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AUTOMATED ID SYSTEM USING RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

(RFID) FOR RENAISSANCE SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN


MORONG, RIZAL

An

Undergraduate Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of College of Computer Studies

University of Rizal System

Binangonan, Rizal

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Subject

System Analysis and Design

MARY LOU R. DAMIAN


LERIZ GARCIA
SHAEENA MARIE V. CARMELINA
MARY DEL S. GASCAR
RENE DANIEL A. PENALOSA

October 2016

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction3
Background of the Study.5
Theoretical Framework10
Conceptual Framework10
Objective of the Study..13
Scope of the Study...13
Significance of the Study.14
CHAPTER 2: REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
Setting of the Study...15
Source of Data16
Procedure of the Study..16
Organizational Description...18
Functional Description...19
CHAPTER 3: SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION
Hardware Requirements.20
Software Requirements...21
Cost Benefit Analysis22
CHAPTER 4: FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Proposed System
Dataflow Diagram
Data Dictionary
CHAPTER 5: USER INTERFACE
User Interface..
REFERENCES
APPENDIXES
A. Permission Letter
B. Gantt Chart of Activities
C. Curriculum Vitae

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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

In contemporary society, man has strived to improve their way and quality

of life. Since then, their discovered how to make and use tools, developed a

logical sequence for activities, and the evolution of processing information.

Everything improves from minor to enormous existence. The general evidence of

this inference is the evolution of technology.

Technology plays a fundamental role in human lives. It improves the

quality of life and transforms the world into new generation. It is the primary

engine of economic growth that provides the key to unlock any countrys

potential.

Due to continuously growing of software systems, Automation, also known

as automatic control, is the process of converting a manual system usually

requiring high levels of human intervention into a system that requires minimal

or reduced human intervention.

In many institutions and organizations particularly in schools, monitoring of

students is a very important factor specially in identifying every individual coming

in and out of the school premises. School is considered as a second home.

Students, professors, employees spent most of their time in school.

The manual method of taking attendance in school over the years has

become a thing of concern. In the manual method of taking attendance students

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are required to write down their names and sign the attendance list. The

problems associated with this method vary from unnecessary time wastage to

improper documentation, students forgetting to put down their names on the

attendance list or students writing on behalf of other students that are absent

from the class. To eradicate the deficiencies associated with the manual

attendance system, an automated approach is implemented through Radio

frequency identification (RFID) technology. The RFID based automatic

attendance system includes the RFID reader, RFID tags, computer system, and

host system application. The RFID based automatic attendance system is used

for automatically taking students attendance and giving warning to students on

cases of low attendance which could degrade the performance of student or

prevent the student from taking the course examination.

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that transmits data

using radio waves from an RFID tag attached to an object by the reader for

tracking and identifying objects. RFID system contains two main components; the

reader and the tags. The tag is normally attached to the objects to be monitored

and carries information in a microchip. The reader on the other hand detects tags

that are within it frequency range and writes to or read from the tags.

The Renaissance School of Science and Technology Schools in Morong

provides quality education to the young people of Rizal. It commits itself in the

academic development of its students and is highly invested in ensuring their

safety. To achieve this, the school has been on the constant search for different

security measures that would strengthen the institutions safety program.

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The desire to build a stronger security system offered by Radio frequency

identification (RFID), the researchers motivated to develop an Automated ID

System using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Renaissance School of

Science and Technology Schools.

Background of the Study

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of many Automatic

Identification (AID) technologies that have been used for several decades. The

origins of RFID can be tracked to World War II, where there was a problem of

identifying and tracking planes that could either be enemy or ally. Scottish

physicist Sir Robert A. Watson first invented RFID and developed it for radar

purposes. During the 1970s, the U.S. government used it for tracking inventory.

Since then, RFID has been used in many different fields that range from defense

to tracking of weapons, medicine or other goods in the supply chain; paving the

way for broad adaptation. RFID is one of the fastest growing and most beneficial

technologies being adopted by business today. RFID might seem simple at first,

but it can be difficult to implement successfully. There are different types of RFID

systems to consider, while installing and using them to generate data to cut costs

or boost efficiency can be challenging. Misconceptions about what RFID is and

its functions can pose obstacles that discourage some organizations from taking

advantage of the technology. RFID is a technology that incorporates the use of

electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the

electromagnetic spectrum that uniquely identifies an object. It is a system that

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transmits and identifies an object or person wirelessly. Data is then exchanged

automatically, with no operator intervention required to trigger an RFID read.

(Amid D. Zand, 2000)

A.A. Olanipekun and O.K. Boyinbode (2015) the RFID tag is primarily is a

kind of a memory device that can transmits its contents when being scanned by

the reader. The memory consists of binary digits called the bits, and the

transmission and receiving of data has a communication channel. The tag can be

an electronic circuit with its own power supply (an active device) or a very low

power integrated circuit (passive device) which taps energy from the scanner to

transmit its content. In a tag, the transmission power is very low and is measured

in millionths of watt i.e. microwatts. Tag can be passive, semi-passive or active. It

can also be categorized based on memory type and based on the transmission

channel. Passive RFID tags have no internal energy source; energy supplied to

the antenna by the incoming radio frequency waves induced enough energy for

the CMOS integrated circuit in the tag to get activated and transmits a response.

The semi passive tag is similar to passive tag, but has an addition of small power

source (battery). This battery constantly powers the integrated circuit of the tag

and the need for an aerial to tap energy from the incoming signal is removed.

Active tags have their own internal energy source which supplies energy for the

integrated circuit producing the outgoing signal. They are more sophisticated and

reliable due to their ability to conduct a session with the reader. As a result of

their onboard energy source, they can transmit at a higher power level than

passive tags, allowing them to be of more effective in RF challenged

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environments such as water, metal or at longer distances. They can transmit

signal over a greater distance and their random access memory (RAM) gives

them the ability to store up to 32,000 bytes of data. A battery can live up to 10

years and have practical ranges of hundreds of meters. Types of tags that were

used in the RFID system are ISO card, clamshell card and also soft label. Tag

used in this project is passive tag and the model of RFID reader is RFIDIDR-

232N.

And the RFID reader sends a pulse of radio waves to the tags and listens

for its response. The tag detects this pulse and sends back a response; the tag

ID number and possibly other information as well. The RFID reader can be

classified based on the design and technology used (read or read-write) or based

on the fixation of the device. The read only RFID reader only reads data from

tags, usually a microcontroller based unit with a wound output coil, peak detector

hardware, comparators and firmware which are designed to transmit energy to

tags and read information back from them by detecting their backscattering

modulation, different types for different protocols and standards existing. The

read/write reader reads data from/to tags. While in stationary reader, the device

is attached in a fixed way.

Furthermore, according to Wang (2005), Automatic student attendance

using RFID technology comprises of multiple devices work together. The devices

include RFID reader, RFID tag, system interfaces and databases. This system

needs a good system design to make sure that the devices can capture accurate

data and can interact with the information system accurately and efficiently. In

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order to obtain good system design, developers should have clear idea,

knowledge and able to understand the requirements and convert them in to

useful information. It is very important to represent the necessary information in

to a meaningful data model suitable for application level interactions, including

monitoring, tracking and application integration. Therefore a structure is needed

to present plans for developing automatic student attendance monitoring system

using RFID Technology.

According to Raine (2009), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio

Frequency Identification (RFID) terms are often confusing as the RFID acronym

holds multiple standards. NFC and RFID are used inaccurately as transferable

terms. This means that the RFID readers might be able read the RFID tags which

are implemented with the same standard. Near Field Communication (NFC)

technology is used for remote identification and data transfer at reading ranges

up to a few centimetres. It means it reads the tags which are close in range. NFC

can be considered as a division of more common RFID technology. NFC

operates in different communication modes when compared to traditional RFID

reader/RFID tag combination. It is more likely for the two NFC devices

communicate each other and NFC devices are also capable to imitating definite

RFID smart cards. The emulation mode enables the NFC devices to use the

existing reader infrastructure. NFC is complaint with some smart card ISO

(International Organization for Standardization) standards: ISO 14443A, 14443B,

and 15693 along with Sonys FeliCa Standards and MiFare. NFC was initiated

from a joint project of Philips and Sony for developing a short range

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communication technology in 2002 and it resulted as a Ecma Standard (ECMA

340) and later it was a accepted as ISO Standard 18092 in 2003. Nokia, Philips

and Sony founded the NFC forums and been promoting the NFC technology.

Because of the different advantages offered by RFID in ID Systems, many

leading schools and universities all over the country have already opted to

integrate them into their campuses.

As one of the schools in the province of Rizal, the Renaissance School of

Science and Technology Schools in Morong is dedicated to provide quality

education and instruction to its ever growing student populace. The increasing

numbers, however, has also established the need for a stronger school security

system.

By developing an ID system for the said school, the monitoring of

individuals entering and leaving the grounds can be accomplished with relative

ease. This would help the school mitigate the risks associated with loose security

and the lack of an automated ID system.

Based on the undeniable advantages of using RFID as provided by the

gathered literature and studies, the researchers saw the need and opportunity to

develop an Automated ID System using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

for Renaissance School of Science and Technology Schools.

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Theoretical Framework

The waterfall model is a popular version of the systems development life

cycle model. Waterfall development has distinct goals for each phase of

development. Once a phase of development is completed, the development

proceeds to the next phase and there is no turning back. Like a waterfall through

the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing,

production, implementation, and maintenance.

The advantage of waterfall development is that it allows for

departmentalization and managerial control and theoretically, be delivered on

time. Development moves from plan, through design, implementation, testing,

installation, troubleshooting, and ends up to operation and maintenance. This

model is simple and easy to understand and use. It is easy to manage due to the

rigidity of the model- each phase has specific deliverables, review process and

proceeds in strict order, without any over lapping.

The above concepts and principles are needed to ensure that the

expected system will be achieved. This was used to guide the researchers in

designing and developing the study.

Conceptual Framework

The researchers used the waterfall model.

The first stage is the plan wherein the researchers prepare concepts for

the system, the second stage is the analyze; to gather data and analyze the

concept, the third stage is the design; to design the technical architecture and

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system models, the fourth stage is the build; to build the technical architecture,

database and programs, the fifth stage is the test; to write the test conditions,

perform the testing of the system and lastly, the final stage is the Deploy wherein

to provide documentation, right implementation, and an environment to support

system changes.

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Analyze
Gathering data and
analysis of the concepts

Design
Design the technical Build
architecture andBuild
system
the technical
models
architecture, database and
programs

Test
Write the test conditions.
Perform the testing of the
system

Deploy
Provide documentation, right
implementation, and an
environment to support
system changes

Figure 1

The Waterfall Model Process of the Proposed Development of an Automated ID


System using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Objective of the Study

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The main objective of the proposed system is to develop an Automated ID

System using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Renaissance School of

Science and Technology Schools.

It aims to improve and develop the entrance and exit monitoring system,

to prevent outsiders entering to school premises, to ensure legitimacy of

students, and to implement school policy with fairness and avoid bias among

students of Renaissance School of Science and Technology Schools.

Scope of the Study

This study is all about the Automated ID System using Radio Frequency

Identification (RFID) for Renaissance School of Science and Technology

Schools.

The proposed system will be programmed and developed using Visual

Basic software, with a user friendly interface and Microsoft Access to build up its

database.

The system composed of hardware: the RFID scanner and RFID tags

(also called a transponder; an attach object to students, professors, employees

and vehicles). This tag is scan using a radio frequency (about a wavelength of a

UHF) and commonly applicable at a small distance only (1 to 2meters) from the

scanner. This make the tag respond to the signal and send back the message

(which is actually an electromagnetic induction) from the tags IC (Integrated

Circuit) and interpreted by the computer system.

Significance of the Study

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The Automated ID System using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for

Renaissance School of Science and Technology Schools in Morong will be

beneficial to the following:

School. The system will be improve and develop the entrance and exit

monitoring system, to prevent outsiders entering to school premises which could

compromise the safety of the students, to ensure legitimacy of students, and to

implement school policy with fairness and avoid bias among students.

Students. The students will feel safe inside the school grounds. They will

be able to focus on their studies due to the assurance of security.

Teacher. The teachers along with the guidance councillor will be able to

monitor student attendance and behavior through the system.

Parents/Guardian. The parents/guardian will less worry about the safety of

their children.

Security Guard. The system will lessen the security guards workload in

identifying student if they are legitimate and enrolled in the institution. It will also

minimize the number of violators.

Researchers. The development of the system would enhance the

researchers knowledge, skills and work performance skills in programming.

Future Researchers. The ideas and findings of the study may serve as

guide and reference in conducting new researcher.

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Chapter 2

REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

Setting of the Study

The setting of the study is at the Renaissance School of Science and

Technology Schools in Morong.

Renaissance School of Science and Technology Schools, RSST (Formerly

the PRISMS) is the product of years of work, study, planning and experience by

many individuals. The school was incorporated in September 2004 and officially

opened in May 2004 offering only preparatory and elementary education. After

extensive research of community needs and demand for secondary and

vocational courses and computer programs for day and evening course. THE

PRISMS was then amended to Renaissance School of Science and Technology

Inc. (RSST Inc.) in the year 2006. The school consists of 439 students and offers

five 4-year courses. It has a computer lab and a library which uses a library card.

The school operates manually where students will present their ID to the

guard and let the students enter to the campus.

The ID was given regardless of outsiders. This will make the campus

secure. Since manual operation requires a lot of time and to determine who are

the student who enter in the campus. The researcher proposed ID system for the

school in order to maintain the security of the campus and to avoid the stray

people.

Sources of Data

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The researchers conduct interview as the source of data to determine the

present status of ID System in Renaissance School of Science and Technology

Schools.

The researchers used books, research papers, news articles, and the

internet as the secondary sources of data. It served as the guide and references

of the study.

Procedure of the Study

The following timeline describes the steps and events that took place

during the conduct of the study.

At first, the researchers brainstormed for possible system titles. They then

conducted a series of interviews that helped identify the problems of different

businesses and organizations. Based on the gathered data, the researchers

conducted an assessment to determine the computerized system most suitable

to the needs of the business/organization.

From this assessment, they selected the titles which had the most

potential and proceeded to create possible features for the proposed systems.

These system proposals then underwent scrutiny from the panel during the Title

Defense. The panel then picked the best title among those presented by the

researchers.

With an approved title at hand, the researchers conducted another

interview to gather more comprehensive data.

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After completion of the questionnaire for interview, the researchers then

started development of Chapter 1, 2 & 3.

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Functional Description

Dean a person who is in charge to facilitate the University.

Academic Assistant a person who assist the academic purposes.

Librarian a person who is in charge of the school library.

Registrar an officer of the school who is in charge of registering

students and keeping academic records.

Guidance Counselor an officer who gives advice to the students.

Program Chair a person who is in charge in assign course

Instructor a person who is in charge to teach or give students

instructions to the students.

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Chapter 3

System Requirements Definition

Hardware Requirements

The system needs several hardware for it to be completed. It is

composed of two phases: the RFID components and the computer or user

interface hardware. The RFID components thus needs or must be Motorola

FX9500 Fixed Reader having an 8 port cables and commonly use for industrial

purposes. RFID tags use Ultra High Frequency (UHF) that can be read even at a

distance of 10ft. This distance is enough for reading the information. This tag is a

battery-assisted Passive Tag that is powered by batteries and a metal tag is a

good choice.

In a computer system, it needs hardware with certain specifications. As a

server, the computer must have a an Intel Core i3 processor with 8 GB of RAM, a

hard disk of at least 500 GB, an RFID Reader with a frequency of 13.56 MHz and

a reading range of 5 cm, a GSM modem, a monitor of at least 15, an optical

mouse, PS2 keyboard, and an Ink Jet printer. This memory is enough for storing

even more data and information for the future. For a user-friendly interface, the

system recommends 23.0 in- 27.0 in of screen size for an easy interface

manipulation.

For the purpose of sending data, the system needs a wireless access

point to send up the messages to the serving computer system. It must be a

Motorolas AP 5181 Access Point, in relation to the scanner.

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Software Requirements

The system needs different software for RFID components and for the

computer interface. RFID needs the software called the Stratum Globals

TagNet. Stratum Globals TagNet is a full-featured, robust enterprise RFID

software solution suite that addresses all aspects of object visibility through RFID

across multiple industries and business processes. TagNet is a browser-based,

releasesupported RFID business, application software designed to operate

without introducing unnecessary complexity to the end-user. TagNet solutions are

hardware agnostic, supporting a plug-and-play selection of industry standard

RFID readers, printers, sensors, and material handling equipment. TagNet is

designed to meet the sophistication and scalability requirements of large

organizations, and is well-suited for warehouse management and work-in-

process.

And a RFID Middleware is a connection between the RFID hardware and

software requirements.

The user interface of the system is developed using Visual Basic

Software. Visual Basic also referred to as VB, is designed to make software

development easy and efficient, while still being powerful enough to create

advanced program. For example, the Visual Basic language is designed to be

human readable, which means the source code can be understood without

requiring lots of comments. And the use of Microsoft Access to form databases,

reports, and forms. These softwares will run under Windows 8.1.

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Cost Benefit Analysis

Cost

Items Cost Quantity Total (Cost x Quantity)


Application Server P 100,000.00 1 P 100,000.00

Visual Basic 50,000.00 1 50,000.00


Computers 25,000.00 3 75,000.00
RFID Scanners 15,000.00 3 45,000.00
RFID Tags 80.00 497 39,760.00
RFID Middleware 50,000.00 - 50,000.00
Training and Tutorial 20,000.00 5 100,000.00
Workshop
Total P 960,080.00 65 P 1,059,760.00

Benefits
Benefits Value per year
Reduce human intervention P 500,000.00
Removal of Log books and pens 50,000.00
Increase transactions speeds and 150,000.00
accuracy
Decrease salary expense 200,000.00
Accuracy of students, professors and 80,000.00
employees information
Improvements in Management 200,000.00
Efficiency
Improve Information Management 200,000.00
Total P 1,380,000.00

Return of Investment: P 320,240.00/ P 1,059,760.00 * 100


= 30.22% per annum.

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Chapter IV
FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

Proposed System

Our proposed system mainly focuses on the use of RFID to initialize


improvement and ease for the users of the system. This device serves as a tool
to decrease or even remove the human intervention to the system.

From the three main entrances (main entrance, library and com lab) of the
school, there are two attached RFID scanners, one on the left and one on the
opposite side. The Radio Frequency Identification tag on the ID is attached on
the right part. When the student passes over the scanner, it will scan if there is a
tag attached on the ID and the information from the tag is hereby saved and
stored, including the time in/out of the students. This is saved on the database
which is only accessible by the administrators.

Otherwise, if the scanner did not scan any tag on the ID, the guard will ask
them if they are a visitor, thus, they will give it a visitation notes, and manually
saved the time of the visitation. The guard will now call over the household
involved in the visitation, and notify them about their visitor. On this part, human
intervention is needed.

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Data Flow Diagram

CONTEXT DIAGRAM

STUDENT

R
F
I
D

T
A
G
S 0

AUTOMATED ID
SYSTEM USING RADIO
FREQUENCY R
IDENTIFICATION (RFID) E R
FOR RENAISSANCE Q F
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE U I
AND TECHNOLOGY C
I D
A
S R
E T
R H
M A
E E G
C N S
E T
ENTRANCE I
(GATE PASS, S
P
LIBRARY, COM T
LAB)

STUDENT

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Level 0 Diagram

STUDENT D1 Reg. RFID Tag Database

R
F
I
D 1

T
A
G
S
CHECKING

E
U N
N T
K 2 R
N A
O R N
W E C
N Q E

ENLISTMENT U
I
R
E
M
E
N
T
R
S
F
I
D
STUDENT
D2 Reg. RFID Tag database T
A
G
S
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Data Dictionary

Automated ID system = Students Information + Guardians Infromation

Students Information = Students number + Surname + First name +


Middle name + Course + Guardians name + Address

RFID Number = 001


= Number
= Refer to the unique number of the fill up form
= 30
=Primary Field

Surname = 002
= Text
= Refers to the surname of the student
= 30

First name = 003


= Text
= Refers to the first name of the student
= 30

Middle name = 004


= Text
= Refers to the middle name of the student
= 30

Course = 005
= Text
= Refers to the course of the student
= 30

Guardians surname= 006


= Text
= Refers to the guardians surname
= 30

Guardians first name = 007


= Text
= Refers to the guardians first name
= 30

Guardians middle name = 008


= Text
= Refers to the guardians middle name

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= 30

Guardians Address = 009


= Number, Text
= Refers to the guardians address
= 50

Contact Number = 010


= Number
= Refers to the guardians contact number
= 30

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Chapter V
USER INTERFACE

Figure 2.
Welcome Screen

Figure 3.
Home page interface

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Figure 4.
Administrator Login

Figure 5.
Administrators page

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October 14, 2016

Figure 6.
Daily report

Figure 7.
Monthly Report

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Figure 8.
Students profile

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Figure 9.
Fill up form

Figure 10.
RFID pop-up (Gate pass)

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Figure 11.
RFID pop up (Library)

Figure 12.
RFID pop up (Com lab)

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