven (7) years, from the first term of
enrolment, to finish the degree.

For instance, if a masters candidate passes the


comprehensive examinations on the third year, the remaining
two years shall be used to write and successfully defend a
thesis. Refer to the PUP Graduate School Student Manual.

If the candidate goes beyond the time limit, he shall be


required to establish one-year residency and take additional
(or penalty) courses of not less than six (6) units per semester
to be determined by the Academic Program Chair and
approved by the Dean.

XI. Statistical and Editorial Consulting

The candidate shall be expected to ensure


appropriateness of the statistical treatment used in the
manuscript and to check it for grammatical and mechanical
errors. He may seek the assistance of the Universitys Center
for Data and Statistical Analysis (CDSA) or consult research
and statistical experts within and outside the University in
case he himself performs the data/statistical analysis.

The editing of the manuscript is a requirement, and a


certification from a professional editor that the manuscript has
been thoroughly edited shall be included in the Appendices.

XII. Required Number of Final Copies

The candidate shall be required to submit five (5)


copies of the thesis/dissertation to the Office of the Dean.
The copies shall be distributed to the following: CHED,
National Library, Graduate School Library, PUP NALLRC
(main library), and the college library.
27

Each copy shall contain a Copyright Page placed


before the Title Page, indicating that the thesis/dissertation
has been copyrighted by the National Library and that it is
available for use by researchers or end users.

XIII. Binding Specifications and Submission of


Manuscripts

After a successful oral defense, the candidate shall be


given a maximum of six weeks to submit the final copies of
the thesis/dissertation to the GS Office
observing the correct binding format. (See Appendix 13:
Thesis/Dissertation Spine Format.)

The color of the cover of the hardbound


thesis/dissertation varies: maroon for a thesis and dark red
for a dissertation.

The spine shall contain the name of the researcher


(surname followed by initials of the first and middle names),
the full research title, the PUP initials, and the year of
completion.

The candidates shall also be required to submit a soft


copy of the thesis/dissertation (CD labeled on the case with
the title of research and name of researcher). The Dean shall
set the deadline for the submission of the final copies for
graduation eligibility. There shall be no exceptions to this
deadline. Diplomas, transcripts of records, certifications, and
any other pertinent academic documents shall be released
only to graduates who have complied with these academic
requirements.
28

References

APA Publication Manual 5th Edition (2001). Published by


the American Psychological Association. Retrieved
December 16, 2006 from
http://www.apastyle.org/pubmanual.html

Minutes of GS Faculty Council Meeting dated August 11,


2006.

Style and Policy Manual for Theses and Dissertations.


(2002) Published by the University of Hawaii at
Manoa, Graduate Division. Retrieved October 29,
2006 from http://www.hawaii.edu/ graduate/download/
manuals/tdstylepolicy.pdf
29

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: PUPGS Research Agenda

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (DBA, MBA)

Global business management


Knowledge management
Strategic management studies (financial, human
resource, and other specialization fields)
Management by culture
Business and work values/ethics
Case studies on medium and small scale
industries
Academe-industry linkages
Micro-macro financing
Policy-oriented research leading to improvements
in Philippine business and economic sector
Industrial technology
New paradigm in business and education
Curriculum studies integrating technology
Agri-business
30

Entrepreneurship

EDUCATION
(DEM, MEM, MBE, MPES, MSME, MAF)

Technological inputs to teacher education


Policy-oriented researches focused on quality and
excellence, relevance and responsiveness, and equity in
higher education
Multidisciplinary teacher education research such as:
o Curriculum change
o School administration and supervision studies
o Achievement and performance studies
o Teaching competencies
o School and community resources
o Leadership
o Axiological issues
o Human developmental studies
o Peace advocacy
o Education and globalization
o Information technology in education
o Human kinesthetics
o Family, life, culture, sports, and the arts
o Basic researches on mathematics, pure and
applied mathematics
o Health-related researches
o Improvement of classroom performance of
Filipino teachers
o Utilization of games and songs in Filipino
o Production of indigenous materials in teaching
Filipino
o Techniques and strategies in Filipino teaching
o Advancement of science and mathematics
o Use of scientific principles in responding to the
development needs of the country

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (DPA, MPA)


31

Multidisciplinary research on agriculture and economy


Peace development studies with direct application to
Philippine situation
Policy-oriented research
Multidisciplinary research on health and health-related
disciplines leading to better quality of life for Filipinos
and the delivery of basic health services to the rural
areas
Economic development (e.g., poverty alleviation,
sustainable development issues and concerns,
globalization issues, infrastructure development)
Human development (e.g., GAD issues, access to
basic needs, labor, migration, and related issues)
Human resources management
Civil society and good governance (human rights,
access to social justice, legal rights, NGO services, graft
and corruption, local governance, local initiatives,
political reforms)

International relations issues


Primary and secondary data analysis from a data bank
Establishment of quality indicators for the public
administration program
Program curricular assessment studies
Comparative study on curricular offerings of other
schools, both public and private, related to public
administration

MASTER IN APPLIED STATISTICS (MAS)

Policy research
Use of scientific principles in responding to the
development needs of the country in the area of
statistics
Population and demographic issues
Poverty alleviation, globalization, labor, migration,
32
human resource development, and related issues
Environment-related researches, census, etc.
Data bank issues

MASTER IN COMMUNICATION

Family, health, and education communication


Concepts and implications of communication laws,
policies, and media ethics
Mass media communication and management
Networking, broadcasting, and journalism
Electronic media, electronic gadgets, cable and
technical communication
Interpersonal, intrapersonal and human-robot
communication
Cross-cultural and intercultural communication
Dynamics of community, neighborhood, team and
political communication
Institutional, governmental, and nongovernmental
communication campaigns

Ethnic, religious, gay-lesbian subculture, and


emerging communication perspectives
Influences of pornography, sexually explicit
online/print/audio materials and underground
publications
Communication strategies in conflict management,
institutional planning and development
Women-children advocacies, community
environmental conservation, and animal
welfare/protection
Communication in feature, documentary,
experimental, short, and independent films
Communication in electronic arts, fine arts, folk arts,
and the performing arts
Advertising, market competition, and public relations
communication
33

Assessment/evaluation of publication and productivity


of communication research scholars

MASTER IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND


MANAGEMENT (MIEM)

Environment-related issues
Relevance of curriculum to needs of industry
Risk management practices
Development projects
Policy research with social or economic impact
Multidisciplinary research on the improvement of
engineering designs and concepts
Engineering and technology development researches

MASTER IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


(MLIS)

Researches on material resources, acquisitions, and


holding of schools
Efficiency and effectiveness of education, e.g.,
organizational structures and characteristics,
evaluation of administrative policies and effectiveness,
organizational efficiency
Policy-oriented research leading to the improvement
of library information science
Use of scientific techniques in the formation of
learning resource centers

MASTER IN PSYCHOLOGY (MP)

Peace and development studies with direct application


to the Philippine situation, e.g.,
o Gender and development
o Child studies, e.g., child labor, street children,
childrens rights, children in conflict with the law
o Drug abuse, and antidrug abuse advocacy issues
34
o Criminal behavior
Behavioral researches employing experimental
research methods/designs
Psychosocial, emotional, and religious interactions
Human growth and development studies (child,
adolescent, adult and elderly behavior)
Multidisciplinary research on health and health-related
interests (e.g., sexuality and reproductive health)
Marriage, family, and sexuality studies
Abnormal behavior and psychotherapeutic
approaches
Human resource management issues, e.g.
o Organizational behavior
o Change management
o Work-related stressors and coping mechanisms
o Quality of work-life balance, work-family balance
Development and validation of psychological tests and
curriculum-based assessment
Multiple Intelligences
o Intelligence quotient and other mental abilities
o Emotional intelligence
o Moral intelligence
o Spiritual intelligence

Evaluating interventions, guidance and counselling


programs, and psychological services in school
o School discipline
o Substance abuse prevention programs
o Crisis prevention and management
o Social skills training
o Psychological assessment and evaluation
Special education
o Gifted education
o Learning disabilities
Home-school-community collaboration

MASTER OF ARTS IN ECONOMICS (MAE)


35

Policy analysis and impact assessment/ studies on:


o Economic development
o Poverty alleviation, e.g., food security, land
reform, etc.
o Sustainable development issues and concerns,
resource conservation
o Globalization issues, import liberalization, labor
export, global competitiveness
Small and medium scale enterprise, cooperatives
Infrastructure development
International relations issues relating with ASEAN
neighbor, development cooperation
Policy research on industrial technology
Product development

MASTER OF ARTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING


(MAELT)/MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE (MA-TESL)

Descriptive studies
o Basic phonological and grammatical descriptions
Theoretical studies
o Syntax (voice/focus system, subject, topic)
o Semantics (particularly developed domains in
different language communities)
Sociolinguistic studies
o Variation studies
o Creole studies
o Language acceptance and standardization
o Varying roles for smaller languages
o Ethnolinguistic vitality
o Language maintenance and shift discourse
o Pragmatics
Applied studies
o Cultural learning styles and approaches to formal,
nonformal and informal education
36
o Questioning styles
o Comparing studies of teacher-participant
interaction
o Comparative studies of formal vs. nonformal
education for young people
o Materials production when grammatical structures
and vocabulary are limited
Language testing
o Development and validation of achievement and
proficiency tests
o Methods used in language testing
o Content of language tests
o Impact of teaching on testing
o Method of test analyses
Language teaching
o Content area instruction (teacher preparation for
ESL instruction across disciplines)
o Strategies for pre-service/in-service teacher
training programs
o Learner autonomy
o Validation of a language teaching approach

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


(MSIT)

Policy research on IT
Technological research for the advancement of
Philippine IT
Programming and software development
Globalization issues and technological development,
e.g., technology transfer, impact of IT, e-commerce,
etc.

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ENGINEERING (MSE)


Major in:
Computer Engineering
Electronics and Communications Engineering
Structural Engineering
37

Transportation Engineering

Engineering Analysis
o Adaptive control and simulation and optimization
of computers
o Microelectronics
o Engineering economics and cost-benefit analysis
o Ergonomics or human factor engineering
o Information and communication systems
Structural and Infrastructural engineering
o Bridge performance models
o Constructability analysis
o Seismic assessment of existing built structures
o Modeling and mathematical programming of
structural members
o Development of structural design software
o Structural reliability and performance analysis
o Cost-benefit analysis or modeling of structural
system
Electronics and Communications Engineering and
Computer Engineering
o Microelectronics design
o Integrated circuits and fiber optics
o Robotics and nanotechnology
o Industrial and power electronics
o Artificial intelligence
o Microprocessors and architecture

Appendix 2: FUNCTIONS OF THE THESIS-/


DISSERTATION-EVALUATION COMMITTEE

Functions of the Thesis-/Dissertation-


Evaluation Committee

The Thesis- /Dissertation-Evaluation Committee shall


be composed of the thesis/dissertation adviser as chairperson
38

and two evaluators (one of whom is an expert in research


methodology and the other, an authority in the area of study).

Upon the appointment of the adviser and the


evaluators to the committee, they shall be expected to do the
following:

1. Guide the advisee in the evaluation of the


thesis/dissertation problem to ensure that the problem
selected shall be:
1.1 A contribution to the body of knowledge in his
area of specialization and as much as possible
relevant to local and national needs;
1.2 Within the level of the degree sought; and
1.3 Within the advisees area of expertise.
2. Guide the advisee in the preparation of the
thesis/dissertation proposal to ensure the following:
2.1 Comprehensiveness and depth in the treatment of the
problem;
2.2 Correct observance of the technical aspect of
proposal writing with reference to:
2.2.1 research objectives,
2.2.2 research hypothesis,
2.2.3 theoretical framework,
2.2.4 conceptual framework,
2.2.5 sampling procedure,
2.2.6 data-collection procedure, and
2.2.7 data/statistical analysis procedure; and
2.3 Proper preparation of an appropriate research
instrument or correct selection of a standardized
instrument.
3. Guide the advisee in the preparation of the
thesis/dissertation to ensure that proper procedures are
followed in the:
3.1 Pilot testing and/or revision of the research instrument,
3.2 Identification of respondents/samples,
3.3 Determination of sample size and sampling
techniques,
3.4 Collection of data,
39

3.5 Tabulation and analysis of data,


3.6 Writing of the paper,
3.7 Acknowledgment of authorities used, and
3.8 Format and style of the paper.
4. Review the prepared thesis/dissertation for:
4.1 logical, orderly, clear exposition of ideas following the
framework of specific statements of the problem and
objectives;
4.2 objectivity, accuracy, and simplicity in the presentation
of factual information;
4.3 correctness and objectivity in the analysis and
interpretation of facts, in the drawing of implications
and inferences;
4.4 completeness of data, absence of unnecessary data;
4.5 formulation of conclusions based on findings; and
4.6 drawing of recommendations from conclusions.
5. Recommend the readiness of the advisee for oral
examination; advise the advisee of requirements for oral
examination, like the appropriate number of bound copies
of thesis/dissertation for the panel members and the
Graduate School Office; give moral support and guidance
to advisee during the oral defense of the
thesis/dissertation.
6. Recommend to the dean the members of the oral defense
committee in consultation with the Program Chairperson.

Appendix 3: PROPOSAL EVALUATION SHEET

Republic of the Philippines


POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
GRADUATE SCHOOL
M. H. Del Pilar Campus

________________
(Date)
40

PROPOSAL PRESENTATION EVALUATION REPORT

Researcher:
Degree Program:
Title:
Thesis/Dissertation Committee:
COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS:
Title : ___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Background of the Study: _______________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework: ______________________________
Statement of the Problem:
_______________________________________
Related Literature and Studies: __________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Research Design/Methodology: __________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Research Instrument/Questionnaire: ______________________________
____________________________________________________________
Others : ___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
General Observations (for approval/disapproval): ____________________
____________________________________________________________

(Pls. attach additional sheet when needed).


Action Taken: __ Approved __ Approved with further revisions __Disapproved

_________________________________________
Adviser/Evaluators Signature over Printed Name

Appendix 4: PREORAL EVALUATION SHEET


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
GRADUATE SCHOOL
M. H. Del Pilar Campus

_____________
Date
41

PREORAL EVALUATION REPORT

Researcher:
Degree Program:
Title:
Thesis/Dissertation Committee:

COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS:

Title: ___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Preliminaries: ___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 1: ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 2: ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 3: ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 4: ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Chapter 5: ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Bibliography/Others: ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
General Observations (for approval/disapproval): _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

(Pls. attach additional sheet when needed).


Action Taken: __ Approved __ Approved with further revisions __Disapproved

_________________________________________
Adviser/Evaluators Signature over Printed Name

Appendix 5: FUNCTIONS OF THE PANEL ON ORAL


EXAMINATION

FUNCTIONS OF THE PANEL ON ORAL EXAMINATION

The members of the Panel on Oral Examination are


expected to evaluate the ability of the masters/doctoral
candidate to present the summary of his paper and to answer
42

questions relevant to his thesis/dissertation. In general, the


members are expected to find out the breadth and depth of
knowledge of the examinee regarding his thesis/dissertation
project. Specifically, they are expected to probe on:

1. The justification behind the choice of the problem,


objectives, and methodologies used (data-collection
procedure, sampling procedure, data/statistical
analysis procedure);
2. The relationship between aspects of related literature
and studies and the research project under
examination;
3. Whether specific objectives are answered in the
findings and conclusions;
4. Whether findings are within the scope of the problem;
5. Whether analyses, implications, and conclusions are
done objectively in an in-depth and logical manner;
6. Whether recommendations are drawn from findings
and conclusions;
7. Whether the form and the writing style follow the
prescribed format of the PUP Graduate School; and
8. Whether the research contributes to the testing and
building of theories or knowledge in the discipline.

Appendix 6: ORAL DEFENSE EVALUATION SHEET


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
GRADUATE SCHOOL
M. H. Del Pilar Campus
_____________
Date

ORAL DEFENSE EVALUATION


43

Criteria Weight

I. Oral Defense

1.Presentation 20%
1.1 Style of presentation
1.2 Oral articulation
2.Argumentation 40%
2.2 Mastery of the topic/Ability
to answer questions
2.3 Accuracy and relevance
of works cited

Criteria Weight

II. Manuscript

1. Contribution to the field of specialization/


discipline (theory testing for thesis/
theory building for dissertation;
applicability) 10%
2. Substance and content (logical
organization, accuracy of the research
process, and depth of discussion) 20%
3. Form and writing style (use of GS format;
proper application of rules of style
and grammar, scholarly language) 10%

Total 100%

Final Rating . ______

Appendix 7: COVER PAGE FORMAT

(Space between the first line of the title and the top edge of
the cover shall be 6 inches).

THESIS/DISSERTATION TITLE (Typewritten in inverted pyramid


style, 14-point, Arial and ALL CAPS)
44

(8 spaces)

Polytechnic University of the Philippines


Graduate School

(10 single spaces)

NAME
(2 spaces)
Degree Program

(8 spaces)

Year of Graduation

(Note: All entries shall be typewritten in 14-point Arial font and in a


bold face. Only the title of the thesis/dissertation and the name of
the researcher shall be written in ALL CAPS.)

Appendix 8: TITLE PAGE FORMAT

(First line of the title of thesis/dissertation must be typed 6


spaces from the papers top margin.)

THESIS/DISSERTATION TITLE (Typewritten in


inverted pyramid style, 14-point, Arial,
and ALL CAPS)
45

(6 spaces)

A Dissertation
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Sta. Mesa, Manila

(6 spaces)

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree


Doctor in/Master in _________________

(8 spaces)

by

(4 spaces)

Name of Researcher (bold face)


(2 spaces)
Month and Year of Graduation

(Note: Except for the Title, all entries shall be typed using 12-
point font)

Appendix 9: COPYRIGHT PAGE FORMAT

Philippine Copyright 2007


by the Author
and the
Graduate School
46

Polytechnic University of the Philippines

All rights reserved. Portions of this manuscript may be


reproduced with proper referencing and due acknowledgment
of the author.

Appendix 10: CERTIFICATION-AND-APPROVAL


FORMAT
(Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered, boldfaced, and in
ALL CAPS the heading CERTIFICATION)

CERTIFICATION

This dissertation entitled TITLE OF DISSERTATION / THESIS (IN ALL


CAPS, ITALIZED, AND IN A BOLD FACE) prepared and submitted by NAME OF
RESEARCHER in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree STATE
COMPLETE NAME OF PROGRAM has been examined and recommended for
Oral Examination.
47

Evaluation Committee

NAME OF ADVISER, Ph.D.


Adviser

NAME OF EVALUATOR, PhD NAME OF EVALUATOR, DBA


Member Member
NAME OF EVALUATOR, DBA
Member
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
APPROVAL

Approved by the Panel on Oral Examination on (date of oral defense)


with the grade of _____.

NAME OF PANEL CHAIR, Ph.D.


Chair

NAME OF PANEL MEMBER, Ph.D. NAME OF PANEL MEMBER, DBA


Member Member

NAME OF PANEL MEMBER, Ph.D. NAME OF PANEL MEMBER, DBA


Member Member

Accepted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Doctor in


Business Administration.

NAME OF THE DEAN, DPA


Dean
Date of passing the Comprehensive Examinations: _________________

Appendix 11: CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY


FORMAT
(Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered, boldfaced, and in
ALL CAPS the heading CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY.)

CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY
48

This is to certify that the research work presented in this

dissertation entitled COMPLETE TITLE OF THE THESIS/

DISSERTATION for the degree (Degree Program) at the Polytechnic

University of the Philippines embodies the result of original and

scholarly work carried out by the undersigned. This dissertation

does not contain words or ideas taken from published sources or

written works that have been accepted as basis for the award of a

degree from any higher education institution, except where proper

referencing and acknowledgment were made.

(Signature)
NAME OF RESEARCHER
Researcher
Date Signed (date, month, year)

Appendix 12: ABSTRACT FORMAT


(Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered, boldfaced, and in
ALL CAPS the heading ABSTRACT.)

Title : Title of Thesis / Dissertation


Researcher : Name of Researcher
Degree : Complete Name of Degree
Institution : Polytechnic University of the Philippines
49

Year : Year Graduated


Adviser : Name of Adviser
The Problem
The main objective of the study was . . . (in paragraph form)
Research Methodology
(Briefly state the research method used, the selection of respondents, the
instrumentation or instruments used, the data-gathering techniques, and the
statistical treatment of data.)
The study utilized the descriptive method of research . . . The
respondents of the study were . . .
The instruments used . . . Data were gathered through . . .
Weighted mean was computed to determine the extent of . . .
Findings
Findings revealed that . . .

Conclusions
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were derived . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . (in paragraph form)

Recommendations
Based on the findings, the following conclusions were derived . . . (in
paragraph form)
(Note: Abstract should be double-spaced, and not more than five pages.)

Appendix 13: THESIS/DISSERTATION SPINE


FORMAT

Excerpt from the Minutes of the GS Faculty


Council Meeting dated August 11, 2006:

1. Standardization of the Preliminaries of GS


Theses/ Dissertations c/o Prof. Elmer G. De Jose

To address the non-standardized format of


thesis/dissertation, the presentation of Prof. Elmer G. de Jose
50
resulted in the following consensus approved by the council
members:

Cover Page: Dark red for doctorate programs


(Dissertations) Maroon for masters programs (Theses)
Program color for non-thesis projects

Title
PROGRAM
TITLE

Name of School

Name of Student
(Author)
AUTHOR

Year
YEAR

SPINE FRONT COVER

All graduating students must follow the standards for the cover and
title pages and the preliminaries effective this 1st Semester SY 2006-2007.

Appendix 14: TABLE OF CONTENTS FORMAT

(Type triple-spaced from the top margin, centered, boldfaced,


and in ALL CAPS the heading TABLE OF CONTENTS.)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TITLE PAGE i
CERTIFICATION-AND-APPROVAL SHEET ii
CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY .. iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . Iv
51

ABSTRACT . v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ... vii
LIST OF FIGURES . viii

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction 1
Background of the Study 4
Theoretical Framework .. 5
Conceptual Framework .. 6
Statement of the Problem .. 10
Hypothesis (if any) .. 11
Scope and Limitations of the Study . 12
Significance of the Study 13
Definition of Terms .. 15

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


AND STUDIES

Foreign Literature .. 18
Local Literature .. 25
Foreign Studies .. 29
Local Studies .. 35
Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and
Studies . 37

Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Method of Research .. 39
Population, Sample Size, and Sampling
Technique 40
Description of Respondents . 41
Research Instrument .. 41
Data-Gathering Procedure . 42
Statistical Treatment of Data . 43

Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND


INTERPRETATION OF DATA
52

Profile of the Respondents in terms of Age,


Gender and Type of High School Attended... 48
Extent of Writing Errors Committed in Informal
Essays.. 51
Extent of Writing Errors Committed in Formal
Essays .... 53

Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary . 77
Conclusions 82
Recommendations 83

WORKS CITED
86

APPENDICES . 90

Appendix 1 Sample Survey Questionnaire . 91


Appendix 2 Directions for Essay Writing . 92
Appendix 3 Request Letter to Conduct Study. 93
Appendix 4 Sample Table for Error Analysis 94
Appendix 5 Respondents Profile . 95
The PUP Graduate School Research Council
(2006-2007)

JUAN C. BIRION, DPA


Dean

ELMER G. DE JOSE, MAP, MMgt


Chief, GS Research, Development and Production Center

DANILO T. REYES, DBA Chair, Doctor in Business Administration


Master in Business Administration (2006)
SEVERINO A. ESPIRITU, PhD Chair, Master in Business Administration (2007)
MARIETTA P. DEMELINO, PhD Chair, Doctor in Educational Management
JUAN C. BIRION, DPA Chair, Doctor in Public Administration
Master in Public Administration (2006)
AMALIA C. ROSALES, DPA Chair, Master in Public Administration (2007)
CARMELITA N. ERICTA, MS Chair, Master in Applied Statistics
LICERIA D. LORENZO, EdD Chair, Master in Business Education
DIVINA T. PASUMBAL, PhD Chair, Master in Communication (2006)
SEGUNDO C. DIZON, MA Chair, Master in Communication (2007)
MILAGRINA A. GOMEZ, EdD Chair, Master in Educational Management
ENGR. VICKY S. CRUZ, MIEM Chair, Master in Industrial and Engineering
Management
MONALISA P. LEGUIAB, MAT Chair, Master in Library and Information Science
CAROLINA A. PANGANIBAN, DEM Chair, Master in Physical Education and Sports
NENITA F. BUAN, PhD Chair, Master in Psychology
MELLY L. PARAISO, PhD Chair, Master of Arts in Economics
MELY M. PADILLA, DEM Chair, Master of Arts in English Language
Teaching
CORAZON P. SAN JUAN, EdD Chair, Master of Arts in Filipino
ENGR. MANUEL M. MUHI, DTE Chair, Master of Science in Earthquake
Engineering
Master of Science in Engineering
MARIA LUISA R. PADLAN, PhD Chair, Master of Science in Information
Technology
PASTOR B. MALABORBOR, PhD Chair, Master of Science in Mathematics
Education (2006)
ENGR. LEODEGARIO SM. BAUTISTA, MSME Chair, Master of Science in Mathematics
Education (2007)
The PUP Graduate School Research Council
(2007-2008)

AMALIA CULLARIN ROSALES, DPA


Dean

ELMER G. DE JOSE, MAP MMgt


Chief, GS Research, Development and Production Center

DANILO T. REYES, DBA Chair, Doctor in Business Administration


SEVERINO A. ESPIRITU, PhD Chair, Master in Business Administration
MARIETTA P. DEMELINO, PhD Chair, Doctor in Educational Management
AMALIA C. ROSALES, DPA Chair, Doctor in Public Administration
Master in Public Administration
CARMELITA N. ERICTA, MS Chair, Master in Applied Statistics
LICERIA D. LORENZO, EdD Chair, Master in Business Education
SEGUNDO C. DIZON, MA Chair, Master in Communication
MILAGRINA A. GOMEZ, EdD Chair, Master in Educational Management
ENGR. VICKY S. CRUZ, MIEM Chair, Master in Industrial and Engineering
Management
MONALISA P. LEGUIAB, MAT Chair, Master in Library and Information Science
CAROLINA A. PANGANIBAN, DEM Chair, Master in Physical Education and Sports
NENITA F. BUAN, PhD Chair, Master in Psychology
MELLY L. PARAISO, PhD Chair, Master of Arts in Economics
MELY M. PADILLA, DEM Chair, Master of Arts in English Language
Teaching
CORAZON P. SAN JUAN, EdD Chair, Master of Arts in Filipino
ENGR. MANUEL M. MUHI, DTE Chair, Master of Science in Earthquake
Engineering
Master of Science in Engineering
ENGR. REMEDIOS G. ADO, MEngg Chair, Master of Science in Information
Technology
ENGR. LEODEGARIO SM. BAUTISTA, MSME Chair, Master of Science in Mathematics
Education
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL (GS) VISION, MISSION,
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
VISION The PUP Graduate School envisions itself as a world-class center of
graduate education.

MISSION The PUPGS commits itself to foster excellence in all key dimensions of
graduate education instruction, research, extension, community service,
production, industry-academe partnerships, local and international linkages, and
stakeholders empowerment.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES To develop globally competitive students who will play
proactive roles in national and international development.

Quality Instruction. To provide quality instruction responsive to global needs


and expectations.

Wider Accessibility. To democratize access to graduate education to all


qualified Filipinos and foreigners.

Research Excellence. To foster a culture of research excellence in graduate


education.

Resilient Industry-Academe Partnerships. To develop and establish


mutually beneficial partnerships with relevant industry sectors.

Stakeholder Empowerment. To intensify capacity-building programs among


stakeholders.

Strong Commitment to Community Service. To provide adequate programs


for the improvement of quality life and to encourage acts of volunteerism to
serve the needs of the marginalized sectors.

Efficient Resource Generation. To vigorously pursue efforts of increasing


resources to sustain key programs of graduate education.

Responsive Extension Services. To share expertise with those who are in


need most and ensure the same as a source of empowerment.

Quality and Extensive Production. To publish/produce quality instructional


materials, modules, technical packages, and interactive multimedia
software; innovations, inventions, research and development outputs.

Effective Local and International Linkages. To establish, expand and


strengthen opportunities for local and international linkages.
THE PUP GRADUATE SCHOOL RESEARCH,
DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION CENTER
VISION, MISSION GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Vision
A reputable academic research center
recognized locally and abroad.

Mission
To contribute to the strengthening of
graduate education in the Philippines and to the
growth and development of the country through
the conduct of quality and relevant researches.

Goals
1. Comprehensive research agenda.
2. Excellent research outputs.
3. Published empirical studies and action
researches.
4. Disseminated and utilized research findings.

Objectives
1. Undertake researches responsive to the
needs of the business, government, non-
government institutions.
2. Cause the publication of scholarly researches
and disseminate them to the end user.
3. Promote the development of instructional
materials.
4. Strengthen linkage and network with other
agencies involved in research and
databank activities.