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For a protective relay, or meter for that matter, to determine the direction
of power flow it must have a current & voltage to compare or two currents to com
pare with each other.
2. If the directional relay uses a voltage reference ( PTs ) it is voltage polar
ized. If it uses a current reference ( a fourth CT ) then it is current polarize
3. In the electromechanical relays the polar unit would restrain the overcurrent
unit ( induction disc ) from operating unless power was flowing at a specified
4. Voltage Polarized is generally used for phase protection & current polarized
is generally used for ground protection. The fourth CT measuring zero sequence c
urrents. The current polarized units may use residual current also, I left that
out before. It depends on which directional overcurrent relay you are using.
In either case when the polar unit determines the angle is in a specific range i
t allows the overcurrent unit to operate.
5.How is the fault current then compared to the polarizing voltage? Does it comp
are the phase angles of the two? How is a direction determined form this angle?
6.Directional earth fault relay responds to single line to ground faults or doub
le line to ground faults.
Directional earth fault relay can sense the direction in which earth fault occur
s with respect to the relay location. This relay operates for a particular direc
tion of the fault current with respect to its location.
Directional ground relays require that a reference quantity be established in or
der for the relay to determine the direction of the current flow at the relay lo
cation. This reference quantity is referred to as the polarizing quantity and fo
r directional earth fault relaying it may be either zero sequence current or vol
tage. It is against this reference that an operating quantity is compared. The o
perating quantity will in all cases be proportional to and derived from the faul
t current at the relay location. Current may be used as the polarizing quantity
at those points in the systems where power transformers having suitably grounded
neutrals are located. The polarizing current may be obtained from the neutral(s
) of the power transformer or the tertiary winding of the power transformer may
be used as the source of polarizing current. Potential polarization may be used
where a suitable polarizing current is not available or where dual polarization
of the relay is desired. Regardless of the type of polarizing that is used, the
polarizing quantity must be of sufficient magnitude and remain fixed in directio
n if the relay is to operate properly.
Negative sequence approach for the directional earth fault relay provides superi
or performance and has been widely used in the multi-function relays (static ana
log and digital).