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BATTLEGROUND WW2 CLARIFICATIONS

U.S. SNIPERS
There never was a play sheet made for US Snipers but the rules were outlined in the German
sniper sheet. Basically, Russians and Germans have sniper teams. As long as the team is
functional, (though I think a wounded sniper can still serve as a spotter for one action) either model
may be the shooter. With a functional team the shooter can act as a sniper per the standard rules. A
broken team, or a solo sniper as in the case of US Army, Japanese, British, USMC (trained, but not
a team) may choose either the To Kill bonus on the damage table or target selection, but not both.

Snipers may have also have lairs set up to get sniper cover bonus; if they move they lose that
bonus, unless they have a second or third pre-arranged location for their next shooting position. All
of this is scenario dependent.

Be careful about declaring that each squad or platoon has a sniper; they are very powerful, and
should be used sparingly. I know that the U.S. did not use as many snipers as Germany or Russia,
but we still had them. Most of the trained U.S. snipers were USMC snipers, but the army did have
a lot of M1903A1 and often gave them to the best shot in a squad or platoon.

A scoped Springfield Rifle was issued in U.S. Platoons, one per. A designated Sharpshooter was
supposed to use it, usually attached to the platoon command group. I include a sharpshooter in my
command groups on occasion giving him the +3 for the scoped rifle, but not the snipers bonus for
damage. He is also unable to selectively target.

HASTY CAMOUFLAGE
Question: How does Hasty camouflage work for spotting purposes?
Answer: Hasty camouflage is a modifier on the sighting chart. Most vehicles and models that move
into cover, as opposed to starting the game in that cover, will have this modifier applied to any
sighting checks the enemy makes in their vicinity.

The camouflage column modifiers are:

Hasty Camouflage: -1
Camouflaged: +1
Improved Camouflage: +2

I noticed this again yesterday and when I looked at the Norway scenario on your site where the
British and Norwegians are trying to stop a German push. The 2 Pdr can be hasty camouflaged if
set up in the woods before the game. Why would anyone use hasty camouflage? It makes you easier
to see! I think this is a typo and the modifiers should read:
Hasty Camouflage: +1
Camouflaged: +2
Improved Camouflage: +3

No one is going to hastily camouflage their position if it makes it easier to use! Or is this supposed
to represent starting to camouflage your positions and being caught while doing it? That doesnt
make much sense either.

Having noticed this before, I always thought Hasty Camouflage applied to someone/something
that otherwise would not count as being concealed. Thus, being Hasty Camouflaged moved you to
the Concealed part of the sighting chart, but with a -1 (i.e. left) column shift - still better than
being in the open. If someone/something is in a position that would already be concealed, Id call it
Improved Camouflage or prepared camouflage.

MISSED BAZOOKA SHOTS


I have a small problem with the rule of no deviation for a missed Bazooka rocket. It has to go
somewhere! Anybody use any house rules on this? If so how do you handle it?

ANSWER: I roll a GW scatter die (or make your own with a d6 with back painted on 2 opposing tips
of the die). I use 1D3 for my scatter. If firing at a vertical surface (building or wall) and the scatter is
some form of long or short. I convert long distance into inches upward, or short inches down. Not a
super accurate conversion but it works for me. For 28mm players use 1D6 as scatter instead of 1D3
as I use for 15mm.

If the scatter say takes it over a building I assume the round goes off into the ether and dont worry
about it unless there is something taller behind it.

You need either a Warhammer artillery direction/deviation die (arrows and 2 target/arrows) or a D6
with 6 arrows on it, one on each face to use for direction (works much faster, although technically
the deviation is not in a circle but an oval, and not from the centre but one end... another story).

15-20mm Scale: D6 for distance.


25-36mm Scale: D10 for distance.

Otherwise, for 25-36mm use a D8 with a 1 = 1 short, 2 = 2 short, 3 = 2 left, 4=2 right, 5=5 over,
6=6 over, 7=7 over, and 8=8 inches over. distance for 20mm or smaller. If an object is within the
miss distance, that object would be hit at a location above the target.

I would use the Grenade circle for damage. The HEAT round had an explosive effect but not much
fragmentation. The effect would be centred in the A area. Note though, that unlike a grenade, if
used against a wall the round will penetrate the wall just like a guns HE/AP/HEAT round. See the
rules for buildings.

THE EXHAUSTED ONES SCENARIO


Has anyone played the old scenario called The Exhausted Ones? My specific questions are:
1. Which way is north on the map? (it could be at the top but some of his other scenarios dont follow
this convention).
2. Where do the French enter?

ANSWERS:
1. The direction North is the right side of the page, the town is considered to be in the Eastern zone
of the map.
2. The French enter from the west. I recommend that you give the French Infantry trucks to ride in
from the west edge of the table.

P.I.A.T. RANGES
I have the following statistics (20mm scale) for the P.I.A.T.:
4/15, 6/10, 8/5 (range/to-hit chance)
Penetration ?

SHOTS PER ACTION FOR AFV CREWS


A tank (say a Mk IV), with 100% healthy crew, is stopped dead in a field. When their card comes up,
do they get to fire twice (once in each action) or only once, figuring the gunner has to lay the gun on
the target for the first action and then the loader has to do his thing on their first action? Weve
been playing that the tank can fire twice. Is that correct?

Okay now a little different... what if the tank is moving and shooting. Does the tank get to fire twice
(using modifiers of course)?

ANSWERS: the answer to both your questions is no. You cannot LOAD and FIRE on the same
action. Driving the tank wont affect the gun crew in their ability to load and fire, only in their
accuracy. Laying the gun on target is only an issue if you need to traverse the turret farther than
the allowed limit to engage. What you are really waiting for is the loader to finish loading which
takes one full action. The gunner may only fire the coax MG in this action, or out pistol ports,
grenades, etc. I believe the rules allow crew exposed Self Propelled Guns to LOAD and FIRE in one
action as long as the gun is rated as 'LOAD-1'. Check page 8 of main rules for this under gun
actions. I dont think it explicitly states the answer to your question anywhere, but look at the self
propelled guns section. They are really saying that only Self Propelled Guns with full crew would
ever be able to LOAD and FIRE in the same action. Earlier they say that all crew actions must be
completed before the next can begin, so LOAD must be finished before FIRE. On a lighter note, your
infantry just got more powerful!
GOLIATH REMOTE CHARGE
Goliaths are small tracked vehicles wire controlled and with gasoline and later electric engines.
They are guided to their targets using the controls. The two main problems they had were they
werent armored and it was difficult to see them, hence difficult to correct their movements. They
also tended to have mechanical failures including getting hung up on terrain or the control wires
breaking. All Goliaths use the largest template. The A-C rings are counted as A rings. (This baby
was designed to blow up AFV and bunkers)

In order to use a Goliath the German player must:


a. The controller is within 10 of the Goliath when it is started.
b. Be able to see the Goliath. It is very small and should probably be counted as infantry, not a
vehicle, on the sighting table. The Goliath isnt very fast either so it moves at the speed of a man.
The controller must also see the target.
c. On every Goliath card roll a D20. The breakdown roll is 19.
d. The Goliath may turn/change direction only if the driver can see it. Otherwise it moves full speed
in the same direction. See b. above for sighting.
e. It may be fired on by enemy troops who must first spot it. Only a kill result will stop it. They are
non-armoured so treat as a man for damage. Also use the rule for HE fire regarding breaking land
lines if any HE fire comes down between the controller and the Goliath. This fire can cut the control
wires.
f. Maximum distance it can move is 500 meters, about 50 inches I think.
g. The German player on the Goliath card may explode the charge before, during, or after an action
is completed, to include the end of the second action. He announces he is blowing the charge and
rolls a D20. On a 20 the charge is a dud, otherwise it goes off.

RED DEVILS IN THE NIGHT HAM AND JAM SCENARIO


In the Red Devils in the Night scenario Ham and Jam, where do the Germans set up? And where
do they enter? The map of course on the German sheet is blank and not marked with the locations.

ANSWER: From reading Pegasus Bridge, most of the At Start Germans should begin in the
trenches on either side of the canal, and in the other fortifications (theres a pillbox, and either 1 or
2 emplacements for an ATG and MG). Only 1 or 2 guys are awake, and should be placed on the
bridge itself.

Personally, Id either: a) randomise the placement of the Germans, and force the Brits to land on the
side of the canal shown, or b) if you allow the Germans to explicitly place, then allow the British to
place the glider WHEREVER they want to as noted in the scenario rules. Or c), do both. The
reinforcements should come from the town on the opposite side of the canal where the glider is
shown. The one exception to this is the staff car with the garrison commander. It should arrive from
the road on the same side the glider is shown.
SOVIET COMMISARS
The Soviet NKVD in WW2 used Military ranks for their Commissars. A Commissar in training
would likely be a Kadet. Once 'commissioned' he would follow the normal path of military rankings
from the equivalent of Commissar 2nd Lt up through Commissar General (US ranks used as an
example). However, political influence was heavy and likely to bring in 'incompetent' (militarily
anyway) Commissars, and military training was not the primary training they received, it was
political.

1. In the early part of the 2nd World War, Commissars could override the military officers decisions
in the HQ they were assigned to. This usually was not good since the Commissars tended to not be
militarily competent.
2. The lower ranking Commissars had their authority taken away to make military decisions. They
became 'morale' officers to some extent in the lower ranks (i.e. Major or below).
3. Commissar Colonel or high ranking "members of the party" Commissars could be very influential
in a battle. See what Khrushev did at Stalingrad.
4. Although they couldnt issue orders to their military counter-parts, I think they could still have
him shot for incompetence, which meant the military either had to follow orders to the letter, or be
successful every time. The German view of the Eastern Front is that this was the case and it
removed the Soviets ability for the lower commanders (Regimental down) to react to the situation,
and instead they would blindly follow orders.
5. I think the problem the Soviets had was:
a. Few trained Officers, no NCO corps to speak of, and in 1941 the interference of the political
officers in the military situation.
b. In 1942 it was lack of training. Soviet units are usually the strength of the next lower unit, with
an officer in charge whose rank is for the next higher unit. The problem they had was like training
with explosives (Hey, Im getting good at this! BOOM! New officer needed!!)
c. Eventually, by 1943, enough officers were surviving which combined with troops who had learned
the necessary combat lessons (the hard way, On the Job Training again) gave the Soviets a core of
troops who could react to the changing combat situation. This finally allowed the Soviets to
successfully attack a German line.

PINNING AND RAKING FIRE


Pinning / Raking fire is described as being a few feet off the ground. What happens if you want to
pin a top level of a house? Which Pinning Fire should you use?
ANSWER: It would be Spraying Fire not Raking Fire.

QUESTION: Does having had Pinning Fire on you last turn effect placement of special fire modes?
ANSWER: Depends if the mode is continued into the current turn. If not I would say no.
QUESTION: What happens if an MG42 puts Pinning Fire onto a group of infantry, and a different
US M1919 in turn puts Pinning Fire on the MG42? (My interpretation of this, was that the MG42
fired a single die per action which occurred within its Pinning Fire zone. This then creates a single
die roll for the M1919 for each single die the MG42 rolls. Is this correct?)
ANSWER: NO. The MG42 is under Pinning Fire and may not set its own Special Fire mode. It must
act under cards.

QUESTION: Just to make things more complicated, what happens with a broken model in a
Pinning Fire zone? Does the MG42 get to fire as the broken man stands up (provided he is prone)
and again as he runs away? In this case, will it again trigger retaliatory fire from the M1919?
ANSWER: Leaving out the M1919, the broken guy would take fire from the MG42.

SNIPER FIRE
Do they automatically count as Aimed Fire, or do they need to take an action as normal?
ANSWER: They are counted as aiming if its an intact 2 man team. If a single model it may claim
either aiming fire or target choice but not both.

SUPRESSED MODELS OUT OF SIGHT


A prone squad in a building receives incoming fire which results in suppression of several models.
Are these considered to be now out of sight, and therefore not involved in determining who receives
any further effect results?
ANSWER: Thats how I would rule.

RUINED BUILDING EFFECTS MODIFIER


What effect modifier is used for troops being in a ruined stone building? To me, +7 is too high,
especially for the top floor (which on my scenery is usually quite broken up); I use the +4 rubble
modifier. What does everyone else think?
ANSWER: +7 works, the only way to deal with it is Aimed Fire, or Directed Aimed Fire. They can be
taken out but its tough. Also use Spraying Fire to keep their heads down. Advance and do them, up
close.

NAHVERTEIDIGUNGSWAFFE DISCHARGER
The effect of this close defense system was to shot a grenade off over the vehicle; any models in the
area take the normal casualty check. Otherwise, it shoots a grenade sized smoke round in any
direction within 6 of the vehicle. The device should allow you to fire a smoke or HE grenade in any
direction from the AFV, either going off 1 from the vehicle or 4 from the launcher (the distance
kind of depends on the scale of the models you are using). However, this makes the weapon much
too powerful. I would suggest the following:

1. All infantry gut checks for armor add 2 to your die roll if the vehicle has a
Nahverteidigungswaffe.
2. If the crew makes a normal gut check, they may place one grenade sized smoke marker within 1
of the model by having the loader expend one action. It takes another action to reload the weapon.
3. Same for shooting an HE grenade.

SNIPER MORALE CHECKS


How do you treat snipers and their morale checks? Is a lone sniper working without a spotter
treated as a Team of One when he is operating out of the command range of a squad? If so, would he
suffer the normal penalty of making morale checks at half his normal morale rating? As far as I can
see the rules state that snipers work in teams of two and do not allow for solo snipers. This
example would assume that the spotter has been removed from play for some reason. I cant help
feeling that trained snipers would be able to cope better than normal troops when operating on
their own.

ANSWER: Basically as I recall it, solo snipers can only choose 1 option of the sniper special ability,
either the damage modifier or the target selection. This also applies to sniper teams reduced to 1
model.

Snipers in "lairs" (pre-designated positions) get to declare 2 or 3 at set up) get the full sniper
concealment bonus and suffer no solo penalty (its a prepared position so they feel more secure). If
they displace, and are not in another designated lair. They become teams of one. I think snipers
never suffer hasty cover modifier, as they are trained (or at least have learned via ON THE JOB
TRAINING to find the best concealment available).

Also, consider a Sniper as self leading since they do their thing with no officer. No penalty for
being alone except the one below. Just because they displace shouldnt make them a team of one.
It will make it easier to see them.

INMOBILIZED AFV AND PUSHING


What is the distance an AFV can push an immobilized AFV? We had a tank that became stuck near
a bridge and we couldnt find anything in the rules for moving the stuck piece off the road.

ANSWER: In most cases an immobilized tank becomes part of the terrain, unless a large enough
vehicle can find the luck to be pushing a much smaller or non-armored vehicle. I was toying with
using the Vehicle Ramming Chart in Tankers Challenge to gauge the success of moving a vehicle. It
would take 2 actions just to line up your vehicle, to minimize any damage. Once you are in position
try rolling on the chart for success. If you fail there is a chance for engine/transmission damage. I
have not worked out the bugs on this one (thinking of using an engine save roll based on the crew
Morale Value). I would never allow a smaller vehicle to push a larger one or a vehicle that has
severe track/suspension damage (this would take a recovery vehicle). For an immobilized AFV there
should be no movement, however, depending on the reason for being immobilized, an AFV may be
able to pivot in place. Of course if being immobilized is due to engine failure and not track damage
then no movement at all should be allowed. Remember you may be able to fix damaged tracks
exposing your crew. A vehicle of equal or greater weight may push an immobilized vehicle of equal
or lesser weight movement rate per action.

It would take 2 actions just to line up your vehicle, to minimize any damage. Once you are in
position try rolling on the chart for success. If you fail there is a chance for engine/transmission
damage.

Regarding immobilized vehicles, there are several different types in WW2, broken down into:
Unarmored, wheeled
Unarmored, half-tracked
Unarmored, full tracked;

And corresponding to the soft-skins;


Armored, wheeled
Armored, half-tracked
Armored, full tracked

Wheeled vehicles can be pushed by other wheeled vehicles and any half-tracked or full tracked
vehicle on a hard surface. If in mud... a wheeled vehicle can only be pushed by a full tracked vehicle.

Half-tracked and full tracked vehicles can only be pushed by another half-tracked or full tracked
vehicle of less weight if on hard ground, or of equal weight or heavier weight on soft ground, mud, or
snow.

Pushed vehicles generally will NOT go straight, so roll a D6 when pushing.

1-2 goes straight


3-4 goes to the right
5-6 goes to the left

If any wheel or track damage is all on one side, then the vehicle will move to the same side as the
damage when pushed.

Pushed vehicles, unless a soft-skin wheeled vehicle on a hard surface with no wheel or tire damage,
may only be pushed for a distance equal to the pushed vehicles length. This is normally far enough
to get it off a road. By the time the vehicle is pushed its length it will on a 3-4 or 5-6 be
perpendicular to the pushing vehicle.
In mud, when pushing, multiply the chance for the pushed vehicle to be stuck by four and roll for
the pushing vehicle at twice the normal chance. Stuck vehicles may only be pushed by full tracked
vehicles and the full tracked vehicle then multiplies its chance of getting stuck by four.

It takes the driver two actions to line up his vehicle to push another vehicle.

Towing. This is the normal way to move a stuck or knocked out vehicle.

To tow another vehicle the towing vehicle must be within its vehicle length of the immobilized
vehicle. At least two crew members must be dismounted from their vehicle(s) to hook up tow cables.
It takes eight actions total to remove two tow cables and hook both of them to the immobilized
vehicle and the towing vehicle. During this time neither vehicle may move.

Wheeled vehicles may tow another wheeled vehicle on solid flat ground and on any other ground, or
up or down a hill only if the towing vehicle is double the weight of the vehicle being towed, or more.
Half-tracked and full tracked vehicles half the weight or more of the vehicle being towed may tow
any wheeled vehicle. Half-tracked and full tracked vehicles have to be equal to the weight or more of
a tracked vehicle to tow it.

Tracked vehicles require two to four crewmen or recovery specialists a total of twelve actions to
prepare the immobilized vehicle for towing by opening maintenance/inspection plates and
disconnecting the final drives. Tracked vehicles cannot be towed if the final drives are connected.(in
effect, this is equal to putting a wheeled vehicle into neutral)

Vehicles towing another vehicle are limited to 1/2 normal speed and double any chance for
breakdown or bogging.

CREW EXPOSED MODIFIER


What are the modifiers to hit an exposed commander or crew member? Do you use the partial
tank/gun shield modifier, or is there another number?

ANSWER: Exposed commanders receive the +5 Vehicle Cover Modifier.

U.S. AFV NUMBERING SYSTEM


Id like to add vehicle numbering to the turrets and/or hulls on my American Shermans, tank
destroyers, armored cars etc.. However, I havent been able to pin down the specifics of a uniform
numbering system that may have been in use at the time.

ANSWER: The marking system wasnt uniform and varies from front to front and unit to unit. Here
are a few examples:
1st Armored (Anzio): First letter of tank name indicated company, a number of vertical red bars on
the barrel and turret rear indicated platoon.

2nd Armored (Normandy): On turret side a company letter, a dash, platoon number, and finally
tank number. A company commanders tank had just the company letter and then dash one.
Example: E-1. This is similar to the German way but the Germans numbered their companies
(panzer and infantry ones), they didnt use letters to designate them.

4th Armored (France) - On the hull side towards the read, had a single vertical bar broken into one,
two or three sections to indicate platoon.

1st Armored (Italy) - Had colored bands painted on the barrel. One band for the platoon number
and red, white, yellow or blue colour for first through fourth company in each Battalion.

14th Armored (Germany) - In small writing on the barrel, 14 40T A-18 for 14th division, 40th
tank battalion, A company, 18th tank. The is delta.

12th Armored (France) - Battalion was indicated by a horizontal bar either pointing up for 23rd
tank Bn, straight for 43rd, or upwards pointing (like a chevron) for the 714. A company letter was
above the line and a number of small circles indicating platoon was below it.

11th Armored (Rhineland) - Actually put some a number of small red lines on the turret star
indicating company and dots around the star indicating platoon.

As you can see, there is not uniform pattern. Your best bet is to either research a particular
armoured division or just make up your own along similar lines.

ANTITANK ROCKET TEAMS SPOTTING


Are there any modifiers/special rules when trying to spot infantry firing antitank rockets (Bazookas,
Panzerfausts)? I would have thought it was much easier to observe them, more than infantry
firing small arms?
ANSWER: Bazookas give off quite a back-blast. Anyone in normal sight should automatically spot
them. As to targets the bazooka should spot normally.

OFFBOARD ARTILLERY DEVIATION


If a side has off-board artillery support, does the player roll for deviation as normal from the desired
impact point?
ANSWER: Yes, off-board artillery should make adjustment rolls, unless the scenarios allow for pre-
registered fires by tubes directly in support.

DELAYED ARTILLERY FIRE MISSIONS


Can you request artillery off board in turn two, to fire say in turn 5? And could you then request a 1
turn fire mission in turn 3 to land in turn 4?
ANSWER: To delay fire, some rule systems require a battery access number as well as radio
contact. Once access has been gained then a contact number should be rolled if you want to delay so
as to simulate no correction if contact is lost. Of course if you have a field phone this number should
be automatic unless enemy artillery has fired. Remember, as the GM you set the details.

FIELDS AND LINE OF SIGHT


What is sight range through a field of crops? We were playing 3.
ANSWER: Crops, well 3 sounds fine, but behind cucumbers you may have a problem, corn or wheat
make better cover. If the spotter is above, say a second or 3 story window this should be changed
unless targets are prone.

STATISTICS FOR THE FALLSCHIMMJAEGER-GEWEHR 42


We have been know to use the LMG statistics for this weapon as it was used as the FJ saw, but in
reality it works more like an AR due to it no using ammo belts but magazines. I think Bgww2 data
for it is as Automatic Rifle statistics: RoF 3, Rifle Ranges, Jam 20. This weapon was almost
exclusive to the FJ units and were used frequently in the Western Front battles. Dont think it could
use the standard German rifle grenade adapter but it had a bayonet lug so be sure to get that close
combat bonus when you charge.

The FG42 uses the same caliber ammo as the MG42. There is information in NORMANDY
NIGHTMARE in the weapons section about the FG42. It does not give a rate of fire though. We use
RoF2 in the LMG Range.

The FG42 fires as a PMG. The special modifiers are listed in the BATTLEWIRE 6.

FG42 normally used a magazine. I would use it as an assault rifle rather then the LMG table. As a
full automatic weapon it wasnt that accurate as it was too light for the recoil at full auto, and they
had some trouble with the bipod.

The ammunition is the same as used in the MG34 & 42 and the Kar 98k. No, it couldnt use belted
ammo. It was actually very rare for a MG to use both belted and box mag ammo. To get around this
for the MG34, they actually rolled a bit of belt and put it into a drum. That way you could fire it on
the move. However, the bolt mechanism, with the MG42 feed system, is used in the original M60
LMG.

Classify as an assault rifle. I would recommend using BGWW2 characteristics for it as an assault
rifle with AR statistics: RoF 3, Rifle ranges, Jam 20.

CUMULATIVE LIGHT WOUNDS


I was wondering if a model receives a second light wound, how is this handled? Ive been treating it
as a heavy wound and take the model out of play. Is this correct?

ANSWER: Yes, the wounds are cumulative. When running smaller games, try using this in addition
to the Medic and Man Down rules. This makes the use of snipers in a town very inviting.

HESH ROUNDS
HESH or High Explosive Squash Head. This round should have a penetration number against
armour as it was designed to take out concrete bunkers. Against a tank it has the following effects:

1. If it hits armor, it spalls over it. The shell has a delay action fuse and the explosive is plastic in
consistency held together by mesh. The effect is for the explosive to plaster itself against the target
and then explode. The result is a shock wave which knocks off chunks from the inside of the
vehicle/pillbox at high speeds. Takes out the crew.

2. If it hits something other then armor, say a storage bin, the result is a real big boom with no
armour penetration but HE blast effects, plus what shrapnel the thin case and the bin make. It also
tends to damage anything on that side of the vehicle on the outside and including vision blocks,
antennae, etc..

3. Spaced armour will stop the spalling but not the blast effects. Where we use a HEAT-MP 120mm
tank round now (High Explosive Anti-Tank Multi-Purpose) which is a shaped charge with a
fragmentation shell as a secondary anti-tank round/anti-personnel round (the reason for the Frag
component) the British use HESH as their HE round.

In case you are wondering why reloading the vehicle removes the armour cover for the crew (turret
crew actually) it is because the Petard is a muzzle loader.

MULTIPLE RoF GUN JAMS


On page 13, it is stated that if the Jam Number is rolled while rolling To Hit dice, the gun is
jammed.

QUESTION: As many weapons have a RoF of more than 1, are...

a) all dice rolled at the same time (if any Jam Number is rolled, the gun is jammed starting from
the next action);

b) all of their individual RoF dice rolled one after another, and if any shot rolls the Jam Number, all
remaining RoF shots are lost?
ANSWER: Option B. We use different colour dice and call out the order of the burst. This way we
know when the jam occurred or what Rifle in a group jammed. You can have lots of different
coloured dice, and use the Roy G Biv sequence to determine where the jams occur. I warn the
players ties always go against them, so it is up to them to make sure they have the correct dice. At
most your rolling 5 dice so its not too hard.

HOW DOES THE NO QUARTER RULE WORK?


I have severe trouble understanding the "No Quarter" Chart on page (Infantry) 3. To use an
example: A Russian unit and a German unit (both regular, Morale 10) are fighting each other. A
German soldier surrenders. The Russians refuse surrender and gun down the surrendering soldier.
Now, BOTH sides have to make Morale Checks, right?

German Morale Check: NO QUARTER (by Germans for Russians) in effect on die-roll of 2-20 (95%),
as own soldier killed (half morale) and +4 vs. Russians. Russian Morale Check: NO QUARTER (by
Russians against Germans) in effect on Die-roll of 6-20 (75%), as enemy soldier killed (morale) and
+4 vs. Germans. Right? Yes? No? Why?

As I understand the modifiers, fanatic units like German SS are LESS likely to put NO QUARTER
into effect. Can this be true?)

ANSWER: I dont know the exact rules for NO QUARTER, however, that late war battles between
Russian and Germans, the rule should always be in effect. SS against any adversary, it could be in
effect. Late war Poles against Germans, NO QUARTER should be a strong possibility as the Poles
in particular were not merciful. Marines against Japanese is a no-brainer for either side. With the
exception of Okinawa there were only small numbers of Japanese prisoners and most of those were
either island natives or Koreans. Even the ones that were taken were because HQ offered R&R in
exchange for prisoners.

As to how, add 4 to the morale of the troops in the fight (this does not make them Elite). Nobody
should be allowed under normal circumstances to shoot prisoners. If you do, the SS should be
around somewhere either as the shooters or the victims. Americans rarely fight to the death except
in cases like Nijmegen, and Chenaux (paratroopers) and something should really piss them off or
when their back are up against the wall (PTO).

I dont think any game can take into account every aspect of real life but most of what you do can be
set up in your scenario to accurately reflect something that happened in real life or what was likely
to happen. Elite troops or hot heads (Irish, Scotts and Russians) wont take things well if atrocities
happen in open sight... morale check time... no mercy! People dont surrender if they know they are
going to die anyway.
ANOTHER ANSWER: The way that I understand the rules for NO QUARTER is this. When NO
QUARTER is in effect troops that fail a morale check and would normally surrender (because they
are too close to enemy or surrounded) instead will become fanatics. This means that they will no
longer take morale checks. They are not elite, but are not going to surrender. As to how NO
QUARTER becomes invoked, that I do not fully understand. I know that it can be invoked if one side
kills a POW (from morale check or Craven Coward), but the chart in the book is for forcing NO
QUARTER on your own troops. I would imagine that it has to be invoked by an officer or something.
You can also state in the scenario that NO QUARTER is in effect.

The hint on the +4 raise on morale makes sense, I thought before that would be a +4 modifier on the
morale check (in effect, lowering the morale). So now, SS troops are more prone to call out NO
QUARTER, and that makes sense.

In late war battles between Russian and Germans, the rule should always be in effect. SS against
any adversary, it could be in effect. Late war Poles against Germans, NO QUARTER should be a
strong possibility as the Poles in particular were not merciful. Marines against Japanese is a no
brainer for either side. With the exception of Okinawa there were only small numbers of Japanese
prisoners and most of those were either island natives or Koreans. Even the ones that were taken
were because HQ offered R&R in exchange for prisoners.

As to how does it work, add 4 to the morale of the troops in the fight (this does not make them elite).
Nobody should be allowed under normal circumstances to shoot prisoners. If you do, the SS should
be around somewhere either as the shooters or the victims. Americans rarely fight to the death
except in cases like Njmegan, and Chenaux (paratroopers) and something should really piss them
off or when their back are up against the wall (pacific). I dont think any game can take into account
every aspect of real life but most of what you do can be set up in your scenario to accurately reflect
something that happened in real life or what was likely to happen. Elite troops or hot heads (Irish,
Scotts and Russians) wont take things well if atrocities happen in open sight... morale check time...
no mercy! People dont surrender if they know they are going to die anyway.

The way that I understand the rules for NO QUARTER is this. When NO QUARTER is in effect
troops that fail a morale check and would normally surrender (because they are too close to enemy
or surrounded) instead will become fanatics. This means that they will no longer take morale
checks. They are not elite, but are not going to surrender. As to how NO QUARTER becomes
invoked, that I do not fully understand. I know that it can be invoked if one side kills a POW (from
morale check or craven coward), but the chart in the book is for forcing NO QUARTER on your own
troops. I would imagine that it has to be invoked by an officer or something. You can also state in
the scenario that NO QUARTER is in effect.

Example: A Russian unit and a German unit (both regular, Morale 10) are fighting against each
other. A German soldier surrenders. The Russians refuse surrender and gun down the surrendering
soldier. Now, both sides have to make Morale Checks. German Morale Check: NO QUARTER (by
Germans for Russians) in effect on die roll of 2-20 (95%), as own soldier killed (1/2 morale) and +4
vs. Russians; Russian Morale Check: NO QUARTER (by Russians against Germans) in effect on die
roll of 6-20 (75%), as enemy soldier killed (morale) and +4 vs. Germans. As I understand the
modifiers, fanatic units like German SS are less likely to put NO QUARTER into effect.

Another Example: A German model shot down a surrendering Canadian paratrooper (yes, there
was a Canadian battalion attached to the 6th Airborne Division, believe it or not); this invoked the
NO QUARTER/Fanatic rule. My question is: When the side that has had this atrocity perpetrated
against it (in this case the Canadians) rolls on the NO QUARTER chart if they roll less than the
number indicated (we used the US chart for lack of a British one) do they go Fanatic? Or do they go
Fanatic if they roll higher? The rules don't specify (or at least we couldn't find it), but when this
happens we assumed that any friendly model in line of sight to this event makes the check. Is this
correct? If a model becomes Fanatic a number of questions present themselves: Is that model
Fanatic for the balance of the game? The rules mention that the model must advance towards an
enemy that is within two actions' movement. Does this mean that if there are no enemy within the
two actions' movement the Fanatic model does not have to advance until an enemy model does move
into this range? If an enemy model does not move into this range, does the Fanatic model remain
Fanatic nonetheless (i.e.: the Fanatic model could remain stationary or move away from the enemy
to avoid having to make this compulsory move)? When does this compulsory move occur?
Immediately, thereby possibly affording that model extra movement in the turn if his card has
already been turned up? Or does the Fanatic model need to wait until his card turns up in that turn
or any subsequent turn?

THROWING HAND GRENADES


I can tell you based on real life a prone soldier can throw a hand grenade almost as far as sitting,
kneeling, squatting , or standing soldier can. My own practical experience is limited to USA
pineapple grenades, M-26 frag grenades, baseball frag grenades (sorry cannot remember the
model number, these were just appearing in combat when I left the RVN) smoke cannister
grenades, concussion cannister grenades, and short handled Soviet and Chinese Communist made
stick grenades with pineapple frags on top of the stick.

Old landsers told me that the German stick grenades could be thrown further than the German
egg grenade, USA, British, or French grenades. Same for Russian stick grenades, these could be
thrown further than the Russian pineapple or other grenades. Also told me USA grenade was the
most powerful and deadly, with the French being next best.

As for readying a grenade prior to throwing it, I think this is very reasonable. More than one
soldier has botched a grenade preparation or throw in combat, resulting in injury or death to self, or
causing fatalities or injuries among friends instead of enemies. Hand grenades are useful but
dangerous weapons that require training, thought and a cool head to use.
We have a house rule that if you roll a 20 on a grenade roll and fail a morale check, its tossed back
at you and if it hits... oh well. Otherwise the grenade is a dud. At any rate, misses are dealt with by
rolling a D6 and a random directional die and seeing where it lands. This simulates random toss
backs and misses like window throws that bounce off the building or any number of other random
things that happen. Thats one of the reasons 203 rounds have gyro detonator activation so the firer
doesnt blow himself up (tree limbs, too close, etc. ...).

QUESTION: Can a prone soldier throw a grenade? If so, what modifiers for the to hit/ range should
there be?
ANSWER: We always count this as taking an action. This means that if they are under a special
fire, they will take a to hit roll. Otherwise, we use no modifier. What I might suggest is allowing the
model to retain its prone modifier, but have it take two actions to throw the grenade. The house
rules that we use allow us to throw a grenade while prone 2 (use the same modifiers as when
standing).

So, from the various range bands in the game, what would you say is the most reasonable range.
Also I make the player take an action to ready a grenade, that is get it out to throw. Its a separate
action to throw it.

GRENADE THROWING WHEN PRONE


It seems that prone soldiers can throw grenades at the same distance and with the same accuracy
as standing soldiers. Is that true, or did I miss something?

ANSWER: I can tell you, based on real life, that a prone soldier can throw a hand grenade almost as
far as sitting, kneeling, squatting, or standing soldier can. Old landsers told me that the German
stick grenades could be thrown further than the German egg grenade, USA, British or French
grenades. Ditto Russian stick grenades could be thrown further than the Russian pineapple or
other grenades. Also told me USA grenade was the most powerful and deadly, with the French
being next best.

We have a house rule that if you roll a 20 on a grenade roll and fail a morale check, its tossed back
at you and if it hits... oh well. Otherwise the grenade is a dud. At any rate, misses are dealt with by
rolling a D6 and a random directional die and seeing where it lands. This simulates random toss
backs and misses like window throws that bounce off the building or any number of other random
things that happen. Thats one of the reasons 203 rounds have gyro detonator activation so the
shooter doesnt blow himself up (tree limbs, too close, etc. ...).

HAND GRENADE THROWING


Can a prone soldier throw a grenade? If so, what modifiers for the to hit/ range should there be?
ANSWER: We always count this as taking an action. This means that if they are under a special
fire, they will take a to hit roll. Otherwise, we use no modifier. What I might suggest is allowing the
model to retain its prone modifier, but have it take two actions to throw the grenade. The house
rules that we use allow us to throw a grenade while prone 2 (use the same modifiers as when
standing).

MORE ON HAND GRENADES


What about make the player take an action to ready a grenade, that is get it out to throw? It would
be a separate action to throw it.

ANSWER: Readying a grenade prior to throwing it, I think this is very reasonable. More than one
soldier has botched a grenade prep or throw in combat, resulting in injury or death to self, or
causing fatalities or injuries among friends instead of enemies. Hand grenades are useful but
dangerous weapons that require training, thought and a cool head to use. A separate action to
prepare the grenade sounds really reasonable. A soldier would need some time to shoulder his rifle
and get the grenade ready to throw. I will use this one-action rule in our group from now on.

ARTILLERY BARRAGE ON VEHICLE TOP


Which armor protection value (Hull Front, Hull Turret, etc..) do you use against artillery hits (or
any other hits against the top of a vehicle)?

ANSWER: Isnt there a top armor hit location chart? For all mortars and for off-table artillery you
would use the top hit location, otherwise the side facing the gun. The original rules just mention the
top hit locations, but provide no values for them. In the Armor Rule Update section in the back of
the rule book, they mention how to handle them (former rear armor = new top armor).

COMMENT: Just from reading the rules, the effectiveness of indirect artillery fire vs. armored
vehicles (including tanks) strikes me as vastly exaggerated.

For example, a small German 50mm mortar shell (HE value of 10) has a 35% chance to penetrate
the top armor of a T34 (top armor value of 3; 10-3 = 7 or less to penetrate = 35%).

I know that artillery did frequently damage the engine by means of shrapnel and concussion effects
after a engine deck hit, but penetrating the armour with such a small caliber, that is even fired
indirectly (i.e. in a loop), seems way too much for me.

ANSWER: Artillery much too effective against tanks!? Keep in mind that it is very hard to actually
hit an AFV with indirect fire. Even if the AFV is successfully targeted, a 1 or 2 on a D6 must be
rolled to hit the AFV. Page 7 of the artillery rules.
True, it is indeed hard to hit a tank. Still, I doubt that a small calibre mortar HE shell would have
enough penetrating (or blast) power to pierce through the deck of a T34 or Panzer IV...

Usually with mortars and HE fired by Artillery, the shell is a plunging shot. That is hitting from a
high angle and the most damage comes from hitting the grating over the engine compartment.
Although the top surfaces of most tanks is very thin, so a penetrating hit is very possible.

SKI TROOPS
ANSWER: Ski troops move normally in snow (in deep snow it is almost impossible to move without
skis or snowshoes). Ski troops fire on the move as moving firers. Ski troops take an action point to
put on or remove their skis. Ski troops normally are in white camo, so if stationary are considered
in camouflage.

QUESTION: Does a sighting attempt happen before each action or once before both actions are
taken? Situation: A model is 3" from a corner. There is nothing to sight before his first action. On
the first action the model moves to the corner. Does he get a sighting attempt before the second
action so he can fire? Or does he wait until the next turn to sight something around the corner?

ANSWER: The rule of thumb that I use is that if it is something that can easily be seen, I allow
them to spot it instantly. If not, I have them wait till their next action. This is to simulate the idea
that they have just ran to that area and have only had enough time for a quick glance... You should
use common sense. A camouflaged fighting position is not a tank, or a guard having a smoke.
Armored vehicles, especially buttoned up ones, should not be able to see well. When I GM the game,
I roll to see who sees what if it is not too obvious...

Sighting occurs for free before each action, hence two sighting checks. In your example, the model
does get a sighting check but sees nothing prior to the first action. But imagine an opposing model
who had just ran around the corner in some type of cover. You would not get to see them unless they
are spotted first. So in your situation there is nothing to see but you still get a sighting check..

As he goes around the corner for his first action the opposing player(s) may take shots if the have
special fires set, other wise once around the corner he gets to spot again prior to his second action.
And yes he could spot if successful a concealed position and fire on them if spotted but based on
range etc.. they will most likely not be spotted unless the enemy had fired or moved.

Imagine spotting before the first action, player sees nothing, then he runs around the corner, doesnt
get shot but sees an MG42 firing away at another target across the street. He then spends his
second action climbing through a window to get out of the line of sight or he could fire at the MG42
team that is firing across the street but remain out in the open.
Anytime that the chart says AQ then the target is automatically acquired and no spotting check is
required, otherwise a player should but doesnt have to spot first, always as a free action, and before
the action is taken, for each of his two actions.

Remember that normally you dont spot for individual guys and you only get a 45 degree angle of an
area to spot. So if the bulk of my squad wants to look left and my single guy wants to look right he
will have to wait or the rest of the group will have to until the action to spot.

Page 4 of core rules under the heading Sighting Checks, second sentence, Any unit may make a
Sighting Check at the beginning of every action. Then goes on to talk about sighting as a group.
Remember every model gets 2 actions a turn. Also a squad leader may use his binoculars and forfeit
his movement/shooting etc.. in exchange for a bonus on the sighting chart.

LEADERSHIP MODIFIERS
QUESTION: A leader can always use his Leadership Modifier to influence HIS OWN firing and
morale / skill / gut checks. For example, a 12-1 leader would still pass a morale check with a roll of
13.

ANSWER: A 12-1 leaders morale is still 12, unless a higher echelon leader with higher morale, say
a 14-1 platoon Ldr, is there to influence his morale check. Lower or equal leaders should not
influence morale of like or higher rank leaders. The modifier is used in directing fire (crew served
weapons) or close combat, not directing their own fire. Directing fire is considered an action like an
FO calling for fire or adjusting fire. Remember that Directing fire is considered an action so the
leader cannot do anything else for that action. A leader cannot modify his own morale check. A
leader will modify morale of other troops. Also, I play suppression takes 1 action to remove. It can
be any action, excluding aiming or shooting. This makes suppression more effective.

In a squad where you have a 12 -1 leader he can either for go shooting and modify the to hit or effect
of any weapon in the squad. Either a MG or a SMG or a Rifle etc. That would be due to him
directing his squad to take advantage of certain exploitable situations that they may have missed. If
a squad member needs to make a morale check and they are in command range then we also allow
the squad members to use the 1 during morale checks. The commander may never use his own -1.
If he could then it would have been modeld into his profile. In many cases a commander might be a
14-1 in this case his morale is better than his troops if they are still a 12 and it has been modeld in.
Just because you can direct MG fire doesnt mean that you are any better at shooting than the next
guy.

Another instance where we do not allow the -1 to be made is in vehicles. For example, in a lot of
cases an entire tank crew will be 14-1. If the whole crew is required to make a morale check or be
killed then we do not allow them to help each other as it is all happening at once and they are all of
equal skill and morale meaning that one would not be any better than the other.
To go along with what you are saying in regards to tank commanders with modifiers, tank
commanders can direct fire and receive the modifier during the roll to hit portion of the action or
they may use their modifier to adjust the hit location, the number of spaces equal to the modifier. a
-2 leader can adjust the hit location two spaces. Very, very effective way to knock out enemy tanks
through damaged guns or immobilisation.

I agree but the adjustment should be used on the any subsequent shot after the first shot. The
negative modifier being used on the to hit chart seems fair for the first shot. Its seems practicable
( especially at table ranges) that the TC should be able to adjust fire after he sees the shot strike. Of
course, if you missed the first time there would be nothing to register.

I have consistently used a house rule limiting the tank commanders ability to adjust the hit
location using his modifier to fire ONLY at short range. I can see the commander and the gunner
directing fire at close range but not at 1500 meters.

On the other hand, I have read of Canadian Sherman tankers firing at and hitting a 4 high (by
about 5 foot wide) location on a tank consistently (from a stationary firing position) at 800 meters.
The location being the bottom of a Panthers gun mantle.

The modifier is used in directing fire (crew served weapons) or LEADING troops in close combat,
not directing their own fire. Directing fire is considered an action like an FO calling for fire or
adjusting fire. Remember that Directing fire is considered an action so the leader cannot do
anything else for that action.

We have argued the leadership modifier many times in my own group. Our official take on it is a
couple of things. In a squad where you have a 12-1 leader he can either for go shooting and modify
the to hit or effect of any weapon in the squad. Either a MG or a SMG or a Rifle etc. That would be
due to him directing his squad to take advantage of certain exploitable situations that they may
have missed. If a squad member needs to make a morale check and they are in command range then
we also allow the squad members to use the 1 during morale checks. The commander may never
use his own -1. If he could then it would have been included in his profile. In many cases a
commander might be a 14 -1 in this case his morale is better than his troops if they are still a 12
and it has been figured in. Just because you can direct MG fire doesnt mean that you are any better
at shooting than the next guy.

Another instance where we do not allow the -1 to be made is in vehicles. For example, in a lot of
cases an entire tank crew will be 14-1. If the whole crew is required to make a morale check or be
killed then we do not allow them to help each other as it is all happening at once and they are all of
equal skill and morale meaning that one would not be any better than the other.
AFV CREW MORALE CHECKS
QUESTION: When some members of a tank crew leave their tank and break in combat, any
remaining crew members in that tank and that fail the crew morale check break AND ABANDON
their tank.
ANSWER: Usually on a crew morale check, the tank will withdraw. However, if they can not
effectively crew the tank, then they would abandon it.

QUESTION: A tank which engine is on fire (for example, by a very successful Grenade on engine
deck attack) forces the crew to bail out and abandon the tank on their next available action.
ANSWER: Depends on morale check. If it is successful, they can either stay or abandon the tank.

WEAPON USAGE
QUESTION: A soldier can take a weapon from a comrade that is heavily wounded or KIA.
ANSWER: Yes, however, there is a penalty for non-qualified use if it is a support weapon such as an
MG. We also allow squad members to man MGs once the original guy is KIA etc. but it does take an
action to pick up the weapon and maybe one or more to move there. This does not apply to
Panzershrecks or ATGs.

QUESTION: Taking a weapon from comrade takes one action.


ANSWER: Yes. I play one action to acquire a weapon, generally any squad member can operate any
squad weapon, I assume non-squad weapons would suffer the non-qualified penalty. The only thing
I would add is that for Elite forces such as airborne there are no penalties for non-qualified use -
representing the extensive cross training that went on.

QUESTION: A soldier can take a weapon from a comrade that is heavily wounded or KIA.
ANSWER: Yes, however, there is a penalty for non-qualified use if it is a support weapon such as an
MG. I play one action to acquire a weapon, generally any squad member can operate any squad
weapon, I assume non-squad weapons would suffer the non-qualified penalty. We also allow squad
members to man MGs once the original guy is KIA etc. but it does take an action to pick up the
weapon and maybe one or more to move there. This does not apply to Panzershrecks, ATGs etc.

QUESTION: Taking a weapon from comrade takes one action.


ANSWER: Yes.

BREAKS AND ROUTS


QUESTION: A PRONE unit that breaks RISES AND RUNS two actions of movement towards cover
(which would normally cost an unbroken unit three actions).
ANSWER: Yes.
QUESTION: A broken unit drops prone / runs toward cover AFTER all firing of the current action
has been completed. Example: Five riflemen fire at a single enemy unit. The first firer breaks the
enemy. All other four could fire BEFORE the enemy drops prone / runs away.
ANSWER: Yes. All fire in an action is considered simultaneous.

QUESTION: A broken unit that runs away and reaches cover after the FIRST action of movement
drops prone and stays there. In other words, units do NOT have to move two full actions when they
reach cover earlier.
ANSWER: Yes. Once they reach cover they no longer have to flee unless their cover is compromised.

QUESTION: A unit that breaks may choose to drop prone and crawl away instead of (rising and)
running away.
ANSWER: I have not seen this. From what I can understand, they must break and run. Also, if an
enemy intentionally targets a broken unit, then they invoke the NO QUARTER rule.

QUESTION: A PRONE unit that breaks RISES AND RUNS two actions of movement towards cover
(which would normally cost an unbroken unit three actions).
ANSWER: Yes. I only allow wounded troopers one action when fleeing from a failed morale check.
After all they are wounded and it will take longer to get to cover. The rules state that all movement
restrictions are should be modeld in such as climbing over a wall or moving through deep snow or
being wounded.

QUESTION: A broken unit drops prone / runs toward cover AFTER all firing of the current action
has been completed. Example: Five riflemen fire a single enemy unit. The first firer breaks the
enemy. All other four could fire BEFORE the enemy drops prone / runs away.
ANSWER: Yes. All fire in an action is considered simultaneous.

QUESTION: A broken unit that runs away and reaches cover after the FIRST action of movement
drops prone and stays there. In other words, units do NOT have to move two full actions when they
reach cover earlier.
ANSWER: Yes. Once they reach cover they no longer have to flee unless their cover is compromised.

QUESTION: A unit that breaks may choose to drop prone and crawl away instead of (rising and)
running away.
ANSWER: No. From what I can understand, they must break and run. Also, if an enemy
intentionally targets a broken unit, then they invoke the NO QUARTER rule. Im not sure about the
NO QUARTER part for shooting at broken models. The rules state NO QUARTER is given when
troops who surrender are shot at, a broken unit is not surrendering and the enemy will not know
why they are running away, Are they broken, a strategic withdraw, rout, I have to go to the
bathroom?
QUESTION: A soldier that is LIGHT WOUNDED (only 1 action per turn allowed) still runs TWO
actions away when broken.
ANSWER: No. Also I play Suppression takes 1 action to remove. It can be any action, excluding
aiming or shooting. This makes suppression more effective. I only allow wounded troopers one
action when fleeing from a failed morale check. After all they are wounded and it will take longer to
get to cover. The rules state that all movement restrictions apply, such as climbing over a wall or
moving through deep snow or being wounded.

QUESTION: When a unit breaks close to its own board edge and has no +3 cover available to run
to, it exits the board and my NOT re-enter during the game.
ANSWER: Once again up to the GM, but generally, yes.

QUESTION: A unit that moved two actions and breaks after the second action still runs away for
two actions (in other words, fleeing movement is always free regardless of earlier movement).
ANSWER: Yes.

HIT DISTRIBUTION
QUESTION: Soldiers that are heavily wounded or KIA are no longer considered valid targets for hit
distribution AFTER the action in which they were wounded / killed.
ANSWER: Yes, they are still potential targets for all shots in that action, but after that, they can be
removed.

QUESTION: When any members of a tank crew break in combat and abandon their tank, any
remaining crew members in that tank that fail the subsequent CREW morale check will break AND
ABANDON their tank.
ANSWER: Usually on a failed crew morale check, the tank will withdraw. However, if the crew can't
effectively man the tank, then they will abandon it.

QUESTION: Soldiers that are heavily wounded or KIA are no longer considered valid targets for hit
distribution AFTER the action in which they were wounded / killed.
ANSWER: Yes, they are still potential targets for all shots in that action, but after that, they can be
removed.

In regards to KIA and HW characters being removed we would generally wait until the end of the
second action of the firing squad before any troops were removed. For example if a squad take two
actions of fire we generally roll up all hits for both actions. Then we roll up the effects and distribute
them. Ultimately it doesnt matter which one of these two routes you take as long as you are
consistent and both players work it this way as you are both under the same restrictions and rules.
The way we see it is two actions of fire is not very long and in many cases squad members would
have called out targets and taken all of their fire at those targets. The way we think about it is in
real life there are not seamless actions that happen every minute or so that are like turns so the
last shot from action one and the first shot from action two are likely to be so close together that
they almost overlap.

COMMANDER EXPOSED
QUESTION: Any commander that is Commander Exposed receives the Partial Armor cover of
+5 vs. any small arms fire from any direction.
ANSWER: Correct, unless the vehicles data chart has some special rules that say otherwise.

U.S. SMOKE GRENADES


QUESTION: Does anyone know of the scale of issue (if any) of smoke grenades in the US Army in
Normandy?

ANSWER: Spearheading D-Day by Histoire & Collections is an excellent source of information


regarding equipment used by the US Army on D-Day. The load diagram of the assault boat shows
the position of each person (30 men total) and their equipment. The Boat Team Leader had 6
coloured smoke grenades for signalling or concealment and 1 smoke grenade. The rifle team (5 men)
had 3 smoke grenades and 1 M7 grenade launcher with 10 smoke grenades. The wire cutting team
(4 men) had 1 smoke grenade. The flame-thrower team (2 men) had 4 smoke grenades. The
demolition team (5 men) had 1 smoke grenade. The Asst. Boat Team Leader had 2 smoke grenades.

The support boat (2nd wave): The team leader had 6 colored and 1 standard. The rifle team (5 men)
had 3 smoke grenades and 1 M7 w/ 3 smoke grenades. The wire cutting team (4 men) had 1. The
demolition team (5 men) had 1. The Asst. team leader had 2.

The list for the incoming waves appears to be either engineers or as likely, assault troops equipped
especially for the landing.

The book U.S. Army Infantry Divisions 1943-1945 Vol. 1 Organization, Doctrine and Equipment
by Yves J. Bellanger provides a list of equipment for the Infantry platoon.

There are no grenades listed. Grenades launchers are. Platoon HQ has 1 with the Platoon Guide
(Platoon Leaders eyes). Each squad had three, one with the assistant squad leader, 2 more in the
squad.

Interesting. I have two good books on the U.S. WWII armed forces. The named book lists equipment
down to toothbrushes, but the basic ammo load isnt given. Same for the other book I have, except
for paratroops. They had 4 grenades of which one was smoke (WP), plus ten rifle grenades (in a
bag).

I normally give a squad leader a colored smoke grenade (for signals), a WP grenade, for smoke; and
two defensive grenades (fragmentation). Assistant squad leader has 1 WP smoke grenade and 2
Frag grenades. Each rifleman has two frag grenades except the Rifle grenadiers who have 10 rifle
grenades each, 4 AT and 6 HE.

PUSHING AFVs
A vehicle of equal or greater weight may push an immobilized vehicle of equal or lesser weight 1/2
movement rate per action. It would take 2 actions just to line up your vehicle, to minimize any
damage. Once you are in position try rolling on the chart for success. If you fail there is a chance for
engine/transmission damage.

What is the distance an AFV can move an immobilized AFV? We had a tank that became stuck near
a bridge and we couldnt find anything in the rules for moving the stuck piece off the road.

In most cases an immobilized tank becomes part of the terrain, unless a large enough vehicle can
find the luck to be pushing a much smaller or unarmored vehicle. I was toying with using the
Vehicle Ramming Chart in Tankers Challenge to gauge the success of moving a vehicle. It would
take 2 actions just to line up your vehicle, to minimize any damage. Once you are in position try
rolling on the chart for success. If you fail there is a chance for engine/transmission damage. I have
not worked out the bugs on this one (thinking of using an engine save roll based on the Crew Value,
i.e. Moral).

I would never allow a smaller vehicle to push a larger one or a vehicle that has severe
track/suspension damage (this would take a recovery vehicle). For an immobilized AFV there should
be no movement, however, depending on the reason for being immobilized, an AFV may be able to
pivot in place. Of course if being immobilized is due to engine failure and not track damage then no
movement at all should be allowed. Remember you may be able to fix damaged tracks exposing your
crew.

Regarding immobilized vehicles, there are several different types in WW2, broken down into:

Unarmored, wheeled
Unarmored, half-tracked
Unarmored, full tracked;

And corresponding to the soft-skins;

Armored, wheeled
Armored, half-tracked
Armored, full tracked

Wheeled vehicles can be pushed by other wheeled vehicles and any half-tracked or full tracked
vehicle on a hard surface. If in mud... a wheeled vehicle can only be pushed by a full tracked vehicle.
Half-tracked and full tracked vehicles can only be pushed by another half-tracked or full tracked
vehicle of less weight if on hard ground, or of equal weight or heavier weight on soft ground, mud, or
snow.

Pushed vehicles generally will NOT go straight, so roll a D6 when pushing.

1-2 goes straight


3-4 goes to the right
5-6 goes to the left

If any wheel or track damage is all on one side, then the vehicle will move to the same side as the
damage when pushed.

Pushed vehicles, unless a Soft-skin wheeled vehicle on a hard surface with no wheel or tire damage,
may only be pushed for a distance equal to the pushed vehicles length. This is normally far enough
to get it off a road. By the time the vehicle is pushed its length it will on a 3-4 or 5-6 be
perpendicular to the pushing vehicle.

In mud, when pushing, multiply the chance for the pushed vehicle to be stuck by four and roll for
the pushing vehicle at twice the normal chance. Stuck vehicles may only be pushed by full tracked
vehicles and the full tracked vehicle then multiplies its chance of getting stuck by four.

It takes the driver two actions to line up his vehicle to push another vehicle.

Towing. This is the normal way to move a stuck or knocked-out vehicle.

To tow another vehicle the towing vehicle must be within its vehicle length of the immobilized
vehicle. At least two crew members must be dismounted from their vehicle(s) to hook up tow cables.
It takes eight actions total to remove two tow cables and hook both of them to the immobilized
vehicle and the towing vehicle. During this time neither vehicle may move.

Wheeled vehicles may tow another wheeled vehicle on solid flat ground and on any other ground, or
up or down a hill only if the towing vehicle is 2 x weight of the vehicle being towed, or more. Half-
tracked and full tracked vehicles half the weight or more of the vehicle being towed may tow any
wheeled vehicle. Half-tracked and full tracked vehicles have to be equal to the weight or more of a
tracked vehicle to tow it.

Tracked vehicles require two to four crewmen or recovery specialists a total of twelve actions to
prepare the immobilized vehicle for towing by opening maintenance/inspection plates and
disconnecting the final drives. Tracked vehicles cannot be towed if the final drives are connected (in
effect, this is equal to putting a wheeled vehicle into neutral).

Vehicles towing another vehicle are limited to 1/2 normal speed and double any chance for
breakdown or bogging.

Please try to recover a bogged down Elefant in Italy outside Anzio during a rain storm. A most
interesting operation. Weight of the Elefant is 70 tons.

COMMAND RADIUS
QUESTION: Does the command radius prevent players from moving parts of their squads outside
this? The rules about teams of one, suggest that provided a model is not alone, they can be out of
LOS and command range of their leaders?
ANSWER: Models should move towards their leader, i.e. back into command. I have my own rules
about this however... If a unit is in a pre-designated defensive position, then they should be OK
(until they fail morale). They should take an initiative test to leave this position. These tests should
be reduced or increased based on nationality and quality.

ROCKET ATW BACK-BLAST


QUESTION: Are their any spotting issues with firing a Bazooka? I would have thought it was much
easier to see this, than someone firing a rifle?
ANSWER: Bazookas give off quite a back-blast. Anyone in normal sight should automatically spot
them. As to targets the Bazooka should spot normally.

OFFBOARD ARTILLERY ADJUSTMENT


QUESTION: If a side has off board mortar support firing three tubes, does the player roll for
deviation as normal from the desired impact point?
ANSWER: Yes, off-board artillery should make adjustment rolls, unless the scenarios allow for pre-
registered fires by tubes directly in support.

DELAYED ARTILLERY FIRE MISSIONS


QUESTION: Can you request artillery off board in turn two, to fire say in turn 5? And could you
then request a 1 turn fire mission in turn 3 to land in turn 4?
ANSWER: To delay fire, you might require a battery access number as well as radio contact. Once
access has been gained then a contact number should be rolled if you want to delay so as to simulate
no correction if contact is lost. Of course if you have a field phone this number should be automatic
unless enemy artillery has fired. Remember, as the GM you set the details.

SIGHTING RANGE THRU CROP FIELDS


QUESTION: What is sight range through a field of crops? We were playing 3.
ANSWER: Crops, well 3 sounds fine, but behind cucumbers you may have a problem, corn or wheat
make better cover. If the spotter is above, say a second or 3 story window this should be changed
unless targets are prone.

FALLSCHIMMJAEGER GEWEHR 42
We have been know to use the LMG statistics for this weapon as it was used as the FJs saw, but in
reality it works more like an AR due to it no using ammo belts but magazines. I think EEEs
statistics for it is an AR statistics RoF 3 - Rifle Range - Jam 20. This weapon was almost exclusive
to the FJ units and were used frequently in the Western Front battles. Dont think it could use the
standard German rifle grenade adapter but it had a bayonet lug so be sure to get that close combat
bonus when you charge.

The FG42 uses the same caliber ammo as the MG42. Their is information in Normandy Nightmare
in the weapons section about the FG42. It does not give a rate of fire though. We use RoF 2 in the
LMG Range. The bolt mechanism, with the MG-42 feed system, is used in the original M60 LMG.

Classify as an assault rifle. I would recommend using BGWW2 statistics for it as an assault rifle
with AR statistics RoF 3 - Rifle Range - Jam 20.

CHURCHILL AVRE
Churchill AVRE aka Churchill Petard

The Churchill AVRE (Armored Vehicle Royal Engineers) was armed with a 290mm mortar. It was
used as an assault vehicle versus pillboxes and fortified buildings. Its HESH (High-Explosive
Squash Head) round does not have a penetration number versus armor. In Battleground ww2 it
takes 3 actions to reload, and the crew does not receive armor cover while reloading. 28mm ranges
are minimum range 8, max. range 32. 20mm ranges are 6 inches minimum and 24 inches max.

The AVREs Petard launched the HESH round as if it was a mortar. To determine weather the
round hits. Roll to hit as if its a mortar, with the ranges above. Deviation is 1D3, Use medium
template, but it gets a -8 to the effects chart. The HESH round does not explode like an HE round it
explodes more like a Shaped Charge.

Go to the files section and download the British vehicle data, the AVRE is all on there. The HE
penetration is 42 and the range is about 100 yards, load time is slow at 2 but the armor is good I
think it was 30/28 HF/TF and 18/18 HS/HR and TS/TR speed is slow and it has a hull MG and can
have AA LMG if you roll 5 or less.

HESH
HESH or High Explosive Squash Head. This round should have a penetration number against
armor as it was designed to take out concrete bunkers. Against a tank it has two - three effects:
If it hits the armor it spalls the armor. The shell has a delay action fuse and the explosive is plastic
in consistency held together by mesh. The effect is for the explosive to plaster itself against the
target and then explode. The result is a shock wave which knocks off chunks from the inside of the
vehicle/pillbox at high speeds. Takes out the crews.

If it hits something other then armor, say a storage bin, the result is a real big boom with no armour
penetration but HE blast effects, plus what shrapnel the thin case and the bin make. It also tends to
damage anything on that side of the vehicle on the outside and including vision blocks, antennae,
etc.

Spaced armour will stop the spalling but not the blast effects. Where we use a HEAT-MP 120mm
tank round now (High Explosive Anti-Tank-Multiple Purpose) which is a shaped charge with a
fragmentation shell as a secondary anti-tank round/anti-personnel round (the reason for the Frag
component) the British use HESH as their HE round.

In case you are wondering why reloading the vehicle removes the armour cover for the crew (turret
crew actually) it is because the Petard is a muzzle loader.

MULTIPLE RATE OF FIRE WEAPONS


QUESTION: As many weapons have a RoF of more than 1, are...

all of their dice rolled at the same time (if any Jam Number is rolled, the gun is jammed starting
from the next action), or

all of their individual RoF dice are rolled one after another, and if any shot rolls the Jam Number,
all remaining RoF shots are lost?

ANSWER: We always play with your a option. Rolling all the dice at once keeps things moving
faster than rolling one die at a time. And having the jam happen at the end seems fair enough.

ANOTHER TAKE: We use different color dice and call out the order of the burst. This way we know
when the Jam occurred or what Rifle in a group Jammed.

Im in this camp, I have lots of different colored dice, and use the Roy G Biv sequence to determine
where the jams occur. I warn the players ties always go against them, so it is up to them to make
sure they have the correct dice. At most your rolling 5 dice so its not too hard. But I have played it
both ways, I find mid fire jamming more exciting.

What we do - and this is a house rule - is we say all shots happen together. If the gun jams then it
jams after the shots have been fired. However, if you roll two (or more) jams, they are cumulative, so
if for instance you get two jams. We mark two jams, and it takes two actions to get the weapon
unjammed. If you ever roll all jams (automatic weapons only), the gun has been destroyed and the
gunner has to take a hit one level lower than the type of gun (i.e. HMG causes MMG hit). This has
only happened once, but it was so much fun seeing how frustrated they become when their gun
explodes.

On page 13, it is stated that if the Jam Number is rolled while rolling To Hit dice, the gun is
jammed. Thats an interesting way of handling it. What WE do - again, a house rule, is to roll the
shots using different colour die. The die are red, white, blue & green. We always read the results in
that order, red, white, blue, then green. If the gun jams on the red die, then all other shots are null.
If the gun jams of the blue die, then any hits up until then count. We think its a simple and elegant
way of handling this.

I know of one game where the players used colored 20 sided dice which were rolled together. The
colors were red-white-blue-black-white. Any dice after the jam roll didnt count.

ARTILLERY HITS VS AFVs


Which armour protection value (Hull Front, Hull Turret, etc.) do you use against artillery hits (or
any other hits against
the top of a vehicle)?

ANSWER: Isnt there a top armor hit location chart? For all mortars and for off-table artillery you
would use the top hit location, otherwise the side facing the gun. The original rules just mention the
top hit locations, but provide no values for them. In the Armor Rule Update section in the back of
the rule book, they mention how to handle them (former rear armor = new top armor).

Just from reading the rules, the effectiveness of indirect artillery fire vs. armored vehicles
(including tanks) strikes me as vastly exaggerated. For example, a small German 50mm mortar
shell (HE value of 10) has a 35% chance to penetrate the top armor of a T34 (top armor value of 3;
10-3 = 7 or less to penetrate = 35%).

I know that artillery did frequently damage the engine by means of shrapnel and concussion effects
after a engine deck hit, but penetrating the armor with such a small caliber, that is even fired
indirectly (i.e. in a loop), seems way too much for me.

Keep in mind that it is very hard to actually hit an AFV with indirect fire. Even if the AFV is
successfully targeted, a 1 or 2 on a D6 must be rolled to hit the AFV. Page 7 of the artillery rules.

Battleground WW2 does overrate the small (45-60mm) mortars. Our group revised all the
penetration and armour values:
For the small mortar rounds, 60mm and smaller, I use the grenade attack table on Infantry page
21. If the round hits the tank, roll for the location. Hits on any location other the engine deck are
ignored. If the engine deck is hit roll on the Grenade Vs Engine Deck Effects Chart, adding +2 since
the round was not placed. Larger mortar and artillery rounds check for penetration against
whatever location they hit.

RULE VARIANT FOR INITIATIVE DECK


Jokers Wild. I added a joker to the sequence deck. When the Joker is drawn in the turn, that turns
ends and the deck is re-shuffled for the next turn. This adds suspense in that now the players do
know when they move, they also do not know if they will move during the turn.

Ive enjoyed the comments on alternatives to the standard card method for turns and have some
questions for those that use a joker to end the turn. Do you use this in scenarios with a term
limitation? If so, does a truncated turn count against the limit?

Secondly, a suggestion came to mind. The red and black jokers could both be put in the deck, and for
example, if the red joker comes up first, ignore them for the turn. If the black joker comes up first,
the turn ends when the red joker comes up. This still causes fog of war, but would not have as much
impact on games with limited turns.

ANOTHER TAKE: We have tossed in a joker, and when the joker comes up the cards are re-shuffled.
If your card never came up, too bad. Creates even more suspense and a "fog of war" feel. Sometimes
it seems like your units move back to back (or nearly so) and other times it feels like you will need to
chisel their asses of the ground where they have sat for three turns. It is quite fun, but I would not
recommend it as much for a real structured, timed scenario, just because it can sometimes
unbalance things if the luck is bad for someone... but then again this is what really often happened,
isnt it?

GUN SHIELDS
QUESTION: Which gun types have gun shields?

ANSWER: First off, not all gun shields are created equal. Heres a couple general rules.

AT guns and Infantry Guns had large gun shield that would protect the entire crew. These are the
normal BG gun shields. These shields generally were heavier and/or used spaced armour for
protection.

Light and medium field guns would have a smaller gun shield that would protect the gunner and
maybe one loader.
Heavy artillery (generally 150mm or more) didnt have even this smaller gun shield (exception:
Soviet 152mm guns and howitzers).

Light AA guns (less than 75mm) could have a small or large gun shield but usually only had it when
mounted on a vehicle (exception: Flakvierling sturmflak).

Heavy AA guns didnt have gun shields.

Mortars didnt have gun shields.

Rocket launchers didnt have gun shields.

Finally, any lightened gun would drop the gun shield. This includes pack howitzers, mountain
Gebirgs guns, and airborne version. Examples: 75mm Pack Howitzer, 105mm M3 Howitzer, and
even the German 28mm sPzB AT gun.

Id say that any weapon with a penetration value (Ex: ATR or MMG within 12) would ignore the
lighter small gun shield as it was more of a structural rather than protective feature. Any weapon
with a penetration of 5 or more (Ex: 20mm cannons, MMG within 4) would ignore the larger heavy
gun shield. But, thats just me.

SIGHTING ATTEMPTS
Does a sighting attempt happen before each action or once before both actions are taken? Situation:
A model is 3 from a corner. There is nothing to sight before his first action. On the first action the
model moves to the corner. Does he get a sighting attempt before the second action so he can fire?
Or does he wait until the next turn to sight something around the corner?

ANSWERS:
Sighting occurs for free before each action, hence two sighting checks. In your example, the model
does get a sighting check but sees nothing prior to the first action. But imagine an opposing model
who had just ran around the corner in some type of cover. You would not get to see them unless they
are spotted first. So
in your situation there is nothing to see but you still get a sighting check..

As he goes around the corner for his first action the opposing player(s) may take shots if the have
special fires set, otherwise once around the corner he gets to spot again prior to his second action.
And yes he could spot if successful a concealed position and fire on them if spotted but based on
range etc. etc. they will most likely not be spotted unless the enemy had fired or moved. Imagine
spotting before the first action, player sees nothing, then he runs around the corner, doesnt get shot
but sees an MG42 firing away at another target across the street. He then spends his second action
climbing through a window to get out of the line of sight or he could fire at the MG 42 team that is
firing across the street but remain out in the open.

Anytime that the chart says AQ then the target is automatically acquired and no spotting check is
required, otherwise a player should but doesnt have to spot first, always as a free action, and before
the action is taken, for each of his two actions.

Remember that normally you dont spot for individual guys and you only get a 45 degree angle of an
area to spot. So if the bulk of my squad wants to look left and my single guy wants to look right he
will have to wait or the rest of the group will have to until the action to spot.

The rule of thumb that I use is that if it is something that can easily be seen, I allow them to spot it
instantly. If not, I have them wait till their next action. This is to simulate the idea that they have
just ran to that area and have only had enough time for a quick glance.

I concur with that. You should use common sense. A camouflaged fighting position is not a tank, or
a guard having a smoke. Armored vehicles, especially buttoned up ones, should not be able to see
well. When I GM the game, I roll to see who sees what if it is not too obvious.

I was under the impression that you were able to take a spotting check for free before either your
first or second action but you could only take one sighting check per turn meaning that you have to
kind of model out which action you would like to do your spotting check in.

Page 4 of core rules under the heading Sighting Checks, second sentence, Any piece may make a
Sighting Check at the beginning of every action. Then goes on to talk about sighting as a group.
Remember every piece gets 2 actions a turn. Also a squad leader may use his binoculars and forfeit
his movement/shooting etc. in exchange for a bonus on the sighting chart.

ANTITANK AND ANTIPERSONNEL MINES


I think we are clear that AT mines are not set off by infantry, but what about AP mines and AFVs?
Specifically, what happens to wheeled AFVs (like German 222 Armoured Cars) when they run
through a AP mine field? These mines could blow off a tire right? I can't find any reference to this in
the rules, any input would be appreciated.

TANK INTEGRITY CHECK


Question: What's the difference between the 50% and 75% tank platoon integrity checks?

ANSWER: The 50% model includes only those vehicles that have brewed up (10 or less on the
penetration effects table). The 75% model includes brew ups and tanks temporarily knocked out
(abandoned).
BROKEN UNITS
When units break, they are supposed to move away from the enemy towards cover. But what
happens if there is no cover away from the enemy? In Squad Leader the unit is eliminated outright,
but this seems a little unfair. Last night we ran into this and we just had the guys run to the closest
cover which was a patch of woods slightly ahead of them that was occupied by friendly units.

ANSWER: Unlike ASL, BGww2 squads do not have to get to cover in one turn, so let them run.
Also, remember that if they are already in +3 or better cover, they don't have to run, they can just go
prone in place and be broken.

PRONE UNITS
Can a prone unit still fire and/or throw grenades? Can they still do this if they are in cover (i.e. in
woods, in foxhole, behind a wall)? If so, do they combine the prone bonus with the cover (i.e. +5
when prone in the woods)? We've been playing that you can combine the two as long as the modifier
for the cover is +3 or less. Otherwise you have to be upright to be able to fire. We also ruled that you
could throw grenades half the normal distance from prone position.

ANSWER: We play that prone models can fire unless they are prone behind a wall or window. I have
no problem with giving models more than a +3 if they are prone in a foxhole etc.. I'd say half
distance for thrown grenades is generous (try it) but you can assume PRONE also means crouched.
By the way I think that the grenade ranges are too short but havent done anything about it.

WOODS AS COVER
Do woods provide cover modifiers for grenade attacks? Are there any restrictions for throwing
grenades in the woods?

ANSWER: Woods provide the same cover Vs grenades as they do Vs small arms fire. As far as I
know, there are no penalties for throwing grenades within woods.

OVERWATCH
Question: If a model is on Overwatch, and a target moves into his line of sight, how many shots does
he get to take?
ANSWER: One.

Question: If he takes a shot before his turn comes up, can he take an action in his turn?

ANSWER: To go on Overwatch the model ignores his turn and does not act on his card regardless of
whether he uses the Overwatch or not. Basically he is too busy waiting for that target of
opportunity.
Question: What is the order of precedence? Does the acting player get to go before the overwatch, or
does this interrupt his turn? This came up when a player declared that he was going to throw a
grenade. The player on overwatch then declared a shot. Which goes first?

ANSWER: The unit on Overwatch is reacting to the target's action, therefore once the target states
he is going to throw a grenade he gets to throw it - then the model on Overwatch reacts by taking a
shot. The only exception to this is that a moving model may be interrupted at any point during its
movement - start, middle or end. The unit on Overwatch (opportunity fire) must act when he "sees"
someone perform an action. If the grenade thrower had moved into range, he would have been shot
before he declared the throw! Do not forget that a unit can't go on OpFire if it can see enemy unit(s).

QUESTION: If a model is on overwatch and he takes his shot, does this take him off overwatch, or
does he continue on overwatch throughout the turn, taking shots as he may?

ANSWER: No. He is no longer on overwatch after shooting.

ARTILLERY OBSERVERS
If a mortar observer is hidden, does the act of observing for the tube make him visible? Similarly, if
he is in the arc of suppression fire, does the act of observing make him eligible to be hit...

ANSWER: I'd say that observing doesn't make him visible. However, I'd say that it would count as
an action for suppression fire. He'd have to drop prone.

RETURNING FROM A ROUT


When a squad breaks, how does it come back from rout?
ANSWER: This confused me early on too. Squad members may break all at once but they rally
individually.

BUTTONED UP AFV CREWS


What exactly is the field of vision and relevant sighting modifiers for a buttoned up tank crew?

ANSWER: There is a modifier for buttoned-up in the sighting chart. There is also a penalty to-hit. I
never worried about field of vision. Some commander's cupolas could rotate to allow 360 viewing,
some couldn't, although I don't have a list of which ones.

SOUND SPOTTING
The general direction of sound of any weapon fire will be automatically detected by everyone,
regardless of line of sight, out to the distances of the following chart (20mm values).

Rifle 48
Machine Gun 72
Grenade 36
Main Gun 96

Green troops will be unable to tell friendly weapon noises from the sound of enemy weapons. Troops
of regular or higher quality are able to tell friendly weapons from enemy by sound alone. {This
reminds me of a story... apparently, the sound of a tommy gun is so similar to that of a Jap machine
gun that firing one in the pacific was akin to a friendly fire generator}.

Infantry in motion may be heard moving even outside of LOS. A moving infantry model can be
heard at triple the number of inches he moves each action. Similarly, vehicles can be heard at four
times their own movement. {I, personally, think this is too low}.

Infantry firing their own weapons or vehicle crews in moving/firing vehicles are unable to hear any
other noises.

CALLING ARTILLERY
In the Artillery rules it states that you receive a contact availability number and a set number of
fire missions, or you receive a contact/ availability number with no fire missions allocated (i.e. a
'maybe you'll be lucky' approach) however I couldn't find any difference in the rules for determining
whether fire missions are successfully called in. It seems to me if no set number of fire missions are
allocated you have the same chance of receiving them but no maximum number which is not what
was intended. Can anyone shed some light on this?

ANSWER:

HAND TO HAND AND INITIATIVE CARD


QUESTION: In the rules it says any tie rolls are a draw. The models wait until next turn to roll
again for Hand to hand. When the first card that is pulled for either unit you roll again. Now, since
the American unit hasn't gone yet wouldn't you roll for Hand to hand again once their card is pulled
or by being charge in Hand to hand do they miss the rest of the turn?

ANSWER: You roll when the American's card comes up. You don't lose a turn by being attacked.

LIMITED INTELLIGENCE
What's considered to be the best way to play with hidden models with only 2 players? My friend and
I are just starting out with Battleground. All we've played is the ACW with the Fire and Fury rules
and there isn't usually a need for hidden models.

ANSWER: The system should not be "sighting" based but more "exposure" based. By this I mean,
that all units
stay hidden until they expose themselves. Events that warrant exposure are movement, attacking,
and secondary explosions. The system I have in mind has a list of events by unit type (Infantry,
Cavalry, Small Vehicle, Large Vehicle, etc..) and a list of events that cross reference to a chart
column. A roll on that column determines if one of several things is placed. A unit type chit
(example: you hear infantry here...), a nationality chit (example: you hear German infantry
here...), and finally the model model for totally exposed. Only totally exposed models may be fired
upon. Friendly units in LOS may attempt to sight the two chit types by expending an action. The
system does not require an enemy unit to be in LOS and allows for units to go slow and sneaky. You
still need a GM but the amount of work is much less!

In a sighting based system the number of interactions is really high. Basically it is each unit to
everyother unit. However, one can assume a certain amount of abstraction is going on as concerns
the actions of soldiers with respect to keeping an eye open. For certain cases where units have less
than optimal vision (and I can only think of buttoned up tanks but there may be other cases) one
would just require that they ALSO complete a spotting check before they fire.

SPOTTING TOWED GUNS


Towed guns. Are they spotted as infantry or vehicles? We expanded on this with the question, a dug
in, camoed AT Gun is a hell of a lot harder to see than say a 20mm AAA gun?

ANSWER: It depends on the situation. I usually treat towed infantry guns no matter what size as
vehicles. Small to medium sized guns set up in the open I treat as infantry in the open, and bigger
guns i.e. 88's 100 mm's I treat as vehicles. Any gun dug in and camouflaged I treat as infantry. If
there is any argument over gun sizes, place a 45mm, a 76mm, and an 88 flak together. That usually
silences any argument.

EXPOSED CREWS/COMMANDERS
We were reading in the BG rule book that unbuttoned tank crews could be affected by small arms
fire. We did some looking but could not find the procedure on how that would be resolved. We would
like to model out how to resolve small arms fire against unbuttoned tank crews and wondered if we
missed that part some where in the rules or if everyone just kind of adopts a house rule to clear
things up.

ANSWER: In the rules, it is stated (but not very clearly) how it works: Fire on the tank normally.
The crew is protected by the +5 partial tank cover modifier. Commander is affected if commander
exposed or crew exposed applies, crew is only affected if crew exposed applies.

Results:
- : No effect
SUP: Suppressed, entire crew (including commander) buttons up immediately.
MC: Same effect as SUP ! Crews dont make a morale check.
LW: Commander (or random selection if the entire crew is exposed) suffers light wound. All button
up, no Morale check.
HW : Same as LW, only with heavy wound as an effect.
KIA: Same as LW/ HW.
GD: Same as KIA

Remember that...

AFV crew members NEVER make morale checks as a result of small arms fire - at least not while
inside the AFV and receiving the full +5 modifier. In a sense, they know that abandoning the tank
would be suicide when they hear small arms bullets hitting the tank and seeing crew members
wounded / killed.
Not individual crew members are affected (targeting only allowed for snipers), but the entire crew.
Use random selection to determine which of the exposed members is affected. If only the
commander is exposed, hes the only one who can be affected.
If the crew is exposed, so is the commander. He is, in a sense, always the first to be exposed.

ANOTHER ANSWER: As to the effect on the crew, if just the TC is exposed, he takes the fire plus
five, if others are exposed, it would depend on their location. Driver in seat, plus five, loader on the
rear deck uncrating ammo, depends on which way the fire is coming from. In any case, it's random
to any exposed crew and generally a +5 modifier is added to the result.

FURTHER QUESTION: EXPOSED CREWS


About the small arms against tank crew thing I am still a bit confused. I found in the rule book a
good part of the information you described for me including the +5 for tank cover my question is
more about how you decide who is affected. While I would imagine that infantry would be able to
see tank crew while unbottoned, can they just be picked as the targets and then the affected
member randomly determined or is there just as good of a chance that you will hit the tank instead
of the crew? So I guess what I am asking is do I just declare that I am firing at the crew or would
there be some sort of hit location chart to consult to see if I hit a crew member?

ANSWER: the Hit Location Chart is only used for anti-tank fire, not small arms fire. The chance to
hit the tank instead of a crew member is factored into the +5 protection for the partial tank cover -
after all, that is the protection provided by the hull/ turret/ hatches. Otherwise, it would be much
too hard to actually affect an exposed crew member. In addition, many small arms types (especially
the ones with a rate of fire > 1) actually simulate whole bursts or streams of fire, and these will
spray over the tank and will affect several areas at the same time.

Even if a tank is escorted by soldiers on foot, we always allow troops to fire small arms on the tank
only. A tank is usually much higher than the troops on foot and sticks out, so they should be able to
target it separately.
Another ballgame might be riders on the tank - this, in my eyes, should be treated as one target
together with the exposed crew members and also be subject to the random selection die roll.

The tank provides +5 cover just like a stone wall. You never roll randomly to see if you hit the wall
instead of the man. In a way that would be a Saving throw and Battleground does not use them
unless you count the effects table results as kind of a saving throw. modifiers to effects for terrain
are added as a penalty on the effects chart.

Roll randomly to see who is hit within the area of effect for the weapon type, such as 5" for LMGs
and 6" for MMGs etc..

AFV CREWMEN INDIVIDUAL SKILLS


Can AFV crew members replace each other voluntarily or in case of casualties? For example - if the
loader is killed, can the commander load the gun instead? Can a commander also drive the AFV?

We play it that only the driver can drive, and only the commander can command, but all other
functions are interchangeable (e.g., hull gunner can also load the main gun). To take over a position,
the soldier has to spend two (!) actions if his comrade in the new position is HW/KIA/GD, or one
action if he is o.k. /SUP/LW. How do you play it? Are there "official" answers?

ANSWER: I would imagine that for most armour crews every member would be able to do the
others job but just not quite as well. I would probably treat it much like a gun crew is affected by
casualties. Things will take longer to do but they will still be able to be accomplished. In the case of
crew members dying I would probably try to come up with some sort of penalty for having to move
the corpse out of the way. For example if the driver is killed he will have to be moved before some
one can take his place.

Historically the crews were all cross-trained. That means they should be able to fill in during
combat. However, I would knock them a point or two for it. This is particularly true for the driver's
position. If he is incapacitated, or worse yet killed, it's going to be hard to drive the AFV until he's
moved out of the way.

We have always played that it takes one action to move to another crew position. If this is taken by
another crew member or his body, then it must be moved for one action prior to occupation of that
crew position.

Example: Driver KIA, Radioman spends one action pulling the dead Driver out of the way and one
action getting into the position. He has now replaced the Driver. This works the same if the Driver
is alive. He must move out of position prior to the Radioman moving into position. Either way this
would eat up an entire turn (1st and 2nd actions).
US Shermans didn't have duel driving controls. The Stuart probably didn't either. The GMC M-10,
M8, M-18, and M-36 did not (no hull LMG either). German tanks did not. Whereas in the American
vehicles the LMG operator was called an assistant driver, in the German vehicles he operated the
LMG and the radio. The U.S. term meant his function was to assist the driver, not be able to take
over and drive the tank if the driver was incapacitated. That didn't mean he couldn't drive the tank,
just not from the right hand seat. He was a LMG operator, and an assistant 'mechanic'. I don't think
British vehicles had duel controls.

The German armoured cars with the duel controls (forward and reverse) were the 231 and 232 8
wheeled and the 234/1 and /2 8 wheeled. The 233, 234/3 and 234/4 did not, nor did the 222/223 4-
wheeled armoured cars. However, the 6-wheeled German 231 (6 rad) did have a rear driver position.

The 233 based on the 231 (8 rad) and the 234/3 and 234/4 based on the 234/1 all mounted a 75mm
gun. The placement of the guns would indicate the rear driving position would have to have been
removed. Looks like the bodies have to be moved except on the German armoured cars.

I may be mistaken, but in many tanks the bow MG crewman had duplicate controls, not full
instruments but at least the primary controls to get the tank out of the way more quickly than
moving a dead or wounded crewman. Vehicles like some of the 4-, 6- and 8-wheel German armoured
cars had full second driving compartments facing the rear of the vehicle so another crewman could
take over and get the vehicle out of harms way without even having to turn the thin around. It
would strike me that it would take 1 or 2 actions to actively take over control in such a situation,
and at least get the thing moving again seeking cover or at least make for a moving target. Is there
anything in the vehicle data sheets for this feature? I'm sure a look through some of the publications
mentioned on the PZ IV series can also find out some of these details.

FIRING ON PILLBOXES WITH AT WEAPONS


How do you resolve fire upon a bunker from tanks or AT weapons, or a flame-thrower? All it says
under Pillboxes in the Terrain section of the basic rules is that Pillboxes provide a +12 modifier. So
how do you handle it when a tank or ATG/bazooka team fire upon a pillbox? I don't understand how
you resolve that and determine if the pillbox is knocked out or not.

ANSWER: The Pillbox would not probably be destroyed with weapons in this game. The occupants
however could. This can be done 2 ways. First, the weapon firing hits the bunker, determine the HE
value of the round (chart A, B, or C), add 12 to the result on which chart you find yourself and
minus any modifiers for the round itself (105mm= -4). Apply the results from the blast radius.

Second, HE and Heat rounds have a penetration value, if the round penetrates the pillbox (defence
12 or whatever), you can apply the HE results (heat weapons have conversion chart) or make a
modified penetration chart similar to the vehicle damage chart. Maybe, 1-5 Catastrophic, everyone
dies from secondary explosions. 6-10 all models and weapons in the bunker roll on the LMG chart
with no modifiers, apply results, 11-15 small fire starts, occupants take a morale check, 1d4 until
fire is out, 16-19 1xd4 models stunned (no actions) d4
turns. 20, no effect.

Confined spaces usually make HE effects worse, so we have a home rule that a 1 on the result die of
any HE hit reverses the TEM, in this case -12, if you decided to use the blast effects rather than a
penetration chart result.

Pillboxes cannot be destroyed/reduced in the game unless you are attacking the door. Doors have a 2
DP and require a 75mm gun or larger to inflict the damage. For more rules about pillboxes look in
the terrain section page 9. for DP stuff page 13 reducing terrain.

Also for flame-throwers anything in the red area of the template is gory death ignoring terrain but
not LOS. Anything in the yellow is like an "A" ring attack that includes terrain modifiers; i.e. +12.
So if the flame-thrower can get close enough the guys are cooked.

WHO IS A TARGET?
Does the opponent have to shoot at the closest enemy target, or can they select any target they can
get LOS on?
ANSWER: basically, you can select any target (group). Remember that: a) only snipers can pick
individual targets in a group, and b) there are restrictions on which targets you can fire using
opportunity fire, see rules.

MORTAR RANGES
The max. ranges for mortars are marked with a dash. It leaves me some questions on how to gauge
just how far across a table can a mortar fire? I was thinking that not all mortars can reach the same
distance (for example, a 50mm mortar not having the same range of distance as a 81mm). Also, did
I read the rules correctly when it says the minimum range is 18"? If the max. range is up to the GM
or group to decide, anybody have some suggestions?

ANSWER: only very small mortars (e.g., 50mm) have a maximum range that is within the typical
size of a gaming table. All others (and guns/ tanks which have a barrel size other than short) have
unlimited range. Remember that these weapons could fire often 2.000 meters and more, far beyond
what is represented on a gaming table. For onboard indirect fire (e.g., mortars) it is often more
problematic that the target is too *close, as there is a minimum range for the looping indirect fire.
Both minimum and maximum range of a 81mm are larger than those of a 50mm mortar.

Mortars are the only artillery pieces that have min and max. range limits. MIN and max. are for
indirect firing guns only. All Mortars have a minimum range listed and except for the German
50mm all have an unlimited range marked UN. The dash on the chart means that the rule does not
apply such as an ATG firing indirectly and mortars using AP rounds.

AT GUN SPOTTING
AT guns being spotted on the vehicle chart are too easily seen? We find them getting destroyed too
easily even with the +2 small target modifier. We tried a +4 Anti-Tank size modifier , and while that
helps a bit, we were thinking of actually adding another section to the sighting chart , so that there
would be 3 categories, Vehicles, Guns and Infantry.

ANSWER: I also find that AT guns in defensive positions are spotted too easily, I suggest you try
giving them a constructed concealed bonus if they are set up in defensive positions, cammo,
branches etc., they will live a little longer then.

ORDNANCE RoF
The majority of small mortars only take 0.5 an action to load. Question: how many times can they
fire each turn? If it takes a whole action for the firer to fire the mortar (via a pistol type trigger
rather than the just dropping the round), what is the loader doing with his spare half actions?

This would imply that you could fire each action (for the fully crewed mortar) but it seems strange
that you should show the mortar only taking 0.5 of an turn when you can't do anything else with the
action?

This also effects small AT guns and 2/50mm mortars in other armies.

ANSWER: I asked Ez8 the same question and they way they explained it made sense but I have
since forgotten how they explained it. Suffice it to say, a gun with a load time of 1/2 can load and fire
in the same action. It would seem to make more sense to just give it a load time of 0 but (IIRC) that
is used for autocannons which don't actually need to be loaded for each shot.

Load Time 0 = autocannon = two shots per action = Four shots per turn
Load Time 1/2 = load and fire in one action = Two shots per turn
Load Time 1 = 1 turn load, 1 turn fire = One shot per turn
Load Time 2 = 2 turns load, 1 turn fire = Two shots every other three turns

ATR EFFECTS AND RANGES


Which range and effect tables do you use for ATRs when they are used in a sniper (i.e. anti-
personnel) role?

ANSWER: For ATRs vs. Infantry, we use the same to-hits and HMG for "small ATR" and LCMG for
"large ATR"
CONFLICTING SUPPORT ACTIONS
How do you handle these seemingly conflicting actions:

A leader in base-to-base contact with a support weapon directs its fire in his first action. Can the
leader also fire his personal weapon that same action? It seems to me a leader could direct fire at a
target by spraying sub-machine gun fire at it.

Similarly, can a machine gun loader fire his rifle in the same action he is feeding an ammo belt to
the machine gun? This does not seem do-able.

In a related issue, it seems that the penalty for an undermanned support weapon is rather light -
merely reducing the breakdown number. Shouldn't the rate of fire be reduced as well?

ANSWER: A leader in base-to-base contact with a support weapon can direct its fire as his only
action. Consider him giving instructions to the gunner and loader, motivating the men and such.
Not just pointing out the location of the enemy. That's the spotter's job.

A loader can fire his weapon in the same action that the gunner fires the support weapon, but there
are penalties for an undermanned weapon. He isn't helping the crew by doing his job. See next
question and answer.

The penalty for an undermanned support weapon is also factored into the Jam number. For every
man under the required #, the Jam number gets reduced by one. So if an MMG with 2 of 3 men
fires, their Jam # is now 19 or 20. (with 1 man, the Jam is 18, 19, 20) That 3rd man could be dead,
or firing his weapon, or throwing a grenade, or broken, or any other action not spend supporting the
weapon (loaders load and spotters spot, nothing else unless you take the worse Jam #).

It is more serious than that. A weapon without a full crew cannot perform any of the special fires
associated with crew served machine-guns, like raking fire, etc.. I think you will also find that that
lower breakdown number makes a big difference in the long run. In most cases it is increasing the
jam roll from 5% (just a 20) to 10% (a 19 or 20). In the case of AT guns we play that you do need a
full crew to get the two round fire per turn, not sure off the top of my head if that is in the rules or if
it was a house rule of ours.

ANTITANK GUNS POINT VALUE


Any ideas on anti tank gun costs, a formula perhaps? I was just thinking AP value times 4 , then
buying the crew for the gun like a tank?

ANSWER: You are CORRECT!

SPOTTING AT GUNS
We have tried a few different methods, like ATG's are spotted as infantry until they fire, or as small
vehicles etc. We seem to change with every game. What do you do? I vote for small vehicles, and give
them the cammo' bonus until they fire if they are set up in cover.

ANSWER: Depends on the emplacement. A well concealed at gun in the desert, for example, under
camo netting and camel bush all around would be hard to spot, especially with glare in effect. Use
camo and terrain modifiers and infantry, for an AT gun usually has a very low profile, except for
FLAK 88s and other weapons.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Depending on gun size, we use small (57mm-77mm) or very small (25mm-
50mm) vehicle chart, normally concealed (scenario dependent) and with improved cover/camouflage
(if at start of scenario in a firing position). Any subsequent movement of the ATG causes loss of
concealment and improved cover/camouflage advantages.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Except for HUGE guns (like Flak 88) we call AT guns "infantry" for spotting
purposes- we assume that an AT gun has a pretty small frontal cross-section and would be
camouflaged in a big way (since the crew's survival somewhat depends on it!)

POINT VALUES OF NON ARMOURED AFVS


Another thing just popped into my head, how do we calculate the cost of those nasty half tracks with
the quad 20mm guns on the back, they are infantry nightmares. The AP of each gun X4 then add
crew?

ANSWER:

ON-BOARD MORTARS POINTS VALUE


How do you guys handle on board artillery, like mortars, as far as points go? You couldn't really use
the AP x 4 formula and purchase the crew. I want to add a 60mm mortar team in with some
paratroopers since this team would usually follow close behind in an attack. Also, as the nature of
the AB troops mission usually had them scattered about, the mortar teams rarely operated as a
battery. Any ideas on this?

ANSWER: We could brand them by template size: small, medium, and large. What do you think
about assigning some value for each template size, something like 10, 15, and 25? Then use these
for the x4 + crew formula. This would ease calculations for all armies: small, medium, and big
mortars, all the same price.

FIRE ON THE MOVE AND HAND GRENADE PREPARATION


Does it take any time to prep a grenade or can a model throw 1 per action (potentially 2 per turn)?
Are there any rules for infantry firing on the move (say you want to run across an alley while
spraying your tommy gun)?
ANSWER: The rules will permit throwing two grenades per turn, one per action. A widely used
change is making necessary to prep the grenade (1 action), thus limiting grenade throws to one per
turn (1 action to prep, one to throw...). As written, the rules do not permit shooting on the move
with any infantry weapon.

RoF AND MULTIPLE TARGETS


If a weapon has a rate of fire of 2 or more, can a player choose to engage as many targets as his rate
of fire? Or is he limited to firing the shots at just one target, with all firing involving multiple
targets limited to one of the special fire modes?

ANSWER: You're supposed to distribute your shots randomly between a target group. There are
firing arcs to each weapon type, that encompass the effect zone. On EEE's page there is a
supplement in the SUPPORT section about small arms fire that has this rule. When firing a
weapon with a rate of fire of 2 or more at a group of targets such as a squad, if you hit more than
once, randomise the shots from out of the target squad. This could result in the same fig taking
multiple hits, but that just means you were making extra sure of getting him.

TURRET ROTATION SPEEDS


What speed do turrets turn? Normal, fast, slow turrets?
ANSWER: We use 90% per action (fast turrets), 45% per action (slow Turrets).

AP ROUNDS AGAINST ORDNANCE


What effects are used to resolve an AP shot against ordnance?

ANSWER: We use the grenade effects template to represent the debris that is thrown about when a
sabot hits an ordnance type target. It doesn't kill much (unless a direct hit) but definitely hurts
people.

PUSHING AFVS
Does anyone have house rules for pushing disabled vehicles? For example, say a Pz III is knocked
out on a bridge and the following tank wants to try to push the wreck out of the way.

ANSWER: I would probably base pushing vehicles off of the Ramming rules in the main rule book
and the ramming update. If the pushing vehicle is trying to push the disabled vehicle out of the way
on the move, I would use the normal ramming rules and the update about locked vehicles. If the
pushing vehicle wants to "carefully" push the disabled vehicle out of the way and avoid taking
possible damage, it might take one action and a skill check to manoeuvre the pushing vehicle
against the disabled vehicle before being able to push it. I would still use the locked vehicle update
in this case but avoid rolling for damage or just decrease the chance for damage on the ramming
chart.
Another thing to consider is what size vehicle can push another out of the way. Perhaps you couldn't
push a vehicle that was 2 sizes larger. Movement would also be affected, maybe the pushing vehicle
could only push at 1/2 movement. For something out of the rules, according to Panthers East, the
Bergepanther can tow a vehicle 5" per action, which is a little over 1/2 it's movement. But the
Bergepanther is a dedicated recovery vehicle so I think pushing 1/2 movement for a run of the mill
tank would be OK.

One house rule I've been thinking about is that tanks can push other tanks, but only at 1/4 speed
and then the pushing tank must pass a morale check to prevent from immobilising itself. In other
words the driver screwed up his own transmission trying to push a wreck off the road.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Pushing Vehicles with other vehicles: a) It has to be the same weight or
greater; b) A wheeled vehicle could never push a tracked vehicle of any weight. If a tracked vehicle
has been abandon the crew probably left it in gear! So its going to be tough to move. For this reason
a wheeled vehicle would never be able to move a tracked. Pushing a battle damaged vehicle or an
abandoned vehicle is not going to be easy and the pushing vehicle would never be able to push it
more then an inch or two a turn in the game. Now if the crew got out and used the towing cables you
could pull the vehicle up too 1/2 the towing vehicles speed.

ANOTHER ANSWER: For one tank to push another in any significant way, the disabled tank must
either have its tracks broken so they will roll off when pushed, or have the final drives (both sides)
disconnected. If not, the pushing tank could blow an engine, transmission or both. An alternative is
when the pushing tank is twice as powerful (size and horsepower) than the disabled tank. For
example, a M4 Sherman should be able to push a M3 Stuart. But if a M4 wished to push another
M4, allow a dismounted team (two figurines) four actions to break one set of track (eight for both) or
15 actions to disconnect one final drive (30 for both!!).

However, even pulling the tank with another tank or tank retriever requires disconnecting the final
drives. Without doing so, the disabled vehicle's tracks are locked and the tank's weight is added to
the ground friction (of the locked tracks) to dramatically increase the disabled tank's weight.
Unlike cars, tracked vehicles cannot be taken out of gear and rolled/pushed.

In tanks/tracked vehicles, there is a neutral {idle} transmission position in which the vehicle can
move slightly if the main gun is fired, which is why the driver engages the brake during firing. Even
in the idle/neutral position, the transmission connection to the drive sprocket (final drives) are in
effect locked - they move only under power. They must be disconnected in some fashion depending
on the manufactured design of the drive train system in order to freely tow the tank. Again, the
alternative is to disconnect ("break") both tracks, then push or tow the tank on its road wheels. This
is the fastest alternative especially if one side of track is already broken by tank fire, mines or
demolition.
PRONE INFANTRY IN BUILDINGS
Lets say you have a squad in a building, they haven't been spotted by anyone yet. They are prone, so
they are out of LOS. Can they be spotted at all? Lets say they stand up, spot something, fire and
then go prone again. Can they be spotted if they are prone in the building again? Further, the guys
in the building are on the 2nd story. They stand up again, shoot then drop prone. Now they have
killed a couple of guys, but can't be spotted as they are hiding, prone in the building. What a
headache... maybe let them fire with no target?

ANSWER: The chance to spot someone/thing is based on the last action of the target being spotted.
So if the target of the spotting check is in the building, prone behind a wall and not taking any
actions, they couldn't be spotted. But if as in your example they stood up and shot, then went prone,
they would be spotted based on their last action of shooting.

If they just stood up to make a spotting check they would be spotted based on moving if standing
was their last action. They would get the concealed benefit because of being in the building in both
cases.

Same thing would apply to a wall or anything else that blocks line of sight if prone. If the model was
visible doing something in it's last action, there is a chance to spot it, even if by the time the
spotting check is made, the model is currently out of LOS. In other words, since the last thing they
did was duck, they should be spotted as "concealed moving", or if they fired they should be spotted
as "concealed firing".

ANOTHER ANSWER: Here is my take on the way this should be handled (Assumption: everyone is
on ground level):

1. A man who is prone in a building cannot be seen by anyone who is not right up at a window, door,
or in the same building.

2. If no enemy is on Opportunity Fire or Ambush Fire with LOS to the window, then a model who on
his 1st action gets up in the window is not spotted unless he is within AQ range as "Concealed
Moving"*.

3. If no enemy is on OF or Ambush Fire with LOS to the window, then a model who on his 2nd
action fires an then drops prone is not spotted unless he is within AQ range as "Concealed Firing"
(with any applicable modifiers for automatic fire or single shot, etc..). Even if he is spotted when he
fires, when he drops prone at the end of his action, he is no longer spotted.
4. If an enemy IS on OF or Ambush Fire with LOS to the window, then when the model on his first
action gets up in the window, an spotting attempt on the Concealed Moving* table should be rolled.
If successful, they may fire on the model.

5. If an enemy IS on OF or Ambush Fire with LOS to the window, and did not spot the model when
he got up, when the model fires for his second action, another spotting attempt on the Concealed
Firing table should be rolled. If successful, they may fire on the model before he drops prone.

Note: If this is a turn where the model is doing the same thing he did the turn before, then his last
action would have been to fire, so the spotting attempts on the first action would be as Concealed
Firing (with any applicable modifiers for automatic fire or single shot, etc..).

Another way is to employ the standard Opportunity Fires. Using the previous example - in the
previous turn, the figurines in the building are prone at the end of the fire and drop prone action.
Therefore, on the next Mark Special Fire phase opposing figurines (outside the building) mark
opportunity fire (targets that are prone in the buildings are not currently in line of sight). When the
card is drawn for the figurines in the building - on their first action they stand to fire - this activates
the opportunity fire against them from the figurines outside the building (following spotting check).
This takes place before the figurines in the building can take their second action (fire and drop
prone). It sounds mechanical but is an effective simulation against "pop-up shooters."

MOLOTOV COCKTAILS
I find that the rules for Molotov Cocktails make them absurdly powerful. I have used both hand
grenades and Molotovs, and Molotovs do not have anywhere near the anti-personnel power of
grenades. I give Molotovs just the "A" ring on the grenade template, since they have a rather small
burst area. Watch film footage of riots in Northern Ireland or South Korea, someone is always
throwing Molotovs at the police. You can see how little area effect they have. The antivehicle rules
are fine as they are.

FLAMETHROWERS
Do flame-throwers always hit the intended target after a successful activation?

ANSWER: Always, but you must look in the Molotov effects chart and roll with a -5 bonus to see the
results against an AFV or vehicle. If against infantry, anyone caught in the red of the fire template
is Gory death.

HIDDEN MOVEMENT
Some friends and I were test playing a scenario from our upcoming SkirmishCampaigns book
"Normandy '44-First Hours" and were wondering how you all do hidden movement. Since Normandy
bocage terrain is quite dense we usually play with a gamemaster to sort out who is where without
both sides knowing everything. Recently, we've been experimenting with a system for putting down
"dummy" markers. Here is a brief overview of what we have been experimenting with (but we are
really curious at how you all do it):

We have two dummy counters for each real unit- each side moves and places one real and two
dummy counters for each unit, then, as play progresses the dummies are spotted and revealed to be
dummies and the real ones are placed when spotted. When a spotted unit disappears, it is replaced
with three counters again (one real) and is moved from that point. We've mounted a bunch of single
models on washers and spray painted some green and others grey and use them as these counters
(markers). We've painted a dab of coloured paint on each group of three so you could assign a card to
each sub-colour.

We've tried dummy counters before, and found it moderately successful. It's a good alternative to
fully placed units. What we've found though is a GM with a map is the best way. We usually only
hide the defending units, and place all the attacking units on the board. One approach we are
considering is keeping defending units hidden, and using dummy counters for the attacking units.
This would, in our opinion, give us a good feel for the unknown and unexpected. Our next few
battles will try this approach.

FLAMETHROWERS/PIONEER UNITS
How much does it cost to add a flame-thrower to a unit? I was looking throughout the main rule set
and only found the rules for flame-throwers and that they belong to assault engineer elements. How
do you create an engineer squad and what would the cost be for the flame-thrower? Could you just
create a flame-thrower team with two minis like the bazooka team or panzerschrek team? If so,
again how much is the cost for a flame-thrower?

ANSWERS: Don't know where I saw it but I seem to recall it being 100 points for a 5 shot man
pack.

AVT-40 RIFLE
Shouldn't the Russian AVT-40 semiautomatic rifle have a RoF of 2 like the American Garand?
Surely, it must be a misprint in the rules, or??

ANSWER: The AVT-40 is fully-automatic. Virtually uncontrollable in full-auto mode without the
bipod, it was issued sporadically. The SVT-40 is semiautomatic, and would have ROF2, yes.

AFV EFFECT INFANTRY CHART


On page 16 (armoured combat), it says At any time an AFV or Tank comes within 4 inches of an
infantry model that model must pass a Gut Check using the modifications provided on the AFV
effect infantry chart. Has anyone found that table? Is it perhaps the table on page 19 (infantry)
and, if so, is it the 5 mentioned above this table or the or 4 mentioned earlier?
ANSWER:

BAZOOKA TEAMS
What is the benefit (rule wise) of having a loader/assistant with the bazooka man?

ANSWER: I believe it's the same as having a loader for any support weapon, I.E, the breakdown
number's not increased by one and the RoF doesn't drop.

If you do not have a loader for a bazooka, the gunner must spend one action to load the weapon, one
action to ready the weapon, and another action to fire the weapon. In essence this just adds one
extra action. If you have ever messed around with a WWII style bazooka, you'd see why this would
take an extra action. Loaded, it is very unwieldy to move around and it would probably be a pain to
try to ready the weapon once it was loaded. It is far easier to have someone load the round when it
is in the firing position than to load it yourself. Also, the gunner usually does not have any extra
rounds for the bazooka, they are carried by the loader. If we are playing a scenario and the bazooka
gunner and loader are separated, we have the gunner make a skill check any time he has to reload,
if he fails it, he doesn't have any more rounds on him.

MAXON MOUNTS
Im thinking about using a maxon mount in an upcoming BGWW2 scenario, should I use it as 4 .50
cal's (with no raking or plunging) or some other way?

ANSWER: US M16/M3 half-tracks (they were the one's with the Maxon mounts on the back). I
would think that raking fire at least should be allowed, plunging maybe... I'll have to think about
it... A Maxon mount should be completely capable of raking or plunging fire. In fact, it should be
especially good at raking - it can turn 360 degrees fairly fast.

MG42 HOUSE RULES


I don't know if it would actually be a house rule anymore since it was in the MG-42 MMG sheet
put out by EEE. Anyway, we do play the rules where it gets an RoF of 5 if the MG-42 is in the
MMG/HMG configuration (i.e. on the tripod). The MG-42 chart says you have to have the whole 3-
man crew present in good order, and the jam number is 19 instead of 20. I think we usually combine
this with the usual jamming rules, which would say you could fire RoF 5 with less crew, but the jam
number would decrease by 1 (to 18 or 17) with 1 or 2 crew missing.

Player has the option to lower the RoF by one and increase the breakdown by one. The positive side
is that every time a hit is rolled, you get two effects rolls to apply to the target. A US Army study of
the MG-42 found that soldiers hit by an MG-42 were generally hit multiple times.

SIGHTING
The rules seems to say that 1 sighting check is allowed per each unit: if a unit of 6 riflemen make a
check on target, an enemy soldier, spotting him and if the first person of the unit kill the enemy,
may the others perform a second check to change/look for another target?

I spotted an enemy soldier and close to him there are several others. Can I say that the spotting is
valid also for the soldiers near the main target (i.e. within a inch or so)?

If some enemies are inside a building with windows; I would like to shoot at them; how can I
perform the sighting check? I mean... I make a sighting check at the window and if successful I can
shoot at the window considering that behind someone may be hit...? In case of hitting, do I randomly
check who's will be hit inside that room?

ANSWERS: I e-mailed the designers about spotting and they stated that each squad makes one
spotting roll a turn. This roll applies to all spotting attempts that the squad makes during the turn.
They can attempt to spot everything in their LOS. It does make it simple, but what about the times
when your squad is split up? I guess that really makes no difference.

The rules state that each group may make 1 sighting attempt prior to performing each action.
That is: Squad A's card is flipped; Squad A makes a sighting check, then all members of Squad A
perform their first action, then Squad A makes another sighting check, then all members of Squad
A perform their second action.

A "group" does not get to sight everything within its LOS - assuming no Special Fire Modes (e.g.
OpFire or Ambush Fire), this should only occur if something happens within LOS that is an AQ.

Recall that individuals on OpFire or Ambush Fire get a sighting attempt every time an enemy
action is performed within their LOS.

See the Sighting Update, which used to be on the EEE web site, for additional clarifications.

DIRECT HE FIRE AGAINST AFVS


I'm confused about how to use direct HE fire against armoured vehicles, a possible tactic if your AP
fire is useless against heavily armoured targets. However I am unclear on how to resolve it. Some
situations/examples follow:

1. Stationary Tank (T-34) fires HE at a Panther thats CE. Hits it. I then roll a six sided die to see if
it hits it on top (direct fire from Artillery rules p.7). If it does, roll for location on top, then see if it
penetrated the top armour with the HE round. Regardless of the result, the CE commander takes a
nice roll on the A ring.
ANSWER: The artillery rules do not apply to AFVs firing HE. AFVs use direct fire HE. You would
roll against front, side, or rear of the target vehicle, not the top. Any exposed crew in the burst circle
would be rolled against for wounds.

A tank gun is not artillery, it is a flat trajectory weapon, therefore you will only hit target locations
on the facing you are shooting at. Artillery pieces shoot at an angled trajectory, so they might strike
the vehicle top. Once you have scored a hit with your HE round, determine the location hit and then
centre the HE round "A" ring on that location on the model. If the CE commander in still in the "A"
ring with partial tank cover, then so be it, but it is not very likely.

2. T-34 firing on the move at a pack of three Tigers, 2 of them CE (nice image). HE round misses the
intended victim, but deviates (d8, d6) on top of another Tiger. I roll a D6 to see if landed on top, and
model out location / penetration if it did. Either case, any CE commander in blast radius takes a
nice roll.

ANSWER: Again, direct fire from an AFV would not hit the top of a tank.

3. Tank on a hill firing (HE or AP) at tanks on ground level. Does it use the Top armour values, or
the appropriate Front / Side ones?

ANSWER: The rules do not say that being on a hill allows direct fire to hit the top of target vehicles.
As the referee, this is a judgement call depending mostly on hill height and the range to the target.
Most times I leave it up to a die roll, i.e. 1-4 front target facing, 5-6 vehicle top. Just looking at the
model on the table, I think you would have to be pretty high up to start hitting the top of a tank
with a flat trajectory weapon.

4. Late war Russian T-34 commander is manning his AA gun and had been declared on OpFire (rest
of the crew is not and has already acted). German soldier with a Panzerfaust tries to sneak up to it
from around a building. T-34 commander gets his special OpFire spotting check for any enemy
actions committed in his LOS, sees the Fauster and lets the MG rip eventually wounding him. Then
goes UB to end his action.

ANSWER: Nothing wrong here. In my games in this situation, I force models to specify what
direction they are looking when they set OpFire. That means that they can only automatically react
to things that are in LOS and within their CA (to borrow an ASL term). Sometimes (depending on
the situation) the model can take a skill check to see if he can react quick enough to something
outside his CA.

Each member of a tank crew may declare separate actions with only one restriction. If anyone is on
OpFire (like the commander in your example), and the tank moves, they lose main gun OpFire. Not
sure of the exact rules reference. SO as long as your tank was stationary, your example was OK.
Way I read it, tank can drive around, while the commander and / or the hull gunner are on OpFire
with their respective MG's. Only thing that can't be OpFired on a moving vehicle is the main gun.

5. Light German tank pops Smoke down a road in front of a T-34 to blind it. Smoke rules prevent
firing DIRECTLY at target that you cannot see. T-34 shoots an HE round (affects an area) at the
place where the German Tank was suspected of being.

ANSWER: No problem, but I would apply the "blind fire" penalty here, and the only effect there
would be to CE crewmen who happened to be under any one of the rings of the HE round depending
on where it landed, with partial tank cover.

MACHINEGUN Pinning Fire


In the few games that I have played, I have not seen much use of Pinning Fire by MG's. This is a
bread and butter move for ASL, i.e. get two LMG's that are apart from each other to lay down
criscrossing fire lanes to cover each others back. As a referee do you see much use of this tactic? In a
game, I was using 3 Shermans to lay down a shifting barrage of Smoke in between three rows of
buildings as I advanced my infantry through the gaps between the buildings. I was wondering when
his MG would open up but it never did.

ANSWER: Our group uses Pinning Fire (mostly Raking Fire) constantly. Especially if playing the
Germans. We use the optional rule for the MG-42 that is with full crew in good order, you have a
RoF 5, with a Jam number of 19-20. That extra die really counts!! Spraying Fire is another
favourite, especially with SMGs at close range. Just one other rule. Tank crews are not trained in
the use of Pinning Fire (according to BG), so they can't use it.

SHOOTING THRU SMOKE


A shot at a vehicle is partially blocked by a cloud of smoke that lies between it and the firer. A plum
line dropped from the firer to the tank, centre of unit to centre of unit, crosses the smoke. If the
plum line is dropped to the back of the unit (the part clear of the smoke), it does not cross the
smoke. So does a smoke penalty apply? Possible solutions:

a) The unit may take a shot at the tank, but with the no target penalty.
b) Unit can fire normally at the vehicle.
c) Unit can fire normally at tank, but must make a spotting roll on the spotting chart under vehicle
concealed .
d) Unit will fire at the tank using the Firing at a Smoking Tank rule because the vehicle is not
fully obscured (+3 mod To Hit)
e) Other

ANSWER: Well there is an obvious answer here. Smoke clouds are thick and obscuring for most of
their length, eventually trailing to uselessness in a graduated fashion. If a tank is obscured by
smoke that is full strength then the rest of it is likely obscured as well (just a gradation or two less)
so I would rule the whole tank is covered.

EXCEPTION: if the smoke round is on the ground at the base of the tank and the wind direction
can only cover part of the tank then the tank is a valid target. German tanks smoke to their front
and attempt to cover as much as possible. From the front they are obscured. From the back or the
side not so well depending on the direction of the wind. This is getting too fine grained for
BattleGround though. You should make it simple. If part of the model has good obstruction the
whole model is considered obscured. Smoke is only going to be a wall, a line, because of the wind.
Any LOS that crosses that line is blocked. Extend the line as needed for units that are in the smoke
but not all the way. My feeling is, if you can't see the centre of the vehicle, you can't see the vehicle.

INCOMING AP FIRE AGAINST AFVs: ANGLE OF HIT


How is a shot on a vehicle determined to be a side or front shot. We have been using a plum line
going from centre of unit to centre of unit and then seeing if it crosses the front of the tank. It has
implications to the above situation with the smoke in that it begs the question, when does the centre
to centre rule apply?

SIGHTING TANK RIDERS


Riders atop of a tank: Riders are holding onto a tank as they enter the game board. 36 inches away
is an enemy position. Once the tank moves on board, it becomes automatically acquired. Does the
infantry become acquired as well? If not, at what point? Possible solutions:

a) Infantry is placed on the tank as it moves and becomes spotted once the tank is spotted (i.e.
immediately).
b) Infantry is held off board and is placed on the tank only after a successful spot check on the
"Infantry Open Moving" row of the sighting chart after a spot check is declared specifically ON the
vehicle.
c) Infantry is held off board and is placed on the tank only after a successful spot check on the
"Infantry Concealed Moving" row of the sighting chart after a spot check is declared specifically ON
the vehicle.
d) Infantry becomes spotted only once it dismounts (i.e., it is not considered moving while on the
vehicle).
e) Other.

TANK RIDER FATE WHEN TRANSPORTING AFV IS KO


A tank with riders atop is destroyed by an AT gun. What happens to the infantry? Do they fry with
the tank? (For the ASL players in the group, the infamous collateral damage question).

TANK RIDER BAIL OUT


A tank with riders atop stop its first action, then turns its turret to fire, forcing the riders to bail
out. Are they immediately placed on the board?

SPOTTING AFVS AND AT GUNS


Are tanks or Anti-tank guns automatically spotted when they fire? If not, how much information
should the other player get? General sound direction? Puff of smoke etc.?

ANSWER: No, you must make a standard sighting check. Not that it's too hard, but not necessarily
automatic. In relation with what information to give the other player, the rules don't go into detail
on this. So, strictly speaking none.

AP FIRE AGAINST AT GUNS


How do you resolve firing at an AT gun with AP rounds and is there a modifier if its dug in?

ANSWER: According to the rules, AT guns get an effects chart bonus of +5 for either their gun
shield, or an emplacement, but not both. So I don't think being emplaced would have much of an
effect against a well placed
AP round.

HEAT rounds don't deviate if they miss, so too should AP rounds. And since their is no real Armour
value for a gun shield... we must assume it's probably much less than any tank armour. Since most
decent AP rounds will slice through a half-track type armour like a hot knife through butter, I
would go ahead an make a house rule saying if it hits, the AT gun is pretty much dead, with a small
chance of casualties for its crew, from shrapnel, say 1-5 on a d20?

For game purposes it is not possible to harm an artillery piece with an AP round. The chances of
striking the barrel, gun mechanisms, or suspension directly are too slim to be considered on a D20.
Full rules for attacking an artillery piece with a HE or HEAT round are included in the HE update
in the rules section of this website." The update rule is similar to the HE effects vs. equipment on
page 16 of the Armoured Combat section of the main rules.

FIELDWORK SIGHTING
Should things like bunkers, trenches, pillboxes be spotted automatically? If not, what are they
considered for spotting purposes?

ANSWER: I always assume terrain features are always on the board and therefore auto spotted,
though their contents may not be visible. The Terrain Section of the main rule book covers some the
entrenchments you asked about. The Islands of Glory, and Rage on the Reich expansions also have
sighting rules for various entrenchments. Some need to be spotted using the sighting rules, and
others can be spotted automatically, but infantry inside them need to be spotted using the standard
sighting rules.
INFANTRY RATE OF MOVE IN 28MM SCALE
For infantry in 28mm scale the movement by action is 4" or 5"?

ANSWER: It's 5". Sounds like you have an earlier version of the rules, for 20mm. If infantry start
and finish their movement on a road (never leaving the road), they gain an extra 1" of movement. So
6" on a road in 28mm. (4" normally and 5" on a road in 20mm scale).

BAZOOKA DETAILS
How do you resolve the effects of HEAT rounds fired from bazookas at buildings? Wood Building?
Stone Building? Across a door and a window?

ANSWER: I have seen the use of a HEAT round against a vertical surface (i.e. side of a building).
The template is turned from the normal horizontal into the vertical to determine deviation, if any.
Once the round has hit its target or the deviation is determined the effects are then determined by
the targets proximity and ring location. This should be a spherical kill zone, with all cover modifiers
taken into consideration. If you want to launch through an open window it should be a skill check or
it hits the jam and detonates.

SIGHTING MECHANICS
A squad concealed behind a wall is spotted on turn 1. On turn 2, the squad does not and remain
behind the wall in relation to the enemy spotted that spotted it. Does the squad remain spotted, or
is it necessary to spot it again?

ANSWER: A 'sighted' unit stays spotted until: 1) It breaks contact and moves out of sighting range
and/or behind cover and the sighting unit(s) is unable to maintain it "in sight" on their next turn;
the unit must be spotted again. 2) Any occurrence that hinders sight happens (like smoke, darkness,
rain, etc.) that hinders or shortens the sighting range scale.

Also remember that any unit that move into 'Automatic' sighting must be revealed; and if moving
through an automatically sighted area to an hidden one, this brief movement of automatically
sighted movement is revealed to the opponent.

In another words, once sighted it remains sighted until the sighting unit or the target break LOS.

AUTOCANNON
What are the rules for autocannon? Do they count as LCMG for effect on infantry? Are there any
modifiers for effect? I've searched the rulebook and can't find anything which helps.

ANSWER: Page 8 - Infantry Section has the AC listed as a RoF 2 weapon due to its large calibre
round. It has many statistics as a LCMG. Cannons of 37mm and larger - which really goes into the
'main' cannon range have rounds THAT cause non-penetrating effects. Smaller rounds do not. These
weapons are generally too slow firing to allow them special fire modes - aside of OpFire/ambush fire.

Consult the Gun Statistic Charts in the section on page 9 of the main rules covering artillery. All
the guns marked 'AC' in the gun type column are autocannons. Many of the statistics are listed in
that table; additionally, their effects are listed as well. An example might be the German 2CM
FLAK 30 - no range listing, treat has HMG against infantry with -2 LCMG effects chart (ouch!)

Many of the guns listed on these charts have no numbers in the min/max. range column, this is
because - if the have direct LOS - then they have range (this is a small scale tabletop game,
remember!) The guns listed with a min/max. range number are for INDIRECT FIRE only (mortars,
etc. ...). Many guns can fire indirect rounds with HE and not have LOS. A gun has to have a UN
(unlimited) range listing to be used as off-board artillery.

Many of the autocannons had a limited magazine feed to allow them fast loading rates - especially
against aircraft.

INFANTRY CLOSE ASSAULT ON AFVs


Lets say our man French (Morale of 10), hiding in some rubble, has a German 251 stop 3 away.
(playing 20mm rules). French passes the first Gut check and decides to stay put. On his action, he
wants to drop a grenade into the half-track. He could throw it from 3 away, with a +2 mod, needing
a 6 or less. But if he wants to sneak up to it, another 1/2 check is needed before he attempts to drop
it in, needing a 16 or less to hit, right? or is the second gut check not needed because he passed the
initial one when the 251 stopped? Sound confusing but I'm pretty sure it is needed to get into
contact with the 251. What will Frenchie do? Also, any good ways to knock out a 222 with only
infantry weapons? I was thinking about a good ol' cluster grenade in the engine... If the crew of the
222 is CE does that mean the commader and gunner are +5 on the effects column? Sure would be
nice to get a lucky shot on one of them.

ANSWER: Staying put is one thing and assaulting the vehicle is another. I believe that the gut
checked passed would allow the infantry to stay put, especially if the AFV hasn't sighted them yet
and it was during the AFV's action. Attacking it would require another check for the infantry's
action turn. Second, as far as I understood, the only way a grenade can disable a tank is by placing
it into the tracks or rear engine panel or other vulnerable area. If the crew is unbuttoned, then I
believe an attempt may be made to chuck the grenade into the vehicle. Thrown grenades against
buttoned up vehicles have no effect. They simply bounce off and explode, possibly on top of other
infantry.

First, I agree with the other reply that a separate check is needed to assault the half-track.
Second, and I must admit I'm doing this from memory since I don't have my rules handy, I think the
check to assault the half-track is not a 1/2 gut check, but just a gut check. I say this because my
group played a game in which a similar situation occurred (actually it was a Russian trying to get
up the gumption to assault an armoured car), and I thought that in the "after action critique (aka
bull session), we noticed the rules said a 1/2 gut check is required to assault a TANK, but a regular
gut check was required to assault other AFVs. Perhaps someone with the rules handy can verify
that.

As I have a handy copy of the rules at my desk at all times, I'd be happy to clarify. 1/2 Guts check to
assault a Tank OR Assault Gun Guts check to assault any other armoured vehicle. As always, Guts
check to not move away when an armoured vehicles (any type) moves to within 4".

We play as follows: Frenchie needs to pass a check to prevent from being scared of the half-track
(the dreaded 4" rule), then he needs to take a gut-check (not 1/2 because it is a half-track not a tank)
to assault the AFV.

One other note- in our group, we play with this HOUSE RULE for the 4" AFV scare check (because
we don't think some guy is going to run out of a stone house and into the open when a scary vehicle
comes near):

AFV Affect on Infantry- Whenever any AFV moves within four inches of an enemy soldier, the
soldier must take a gut check to remain in position (a soldier must repeat this check for every new
vehicle that comes within 4). All modifiers apply, noted in Infantry Rules, p. 19- exception- apply
the modifier of the cover the infantry is in instead of the +5. If the check succeeds, he may stay in
place or may move from 4-8 from his current position (generally away from the AFV). If the gut
check fails, the soldier must move from 4-8 away from the armour as long as the cover the soldier is
moving to is the same or better than he is currently in. However, if the soldier would be forced to
move to inferior cover, then the soldier may stay in the current cover but becomes broken. For
example, if a soldier is in a wood house (+5 cover), and cannot get into +5 cover or better by leaving
the building and moving from 4-8 inches, he will stay in the building, moving as far from the
armour as possible and becoming broken. Note that LOS is not relevant to the four inch rule
(Armour, p. 16). Soldiers do not have to make this check more than once for the same AFV in the
same turn."

EXPOSED CREWS AND SMALL ARMS FIRE


Let's say that a MMG is on OpFire, and a tank rolls around the corner, Buttoned up with
Commander Exposed. The MMG opens fire, and hits with 3 shots. Where do those shots go? Do you
roll for location on the tank for each round that hit, and hope some hit the commander? Do all 3
automatically hit the Commander, since he is the only 'real' target, or are the hits randomised
between the tank and the commander (50/50 each, or maybe 80% tank, 20% commander), with shot
going to the tank being 'wasted'? I checked the rules, but couldn't find anything that explained this.
What about a tank that's unbuttoned?

We could even go further, and ask the question of someone firing into a crew exposed AFV. How are
those hits assigned? What's to say they all are randomised between the crew, without any chance of
hitting the vehicle, and essentially being a 'wasted' shot.

ANSWER: We assume that small arms directed against armoured vehicles are directed at exposed
crew. We randomise hits between all exposed crew members, in this case the commander would
have the dubious honour of taking all three hits because he was the only exposed crew member, but
he would get +5 for partial tank cover.

The way we play, the effect would be rolled on any exposed crew members (randomly distributed)
with +5 Tank Cover. If the commander is the only guy up, then he takes three +5 hits.

ARTILLERY FIRE QUESTION


Card is played on turn one for arty spotter. He decides to call in a strike within his LOS. Contact is
rolled for and made. On turn two, after marking fire modes, rally, and squad morale checks, the arty
hits with appropriate deviation. Carnage happens... Is this right? The Core rules state that the Arty
spotter plots fire missions after the squad moral, BEFORE actions occur. If this is true, why have a
initiative card, unless it is only for moving and/or conventional non-arty combat. Regarding the
carnage... The rules states that any fig inside the "beaten zone" will receive an attack in the
Artillery phase. Plus, any fig that spends an action inside the beaten zone receives an attack. So ,
anything within the zone is subject to 3 attacks? Ouch... AFVs can scoot, but infantry We played it
incorrectly the other night (doing just one attack when it hit in a loose pattern) and those dang
105's still tore into my squad and ATG, turning them to goo! Let's just say I will be taking careful
aim on that spotter when we finish up...

ANSWER: Yup. The fire mission is considered happening the whole turn and anyone spending an
action in the beaten zone is subject to the arty. That is what makes it effective: the units who are
smart will hug the earth and do nothing and pray, i.e. forfeiting their turn so they don't get turned
to hamburger, and try to get out the next turn.

THE CALL FOR FIRE COMES AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TURN BEFORE ANY ACTIONS,
AS YOU STATE. YOU ARE CORRECT, IF THE SPOTTER HAD NO CARD, HE COULD NOT
MOVE OR FIRE.

AT GUN PLACEMENT
Does anyone know of any historical references where AT guns were placed inside buildings in WW2?
If so, does anyone have any house rules for this?
ANSWER: As a rule, we generally allow placement in ruins where the structure has an obvious hole
large enough for a gun, but never an intact structure, and, it almost goes without saying, never
above the first (ground) floor. However, it is almost never done by players in our group as it seriously
limits the arc of fire for the weapon, as well as hampering the visibility and in general when I have
seen it done it has been to the disadvantage of the AT gun...

SELF RALLY
An interesting situation arose regarding the ability to Self Rally. The charts state: "...are able to
Self Rally using their Normal Morale instead of 1/2 Morale." Now the question: Does this apply to a
Morale Check taken (e.g. from fire) in a Team of One situation? We decided to be the most literal,
and that the above Morale Check is taken at 1/2 as per normal rules, but then if Broken, the guy
could Rally at Normal Morale.

WOUNDS
The way I understand it is 2 LW=HW, and a HW is removed from play, so it doesn't matter if there
is already a HW and another wound is achieved. In scenarios where casualties count towards
victory conditions, we count HW as KIA.

A failed MC causes the model to break, though he has a chance to rally (unless he rolls a natural 20
and becomes a craven coward). A suppression causes the model to gone prone and seek cover from
the incoming fire which makes that model lose any special fire modes had he been placed on etc. ...
it will become quite clear when you get the rules. It is a fairly simple game, but plays beautifully.

We treat suppression as a sort of pin. If you standing you lose any special fire mode and go prone
per the rules. If prone you lose any special fire mode. In addition we put a white marker on the
stand. It takes one action to remove suppression. Its not totally clear in the rules if any thing is
required to recover from suppression, but this makes it easy to track who is suppressed and whom
isn't. Also a MC causes suppression even if the check is passed, per the rules.

We actually have a house rule that covers such an event. If a model is hit with multiple wounds IN
THE SAME ACTION, then those wounds are cumulative. 2 LtWs = 1 HW, 3 LtWs = 1 KIA, 4 LtWs
= 1 GD. As an example, a squad is hit with 4 MMG rounds, a KIA, a LtW, a MC, and a suppression.
Randomising, the unlucky squad leader gets the KIA and the LtW. A KIA (3 LtWs) + 1 LtW = 1 GD.
The difference is if he just got hit with a LtW, and next action got a KIA, then he would just be a
KIA, since all the wounds must occur at the same time. We've seen a small increase in the number
of GDs since implementing this rule, and consequentially, a few more broken soldiers splatted with
their friend's body parts.

As a side note, we play if a model receives a LtW, a MC, and a suppression all in the same action,
then only the wound is counted, the other(s) are ignored (no need to make multiple MCs, and he'll
go prone anyway).
TANKS ARE SNIPERS
When a tanks spots a squad , and decides to fire some HE at them. The controlling player always
chooses to centre the template on the leader of the squad, effectively sniping the leader. Any
suggestions ?

ANSWER: YOU SHOULD INITIALLY PUT THE TEMPLATE WHERE IT WILL AFFECT THE
HIGHER NUMBER OF TARGET SQUAD MEMBERS.

In the marines, we were taught to shoot at "centre mass" of a target, which basically translates to a
location in the torso of the enemy which has the highest hit, HW probability. When shooting crew
served weapons, we did all the spraying, enfilade, et al techniques, always remembering how to
inflict the most damage. When shooting mortars or HE, the only constant, as with all weapons, is to
inflict the MOST damage and cause the most casualties possible. If I detonate a claymore, I let the
point elements of a patrol pass and wait for the main body. If I'm spotting for arty, I call "centre
mass" or my FFE impact area on the place where there are more troops, not necessarily the leader.
In the game, if the leader is in the middle, oh well...However, it is unrealistic to always place the
template over the leader if he is not with the biggest concentration of troops due to the heat of battle
and speed of events. It should be placed in the centre of the biggest concentration of troops. As far
as taking out leaders, that's what real snipers are for.

TANK COMMANDERS AND MORALE CHECKS


The Germans had a tank with commander exposed fired upon by an American rifleman. A MC was
the result, and the commander failed. Now, normally, when a leader fails a MC or gets a HW or
worse, then each of his men within LOS and command range must make a MC. On the other hand,
AFVs act as a single unit, and make or break MCs together. We decided that the because the tank
commander failed his check, the 'tank' must make a MC (which they failed) instead of each separate
man making a MC. Sound good?

ANSWER: Actually on page 3 of the armoured rule section in the main book there is a small bit
about the effects of small arms on tank crews. To quote the rules; "Anytime a vehicle crew is forced
to make a morale check because of enemy small arms fire, the crew will always button up but suffer
no other ill effects. If an exposed crew member is KIA or wounded by small arms fire no vehicle
morale check is required. The vehicle is forced to button up, but the crew will not abandon the
vehicle because of the loss." So actually, the tank would have been fine, even if the commander had
been splattered by the fire, but remember this is ONLY for small arms fire, not another main gun or
at gun round.

FURTHER QUESTION: Stemming from this, when does the tank platoon integrity check happen?
As soon as the 50% or 75% break point is reached? Or during the rally phase, similar to a squad
rally check? The rules say that you count all AFV on your side, and use that number to determine
integrity.

ANSWER: This would only have mattered had the tank been destroyed or broken, which in this case
it was. We break a little from the rules here and make our squad/afv platoon morale tests as soon as
the conditions are met, i.e. the moment when the 50% or 75% mark is reached, rather than wait
until the rally phase.

FURTHER QUESTION: Can you split your AFVs up before the battle in smaller 'groups' for the
purpose of these checks? (All M4A3s in one groups, all M8s in another, all half-tracks in a third,
etc.)

ANSWER: We count platoons of AFVs for the group morale, i.e. a recon platoon of 2 M8s and 2 jeeps
would be a separate morale group from a platoon of M4A3s etc.

ANSWER: The rules sometimes get buried here and there, but what I do is keep my copy in the
bathroom and when nature calls, I peruse a part that came up questionable in the last game or
something we haven't used much like mines or the various poor weather rules. You end up finding a
lot of new things this way ;-)

FURTHER QUESTION: And finally one more question. There are certain terrain types that you
cannot go prone in, like water. What happens if your squad is crossing a stream, and get raking fire
placed on them? Are they subject to a 'to hit' roll for each action until they exit the stream?

ANSWER: We force them to take the actions they need to get to cover or a place where they can go
prone, and they are forced to take the hit rolls for moving under the raking fire and often they get
chewed up. This is what makes streams and other difficult terrain danger zones to quote modern
US Army colloquial. You look for another way around, and if you have to go through them, get
through them quick...send one two or four man team across first to secure the other side, giving
them supporting fire if there is a known enemy, then using them to cover the rest of the squad bring
the rest across as quickly as possible. But still, always look for another way besides crossing streams
or open ground. The realism of this game is pretty strong when it comes to danger zones ;-)

FURTHER QUESTION: Can they get into a position that's low enough to avoid the fire, yet keep
there heads above water? Can they hold their breath for an action and move?

ANSWER: Not in our world ;-) Those MG42 rounds would zip right through that shallow water ;-)

TRUCKS, ACs AND HTs TURNING


Maybe this is a silly question for some, but I really couldn't find in the rules for half-tracks and
armoured cars (and trucks, etc.. for that matter) how they turn. The rules explain that tanks don't
turn like your family car does, in a curve, but pivoting and continuing movement from their new
facing. But how do you plot curves in BG? And how to measure the inches expended in turning 90,
or 180? What if you do a small sharp curve, instead of a huge, wide one?

ANSWER: We try to keep the rules fairly straight forward and try not to complicate them too much,
so in this case we just allowed pretty much any reasonable turn, assuming the vehicle will use their
breaks to slow down, but being an armoured car able to accelerate faster, and result in no variation
from the movement.

TWO MAN TURRETS


In Crusade for Empire, the Italian Semovente 75 only has a 2-man crew for the 75mm, gunner-
commander and loader. The rules say it suffers the 'buttoned up' and 'no-commander' penalty. Does
this apply to the M13-40? And to other 2-man turret tanks? What about armoured cars? e.g. the
German 8-RAD. Also are there charts available for French one-man turret tanks?

ANSWER: Yes, these penalties apply to all other two man (and one man) turrets. In many cases the
tank commander must also act as the gunner (French tanks, Russian T-26, BT5/7)- this is their
huge disadvantage. German armoured cars are usually equipped with a turret mounting a 20mm
autocannon and two man crew; a gunner (no loader required) and the commander, so these only
have to take the buttoned-up penalty (if they are buttoned up).

SUPRESSION: 1) How do you mark suppression results? 2) If the first hit results in a LtW and the
result was "broken"; and another hit on the same man results in a morale check, DO YOU
ACTUALLY CHECK MORALE AGAIN? He's already broken at a +5 due to the first result.

ANSWERS: 1) just place a "prone" marker by the model as that is the only effect, save for the
removal of special fires, which should be easier to remember. 2) You do not check morale again. We
play it that once broken, he remains broken until he rallies and we disregard a second morale check
until he does rally.

MULTIPLE RoF WEAPONS JAMMING


By knowing the order in which the shots are fired, you can easily note when any jams occur, and any
shots "fired" after the jam are ignored... OR, I was under the impression that should a Jam occur
whilst firing all shots of that action are ineffective and are discounted. If this is indeed the case then
just group models auto fire by dice colour and discard misses as appropriate etc..

ANSWER: The rules don't specifically state when to take into account the actual Jamming roll. I
don't think it is necessary to discount all the hits in an action that a gun jams. We play that all
Jams are applied at the end of the weapon's fire. For an (L)MG-42 for instance, the 4 die rolls equal
1 miss, 2 hits and 1 Jam, we let the 2 shots hit and then count the gun as Jammed.
When a multi-dice gun Jams more than once with it's rolls, the EEE guys also applied just one Jam
overall instead of multiple Jams. They pointed out that's just how they play, it just depends on how
cruel you want to be to those poor multi-dice machine gunners. Having to apply two or three Jams
to a luckless LMG gunner can be somewhat amusing for the opposition, but applying just the one
Jam does make the game move along better.

In the end its up to the preference of the group when to apply the Jams and how many of them.

TURNING RADIUS
Any German tank or SP on the Tiger I, Tiger II, or Panther chassie, if not moving, could pivot turn.
This takes a space larger then the length of the vehicle as the tracks are turned in opposite
directions pivoting the vehicle in its own length. Good way to throw a track as well.

The Mark I through Mark IV models and SP made from them as well as the Churchill, Cromwell,
and Sherman tanks (and Soviet tanks) could only turn in place by locking one track and pivoting on
it. This would usually result in a fairly large turn radius.

ARTY SPOTTERS AND ACTION CARDS


In this scenario, the American Platoon and Squad Leaders have radios for spotting/directing on-
board Mortar support, as does the German Platoon Leader. Since the mortars fire on their card,
what happens when it comes up before the spotter's card? There seem to be two possibilities: 1)
Tango Sierra 2) The spotter can effectively spot on the mortar's card, and not do anything when his
card comes up.

ANSWER: The way we play it, the spotter is assigned to the mortar and goes on the mortars card.
Just because the spotter isn't standing next to the mortar, doesn't mean he isn't assigned to that
unit. Normally, the spotter has to be within command range of the mortar, but with a radio, it
negates that. Remember, you still have to make contact with the radio, and if you can't, the mortar
fires blind and can't correct fire that turn.

We always put the spotter and the mortar on the same card... then it doesn't matter too much, but
often the spotter can end up a little behind his attached unit as he stops to communicate with the
tubes.

This is the way we play too. Many times we will have the spotter at the edge of some cover with the
mortar crew back in the cover but within command range (yelling range). This prevents the enemy
from seeing the mortar when it fires.

HAND GRENADES
Crusade for Empire strictly states that ALL squad members have 2 grenades. I assumed that this
included my Bren Gunner and Assistant. During play, my squad received a grenade attack during
which several Scots were killed. However, my Bren gunner survived and became a hero with one
immediate free action. When I announced that I was going to respond in kind to the Kraut grenade
attack, my opponent stated that because all scenarios in the scenario packs don't include grenades
with their LMG teams, then none carried grenades, therefore my grenade attack could not be made.
His partner in the game, handling a second German force agreed with me, for he had marked his
teams as having grenades. I decided to let my opponent's rule of no grenades to stand because we
had not stated all HOUSE rules in the beginning. My question is. Do LMGs and assistants have the
2 grenade that the scenario states?

ANSWER: As far as the grenades, ALL infantry carry two grenades, unless otherwise stated in the
scenario. Sometimes, the scenario calls for a shortage of supplies or ammo, and that's when
grenades may not be available. You should have made your attack.

In reality grenade availability depends upon the nationality you are fielding in the game. I had a
grandfather who fought (American) in Europe from 1943 (Italy) to 1945 (Germany, though he had
become a staff officer by this time, having used up his luck by August of 1944 and getting wounded).
The one thing he said was that they had all the grenades and ammo they ever wanted to carry all
the time. The abundancy was enormous. Men would carry six or seven grenades and several
hundred rounds for their M1s. Ammo was their strong-point, as American firepower was the stuff of
legend with semi automatic weapons as the basis for the average rifleman.

Anyway, we always assume that everyone, including the MG gunner, has at least a grenade, and
often we don't count them at all because it is easy enough for a soldier to pass off his grenades to
another etc.. Make a house rule for it like we did ;-) Then next time hurl it right back.

I am contemplating a house rule that if the thrower misses with a naturally rolled 19 it is a dud, but
it he misses with a natural 20, the thrower can hurl it back, just to keep things fun...anyone have a
rule for throwing them back?

DEVIATION OF HE SHOTS
A German tank is firing a HE round to a rock formation about 4 inches away (15mm scales) under
which lay about three of my grunts. I asked if the tank would receive any damage due to its location
in the HE rings arguing that flying rock can at least damage a track. I received a no for answer.
Then his tank missed the to hit roll and we had to deviate the round. When placing the template,
the roll stated that the round had "bounced " back at the tank (or something like that) which of
course, would be impossible for a HE round. How should situations like the one described be
handled?

ANSWER: As for the HE deviation, if it came back onto the tank, then thats where it lands.
Strange things happen in battle, and nothing is impossible. It may seem improbable, but that's the
nature of the beast. The round could have struck the rock without detonating, and ricochet back, or
any number of other possible outcomes. It's the same thing as throwing a grenade 2 to the front
that misses and deviates 3 back (1 behind the thrower). An AP or HEAT round that deviates is
ignored, but not an HE. Now, if the round had hit, and the tank was in one of the rings, that calls
for a house ruling. I would say unless the tank was in the centre ring, nothing would happen.

AFV CREW RE-MOUNTING AFVs


There was an empty Sherman tank due to Craven Cowards into which a surviving commander of
another tank climbed into. My opponent immediately stated I had an extra plus 2 because I was
unfamiliar with the tank. After a little arguing, I conceded because the surviving commander was
from a Grant, not a Sherman. However, if the commander were to have been from a Sherman, would
he receive the +2 penalty? I argued that commanders have to be familiar with all aspects of the
vehicle operations, including firing. However this argument comes from serving in today's armed
forces. I don't know if it was done different back then. Could someone shed some light into this
subject?

ANSWER: Im not sure, but I believe that leaders are exempt from the unfamiliar penalty, since
they have to know everything about their men and equipment. I would say he would not get the
penalty, even though it was a different tank. Leaders are special in that regard, in my opinion. Now
if a crew followed him, they would be at a penalty, unless they climbed into the same tank they are
familiar with.

SPECIAL AMMO FOR TANKS


How do you guys assign HEAT rounds to tanks? The rules state that HVAP & APCR rounds should
be mostly in limited quantities, but says nothing of HEAT rounds. So then are they in plentiful
supply like AP and HE, or should you roll a d6 for the number each tank gets??

Another thing about HEAT rounds, is for infantry AT weapons. Do bazookas, Panzerschrecken, etc..
apply the +2 To-Hit penalty also to their rolls, or is that already factored into their particular
special To-Hit numbers?

ANSWER:

SPECIAL FIRE MODES EFFECT


After you've marked either raking, plunging or Spraying Fire mode, does this come into effect just
before the action cards are drawn? Also does anybody use templates to mark the beaten zones?

ANSWER: Pinning Fire comes into effect immediately and lasts the entire turn or until fire is lifted
through a gun duel or other effect. While in Pinning Fire the gun crew cannot perform any other
actions.
We play that it comes into effect immediately, and all models are forced prone (or take a hit, but
that has never happened in our game until the actual turn. An MG42 starts sawing and everyone
tends to get flat ;-) Never have used a template for blast areas, but then we use very little off board
arty fire missions, mostly on board mortars or direct fire IGs and SPGs.

GRENADE EFFECT
I have one of the very old sets of Battleground rules - the results chart lists a +2 when resolving an
attack with a Grenade. This +2 does not appear on the newest 15mm charts that E8 has put on
their web site.

ANSWER: Even if this was a typo (I believe it was) we still use the rule. it gives the necessary
oomph that grenades deserve but are usually lacking in wargames. Remember a grenade thrown in
a bunker, or open top vehicle attacks everyone inside with the "A" chart.

We have another house rule that we stole from GW. A grenade that is thrown can not deviate more
than half the distance that it was thrown. (i.e.: if a grenade was thrown 6 inches, it cannot deviate
more than 3 inches). While not very accurate/correct, it gives the thrower (me)a chance to survive.
Because whenever I throw a grenade, and miss, it always seems to come back directly towards my
models... although now that I am thinking about it, I think my group uses that rule BECAUSE of
me.

Now here I disagree, Grenades are not the big killers they are in the movies. I fact depending upon
who's grenade it was they could be ignored. In Korea, the Chi-Com grenades out of arms reach were
not considered a threat. But I don't think you could say that of a German grenade.

The primary effect of a grenade is stunning. In BG terms suppression. If anything I would roll on
the table and degrade all damage by one step except for SUP. So MC = SUP, LTW = MC, etc..

In enclosed spaces I treat as normal.

The only problem is there isn't a double suppress that would take 2 actions to remove. I think that
would simulate the stunning effect better.

Wouldn't that +2 take the oomph out of grenades? My impression was that it was +2 to the effects
chart, which would make them weaker. Regardless, we don't use the modifier anyway, so I guess it
doesn't matter too much, just curious as our group is somewhat disaffected by the weakness of BG
grenades (with the exception of what Scott pointed out about the A ring bit).

This rule is not a typo. Grenades were not very deadly in open spaces, and were used more to stun
and suppress and enemy. The +2 penalty should be used, even in confined spaces. The deadliness of
grenades in confined spaces is taken into account by assigning the A ring to all targets.
Now, there may be some special grenades that are more powerful (like certain offensive grenades)
and ignore the +2.

That would be a good chart for EEE to put out, different grenades from different nations.

Also, keep in mind the HE calibre chart, and the pluses and minuses on that chart for different size
HE rounds.

As for this missing off the 15mm charts, I think that is were the typo is.

AFV HATCHES
If a tank crew buttons up, I assume there is very little that people outside can do to get hatches
open (i.e. pry them open, etc.) short of blowing them open somehow. Is this true?

ANSWER: Think so. I believe most, if not all, have turnbuckles (or whatever theyre called) that seal
the hatch. Openable only from inside.

Yeah, we dont allow grenades to be put down hatches unless they are already open for some reason
(i.e. the commander was killed and no crew member close the hatch etc..) and certainly when
buttoned they don't come un-latched from the inside.

HAND TO HAND COMBAT MECHANICS


A question about hand-to-hand combat. If a model strikes another in hand-to-hand combat, the hit
model rolls against the C column on the damage table. The possible results are the usual:
suppression, MC, Light Wound, Heavy Wound, Killed, Gory Death. Here's the question: is it
appropriate to apply the Suppression and Morale Check results?

The reason I ask is that a Suppression makes the model go prone. Does this make sense in a hand-
to-hand combat result? I could see it if the idea was to simulate someone knocked off their feet, or
forced to dodge out of the way. The suppression effect would require the model to use one action to
get up, so in effect it uses up one of the model's actions. While going prone may not be strictly
correct, the effect of eating an action might be just what was intended. Likewise, a Morale Check
result has a suppression attached to it. Has anyone tried these HTH rules? If so, do you ignore
Suppression and MC combat results, or do you apply them?

ANSWER: I thought hand-to-hand was decided by the lowest roll winning and the higher roll
receiving a HW and therefore out of the game. There is a table of modifiers which affect rolls.

SKIRMISH CAMPAIGNS 20MM AUTOCANNON AMMUNITION SUPPLY


Question on your rules for the 20mm auto-cannon. You limit them to 1d6 + 6 "shots" are shots
actions at RoF or total dice. I assume its actions but I wanted to be sure.

ANSWER: You were correct in your assumption. The term "shots" was intended to be generic to fit
several rule systems. When researching this gun we were very surprised at its RoF- it can burn
through all its on-board ammo quite quickly (less than one minute if I recall correctly) and we
wanted to limit it in some way. The die roll provides for from 7-12 ACTIONS of fire (in Battleground
terms).

ANTITANK RIFLE FIRE VS PERSONNEL


Also how do you deal with ATRs, do you let them shoot at people on the rifle table with the LCAC
result table?

ANSWER: Yes, we do allow fire from ATRs at infantry (it is a house rule). This happened quite
often on the Eastern Front- especially with the Soviets using them to pick-off exposed German tank
commanders. We treat Soviet ATRs (14mm+) as LCMGs and German ones (~7mm) as HMGs for
results.

SDKFZ 251 FLAMMENWERFER


During the last 2 battles we have played in the Puerto Rico group, Tito, the German player, utilised
a tactic which has my tanks second guessing the priority of their targets. He gets elite SS squads
onto half-tracks and attaches a flame-thrower support element. He drives up to my tanks (with 1/2
gut checks, which his elite driver must pass since he is the one closing in on the tank) and attempts
to torch them up. My luck has held twice. The first time the gut check failed and the second time
the flame-thrower failed to ignite. His luck was up too. My T34/85 was on OPfire at point blank and
missed! Those darn 20's. A question arose during play the first time he used this tactic: Do all
members of the squad that are inside the half-track have to make a half gut check in order to attack
the tank after the driver has passed his check and has driven close enough? Note that this tactic is
useful in areas where the vehicles can run away and find cover if the flame-thrower fails to torch
anything.

ANSWER:

MORE ON AFV CREW ACTIONS


Can a tank gunner, loader and/or commander go on Opportunity Fire while the driver drives? If on
OF, does the loader reload?

ANSWER: The tank can't move, else it will invalidate a main gun shot. MGs can Opportunity Fire
while the tank moves, though. For a main gun shot, the gun has to be already loaded, and the
gunner on OF, and the commander too, if you don't want the +3 No Commander penalty. The loader
does not load on the same action of fire, that's for sure. So he doesn't need to be on OF (since this
fire mode is assigned to individuals of the crew, not the whole tank).

QUESTION: I know that the loader doesn't load in the action of fire, but can he reload afterwards? I
explain: Since only the gunner and commander are in OF, the tank still has a card in the game (for
the rest of the crew), right? If the card is pulled BEFORE any OF shot, then the loader can't do
squat, since his turn is up already. But what if the gunner and commander use their OF action first,
during some enemy movement action, and AFTER THAT, this tank's card is pulled. My guess is
that the loader, not being in OF himself, could load a round for due use in the next turn.

ANSWER: I don't see any problems with what you described. The loader still has actions left, so
why wouldn't he perform them?

ANOTHER ANSWER: The way we play, you can't be on OF while moving. This includes an AFV - so
the answer to our group is NO to question #1. We believe that, as the rules describes, when you are
on OF you are concentrated and waiting for a target in a certain area to appear. Further, OF in the
rules is described at interrupting another player's action - you can't interrupt another players action
when you are in the middle of your own action when moving.

I would have to say no to OF and moving. Let's say my gunner and commander are on OF and my
card comes up, my driver gets his two actions, so he drives around a building and runs into an
enemy tank. Now for you people that say you can move and be on OF with the gunner, would you
say your gunner could now shot? I say no, you would be bending the rules big time to your
advantage. If Im not mistaken, if your gunner is on OF, he is doing nothing but concentrating on a
field of view for any enemy to enter to take a shot. Now yes, you can fire while moving, but your
gunner most likely has the target in sight. A tank gunner bouncing around wouldn't have the
greatest focus on any new surprises to come into view.

I say no to everything. You OF and that's it. The rules clearly state that the action for the entire
unit is taken up. If you allow to load afterwards, you are rewarding the OF team and penalising the
bold mover. OF states that you are waiting for the enemy to come into LOS, not you moving to get
the enemy into your LOS and then OF his ass. OF is like a light ambush. You wait, fire, and that's
it. When a tank has a crew, the commander is co-ordinating the OF task. He knows moving will
lower the chances of a hit, so why OF? If wants to fire on the move or after a move, that's kosher, but
in my opinion, not in OF. Also, If I recall, the rules state that the special fire modes (I think
automatic weapons also, got to read them again) are one action, period. You can't have a two action
gun duel when suppressing (or can you?). Just my two cents.

Actually, the rules of OF prohibit moving while having the MAIN gun on OpFire.

MORALE
I read the Morale rules several times and still am puzzled. Once a Squad takes enough losses to
force it to take a Morale check, Does that unit need to make that check every turn? Or only once
when it reaches that level and each other turn it takes further combat losses?

Also while reading through some of your letters I found one that said that 'while a unit can route as
a group, single soldier may return on their own'. I thought it was all or nothing.

ANSWER: It checks again only if it takes more casualties. As for the second question, the squad
might break , but they may come back individually as you try to rally them next turn, good idea to
try to rally the leader first.

BORE SIGHTING
I thought that I read somewhere in the rules of BGWWII that there is a way to preset targets while
on the defensive. It came up last night, and I couldn't find anything in the rules. I hope I'm not
mixing up two different games. I know that Bore sighting is ASL, but what about BGWWII. Is there
a rule for this? Or is it just old age setting in?

ANSWER: The rule is for tanks: it's a +4 To Hit modifier called zeroed in. It's supposed to be
mainly for scenarios, and the rule for it is kinda vague. We've never used it in play, cause it never
has been brought up. I suspect that it could be implemented maybe for the defensive army, having a
tank with a very specific, small and restricted area zeroed in since the beginning of the game, and
not move even the turret before firing that one and only +4 shot, if the unlucky enemy passes
through the zeroed in zone. If we ever were to use it, I'd say that the location has to be
written/drawn on paper before starting the game. Maybe a grenade blast template size?

Maybe it's also possible to use a modified version of the zeroing rule for artillery, not off-board, but
mortars, Infantry Guns, maybe anti-tank guns. Maybe a fifty percent chance of hitting without drift
instead of twenty percent. Maybe a miss would drift less or something like that. I agree that any
bonus like this would only work until the unit is moved to a new target, but where pretargeted anti-
tank or HE would be very useful.

INFANTRY VS AFV CLOSE ASSAULT


When an infantryman gets into close assault with a tank to place a grenade, we came to realise that
the guy who sets the grenade doesn't get away from the tank before it explodes! The effect is applied
immediately, without time for the soldier to run away. Other boom devices, such as bangalore
torpedoes and satchel charges include a step in the rules where it says something like "thingie
explodes in 2 actions after it is set", but not so for the grenade placement rules. Here's an abridged
version of these rules, from the book:

1. Get into close assault.


2. Determine size.
3. Declare tracks or engine.
4. Roll on Placement chart.
5. If successful, roll on Effects chart.
6. Apply result to tank.

So this means that the grenade explodes when the guy in still IN CONTACT with the AFV. We have
always played it as if the guy is immune to the shock, but I'm curious as to how other groups play
this rule. Any comments, guys?

ANSWER: Grenades don't automatically explode after pulling the pin, etc., how about saying it
explodes at the end of the following action, etc. ... gives the model a chance to run away, go prone,
etc. ...

We play as you do, we assume the guy sort of dodges the blast even though he is very close to the
tank.

FIRING WHILE PRONE


If you fail a morale check and must run for cover and go prone, can you fire after you go prone? If
you pass a morale check when a hit calls for one and are forced prone, can you fire? Also, if you are
suppressed, can you fire? If you are in Pinning Fire and forced prone, if you take an action of fire
while in Pinning Fire do you roll to get hit?

AS you see, I'm a little fuzzy on the prone thing. I would think there would be something in the
rules that would make an infantry man just keep his head down, but I do not see it. These rules say
that you must go prone, but being prone you also may fire in other cases.

ANSWER: When broken, you can do nothing until you Rally. Once you Rally, yes you can fire while
prone (see next answer); Nothing prevents you from firing while prone, but intervening terrain may
prevent Line of Sight (LOS) to your target. If LOS is blocked to a target, it can't be shot at. Also,
some terrain limits your LOS while you are Prone (high grass, being behind a wall, shell holes, etc.).
Check the Terrain section in the rule book, and under each terrain type, it will tell you if you can
fire while prone from that particular terrain.

As the rules stand, the only effect of Suppression is that you're forced prone, so yes, you can fire (see
last answer). Some houses play that suppression gets a marker, and it takes an action to remove the
marker before you can do anything, making suppression a little more effective. Your call. (we use the
House Rule)

ANY time you take an action while under Pinning Fire, except crawling, you have a chance to be hit.
Firing while prone means lifting your head and upper body from the ground, which exposes you to
the Pinning Fire. Remember, you still have to make a 1/2 morale check before you can try any action
except crawl. (see rules under each Pinning Fire mode).

ANOTHER ANSWER: OK this is my special rule. Its implied in the rules but not stated. I require a
unit that is suppressed to use 1 action to unsuppress (read getting their shit together). However
getting up from prone I allow as an unsuppresing action. So say you where in a window and GI Joe
hoses it down with fire. The Kraut in the window must take a check for morale. He passes but is
still suppressed and is marked as suppressed and prone. It will take one action (going upright) to
get back into the window that counts as his unsuppession.

But now say the Kraut's buddy Hans takes offence at his buddy being shot at by GI Joe and shoots
at him (assume GI Joe is in the open and upright). Han's Kar-98 cause GI Joe to be suppressed. He
goes prone and is marked as suppressed, and prone.

When GI Joe's card comes up he decides that staying upright is unhealthy and decided to remain
prone. So he spends one action to remove the suppress marker and my fire on the next action. He
could have stood up and they would have removed the suppress marker too.

What this does is make suppression against prone models worth something.

Also units with suppressed markers may not place special fire modes.

AP SHOTS AGAINST AT GUNS/ORDNANCE


I wanted to shoot at an AT gun, but an AP shell was in the breach of my tank's gun, so I did it
anyways. 'Cause the rules only specify what happens when HE rounds hit a gun, we made up some
inpromptu rule, and kept playing. I was wondering how other people play this?

ANSWER:

SPLITTING SQUADS
I was wondering how people handle models that break-up from a squad. Say a two or three man
team splits up from a squad and does some recon. I realise that they cant use the team leader
morale. Do they keep the same morale till they are down to one man? Do you give them another
card for actions. What about siting? Say the are in view of their group, could they sight for the
whole unit using hand signals? How do you guys play this?

ANSWER: We usually use the assistant squad leader to command the second group if he is still
alive, then he becomes sort of a mini-SL and his morale takes over the new sub-squad. Otherwise,
they keep their lower morale score. We have them go on the same card as we have found too many
cards tends to bog down the game. If they are far enough apart that they have different LOS, they
can sight a different area, but the whole squad still only gets one sighting check roll, the die roll
then applies to both parts of the squad.

FLAMETHROWERS
Those sinking Americans were using a Half Squad of engineers. Armed with a Flame-thrower. After
rolling to see if the Flame-thrower lights, the Americans wish to advance. I believe that he can do so
with no penalty. Second I believe that if the template is placed on the board then it stays in place for
the hole turn. Let me know if I'm wrong.

ANSWER:

ARTILLERY AIRBURSTS IN WOODED AREAS


It seems that every time our group plays we come up with more questions. This time it's HE in the
woods. It says that when artillery fire lands in the woods there can be no direct hits, (roll a D8
followed by the drift I guess). Is this to mean that a round that has been walked in by a spotter has
no chance of landing where it should be. Light woods in 28mm allows sighting within 6" of the edge
of woods. I think a direct hit can be scored with the treetop modifiers. Losing any prone modifier
and the larger blast ring.

2nd it also says that an extra ring should be used because the of the deadly effect He had exploding
in the treetops. Was this true with all sizes of shells? How large is the new outer ring? It seems to
me that BGWWII would want to make this a standard as well. If it wasn't for the fact that the
group I game with are all good friends the loop holes in these rules could drive you nuts.

ANSWER:

TANK MG RATE OF FIRE


We assume that a tank LMG which to us is not fully crewed, fires with a RoF of 3, and jams on a 19
or 20? Where did we get the RoF of only 3 from? Shouldn't the RoF be 4 dice?

ANSWER: We play that the rate of fire is the same as the infantry version. However we also reduce
the jam number by one for whatever weapon we are using when mounted in a vehicle. This only
applies to weapons in an enclosed area, not those mounted outside such as jeeps, half-tracks etc..
On those vehicles we modeld that the gunner would be able to better watch his ammo feed. Whereas
on tanks the ammo usually runs down an ammo track from where the ammo is stored to the
weapon. One other rule we've used is that on vehicles that have ammo tracks for their MGs is that
after jamming roll another d20 on a 18-20 the ammo has caught up in the ammo track and takes d6
extra actions to clear. I guess thats what you get when most the gamers in our original group were
all armoured vehicle crewmen in the army.

SNIPERS
Does a sniper get 1 shot per action or must he/she use the "aimed shot" action first thus only getting
1 shot per turn? Also, when using the aimed shot action with weapons that have an RoF greater
than 1 do all the shots get a -2 bonus or must the shooter take only 1 shot even if the weapon could
fire more?

ANSWER: To answer the first question first, the sniper gets ALL his bonuses (e.g. elite, sniper, etc.)
before he adds the bonus for taking an action to aim. Thus an elite sniper aiming would have a
bonus of -7 to the to-hit roll. Remember, effect modifiers impact the EFFECTS roll, not the to-hit.
RoF weapons get ALL their shots increased by the +2 aimed roll for the action directly following a
aim action (i.e., that round only).

A good house rule might be to subtract -1 from every roll after the first for RoF weapons of two or
better due to recoil, barrel rise, etc. (ex. a panzergrenadier fires his MP-44 at the paratrooper
running across the field: first action aim, second action fire; first shot +2 to hit due to aim, second
+1, third no bonus, if fourth shot -1 to hit, etc.). But this would seriously hamper game time.

In order to get the aimed bonus, the sniper must expend an action, so he only gets 1 shot per turn.
But snipers can set a special Ambush fire mode, which incorporates the Aimed shot bonus. They
still only get 1 shot per turn, but can select a specific target. This assumes they have a spotter with
them. Without the spotter on Ambush fire mode, you either get the -2 Aimed Shot OR select your
target.

Best thing to do is download the German Sniper playsheet from EEE's website (under Battle
Builder). It will answer your questions, and there are a couple more sniper rules. From what I
understand, US snipers didn't normally use spotters, while German and Russian sniper did.

As for the rate of fire, we play the sniper only fires one shot, regardless of the weapons RoF while on
Ambush and using the Aimed Shot.

Humm, I thought all shots from a sniper team were aimed. They had a PDF that broke down the
rules for snipers pretty clearly. As I recall, single man snipers can claim either the aim bonus or the
target selection skill not both.

All shots are aimed, if the sniper has a spotter, and they set their special Ambush Fire mode. Now,
the sniper doesn't have to set his Ambush mode, or may be unable to (wounded, spotted, etc.). In
that case, they may choose to aim, and follow the regular Aiming rules.

GERMAN MACHINEGUNS AND GENERAL FIREPOWER


Historically a USA squad would have 12 men, probably about 9 with M-1's, one with a sub mg and a
BAR and loader. If you add up all he shots per turn one squad would have it would be (let's say the
sub MG is the SL and is helping the BAR) 42. Let's look at a generic German squad which was
about ten men. 7 Kar98 rifles, a MG 32/42 a loader and the SL directing the mg which would be 22
shots per turn. Looking at the shots per turn the USA squad just about doubles the German squad.

Let's say you have a platoon vs platoon. A generic USA Platoon would have three squads. Adding up
there shots all in one turn would be 126. A regular German platoon would be four squads of(in the
very best situation for the Germans) 10 men for a total of 86 shots per turn. That's forty more shots
per turn. Now I am wondering how some of you play a German VS USA game with these statistics.
It seems to me even though you may give the Germans a better morale rating they would still not
have a chance. How do you guys (without vehicles) give the Germans a fighting chance? One last
thing, I just read that the German Platoon was made up of three rifle squads and on heavy weapons
squad. Do any of you know the make up of the heavy weapons squad?

There was a fundamental difference in doctrine between the US and the Germans. The US squad
was the firepower of the team with the BAR providing support. With the Germans the MG34/42 was
the firepower of the squad and the riflemen supported the MG. The most important thing to a
German squad was that MG. Every member was trained in its use and in some cases it was the last
weapon to go down in a fight. On one occasion a dozen or so Soldiers held a miles long front using
MG's individually and holding back an entire Soviet battalion ...

The US veterans from WWII rarely discussed the effects of the German squad's rifle fire, but they
nearly always discussed the hazardous effects of the Spandau (LMG 34/42) in most circumstances
and the Burp Gun (MP40/41) in city and forest fights. The German LMG was the key weapon in
the squad, around which both offensive and defensive activities took. However, the US squad, when
trained and ready for a fight, (and not pinned down) had tremendous firepower in the M1 Garand
and could easily turn back a small (squad-platoon) German assault. However, BGWWII equates the
MG34 & 42 as similar to the M1919, Bren and DP and DMP. All of these Allied LMGs have a cyclic
rate of fire of 480-500 RPM, while the MG34 had 800 RPM and the MG 42 had 1200!! Therefore, to
replicate the superior killing capability of the German MGs, I use 6xD20 for the MG34 and 8xD20
for the MG42. The Allied MGs stay with 4xD20. This adjustment reflects both the technical
capabilities and the demoralising effect of these two highly capable weapons on the targeted
victims. However, as an offsetting factor, I decreased their "Jam" threshold to 19. Try these rates of
fire in your next game and see how the historical reputation of these weapons come alive!

As the war went on, didnt the German squads attempt to acquire more LMG's? By late war I
believe that many of them had two or more. Although the German LMGs had a high rate of fire
(sometimes described as having the sound of a ripping bed sheet), the more they fired the more they
had to change the magazine (not talking belt fed here) and the air cooled barrel. Those veteran
units in the Russian and western allied armies would wait for this moment and make a leap frog
approach.
A German squad with two LMGs, one using Pinning Fire and the other picking off any bold types
would seem to me to be a tough nut to crack in Battleground. Where is the indirect fire? Gimme
some Shermans!

Typically, the infantry machine gunner fired in bursts (especially when suppressing), therefore the
averaged rate of 4 dice is adequate for play purposes. The rules give the MMG 34/42 5 dice when
fully crewed (jam of 19).

But I sorta like your home rules Tom... makes an Ivan/Tommy/Joe think twice about rushing that
MG nest.

We also have experimented with the German MGs. I think the old Squad Leader method works
well. We use a red die for one of the RoF die. If the player controlling the MG rolls a six or less on
the red die then the MG shoots again. The second shot is with one less RoF die and the break down
goes down one. If the roller is hot, so is the MG. Give it a try. We also allow the Allies to have a red
RoF die but with a less a chance of obtaining the continuous fire.

Please note: Although the official book cyclic rate of the MG-42 is stated as 1200 rpm...the actual
rate is more like 1500-1800 rpm. As the war dragged on and standards dropped... the rate of fire
actually went up. The sloppier MG-42s actually fire faster.

A US army study of the MG-42 found that it rarely only hit a soldier once. No wonder it was feared.
Instead of giving it extra dice...a more accurate representation would be to give it two wound results
for every hit. Also lower the stoppage number to 19 (or 18 if you take the 5th shot) and allow stacked
jams. When using raking fire, etc., just treat normally.

When engaging point targets (instead of suppressing an area), German soldiers were trained to use
it like a huge shotgun. The high rate of fire was desired to get the maximum impact from this tactic.
The Germans essentially used the same logic as aircraft gunnery. The well established standard
that has not managed to waiver with time for aircraft is that you'll tend to be able to get a target in
your sights for maybe 3 seconds. So, aircraft guns are desired to have as high a rate of fire as
possible to get as much lead as possible into the area in such a short span of time. The Germans
took a similar approach to a running man or men. The end result was a gun with a phenomenal
rate of fire that was feared for its deadliness. I have a history channel episode on tape that shows an
excerpt from a US army training tape that was shown to the troops because merely the sound of the
MG-42 tended to make them suppress. My favourite line is: It's bark is worse than it's bite!
Apparently there was a serious problem with US troops going to ground even if they weren't getting
fired at, just from the sound.

I think the number one consideration is not rate of fire, but amount of ammunition. Consider that a
German HMG may have as much as 3 or more times the ammo available that a LMG (same
weapon) has. This translates into a LMG gunner that is very hesitant to use all his ammo (he can
burn through it all in one minute if he wants) but a HMG gunner who is not afraid at all of burning
through a few belts. Also, if we want to get really complicated, we can consider RoF as a function of
position - a LMG dug-in is likely to have a bunch more ammo available than a LMG attacking on
the move with only the ammo "the guys" can carry.

In our games, we have not changed the LMG RoF (though we do use the optional MG-42 rules) but
we give extra RoF to MMG and HMG teams, especially those that are emplaced.

Ah, we're hitting the same issue that we did last time this subject came up. Practical versus cyclic
RoF. I say, let the Germans have their high ROFs, but somehow enforce barrel changes. Barrel
changes are easiest on fixed-emplacement HMGs and hardest on hand-carried LMGs, and
impossible when assaulting with a LMG.

As an aside on practical versus cyclic, I give you the advice given minigun gunners on helicopters.
With the cyclic set to max. (6,000 rounds a minute), avoid bursts of over three seconds, as they put
undue wear on the gun. A burst of six seconds requires the gun be allowed to cool down for two
minutes in a fast-moving heli, ten minutes in a slow-moving heli. A burst of eight seconds is likely
to cause the gun to explode. The automatic limiter on the gun will allow 3 second bursts, a override
allows six second bursts, and it enforces the cool-down time. You can hit the override again to fire
again immediately, but this is a Bad Idea.

Again... this is where the German squad varied from the US squad. The ENTIRE squad was
prioritised on the MG. This included hauling ammo for it. The assistant gunner wasn't the only guy
lugging belts and maybe even boxes of ammo. German troops referred to the MG-42 as "the pig"
because of it's appetite for ammo. They weren't too happy about the pain of feeding the pig, but they
liked the results. On the issue of barrel changes... this is where stacking jams is nice.

LMG RoF 4 as per standard, however they may fire an increased burst with a RoF of 5 jams on a 19,
if there are two jams indicated they have to change barrel which takes one entire turn for the crew.
Likewise for medium and heavies with increased ROFs of 6. From a quick bit of research most allied
LMGs only got up to 800rpm. Another thought would be to do either two dice to hit or two effects
dice per hit when laying down special fire.

MORALE QUESTION
In a action, a model is hit multiple times and a result shows that no damage was done to the model,
but 2 MCs were the result... Does that model make 2 MCs then or just one? And lets say that he
does make 2 MCs and one the first one he roles an unmodified 1. Does he role to see what type of
Hero he is, and does he perform his free action "IMMEDIATELY" and then role for his second MC
after his action is performed?
ANSWER: We play that multiple morale checks only result in one die roll, and multiple
suppressions only give one suppression result. Multiple wounds stack. An option we are testing is to
give a penalty to the die roll for each other MC result. i.e. 2 MC would result in 1 die roll at +1, 3
MC would be 1 die roll at +2, etc.. That way, the other results are not "lost".

Our group would roll two D20s, i.e. both morale checks.

We play with multiple morale checks. Figuring modifiers is just complicating. Ignoring multiple
results is just wrong. Multiple MCs simply represent a more serious MC. Somehow I'm thinking
getting scared by a belt-fed slinging 1500 rounds per minute is more intimidating than a bolt gun.
So did the US army.

ANOTHER MORALE QUESTION


Are any of these correct?
If a person is prone, in cover, and fails a moral check he runs.
If a person is prone, in +2 cover, and fails a moral check he runs.
If a person is prone, in +3 cover, and fails a moral check he stays where he is but cannot rise until
rallied.
If a person is prone, in cover, and fails a moral check he stays where he is but cannot rise until
rallied.

SIMULTANEOUS OPFIRE
How do you handle when two units that are in LOS but have not spotted the other group both want
to go on OpFire in the direction that the opposing unit is located? As a GM you do not want to
mention that there is a unit there but, telling them that they cannot go on OpFire because you have
a unit in LOS gives it away.

My guess would be to tell both players that they are on OpFire but when one of the units cards are
pulled they would get an action (which may yield a spotting result). They would then be able to fire.
The opposing unit would then be able to fire back(if spotted) one action. Then the first unit would
fire again, and then the second unit.

And how do you play out two units on OPfire that haven't seen each other? Since you are suppose to
roll for a sighting check when a unit takes in action in LOS and neither of them are going to take
any actions when do you roll. Then lets say one unit spots the other. Does that unit fire, then the
other gets OpFire, then the first unit fires again

ANSWER: You're reading a little too much into it. If a unit spots an enemy in LOS and effective fire
range, they cannot go on OpFire. Since neither unit has spotted the other, OpFire is a valid action.
Also, if a unit spots an enemy out of effective range of their weapons, they may go on OpFire. Don't
forget Ambush fire as an alternative to OpFire.
If these were the only 2 units on the board, and every turn they would just go on OpFire, they would
never see each other, as neither would take an action (action being movement or firing) that would
cause a spot check.

Now, if both units are on OpFire and have LOS to each other, but have not spotted each other, a
typical situation would go like this. Let's say they are German and US MG teams.

A US Rifle squad walks into LOS of the German MG team. Being on OpFire, they roll a spot check
to try and see the US Rifle squad & succeed. The German MG team opens fire on the US Rifle
squad.

Now, the German MG team has just taken an action in LOS of the US MG team. The US MG team
gets a spot check. If successful, they open fire on the German MG team. If not successful, they
remain on OpFire until another valid target enters their LOS.

If the German MG team had failed their spot check, they would remain on OpFire, and the US MG
team automatically remains on OpFire as well, as no valid targets took actions within their LOS.

Basically, units on OpFire do nothing but try and spot targets that enter or take actions within their
LOS. If successful, they fire and are taken off OpFire, and end their actions for the turn. If more
units then move into LOS, they can do nothing about it this turn.

If unsuccessful in their spot check(s), or if no targets enter their LOS that turn, they remain on
OpFire and do nothing that turn. Basically, they took a chance that something would happen in-
front of them and nothing did. Time wasted. Special fire modes can get a little tricky. 2 opposing
units that go on raking fire vs. one another is another special situation.

Here is the way our group would resolve that situation. If two groups, who have failed to spot each
other, set up OP within range of each other and in LOS they would get spotting checks when
something changed about their environment. So as long as the two groups quietly sit and wait for
an opportunity to shoot at the enemy, then neither will actually get a chance to see anything
because nothing has changed. However, as soon as one group moves or as soon as a third unit enters
the area then the enemy on OP can make a spotting check. If they succeed, they will fire. This
means that THEY have changed THEIR status and so the other group on OP then immediately gets
their chance to make a spotting check under the new conditions (firing) and if successful, they fire.
Its like building a house of cards, once you can successfully get the house built, as long as nothing
changes then everything is quiet. Once something alters, everything comes tumbling down.

RAKING FIRE
How do you get the area of effect for raking fire? Is the longest range the max. range of effective
range? Also, if you were to fire at an area that is not as far as the longest range do you use the
maximum width at the shorter range? Or is it a cone static cone shape that never can change?

ANSWER: Look at page 11 of the infantry rules, it shows the raking fire cone for each type of MG.
It is a fixed cone.

BROKEN UNITS
Say you are already broken and hiding. If say you squad has failed a morale check do you run? Also,
if you are broken already are you subject to further morale checks?

ANSWER: On page 3 of the infantry rules, look at the paragraph titled Broken models.

HMG/MMG TEAMS
When firing HMG/MMGs, are crew members crouching or prone? It looks to me that the gunner
would have to be crouching and not be able to get the prone cover bonus. I guess that would mean
the loader as well. I guess the spotter could be prone? How do you guys play?

ANSWER:
We play that tripod mounted MGs cannot be fired prone - but bipod mounted LMGs can. You can
take an action to breakdown the MG to fire from prone but you lose the MMG/HMG effect for the
tripod (fire as LMG).

We also play that an MMG/HMG cannot be fired prone. If crew members (gunner and loader) are
forced prone due to enemy fire, they must spend an action to get back into firing position.

Check the MG-42 playsheet. I seem to recall some special rules that specifically allowed it to be fired
prone. These rules apply only to the MG-42 because of the Lafette tripod set-up. There's a trigger
link that allows a firer to fire the weapon from prone, and the telescopic sight can be rotated so that
a prone user can look up into it.

Most MMG/HMG must use terrain advantages for protection. An exception is the US MMG M1919,
mounted on the low-profile tripod. We allow them the prone protection.

COVER EXAMPLE
A soldier is prone taking cover behind the corner of a building (outside). An enemy unit can fire on
him. The cover modifiers is:
- +7 (building) & +2 (prone)
- +2 (prone)
- other?
ANSWER: I'd say it depends on what angle the person shooting at him is at. Also the cover modifier
should not be +7 for the building, but maybe a +5 for wall.

Since he is outside the building, I agree that he should get cover from a wall (+5) and prone (+2)
against direct fire which comes at him from an angle where the side of the building actually does
provide cover.

OPPORTUNITY FIRE ARC


A soldier is in OpFire mode facing an open door. An enemy walks in his back (1 action). The soldier
can use his OpFire toward the enemy even if the enemy was in his back (the soldier has a fire arc of
360)? The soldier in OP or Ambush has an fire arc less open 180, 90 ?

ANSWER: I say yes he can turn and fire, since when they are in OPFIRE or Ambush they are
listening for sounds as well, and the way battle ground is played, it never mentions penalties or
action points for turning for infantry.

In the rules as written, there is no arc, or area needed to be identified for OpFire. I think the reply
talking about soldiers listening as well as looking is a good rationalisation for this. The only thing I
can think of that would impose an arc limitation would be the weapon of the soldier(s) on OpFire.
For example (at least using the newer play sheets), MMGs/HMGs have limitations on their arcs of
fire.

If someone snuck up behind them, they would have to use another weapon (e.g. a rifle, pistol, etc..)

However, note that the marker has an arrow, in fact the markers for ambush (AM), Raking (RA),
Plunging (PL), Spraying (SP), all have an arrow background. Good indication that this would be the
direction of these special fire modes are deployed.

Special Fire Mode "OP" Fire, gives up all actions other than firing at all enemy that was not in line
of sight at the start of the turn. My opinion is that that soldier model can not turn and fire,
remember setting the Special Fire Mode, plus the fact that to turn is an action, and that the
activated unit is the ENEMY.

I believe that the rules state that you have to declare an area which you are covering during OpFire.
Say a hedge row or a area between buildings. It would be more of a 90 degree arc. If someone came
from behind they would not be able to react.

My interpretation of rules is that what they are for is to attempt to give you a way of recreating
what really happens and can happen in a real life battle. They are the rules that run a simulation
and that simulation should be as close to reality as possible. In fact any time you find any
discrepancy between real life and the rules IMO real life is always right and the rules should be
modified to fit.

My suggestion is that op-fire be one specific area. Since a turn is the time it takes to fire two aimed
rounds form a bolt gun or four from a semiauto. You are giving up part of that time to be on op-fire.
lets say it takes 5 seconds to fire two aimed shots from an M1 or one from a bolt gun. But instead of
firing you wait and hold your fire, now when it is time to fire you have less time because you did not
act as soon as you could but reacted to the enemy. Op-fire is a lot like laying in ambush, you can't
lay in ambush in every direction as an individual, you can cover about 90 degrees or probably much
less and be ready to fire. If you want rear security put a guy on OpFire to the rear. Being in OpFire
means you are probably aimed into an area, either looking through your sights and waiting for
movement in your aperture, or you are looking just over your sights for a slightly better view. Your
finger may even be on the trigger so you can aim and fire as soon as you get a stimulus. This is not
something you can cover much area with. At any significant arc you will have to move your gun, find
your sights and get shots off.

An example: to counter against a sniper in a building, we put guys on OpFire and designate which
one, or couple of windows each is watching. For outdoors each clump of bushes or trees or defilade
area.

If you want make the rules conform more to reality, make op-fire and ambush fire the same. Allow
them to be conducted at any range, as a far ambush is a legitimate tactic. Whether or not you have
enemy in LOS or not really shouldn't matter (you might have squad members make a easy
leadership check to see if they will ignore other enemy soldier and stay aimed in on the designated
kill zone) having been spotted really doesn't have anything to do with it. Just because a sniper has
spotted the unit doesn't mean the unit can't wait and ambush another unit. If the enemy unit had
commo with the spotting unit then it can avoid moving though the kill zone. Otherwise if it goes
into the kill zone you should be able to shoot at them whether or not they know you are there.

The Squad leader says "Chuck cover those windows. Fred cover our rear. Everybody else get ready
to light-up that approaching squad. Nobody fire until they cross the tracks." that would be a fairly
realistic scenario. The command and slight shuffling of people and facing directions, and aiming in,
would take up your first action. They would stay that way until the stimulus was met, or they were
issued new orders. Might have to make a check of some sort on Chuck and Fred to make sure they
will keep watching their designated areas once the rest of the squad starts firing.

In fact something like "Steve cover the stairwell. Everybody else get grenades ready. When the
squad gets under us I'll give the signal and everyone throw a grenade" would be realistic.
On top of that, I don't see why in the last part the squad leader couldn't say "When I throw the
satchel charge everybody throw a grenade" or "when I command detonate the mines, fire-up
anybody left"

If a unit was in a defensive 360 perimeter, I would give them multiple sighting checks in different
direction, but only getting the bino mod for the direction the leader is facing.

As far as counters, they should be upside-down or the op-fire should be recorded on your turn sheet
with specifics, like area watched to be noted on it, without any counters on the table. When op-fire is
activated show the unit orders on your turn sheet to the other player. Or place upside down op-fire
counters with your dummy units also, or dummy counters with all of your units.

I'm not that experienced of a wargamer, but my suggestions come from 16 years active and reserve
in Rangers and Special Forces. I try to apply that knowledge to make the gaming as realistic as
possible, so that it is what it was originally designed for: A tactical training tool for real life. You can
both have it very fun, and learn real tactics and decision making.

OPFIRE QUESTION
Say a unit moves up to a position in line of site of an enemy unit. It was it's last turn and cannot
spot. Next round it goes in to OpFire. The enemy units card is turned and they spot the unit on
OpFire. In turn the OpFire unit spots the enemy unit. Does the unit on OpFire shoot before the
enemy unit, or does the enemy unit get a shot in first? It states in the rules that on OpFire that a
unit may react to another unit moving in to site but, does not specify in this situation.

ANSWER: Actually, the enemy firing unit would go first. Here's why. As established, the unit moved
into position, but was unable to SPOT anything (could be a failed spot roll, or no actions remaining
to spot. Doesn't matter why). Therefore, OpFire is a valid choice for the next turn.

Now, the enemy card is pulled next round, and they spot the unit on OPFire. The OpFire unit does
NOT get a chance to spot the enemy at this point, since the act of the enemy spotting their unit does
not require an action on the enemy's part. Therefore, the OpFire unit is still on OpFire, without a
target spotted.

The enemy unit chooses to fire at the OpFire unit. After this 1 action of firing is resolved (not both
actions), including wounds, morale checks, etc., the OpFire unit gets a chance to spot the enemy
unit and return fire (with any remaining soldiers and assuming the spot check was successful).
After their 1st action of return fire (since they only get 1 for being on OpFire), the enemy unit can
now complete their second action (with their remaining soldiers), whether it be fire or movement.

Now, if the unit moved into position and spotted the enemy unit, they could go on Ambush Fire. In
this situation, when the enemy unit spotted them and declared they wanted to fire on the Ambush
Fire unit, the Ambush unit could spend their 1 action of Ambush Fire to interrupt the enemy unit,
fire on the enemy unit, and resolve any hits BEFORE the enemy unit could fire for their 1st action
and possible for their 2nd action.

But remember, the range on Ambush Fire is much less than on OpFire. Don't forget to keep that in
mind.

That's the difference between OpFire and Ambush Fire (Besides the whole valid target stuff).

GERMAN RADIOS
Does anyone have any information on how Germans used radios and what kinds. I have heard that
they were mostly issued at the company level. Since most Battleground games probably do not have
a company command section. How do you guys through them in to games?

ANSWER: There is a Squadron book that lists the radios as a Tornister Funk D (sounds like a Rap
star.) It was a portable two man radio with the second man carrying the battery and operating the
controls. Not real field friendly. I don't have information on range or frequencies but that would be
nice to know if anyone has it.

We have use the radios in scenarios where the radio operators are connected to the Platoon
Command squad. Battle Points wise we just swapped the radio operators for the Medic. We have
used the radios for calling in artillery as well as communicating with vehicle mounted radios and
requesting reinforcements from HQ. For contact rolls we based them on US Recon rules.

We have also used the radio operators to represent a field phone set rather than strictly a radio.
This works best with the Germans in a defensive position with specific positions hooked up to the
field phone by pre laid wires. If you want to make up your own house rules for blasts cutting field
phone wires that could be interesting.

LARGE CALIBRE MACHINEGUNS


Recently our group played a couple of games where an AFVs main weapon was an LCMG (U.S. .50
cal or Soviet 12.7mm DSHK like on an M20 or Soviet Bren carrier) and it fired on a light armoured
vehicle as it's target (Sdkfz 251, 250, or 222 A/C). In the past, we resolved this as Autocannon fire (2
rounds per action even though the LCMG RoF is 3) with penetration as a 12.7mm ATR. Other
people thought that it should be resolved as per the infantry LMG rules (predominance of number
of hits). What do other people do? Is penetration handled the same way also?

ANSWER: The LCMG would still use it's standard RoF. I don't have my book in front of me for
specifics but To Hit number and Penetration value are then found on the chart for MGs Vs Armour.
You would use the "majority of hits" rules to determine if you have a chance to penetrate and
reference the chart to determine how much armour you can penetrate.
FG-42 CHARACTERISTICS
In the Falllschirmjagers playsheet, the FG-42 is listed as a PMG. No other special rules are given.
However, in the old Barbed-wire news-letter, the FG-42 had these additional rules:

1) The FG-42 has a +1 To Hit penalty due to the weapon design being unbalanced. The FG-42 has a
bipod, so when fired while prone the penalty is not in effect. Also, if the FG-42 is rested on a window
sill, or against a wall etc.., the penalty is negated.

2) The FG-42 can spray fire out to 24" IF prone or supported on a wall, window etc.., AND an
assistant is present. The FG-42 can spray fire out to 12" any time without an assistant or being
prone.

For the FG-42 (PMG) the RoF is 3. Basically, I agree with the description provided PLUS the jam
number is 18.

DEAD DRIVERS
According to an Easy Eight Ent. FAQ 3/26/99 : "It takes one action for a crew member to dismount,
one action to remove the casualty, and one action to re-enter."

THROWING GRENADES THRU DOORS/WINDOWS


A model is 5" away from a stone building w/ windows/doors. A grenade is tossed at an aiming point
1" into the building through a window/door. To Hit @ 6" is 8-3=5 or less. The result is a miss. Now, if
the deviation roll has the grenade continuing into the building, is this allowed? If the basic to-hit
roll was missed, but the deviation landed inside anyway (50%) is it assumed the grenade went
through the opening and just took a funny bounce and missed the aiming point? If so, this seems
really weighted toward allowing successful grenade entry into the bldg. I would suggest re-rolling
any deviations that end up inside since the window/door was missed in the throw. If the roll is
missed, then the grenade will not enter the bldg. even under deviation rules.

ANSWER: Yeah, this is an incomplete part of the rules that makes a no lose situation for the
thrower no matter the odds, especially if using stick grenade rules. Here's a better solution: If you
miss your to hit roll by half of what you needed (example: your needed to hit was 6..if you miss it by
up to 3 over that... or 9), just put the template down and scatter as normal. If it still scatters into
the window, that just means the thrower was still lucky enough to get it in, just not exactly where
he wanted it to. Now... if the thrower misses by more than half what he needed to hit, it bounces
back. Don't trouble re-rolling...just reverse some effects. A 1 becomes a 5. A 2 becomes a 4. An 8
becomes a 6. You might want to halve this scatter distance to reflect momentum lost if you want to
get fancy.
You can use this same system with trying to toss a grenade into an open top vehicle as well ...if you
fail by more than half what you needed, you don't just reverse some scatter results, you put the
scatter template at the face of the window you were trying to toss it through.

GRENADE THROW DISPERSION


What if the grenade misses, and lands flush against the outside of the stone wall? Would the
detonation effects within the building be in the same 90deg. arc as described for HE effects Vs
buildings (Terrain 12)? I would suggest allowing the +7 cover for stone building vs. grenade in this
blast that is not allowed with HE due to the huge difference in kinetic energy of a grenade toss vs.
HE shell.

ANSWER: That's not a bad idea, but I think grenades didn't have THAT much impact. We usually
just say too bad, unless it lands against the wall next to a window that someone's behind.

SIMULTANEOUS OPFIRE
If two opposing models are on OpFire, and they decide to shoot at each other, do both get a shot off?
Are effects simultaneous? Ex. 2 snipers which spot/fire at each other.

ANSWER: That's an impossible situation... think about it. OpFire requires an action to be taken by
the enemy before you are allowed to do it. You simply can't have two models op-firing on another as
a result.

OpFire should be as the reaction to an action (i.e.. if a soldier is moving 5 inches from point 'a' to
point 'b', then the OpFireer should be able to halt the mover at any point along the way (to react to
the move) and fire. The mover got to start his action, he does not necessarily get to finish his action.
In the case of firing a weapon (especially from a hidden position) the OpFireer gets a free spot prior
to the attempt to fire. This means BEFORE the shot goes off. We have had lengthy debates as to the
analysis of the timing of OpFire. The easiest way to keep it as simple as possible is thus: the OpFire
has to give up its action (the rule), gets a free spot for EVERY action an enemy performs (the
rule),until he has used his OpFire. This OpFire action occurs BEFORE any action performed by the
other, non OpFire player. This generally stands for spotting that sniper adjusting his position to get
a good shot, or seeing that rifleman poke his head up to aim, etc. ALL simultaneous OpFire is
simultaneously performed.

AFV EFFECTS VS INFANTRY


Rules in Infantry p. 19 say AFV w/in 5" models must pass Gut check or move 5-10" to cover. If the
model is Lt. Wounded and has 1 action, can it go 10"?

ANSWER: No, only 5.

INFANTRY GUT CHECKS


Rules in Armoured Combat p. 16 AFV effects on Infantry state AFV w/in 4" models must pass Gut
check or move 4-8" to cover. Is this a mistake from an earlier scale. We'll assume 5"/5-10" to match
Infantry rule section.

ANSWER: That's correct.

HE VS INFANTRY
Rule in Armoured Combat p. 16 says in paragraph number 3 "... The gun calibre will also have a
modifier." Where is this detailed? I can't find it on any charts.

ANSWER: It's in the quick Play Charts (on the armour to-hit table, small print near corner).

KNOCKING OUT MAIN GUNS


Do you guys use your tank (gun) leaders Leadership modifier to adjust the hit location always to the
main gun if possible?? I am just asking this as a person at out club just takes small anti-tank guns,
and small calibre weapons (37mm+) and always adjusts fire into the main guns on tanks knocking
out the main weapon. Its just plain CHEESY (aka horsecrap)! What do you guys do?

ANSWER: I doubt the best AT gunner in the world could not make that kind of shot more than one
in a 1000. Centre of mass is the standard you seek. Calling a shot on the turret or tracks might be
OK, but the barrel is way out of bounds. I have fired a few LAWs, AT4s and a Dragon once and at
engagement range on a vehicle rolling along you are lucky to model out the outline through the
sight. I took a few direct fire shots with a M119 105mm howitzer when I was a platoon leader and
those sights were nice. We were firing at stationary old tanks and tracks and you just want a hit,
nevermind calling your shot. We would not let that fly in our group and I really hate when folks use
loopholes in the rules to do the impossible. If he doesnt like it beat him senseless with a bag of dice.

Additionally, our group has a table to see if non-penetrating damage occurs, we dont let it happen
automatically.

Allow only leadership adjustments on to hit results to move hits to hull" or "turret".

NON PENETRATING HITS ON AFVS


Our group feels that it is too easy for historically ineffective AT-guns to cripple tanks with non-
penetrating hits. Accounts of German soldiers from the early weeks of Operation Barbarossa show
many incidents of Russian tanks taking repeated hits, and continuing to fight. KV-1 & 2 by
Osprey Books, and The Initial Period of War On the Eastern Front 22 June-August 1941 by David
Glantz, have excellent examples. One KV-1 took 135 hits while knocking out 22 German tanks.
When we play, a non-penetrating hit is rolled against an effect table to see if the damage is actually
done. Gun calibre is matched against target size, and a D20 is rolled. If that number or less is
rolled, the damage takes effect.
Non-Penetrating Hit Damage Chart. If the hit location isnt penetrated, then cross index the size of
the gun firing the shell that failed to penetrate in the left hand column against the vehicle size in
the top row. The number matrixed there is the number needed to have the non-penetrating hit
damage in the chart apply. If the number needed is not rolled on the D20, then there is no damage.
Modify the die roll for type of ammo and XL guns.

Gun size/AFV size


VS
S
M
L
VL

37-40mm
1-6
1-5
1-4
1-3
1-2

41-50mm
1-7
1-6
1-5
1-4
1-3

51-77mm
1-8
1-7
1-6
1-5
1-4

78-90mm
1-9
1-8
1-7
1-6
1-5
91mm+
1-10
1-9
1-8
1-7
1-6

Modifiers to die roll:


APCR/HVAP or APDS Ammo -1
HE +1
XL Gun 1

TRIGGERING OPFIRE
When a model is on OPfire, must he shoot immediately at the first target that comes into view (as
the opponent will move one model at a time) or can he wait until there are more targets in sight?
The rules don't exactly say, but the implication is that OPfire allows for immediate firing on the first
valid target. For example, if I have a LMG with RoF 4, can I wait until my opponent has moved his
whole squad into the open and then shoot and try to maximise the number of targets hit? Or is it
considered that the appearance of the first target triggers the gunner who has been anxiously
waiting to shoot right away?

ANSWER: I'm pretty sure you have to fire on the first model seen, but it depends on how you play.
The rules say you have to resolve all first actions, then all second actions. So I require my players to
say what all models are doing in the action phase. So if they say; "Cross the street, with these guys"
all of them would be subject to a OPfire burst. If you allow guys to move one model at a time and see
what happens, then just resolve Vs the first model.

OPfire is in reaction to an another action. In this case, that action is moving the squad into the
open. Once the opposing player has finished his movement, then you use your OpFire before he
starts another action. As a slice of reality, we (meaning all gamers) only move one model at a time,
since that is how the models are based. But in the game, the whole squad is moving simultaneously.
Just wait till their movement is complete, then open up! Now, an opponent could be cheesy, and only
declare that 1 model is moving, and only move that 1 model, the rest of the squad holding back ("Go
ahead Joe, it's safe to cross the street. We'll be right behind you!"). In that case, I would not consider
1 lone soldier a valid target for OpFire, and would allow you to hold OpFire to see if a better target
(or group of targets) present themselves. Valid targets (IMO) are squads, 1/2 squads, and whole
teams (MG teams, mortar teams, AT teams, etc.). We allow OpFire to be held for anything less.
Now, you could choose to open up, but you're not forced to by some vague rule.
We usually play with a GM (mostly me), that can make ruling to override such "gaming" players.
Plus, we write down and special fire modes that aren't obvious (Raking Fire is pretty obvious!) to
help prevent and out of game knowledge from effecting in game play.

If you really wanna piss him off, most players are lazy when they know they can get away with it,
and end out grabbing the whole squad and moving it, but when they know OpFire is present they
cheese out and move them one at a time, well just leave your marker next to your troops up side
down, do this with all your special fire modes (that way he cant pick out your OpFire from a ambush
or spray, rake), then when he gets lazy, flip it over and lay down some fire.

Another thing, many LMG, MMG, HMG gunners would not open up over 101 inches at a lone man
who is backed up by a Sherman, who will put a HE round through the building if they give way
their position, we play you can wait till they get to a lethal range, (see the whites of their eyes.) Or
take advantage and open up on what and where, as you in the end wear the consequences.

Remember it must be a valid target, a AT team will not fire at troops, and a machine gunner at
Tanks... just use some common sense, remember these men where told not to fire at one man as it
was a waste of ammo...

The way we use OpFire is that the action player completes all first actions, then the OpFire player
selects the target to engage. Why? The simulation mechanics uses a sequential process to simulate
a simultaneous process. Therefore, all the figurines/vehicles would be emerging into view at the
same time (same first action). So therefore, the OpFire player would have some choice as to
target(s).

Knowing that, an action player may want to sacrifice some movement by moving a few elements in
the first action, so to engage the OpFire element on the second action the with the bulk of his/her
forces - example of using "scouts" to find an OpFire-ready enemy.

I mark special fire modes WITH AN UPSIDE-DOWN MARKER too and it can be humorous. Most
people use the counters and announce openly the special fire mode. So, the other players' reaction is:
"I'm not going around that corner because obviously unit X is on OPfire." I've whacked a few at point
blank range because they thought they could run up on me, TRUSTING the special fire counter
would not be for OPfire. I always announce I'm not displaying my OPfires beforehand... but it still
catches people.

Why not institute a house rule in which you roll against the firing unit's morale each time a valid
target appears? If it fails the morale check, it fires. If it holds its fire until all the models in the
enemy unit have moved, it fires then. That way well-trained troops are less likely than poorly-
trained ones to fire prematurely and give their position away when on OPfire, and a certain realistic
uncertainty is added to the whole procedure. Yeah, more die rolling, I know, and it might slow down
the game too much - but might also be interesting to try it out.

So when a unit is on OpFire and a unit fires on it, what happens? OPfire is always in REACTION to
an opposing action. So if a unit on OpFire is fired at (in your example), any hits would need to be
resolved BEFORE they could return fire. But remember, OpFire MUST be used on the first valid
enemy action in effective range and LOS. This means that you can't HOLD OpFire while an enemy
moves closer, or wait for a better enemy to shoot at. That is what AMBUSH fire is used for.

Some people play with house rules that OpFire is simultaneous, but that each individuals call. On
this one, our group sticks with the written rule.

MG LOADER FIRING
Can the loader for a MAGAZINE fed LMG (regardless of nationality!) fire his own weapon AT ALL
or is he completely engaged in keeping the squad weapon loaded?

ANSWER: My experience from the army tells me that the loader has got enough to do without using
his personal weapon. If there is no separate spotter, the loader will have to help the gunner to find
more targets. More over, it's sometimes hard for the gunner to see if he is hitting the target, since
the MG has a tendency to "jump around" somewhat. It's easier for the loader to follow the tracers or
see were the bullets hit the ground and he can then tell the gunner if he is falling short or if he is
overshooting etc. etc.. Finally, there is a lot of equipment that you need to prepare. When you hit the
ground, the gunner will open up while the loader prepares new mags and extra barrels (if present).
This might sound easy but for some reason it always tricky since you've got heavy clothes, a large
helmet that NEVER stays in place, ammo belts that hinders you and so on. It's even worse if you're
4 feet snow. There simply is no time to fire. I would not allow the loader to fire even one action,
unless they are in a well prepared position were everything has been prepared in advance.

When the MG-34 is fired with the true 75-round drum, as opposed to the 'basket' belt-holder, it
becomes unnecessary to have a loader, but the gun's malfunction chance should go up, to represent
the fact that the gunner must change his own barrels and still replace his own drums. Oh, bit of
trivia: One important function of the German loader is to police up the used belts from the MG34
and 42, both of which used metallic, non-disintegrating links.

The loader does more than load ammo. He changes barrels (which is needed frequently), helps clear
jams, spots targets, assist in moving the equipment if needed, gather up the ammo, etc.. And all this
while slopping around in mud, snow, fog, etc.. Oh, and that whole being shot at thing.

BGWW2 does a good job of modelling this by having a JAM number for weapons, and for crew-
served weapons, that JAM number gets worse as the required crew shrink (mostly from that getting
shot thing).
That said, we normally don't allow crew members to shoot personal weapons, as they have the
training to not abandon their crew weapon. If a crew member wants to shoot his personal weapon,
we require a morale check, failure meaning he abandons his training (and fellow crew members)
and fires away.

Now, in those instances when a full crew is not available (dead, acting solo), just lower the JAM
number by one for each missing crew member. Lightly wounded crew members are a special case, as
they only help half the time. First action, 20 JAM #. Second action 19 JAM #, since the lightly
wounded member is unable to assist for that action (too busy bleeding).

Remember, this applies to all crew-served weapons (ATGs, mortar teams, Bazooka/Panzershreck
team, MG teams, etc.).

Anyway, that's just how we do it. You can allow crew members to act as an individual, but I would
make it the exception to the rule, and not normal behaviour.

75-ROUND DOUBLE DRUM ON MG-34/42?


There WAS a 75 round double drum that fed without belts. These were used on vehicle-mounted
guns, especially on aircraft and motorcycles. They were issued to all HMG units, though, because
they could be used on the AA tripods more easily than belts. As for tedious loading, he obviously has
been trying to load it by hand. The original loading tool works quite well, so well it was copied for
the Beta mag. They did need a special top cover, which was included with the HMG parts kit, as
well as with vehicle guns. Assume the standard 50 round drums that use 50 round belts.

Your input also supports that the infantry isn't likely to be using this. If I had to disassemble my
gun and change parts to switch to my cans of belted ammo because my 75 round drum ran out, I'd
never bother using one either. The infantry had carriers for the 50 round drums (which actually had
a belt and were thus compatible with the belts) and even a cool backpack to carry the belted ammo
cans. They are more rare than MG-34s, by the way. Even WW II magazines tend to be more common
in availability than the weapons that they feed. The 75 round drum is not the case. This tends to
suggest their usage wasn't common during wartime. The 75 round drum was designed for the MG-
13 originally. This gun was not even produced during the war, although it was still used to the end
because of desperate need. Since the 50 round drum was specifically designed for the MG-34/42 (and
is WIDELY available today!) and the 75 round was an afterthought for special applications, again,
this doesn't support common usage for a guy on foot.

We do not allow any loaders/assistants to fire while, gunners are moving/firing, as they are occupied
with new magazines, new rounds or helping move equipment, etc.. In addition to the target & round
spotting (critical, if not the most critical task), ammo preparation, and spare barrel change-out, the
loader must also steady the bipod or tripod, particularly on hard soil. Belt-fed MGs of the era also
needed the belts held by the loader at certain angles to prevent double feeding, which was a key
factor in jamming. The need for the loader is real.

SIGHTING QUESTION
An American MMG .30 Cal MMG team was on a building roof, they fired, making them concealed
firing with a full auto bonus, an MG 42 team sighted this on their card and fired on the MMG team
on the same turn, next round the American card came out first, and they fired once then went prone
and silent, I made the MG 42 MMG team sight them again this time as concealed,(as the Yankees
pulled their head down and supposedly crawled off) they failed, they then wanted to fire on the
Yankee MMG, I made that with No Target (1/2 chance), I was questioned about the re-acquiring of
the team as the MMG team already knew of their existence, was this right to do?

ANSWER: If you had already spotted them no you should not have. However if the moved behind
something and you lost track of them then yes, they would have to be re-spotted.

I would not make the MG-42 team reacquire the .30 cal team. They know they are on the roof, but
they just went prone. They are still a threat in that position, and if they pop up again, the MG-42
team knows where they are. There would be a regular chance to hit, with additional bonuses on the
effect role, i.e. +2 prone.

If the .30 cal team went prone and crawled off somewhere else, I would make the MG-42 team (and
any others that spotted them in the original position) reacquire the .30 cal team. This assumes that
the .30 cal team broke LOS (Line of Sight). If they stayed visible the whole time while crawling,
then no new sighting check is needed.

Just going prone doesn't break LOS, and there fore doesn't automatically require a new sighting
check.

These are 2 different issues, targeting and sighting. I think we all agree that if the .30 cal team
drops prone (whether behind a wall or not) and pops up in the same place later, no new sighting
check is needed.

As for dropping prone behind a wall, or in anyway being removed from LOS, there is no direct way
to target the .30 cal, so some other form of indirect fire is needed. Like you said, plunging fire would
work, or raking fire to keep them down. The 1/2 to hit chance is invalid, since there isn't a target to
shoot at anyway (if they are out of LOS).

WOODEN FENCES AS COVER


You didn't mention what type of wooden fence it was so here's my take on it, hope it helps.
If it's a post & rail fence; no cover from sighting, and infantry would get a +1 DRM on hit effects
chart only if prone, this would be added to prone modifier.

If it's a solid wood fence, typical in residential areas through out Europe during WWII. Some
vehicles and all infantry would be concealed. This would depend on the height of the wall which
should be designated at the start of the game. Consider this type of fence as a single wall of a
wooden building with all the associated modifiers against fire etc..

If it's a picket type fence, again the height should be designated at game start, as should other
cover, if present, such as bushes or tall grass etc.. This type of fence would fall between brush and
light woods. What modifiers to apply really depend on what the infantry or vehicle do behind the
fence. So, if the infantry is prone, against the fence, and not moving they are concealed, and the fire
mod would be +3 as for light woods.

If the infantry is moving behind the fence the height again would determine if they can be sighted
or not, and the modifier for that would fall between open and concealed. Fire effects modifier would
be a +1 or +2, again depending on the height of the fence.

All the above could be added to a prone modifier, but no other unless there is significant other cover
involved. An example of this would be a wooden fence which also has a hedge running along one
side.

HOW DO YOU MARK RAKING FIRE AND PLUNGING FIRE ON THE TABLE?
For Raking and Spray fire, we place two small D6s to mark the ends of the cone. I'm not sure I've
ever seen Plunging Fire in one of our games, but I guess if I thought it was likely, I'd make up some
templates for it, and copy it onto transparency (like the grenade/HE templates).

MINEFIELDS
We have used minefields very frequently and rely on the tactical scenario to determine how to
display the activities. If the attack through the minefield reflects an offensive through static
positions (stable front or fortified zone), then we mark the mine zone with earth-tone felt strips (one
side marked, the other blank). Some of the felt strips are dummy mine areas, some are AT mines,
some antipersonnel and other mixed. This procedure reflects static minefield marking most armies
used to avoid friendly accidents, and the capabilities of an enemy to scout out the mine barrier over
time. At some scenarios, we designate certain cleared lanes through a particular felt strip to reflect
enemy night-time recon and mine removal (unknown to the defending force). Alternatively, in fluid
situations, where hasty minefields are emplaced, we use map-marking and GM attentiveness to
announce minefield encounters (deliberate of accidental). In both cases we use the standard
Battleground rules to determine outcomes.
However keep in mind that most minefields were NOT concealed. The mines were simply scattered.
Concealed minefields are a pain in the ass for the defender because if the defender expects to own
the land after the battle they have to consider the cost of emplacement. ALSO - concealed minefields
take 4x - 10x as long to emplace as a scattered mine field AND require lots of communication to
friendly units. Certainly they were used, especially if the defender planned on being in the location
for a long while and had the leisure of expending his engineering assets at the task of creating and
mapping the field.

Exposed mines can be walked around BUT you have to go slow and deliberately and you are not
going to be able to do much in the way of defending yourself or going into position once you are in
the field. One can expect a minefield to be backed up by riflemen or MG fire. Minefields are a
deterrent only. Minefields with razor-wire are about as unfriendly and unwelcoming as you can get.

Minefields that are exposed are also great at convincing the enemy to take a different, unmined
approach which is usually set up as a killing field. Damned if you do, damned if you don't.

I have a fine British sapper's manual, with lots of information on German minefields and allied
minefields. The US marked both sides of a field with cattle fencing. The British marked the friendly
side only with engineer stakes. The Germans marked the front and rear side of fields with stakes
hammered to ground level, with nails driven into the top, loops of wire, or a similar system, one
mark indicating antitank mines and two indicating antipersonnel or mixed mines. The Russians
used an interesting system for marking mines by marking one side of the row, then locating
individual mines at increments shown by a knotted piece of twine or wire, which could later be used
to locate the individual mines. Neither side really 'scattered' mines. Mines were used either in
deliberate or hasty fields, just like today. Mines were laid by elaborate rules, especially by the
Germans, which kept the troops from laying mines too close together or booby-trapping too many of
them. The Germans booby-trapped roughly one in fifty mines, which usually meant an antilift
device under the mine, or one mine buried under another, with a pull fuse between them. Generally,
the Germans would place antitank mines in the forwardmost row, with mixed mines in rows behind
that, a mix of wooden or concrete-cased blast mines, bounding mines, tripwire-fired stake mines,
toe-poppers, and castration mines. Safe paths through friendly fields were indicated with wire
staked along the ground; the Russians would occasionally sneak in at night and move the lane
markers, steal the German mines, or plant their own mines in the safe lanes. The Germans never
laid mines directly on the ground.

The US used mine 'clusters' spread along surveyed lines, several lines of mines making up a field. A
cluster would contain an antitank mine and 1 to 3 antipersonnel mines. Purely antipersonnel fields
were rarely used. The US would often use hasty minefields as an antitank and night defence around
a position. This usually just consisted of a few mines dug in along likely approaches. Doctrine was
that even these had to be reported. Unburied antitank mines were often used at roadblocks, since
they could just be moved out of the way when necessary.
The Russians were the champion miners of the war, using them offensively and defensively,
minefields would sprout up on the flanks of German units overnight, partisans would mine cross-
roads and bridge approaches, and booby-traps were used just about everywhere. Russian mines
were simple and wooden cased, and it was a simple matter to rig one as a booby-trap charge by
attaching a tripwire to the fusing mechanism. Mines were used defensively in great numbers, and
were often badly marked. After a few months in the ground, wooden-cased mines were an absolute
menace, the cases having rotted to the point that it was impossible to remove.

Offensive use of mines is like offensive use of towed antitank guns. The engineers support the flanks
by laying mines along likely avenues of reinforcement, and in the reorganisation, throw hasty
minefields up in front of the new forward edge of the battle area to deter counterattacks. Infiltrators
can lay mines before and during the attack at, as I mentioned, cross-roads, defiles, tunnels, and
near marshalling points in order to catch mobile reserves. The Russians and Germans often had to
leave minefields poorly defended or even abandoned, but tactical doctrine for everyone was to cover
minefields with mortar and machine-gun fire to deter clearing attempts.

Another common use of antitank mines was to hide along a path a tank was likely to take and
either toss the mine onto the tank's back deck, or attach the mine to a board, and use rope to pull it
across so the tank runs it over. Mines were widely used as satchel charges, to blow holes in walls in
mouseholeing, and as detonators for larger charges. The Japanese, for example, without a decent
antitank mine, would use an antipersonnel mine as the detonator for twenty pounds of bulk
explosive.

When the Germans learned about US and British mineclearing flails, dozerblades, and rollers, they
modified their fields, attaching several mines together so that if one were detonated, several mines
with no pressure fuse nearby would detonate too, exploding near or even under the mineclearer,
destroying it.

The most effective way to remove mines is to locate them and place a small explosive charge on top
of each one, then detonate the charges. Barring that possibility, sappers must crawl forward and
disarm them individually, or some kind of clearing device needs to be used. Bangalore torpedoes
could be used to explode mines in a narrow area as well as cutting wire, and every army had their
own version. Artillery fire was mostly ineffective in clearing mines, and could make it harder to
remove mines later by moving the mines around and destroying signs.

Russian doctrine was to ignore mines and advance. Mines would be cleared by follow-on engineer
units after the main attack had passed through the minefield. In practice, mines were scouted by
infiltrators and maps prepared.
How do you determine where mines are located, if you lack a metal detector? Well, one way is to
watch the rabbits. Mines retain heat longer than the ground among them, so rabbits, for example,
will often stop on one for awhile, and sometimes make a scrape there. If it's an antitank mine,
everything's fine and the rabbit leaves some crap and an area where the grass is cut down. If it's an
AP mine, it leaves bits of rabbit spread all over the area. Grazing animals often wander into
minefields, especially sheep, who, unlike cattle, will not learn to avoid mined areas. Grass is usually
cut short around a position to improve vision, but this will generally NOT be true in a minefield.
Turf may die over a mine, if it was cut incorrectly, leaving a noticeable pattern of brown grass over
mines. Then there's the various tripwires, mounds, pressure heads and so on, which extend above
the ground and thus can be spotted. This is why the front line of mines in the field usually lack
antipersonnel mines - so the infantry in front of the tanks can get far enough in for the first tanks to
hit mines.

What happens when the overwatching unit hears mine explosions? Well, the first thing that usually
happens, assuming that the observers have been doing their job, is they call in some pre-registered
air-burst mortar fire on the field. If it's night time, this will include illumination rounds.
Machinegunners will man their guns, and if necessary, pre-registered artillery fire will be brought
down. The combination of a minefield, barbed wire, pre-registered artillery, and well-sited bunkers
can allow just a few troops to hold a fairly long section of front long enough for mobile reserves to
show up.

CUMULATIVE LIGHT WOUNDS


There's no set rule on this. Most people take the model out as HW. My logic is that (1) LTW reduces
a model by (1) action, so a second reduces it by another, so the model has no more actions and you
take it out. This was important in our campaign where post battle wound recovery was dependent
on wound types. Basically, double light wounds makes a model ineffective.

In regards to light wounds, the glossary of the main rulebook states, "Light Wound. This wound
reduces combat effectiveness; effected models lose one action a turn. Two Light Wounds result in a
Heavy Wound."

HIDDEN MOVEMENT AND SPOTTING


Use dummy counters to represent unobserved units; spotting attempts must be performed only by
dummies that are really units. See C3i rules.

I use numbered chits. A chit may represent a single fig or multiple squads depending on how the
player wants to divide up the forces. A record is made of what chits are what before the game starts.
Then a liberal mix of dummy markers are thrown in. Spotting checks are made on the chits and if
successful the models are put on the table. I limit the number of spotting checks to 2 per player (not
squads-players) per action. This prevents thousands of pointless sighting checks on distant chits
and allows for some tense decision making on the player's part.
If a model fires while still undetected, I put the model on the table too. It's too cumbersome to try
and keep track of what is shooting while still in "chit mode". Also-no blind fire at chits. I tried it a
few times and the game turned into a long distance fire fest on the tree line.

I use simultaneous movement so all chits move at the same time. In card activation you could tie
dummy counters to real units and move them all when the card is pulled. While not the same as a
double-blind game-the chits add an element of chance and tension that you want from hidden set-up
and movement.

SOVIET HUMAN WAVE ATTACKS (HURRAH! CHARGES)


Had my first game against Russians today, certainly different. A few questions came up about their
Charges: If Lightly Wounded, does a soldier only move 1 Action, not 3 like everyone else in their
squad? And while Charging, should they ignore the Help their Buddy rule ?

ANSWER: A soldier with a Lt Wound has his actions reduced by one, therefore in this case the
soldier would only have two actions. As to the second question; when charging Russians will always
ignore the "help your buddy" rule, especially if any NKVD are present.

I believe it's specifically stated somewhere they are limited to one action even during the Urrah if
wounded.

No official rules on the "help their buddy" rules, but I would say ignore them. On of the roles of the
officer leading an Urrah charge is to shoot anyone that stops for any reason. I wouldn't get shot for
that, since it wouldn't do any good and doubt they would either.

Would also stress disregarding the "Help your Buddy" rule when doing Red Army, especially in the
charge. There is some truth in the stereo-type of total disregard for human casualties when dealing
with the Red Army. I'd also conciter dropping their break point if doing human wave assaults.
Closing with the enemy should be the only concern in the minds for the soldiers... (wrought...).

Soviet infantry only get three actions during an Urrah charge. The full rules for an Urrah charge
are in the rifle squad playsheet or the Rage on the Reich rules expansion. A few quick notes on other
effects of rules to be used only during an Urrah. -1 on HtoH. Immune to suppression or going prone,
even from raking fire (you still have to make the MC to see if they hero or coward, though).
Regarding the 3-action Russian charge, the guide did not appear to specify that the three actions
occurred in the same turn. I construed the meaning that once a charge was declared, the Russian
squad had to spend the next three actions conducting the charge, which could mean a turn and one-
half.

THE BREN GUN


The Bren has probably the fastest barrel changing mechanism of any LMG to date and has a handle
on the barrel to facilitate this, something the MG 34/42 doesn't, and at 500+ degrees, human skin is
a poor conductor to try and hold a hot MG barrel. I have always considered the Bren a LMG in the
rules (with the RoF of 3) as it was far and away closer akin to a LMG than a PMG.

It is more of a LMG than a PMG. The only basis for the PMG status I can see that they may get it
from the clip fed nature of the beast. But in the support role it really can't be compared to any belt
fed weapon. RoF is only one way the guns are separated for the game. If you are going to let a Bren
hit or damage like a LMG then you are going to have to let the LMG have a much higher rate of fire
to make up for the lack of magazine changes. This would result in a horrible amount of dice being
rolled.

I think that the Bren was perhaps the "handiest" LMG of WWII. It had good firepower (better than
the BAR) and was bit easier to displace than the MG42. Probably the only true LMG the Allies had
in the ETO. The Bren certainly deserves to be an LMG in BG.

MANNING ABANDONED ORDNANCE


A PaK 36 and an infantry gun that my Russian boys had taken out earlier in the game were
abandoned as their crews had been routed/killed. A German infantry squad entered the table and
took control of the guns and began firing the next turn. Would a squad that normally would be
untrained in the use of these guns, or for that matter any ordnance or mortars even be able to take
command and fire these? The only thing we found was that there had to be a gunner, commander
and loader. It seemed to me that taking a +2 penalty still seems wrong. I know that a lot of the
squads such as mortar teams, machine gun teams, and gun crews are cross trained, but it just
seemed wrong that the average Joe infantry guy can get together 2 of his buddies and fire a anti-
tank gun with a very small penalty. If anyone can give me a clarification on this matter you would
make my week.

ANSWER: Considering the amount of enemy gear that was used, I'd say that yes, any unit should at
least have a chance to get a piece of enemy gear working, although it should require a test, or
several tests to do so, and the to hit should never be high. It's not hard, though, to fire a gun that
uses a fixed round like a German 37mm AT gun, although it might take you a few tries to find the
firing control, and when it does fire, the breech block opens itself and stays open until you toss
another round in.

HE IN WOODS
When a tank fires HE at infantry in light woods, do you apply the +3 light woods mod to the To hit
roll from the armour to hit chart, then add the +3 light woods cover mod to the wound result chart?
Or does the +3 under armour to hit modifiers only apply to shooting at vehicles in light woods and
not infantry?
ANSWER: I use both modifiers during this situation. The first +3 expresses the difficulty to hit your
exact target in the woods, the second +3 represents the cover the woods provide to the individual
soldier.

You only apply the +3 to the effects chart against Infantry. You never apply the +3 to the hit chart.
Also remember depending on what size of HE round you are using, that there is negative modifier
that applies (i.e. -6 for anything 150mm or greater.) This chart can be found on the lower left hand
side of the Small arms chart.

Dont forget the additional +2 to hit for firing HE.

CRITICAL HITS CAUSED BY AUTOCANNONS


Do Auto-Cannons count for rolling a "1" for lucky penetrating hits or does it only apply to breech
loaded Anti-tank and tank guns, and if so why?

ANSWER: As long as the Auto Cannon has a penetration value, yes (e.g. 11 for the German 20L on
their PzKw IIs and A/Cs).

SUCCESSIVE MORALE TESTS


What happens when an already broken unit suffers a MC result? Does it take another MC? If so,
what happens when it fails?

ANSWER: The only result that has significance in this situation is if the soldier heroes or cowers,
though. It really sucks when you shoot a broken guy, only to have him snap and go hero on you and
shoot you back.

HAND TO HAND VS BROKEN MINIATURES


Is there any modifier for a Hand to Hand attack against a broken unit other than the Prone
penalty?

ANSWER: No. Broken means the soldier is not going to go out and risk his neck. You've lost your
godlike command over the guy as he's trying to save himself. If someone comes after you in hand to
hand, you're still going to try and save yourself. This means you fight. The "lack of rules" here is
actually a ruling without spelling it out.

MG RULES
I am seeking a little clarification on the basic rules governing machine gun fire: The special jam
rules are said to apply only when raking or plunging fire is being used because they can roll an
"excessive number of dice" when using these fire modes. In our gaming experience, however, few dice
rolls are actually generated in these situations. During raking fire the opposition is usually either
remaining prone and motionless or is trying to crawl to cover and thus is not subject to 'to hit' rolls.
Plunging fire is actually rarely used b/c most of the battlefield dimensions we use (and many called
for in published scenarios) result in fire-fights occurring at effective rather than long ranges.
However, when targeting specific models and not using these special area of effect fire modes the
MGs seem to jam constantly with their ROFs of 4. Is this outcome correct historically or am I off in
interpreting the rules?

ORDNANCE POINTS VALUE


Vehicle costs are according to a formula on the Tally sheet. I don't understand how do you
determine ATG points? I have a Russian 76mm ATG which requires a crew of 4. How do I rate it for
point cost? Do I need to spend points on ammo as well (like for tanks)?

ANSWER:

SPG CREW EXPOSED INCREASED RoF


In the SPG rules, page 8 "Armour" section of the main rules, if the vehicle has a full crew, is NOT in
motion and did NOT move the previous action, and is "Crew Exposed", it may increase its rate of
fire to fire every action. This can be combined with veteran or elite, but will never take it lower than
an action to load, only load and fire once an action. My question is: what constitutes CE? CREW
EXPOSED in my interpretation means: all three crew in rear gunnery compartment (i.e. all
excluding the driver) are able to be hit with small arms (with partial tank cover if available) or
incoming rounds, as they are assumed to be walking around rear compartment, doing their job at
any cost to make the process efficient.) Is this so?

ANSWER: Yes, in the case of any open topped vehicle where movement won't be restricted by an
enclosed fighting compartment. Since freedom of unrestricted movement seems to be the premise
behind the 1/2 RoF for Self Propelled PAK guns, this is the reasoning we use.

Spraying Fire #TO HIT


I need some precisions on Spraying Fire. "This roll to hit takes all normal to hit modifier into
account and is halved". Does this mean a. The result of D20 die roll modified by modifiers is halved,
or b. the value needed to hit is halved?

ANSWER: Answer b, the value needed to hit is halved. Dividing the adjusted die roll in half would
make a Spraying Fire roll more likely to hit than regular fire. This would make it more deadly. Since
Spraying Fire is really targeting an area rather than models, I don't see why a model should be
more likely to get hit. The main effect of Spraying Fire should be to suppress the enemy and deny
them entry into and use of the area.

NO QUARTER RULES
Can someone please explain the NO QUARTER rules? I have re-read them several times, and just
don't get it. Is it a bad thing, good thing? Do you 'want' your guys going fanatic? Do people see this
come up a lot?

ANSWER: A model going Fanatic has some benefits (due to passing any morale or suppression
checks), however it also has the propensity of assaulting units nearby (they will always charge units
within two movement actions). So having a squad go fanatic (by rolling a 1 for a squad morale check,
Infantry page 4) can be nice, but don't expect them to be effectively shooting any nearby enemies.
Since fire-fights decide the game (and assaults are so viscous), I'd rather not have my units become
fanatics.

Invoking the 'No Quarter' rule for surrendering models is actually a bit tough to do. A surrendering
model has to have all routes of escape covered (i.e. generally surrounded) before it will approach the
enemy. But given some types of scenarios (like city fights with plenty of ambushing units) this may
be more commonplace.

Depending on the nationality involved, it can be even harder for a model to go fanatic. For example,
if a surrendered Russian model was shot by a German player, the Russian player would have to
make a morale check with a +4 modifier (I guess the developers feel that the Russians would expect
the Germans to do such a thing when surrendering). And even if the rule is in effect, models will
only become fanatic when they are in a situation of surrendering (broken and surrounded with no
cover in two actions of movement).

As for the chart in Infantry page 3 for Invoking Quarter, don't worry about the OWN column. This
would be only when you decide to shoot your own surrendering model forcing your units to go
fanatic in future surrender situations (I have no idea when this would happen unless you are
playing a specific scenario, or fielding a Russian Commissar!).

The Russian front was beyond the brutality that most comprehend. Shooting surrendering troops
and prisoners was commonplace on both sides. There's also more shooting of prisoners on the
western front than most realise. One of our guys talked to a GI that participated in a massacre of
what he estimated to be between 400-500 Germans surrendering to his unit.

MORE OPFIRE DISCUSSION


What OpFire allows you to do is react to enemy actions without having to wait for your initiative
card draw. The penalty for this is reducing your # of actions from 2 to 1. That does mean that if your
squad uses OpFire, it will be unable to return fire for the rest of the turn. But that could also
happen if their initiative card was drawn. They are unable to act anymore for the remainder of the
turn.
You are correct that OpFire may only be assigned if there are no valid targets in LOS and Effective
Range. Now a valid target is a bit discretionary, and we define it as any force that could effectively
return fire. So a single guy being sent ahead of a squad is not a valid target.

When the Special Fire phase comes up, that is when you determine if the models you want to go on
OpFire are able to. After they are on OpFire, they MUST fire at the first valid target that comes in
LOS. See above for valid target definition.

Also, that tactic of sending a single guy ahead of a squad is unrealistic. At most, squads were
usually broken down into teams of 5-6 men. Reread the rules for single models outside of command
radius of leaders. HEAVY morale penalties.

As for who you can assign OpFire to - it can be 1 model up to the whole squad. What I like to do is
assign OpFire to my MG gunners and loaders, and leave the remainder of the squad on regular
initiative. I helps break up squads fire so they don't all shoot at once. The down side is that my card
could be drawn early, and I lose the rest of the squads actions, but oh well! Special Fire modes are
probably the most confusion aspect of BG, but they simple require some practice to get them right.

ARMOUR THICKNESS & SLOPE CONVERSION TO BGWW2 VALUE


Is there a table anywhere that converts armour thickness and slope to BG armour values?

ANSWER: Front hull armour for a Panther should be 80mm at 55 degrees. A Sherman front hull is
45mm at 60 degrees or 52mm at 47 degrees (later is late hull which is smooth). Sherman side
armour is 50mm at zero degrees. Zero degrees is a straight on hit. 60 degrees means it is 60 degrees
from horizontal or 30 degrees from vertical.

This may help you model the formula out. Note that some of the armour factors in the rules are
wrong. This includes the SGIII/G frontal armour and the Elephant/Ferdinand frontal armour. Also,
the King Tiger side turret armour is 9 not 19.

TANK COMMANDER DIRECTING FIRE


Can a tank commander direct fire when buttoned up?

ANSWER: After applying the appropriate modifiers, yes he can.

TANK GUNNER FIRING COAX MG


Does a tank gunner suffer any modifiers when shooting the main gun if the gunner fired the turret
MG the action before while it was being loaded?

ANSWER: The rules somewhat confuse the lay out of the typical tank turret and crew positions, so
the following answer is based upon reality, and how our group plays it so bear with me. Every
crewman in the tank has two actions. It's important to keep in mind how many crew are operating
in the turret, which normally is either two or three men.

The loader, not the gunner can either fire the coax MG, or load the main gun in his actions. The
gunner aims and fires the main gun in his actions. In a typical tank turret the coax MG is mounted
on the loader's side of the turret and not the gunner's side. The gunner already has his hands full
with traversing the turret, and laying the gun on target to worry about an MG as described in the
rules.

In a two man turret the gunner is also the tank commander, so he will also be using one of his
actions looking for targets as well as aiming and firing the main gun. There are modifiers covering
two man turrets, as well as whether the tank is buttoned or unbuttoned.

So in answer to your question; the loader can fire the coax MG in his first action while the gunner
can use his first action to aim at the target of the MG. In their second actions the loader may load
the main gun while the gunner can again aim and fire at the target of the main gun.

In the above example; if the targets of both the MG and the main gun are on the same line of sight,
then the shots count as aimed. Because the gunner used his first action to lay the gun(s) on target.
If the target of the MG and main gun are along different lines of sight, then the shots do not count
as aimed.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Hmm. I'm not aware of any tanks in which the loader fires the coaxial MG.
The Coax is fixed to the main gun's elevation, and traverses with it, otherwise it wouldn't be co-
axial. Generally, with only a few early-war differences, coaxial guns were inevitably fired by
solenoid, and the gunners periscope included a graticule for aiming the coax. The only tanks in
which the loader had a specific MG position that comes to mind are the various Russian tanks with
rear-turret MGs. Really, the loader's the busiest guy in the tank in combat, because it's not enough
that he has the gun loaded, he also has to get out of the way of the recoiling gun and get the NEXT
round ready, and possibly change fusing on the round if the commander calls for CP or slow fuse.

Oh, and as an aside, the loader would be rather unlikely to hit anything while firing the coax, as in
the majority of designs, he has no vision blocks at all.

That is my understanding of a coax. I suspect the loader would have to clear jams though.

I don't know about modern tanks, but in the WW II tanks, the coaxmachinegun is rigidly mounted
to the same frontal plate that the main gun is. If the coax machine-gun is to be fired by the loader,
that would mean the tank would require two sets of main gun controls, effectively. It would also
mean that the gunner could not aim the main gun when the coax machine-gun is being used, as the
loader is busy slewing the turret around. The position of the coax machine-gun on the loader's side
does not mean the loader is in charge of that machine-gun. Since he's in charge of loading
weapons...that means he is in charge of loading the MG as well.

FURTHER QUESTION: So when the main gunner fires the coax mg the action before firing the
main gun I would think that you cannot give the gunner an acquired target modifier figuring he has
shifted his eyes to another target. Do you agree?

ANSWER: No, the tank gunner may fire the main gun after firing the turret MG with no modifiers.
Just remember that laying the turret onto a target may take an action for larger, slower targets, and
depending on how far the turret has to rotate (which is also part of the gunners action of fire).

DISCUSSION ON COAX MG AND GENERAL TANK CREW ACTIONS


The gunner fires the coax, and the loader loads it. It is normally electrically fired, as is the main
gun. There is a switch for the gunner to select ammunition type and coax on current tanks. WW2
tanks would have only the main gun or coax option (no ballistic computer which needs to know the
ammo type selected) and the gunner would use the appropriate ammo type when setting the range
on his gun sight. (see PANZER ELITE site - good article on how to use the U.S. and German tank
sights). One other choice on the gun sight is the coax.

BGww2 treats the coax and hull machine-guns as LMG, with a restricted range. This is correct in
my opinion for the hull machine-gun or any other machine-gun other then the coax machine-gun or
a LCMG AA mount. (KV1 and IS-2 rear turret LMG for example)

The coax machine-gun was very accurate because you had the use of the main gun's sight to aim,
and especially on German tanks, good optics with magnification. Even on other tanks you still had
the sight. Setting the range, usually estimated by the TC, on the gun sight using the machine-gun
scale and setting the gun switch to fire the coax machine-gun (some tanks had, I think, a foot
control for firing the weapons) allowed a gunner (stationary) to accurately fire out to the maximum
effective range of the machine-gun. I would treat the coax as a MMG limited to that weapon's
effective range. As for "no loader and limited ammo" a tank normally had in WW2 several thousand
rounds of machine-gun ammunition in it, and the loader was in a position to fix jams and reload.
When moving the machine-gun wasn't any more accurate then the main gun, so it would get the
moving vehicle penalty of 1/2 chance to hit (from the infantry weapon's table).

CREW ACTIONS
The gunner cannot aim the main gun nor fire it while using the coax machine-gun in a single
action. This is because he cannot fire both at the same time (and the MG is on the other side of the
main gun!), nor aim since the range markers are different for the machine-gun and for the cannon.
The loader cannot unjam a coax machine-gun in the same action he is loading the main gun.

A tank can:
1. Have the hull LMG fire in each action.
2. Have the gunner fire the main gun at a target in the first action and in the second action while
the loader reloads the main gun engage an infantry or soft target with the coax machine-gun. The
commander can direct both the main gun fire and the machine-gun fire OR
3. Have the gunner engage a target with the coax machine-gun in the first action while the loader
reloads the main gun, then fire the main gun in the second action. The Commander can direct the
fire during both actions.

Note that the turret movement limitations apply in both actions, but you can turn the turret and
fire the coax machine-gun at the same time, find your hard target, and on the next action let loose
with a main gun round.

If aiming either the coax or the main gun in an action, neither can be fired.

By the way, does anyone know what kind of machine-gun ammunition was used in U.S. and Soviet
tanks? I ask because in one of the Thomas Jentz books on the war in the desert he mentions that
one great German advantage was that the British tank machine-guns had lead bullets and the
German tank machine-guns used armour piercing bullets. The difference here is that the German
anti-tank gun shields, usually designed as spaced armour (look at Pak 38 and Pak 40 shields),
would stop the regular machine-gun bullets, but the armour piercing rounds from the German
machine-guns would penetrate the British single piece gun shields on their 2 pdr, 25 pdr, and 6 pdr
guns. This meant the Germans could open fire at 500 meters and effectively take out the British
ATG with machine-guns, or at longer ranges with HE. The British machine-guns were largely
ineffective to a German gun crew behind their gun shield and the British 2 pdr and 6 pdr didn't
have HE.

I think I should make a point here regarding hull MGs. US hull MGs had a distinct disadvantage
over those of other countries - the gunner had no sight. The only way for him to aim was by
observing the fall of the shots or using tracer. This is also true for the rear MGS on Russian tanks,
only more so because vision is via only a simple slot.

As for ranging MGS, British Chieftain tanks had coaxial .50 calibre machine-guns for ranging, well
into the 60s. It wasn't a bad idea at all, and allowed for rapid aiming in the era before lasers.

I only looked through the details of the PzKfw III and the T34/76 tanks in AFV INTERIORS
WEBSITE and they show that the gunner fires the turret MG, yes it is on the loaders side but is
attached to linkage arms and is fired by the use of a foot pedal, I think this allows for firing both at
once dont you. It is also stated that if necessary the loader can fire it by use of the trigger.

ANOTHER TAKE: Having been a tanker (albeit on M1A1s) I thought I could weigh in on this
subject. As for if it is possible to fire the Coax and Main gun simultaneously regardless if the Loader
or the Gunner or Tank Commander for that matter did it or could do it, is irrelevant. When the
Main gun is fired it rocks the whole tank and creates a momentary smoke screen that would knock
the aim off for the coax. Not to mention the fact that the breach on a Main Gun kicks back quite a
bit, in an M1 its about 13 inches.

I think you are all sort of missing the point. This is one of those unfortunate times with looking at
technical specs and trying to use logic to make a rule just doesn't present the proper image to the
wargamer. I also think this is one of the few weaknesses in the BGww2 rules. They treat a tank
crew as 3, 4, or 5 independent models doing their own thing. In reality, in a tank everyone is doing
the SAME thing, fighting the battle one target at a time. If there are tanks, the crew isn't worried
about infantry, if there are AT teams the crew isn't worried about that guy with a SMG. In a tank
fight each crewman has a role. Here is a breakdown of how it works today and from what I've read,
how it worked then. The Tank Commander is up in the hatch finding targets and guiding the driver,
(who can't see very well, remember he can't even back up without help), the gunner is also scanning
for targets and engages what the Tank Commander directs him to engage (he also has limited
view), the loader is typically in the tank feeding the gun new rounds (this is a full time job), the
driver assist in watching for targets and moving or not moving the tank so that he doesn't blow the
gunner's shot, in the case of a hull gunner he is scanning for targets and probably firing at will
when possible at infantry. Now in a lot of small tanks (especially early models), there is only a
driver and Tank Commander. That makes the Tank Commander very busy looking, guiding the
driver, firing, and re-loading.

I just dont think gamers realise the realistic limitations of tanks sometimes. Just because a vehicle
has a weapons system doesnt always mean it used. On the M1A1 the loaders MG is rarely used, its
really a replacement in case the coax is damaged.

Another gripe I have with the BGww2 tank rules is the thought that tankers would stay on the
battlefield and fight after their vehicle is destroyed. They would in a pinch, but you should really
think of them as downed pilots, all they want is to get back and get another tank. Also, I see shot up
tanks all too often used as a place to go and get weapons and use as MG platforms, not many people
would climb on a burning vehicle to use its MG when they just saw it get hit and taken out. Im not
saying never, but not often.

Another example that comes to mind is the MG assistant gunner. If you have ever been the member
of an MG team, the gunner can't see very well because of the flash and smoke and dust. The
assistant is there, not to use his weapon, but to feed the MG and help point out targets. Its really all
just one weapons system. Of course I only fired dismounted MGs on a couple of occasions but that
was my experience.

ANOTHER TAKE: The training and gunnery manuals for the American WW II tankers calls for the
use of either the main gun or the coax, not both, when firing. This is because .30 cal and the 75 or
76mm main gun do not have the same trajectory. Although the weapons are fired using the same
gunsight, the ranges marked on the sight only for the main gun. The sight ranges must be
interpreted and converted for the .30 cal LMG. For example, the mark of 400 yards for the APC shot
would be 500 yards for the .30 cal. Firing at a target with the main gun would mean wasting .30 cal
ammunition - since the .30 cal would be falling short by about 100 yards. I doubt that they would
change range, but would rather use HE to get the tank crews at long range - machine-gun at short
ranges under 400 yards where the range differential was the smallest between the main gun and
coax.

The coax can be and was used for ranging in the main gun, but since the sights did not match up,
the gunner would have to extrapolate the range differences - converting one to the other.

The main gun of the Sherman tank could be fired either electrically or by mechanical means. The
coax was fired electrically. The two electrical switches are mounted on the floor by the gunner's left
foot - main gun to the left, coax to the left. The mechanical firing device was placed just to the left of
the electrical switches and operated the firing mechanism by cable.

The gunsight in the M4 Series of tanks has a dash pattern reticle laid out for range vertically and a
very rudimentary lead or trail horizontally. As with all WW II vehicles, there was no built-in range-
finding equipment. The Germans did have a small binocular rangefinder, designed for artillery, but
it was very cumbersome and not usable in a running battle. Same case for the allies.

Gunnery information is drawn from FM 17-12, Tank Gunnery, 10 July 1944

I would interpret this as the tank gunner fires the main gun or machine-gun, doing either takes one
action so they cannot be fired together using one action.

HALFTRACK/TRUCK DRIVERS/CREWS
I have a question about mechanised infantry vehicles and their crew. Mainly dealing with half-
tracks, but also with trucks and other small APCs. I have been told that most mechanised infantry,
did not have a dedicated crew assigned to the vehicle, but that one or two guy's from the squad
would crew the vehicle, i.e. driver, machine gunner. I'm not saying that this was true 100% with all
units, but that there were a lot of units that operated this way. Example, in North Afrika, if you had
a platoon of DAK out and about, typically they had 8-10 man squads, correct? What my gaming
group is saying is that each of the 3 half-tracks would have 2-3 dedicated crew members on top of
the 8-10 man squad assigned to this. I just don't see this in most cases. Some of their arguments
are, "They would not all dismount and leave a half-track sitting with no one around." The way I look
at it, two guys would stay behind and have a mobile machine gun to support the squad in addition
the LMG carried by the squad? Well, if anyone can give me any insight on this I would appreciate it.
ANSWER: From what I understand, panzergrenadier units had a driver and radio operator/gunner
per half-track, that were supposed to stay with the track. I believe they were counted among the
members of the squad, but were not part of the squad itself.

ANOTHER TAKE: It is also my understanding the panzergrenadier infantry half-tracks had an


assigned vehicle RTO/LMG and a driver in addition to the dismounts. and they were all part of the
same squad.

US ARMY infantry/cavalry half tracks also had a full time assigned MG and driver, in addition to
the dismounts, and they too were part of the same squad. The assigned gunner would man the .50-
cal HMG, and dismounts would man any other MG attached to the half-track.

Jeeps would also have an assigned driver, and may or may not have 1 or more MG mounted on them
by infantry or cavalry dismounts, and usually had driver, plus 2-3 passengers riding in them.

The US ARMY armoured cars all had full time crews, and some, if not all, had infantry/cavalry
dismounts riding in them too.

TRUCKS, of all types had at least one assigned driver, maybe 2, either from full time transport
units, or from unit motor pools if these vehicles belong to a company's TOE.

It seemed like some one from the company HQ platoon was the driver in this case, but in the field,
soldiers from a platoon could be assigned as vehicle operators during movements or logistical
duties.

The troops in the back of a truck were squaddies hitching a ride to the war, and it was entirely
possible to cram an under strength platoon into the are normally occupied by 2 squads of GIs.

I suspect (from talking with old landsers) this was also true in the HEER, other AXIS ALLIED, and
US ALLIED armoured or mechanised formations as well.

REMEMBER, the WEHRMACHT was never as mechanised as the US ARMY from 1942 onwards,
and used extensive draft animals and assorted wagons/carts, and even horse for transport. Also, lots
of impressed civilian vehicles and captured enemy vehicles for transport through out the war by the
WEHRMACHT.

ANOTHER TAKE: It is my understanding from speaking with GD vets that the FEW half-tracks
that they did ride in the driver and gunner came from the squad that rode in it. The forward MG
came with the vehicle and the rear facing MG was the squad weapon if they chose to mount it at
that moment. The Vets told me that they RARELY rode in half tracks and some could not even
remember riding in one more than once.
While TO&E charts show lots of half-tracks and vehicles, the prime mover of he German Army was
the horse. Gamers tend to forget this unless they're forced to remember it. And most games with
point values for weaponry don't take into account the 'real' cost of a vehicle, rather than it's
approximate effectiveness. That Tiger IIs cost, for example, should not only represent it's gun and
armour, but the fact that it was bloody hard to ship one to the site of a battle, and that the majority
of IIs were torched after being abandoned by their crews for lack of spare parts! Face it, US tanks
are crappy, until you realise that a Sherman would run 20 times as long as a PZIVJ without
maintenance, and US half-tracks seem uncommon when you look at TO&Es, until you realise there
were regiment-sized transport units made up completely of half-tracks and drivers, assigned
permanently to infantry units to completely mechanise them. In fact, a US unit without transport
that isn't an airborne unit is pretty unlikely on the battlefield. For all practical purposes, by D-Day,
the US has no 'leg' infantry at all and the Germans are having trouble getting enough trucks to
motorise panzergrenadier units, much less half-tracks.

ANOTHER TAKE: as for the half-tracks and its crews topic:


a. You could assign a points value to the crew members and let the player decide if he wants to 'buy'
more for the vehicle... or use the members of the squad he purchased.
b. Factor crews with the vehicle (after all... no matter what side you're playing on... axis or allied...
your both going to need crew men for your vehicles).
c. Do the opposite... all crew have to be purchased as part of the 'buying'... no vehicle comes with any
crewmen for free.

TARGET SELECTION
Could someone in the group please answer this question on selecting targets. If a squad are
shooting at an opposing squad which is advancing towards them, there are situations where some of
the advancing troops can be closer than others and so fall into a closer range (i.e.: 3 x troops are 14"
away and the ones behind are 16" away). The three closest are at 'effective' range for a rifle and the
others are at 'long' range.

Obviously the three closest are easier to hit but if they are part of one squad (moving together) can
they then be targeted as a separate group because of this difference in range. If not which range of
the 'To Hit' chart is used when shooting at targets that overlap the ranges ?

Is there any general consensus on this or is it a case of do what you think is best?

ANSWER: We have used the range of the model at the most extreme distance from the assaulting
piece. This is done to show the effect of firing into a group. With the 5 man squads that were
released, we now only use the 1/2 squad for targeting. This is good for rifles only. Weapons with a
rate of fire of 3 or more fall under the "Who is Hit" Rules Update. This gives a cone of fire for fully
automatic weapons. I still have some players that like the centre of a group and call it good. This is
the best part of the BattlegroundWWII Rules, they
are flexible.

PRONE INFANTRY
Prone soldiers cannot fire, correct? I mean if they can, then what would be the purpose for
suppression?

ANSWER: It's my understanding that prone soldiers CAN shoot... we play it as "suppression means
you are eating dirt" while prone means "you are laying down trying to make yourself as small of a
target as possible" I know that's how its taught in basic training - dig yourself into a FIGHTING
POSITION (foxes hide in holes, we fight from positions), or go prone (for a more stable firing
position, and a smaller target).

Yes soldiers can shoot prone. We play that a suppression will force a standing person to go prone.
But a prone trooper who gets a suppression gets a suppression marker, and this will take one action
to get rid of.

YES, you can fire from prone (suppression is only there to make soldiers dive off their feet - and
then have to spend their next action to get up. Or stay prone and be forced to crawl, fire back, etc.). I
fired from the prone many, many times (and so do most soldiers in battle). The only thing you
cannot fire from the prone: prone behind a wall, log, etc., and/or you may not fire crew served
weapons from the prone (MMG, artillery gun, etc.).

There has been a lot of argument concerning suppression - does it do anything, blah blah, blah... It
forces you prone. End of story. However, some groups use added rules to 'liven' it up. Up to you and
your game buddies to decide (or a GM!).

SPLITTING A SQUAD AND COMMAND RANGE


When a squad is split up, and the two rifle teams are operating outside of the squad leader's
command range, is each team treated as a squad in it's own right when it comes to calculating
Break Points and Morale Checks. Example: Would a team of four 'regular' riflemen (with a break
point of 50%) have to make a Squad Morale Check if they're team is reduced to two, or would the
break point still be based on the original squads total of ten men?

ANSWER: Yes, each team (or part of a split squad) becomes it's own squad. They are subject to all
rules as individual squads. Hence their break points will be reduced to the number of models in the
group. Check page 4 in the infantry section (squad morale: teams).
FURTHER QUESTION: What is the main disadvantage with the two rifle teams moving out of the
squad leader's Command Range? As far as I can see the only drawback is that his Leadership
Modifier cannot be added to any morale check that any rifle team model may have to make.

ANSWER: One BIG disadvantage is the reduced number of losses required for a Break Point check.
Also, consider the ripple effect rule (page 4, infantry section). A 4-man team and a 2-man MG team
are both within command range of each other. The 4-man team suffers 2 casualties and breaks.
Since the MG team is so close (assuming they are also in LOS), they will also have to check for a
break. Reducing the number of your teams can seriously hamper the squads effectiveness. That is
also why it is so important to overlap them with a leader capable of helping the teams rally in case
they break.

STATISTICS FOR JEEPS


Where can I find the vehicle statistics sheet for jeeps (if there is one)?

ANSWER: See the softskin vehicle chart. All softskins are treated the same.

ANTITANK GUN SHIELDS


How do you guys handle ATG gun shields for small arms & HE fire against crew protection for
direct and indirect fire?

ANSWER:

ATG SPOTTING
How do you work spotting the ATG's? Use the ATG as infantry on the chart?

ANSWER: AT gun-shields are treated as partial AFV cover which is +5.

ATG LOAD TIMES


I noticed the load time for say... a PaK40 is listed as "1/2". Should I assume that means it can be
loaded and fired by the crew using each one action? Does this mean it can fire twice a turn?

ANSWER: Yes, load and fire in the same action.

HOUSE RULES

SQUAD COMMUNICATIONS: Squads may give or receive information to other squads that are in
Command Radius (Morale 2 inches). This includes shouts, hand signals, etc.. This is a free action,
but must be performed on that squads activation card.
HIDDEN UNITS: Squads may use hidden counters to represent their location and movement.
Hidden counters are a general indication of where a squad is located. These counters should be
numbered, and each squad, team, or vehicle should be marked to correspond to that number (Rifle
Squad #2 should have a #2 hidden counter, etc.). Opponents try to spot at the hidden markers, and
if successful, squads and or vehicles will be revealed. When checking for the spot roll, use all
modifiers in effect. Once the roll indicates a successful spot, place ALL models of the squad, team, or
vehicle on the game table anywhere within command radius of the hidden counter). Opponents may
fire at hidden markers with the NO Target penalty of 1/2 to hit. All barrage templates fired blindly
at unspotted hidden markers will deviate 3d6 inches. Opponents may NOT fire blindly at hidden
markers unless there has been some sort of action (firing, spotted movement, etc.) from that area. If
any part of a blind fire template covers the hidden marker, then roll a d20 for each model
corresponding to that markers number.

RUNNING: A model may spend BOTH actions to move 15 inches. A model normally moves 5 inches
per action (for a total of 10 inches in two actions), the run option lets them cover more ground at the
expense of using both their actions in that turn. models carrying heavy objects, such as crew served
weapons (MMG Teams, Mortar Teams, etc..) may not Run.

GRENADES: A model may throw a grenade out to double the normal range of 6 inches, with no
chance to hit. The grenade will automatically deviate, use d8 for direction, d6 for inches, as per the
normal rules. models may elect to hold a grenade (cook-off) for one action prior to throwing, this
prevents any model to react to the grenade models may also react to a grenade as long as theyre
under its effect template. This reaction is similar to a non-green troops ability to go prone when
hearing incoming artillery. The three reaction possibilities are:

a) Dive for Cover: A model may dive into any cover within 2 inches and go prone as a free action
outside of their normal turn sequence.
b) Toss Back: A model may elect to "toss back" any grenade by first succeeding in a Gut Check to see
if the soldier has the guts to grab a live nade, failure means he may not attempt to toss back and
may not perform one of the other reactions. Second, the trooper must roll a successful Skill Check to
see if he can grab the grenade and toss it back (use throwing rules). If the trooper fails in the skill
check, he is automatically in the A ring on the effects chart and receives no cover or prone modifiers
(its in his hands!)
c) Take it for his Buddies: A soldier, seeing a grenade land near him, may elect to "belly" it by diving
on it so as to shield his buddies from the blast. To do so, the soldier must first take a 1/2 Gut Check,
if failed, the soldier may not attempt any further reactions. If successful, the soldier will dive on the
grenade, cover it with his body, and receive the full effects of the grenade (A ring, -8 to effects, no
cover modifiers). If this soldier survives he automatically becomes a Hero. Roll to see what type of
hero.
SUPPRESSION: Soldiers receiving a suppression effect from the weapons effects chart will now
receive a Suppression Counter to mark their suppressed state. To be suppressed is to drop prone
and hug the earth as close as possible to avoid any shot or shrapnel. This means head down, not
looking around, etc. Remember, all the effects on the Effects Chart stack. For example, if a soldier
receives a LtW, he also must make a Morale Check, and become Suppressed. HW is the same. Two
LtW equals a HW, Two HWs equals a KIA. A HW and two LtWs equals two HWs which in turn
equals a KIA.

MG 42 TRIPOD SCOPE
I was wondering if anyone knows how much the scope that allows a person to be prone on a tripod
mounted MG42 was used. Also, when it was developed, and any other information you might have
about this item. I have been playing that crew members are not prone while using a tripod mounted
MG42 figuring they are kneeling.

ANSWER: The scope's really only useful when in a prepared position, as otherwise the loader's
going to have to kneel next to the gun anyway. The MG42 (MMG or HMG) crew can be prone and
fire the weapon. When this weapon is conmodeld on the tripod, there is a triggering mechanism low
on the rear tripod leg. The arc of fire was noted as 45 deg. left or right of centre, this would allow
the gun to be moved so as to rake or spray an area. If you can trigger the weapon with out having to
be looking over it or looking along its firing line, why expose yourself. The loader would only need to
expose his body while the weapon is having a new belt started. Now, to toss in something additional,
EEE made reference to all of this on the now defunt pdf. download section of its web page. Of note;
the additional -1 to hit was lost if the crew was firing the weapon when prone. I agree, the
usefulness of the scope is best, in a prepared position, especially with the 5 die RoF, and the -1 to hit
for that configuration. What is really scary is an elite crew adding -1, with a leader who has -1 or -2
directing the carnage. Think RoF 5 die and -4 roll modifier. You could say this is a good thing, or
nasty.

You can consider the crew prone when operating any MMG/HMG that has a traversing and
elevating mechanism. The T&E allows the gunner to change the way he searches and traverses the
target area without having to look over the sights. Sighting on the target area below the gun, he can
use one hand to fire the weapon and the other to rotate the elevating or traversing knobs. Not all
WWII MGs had the device, but they were common on both German and US MG tripod mounts. The
main disadvantage of the technique is slowness in making large changes in deflection and elevation.
My Uncle in Korea stated that he had to disengage the T&E mechanism to engage massed N.
Korean and Chinese attacks so to rapidly sweep the target area. In that case he had to sit up and
aim the gun using the rear and front sights.

ANOTHER TAKE: There are two reasons why you can fire it very effectively prone:
1. The Lafette tripod has a telescopic sight issued with it that can be rotated downwards while it
still looks forwards, but you are looking up into the optics from a prone position. Basically you have
the effect of a periscope.

2. The tripod has a lever that attaches to the trigger mechanism that allows a prone firer to activate
the weapon from below.

It doesn't matter if it's a prepared position or not... if the tripod is set up, the equipment is still all
there. The tripod folds up by some twist knobs on the legs and such and can be nicely carried on
one's back in a long haul.

As to the comment about other weapons being able to fire effectively from prone. They can fire with
the presets, yes. But this is just general area sweeping. Actually trying to target something requires
the weapon to be aimed with sights, which the lafette tripod uniquely allows from prone and behind
cover.

OPFIRE
Do you have to take the shot if you spot a new target while on OPfire?

ANSWER:

SIGHTING CHECKS
I take it if a unit is acquired by another unit it remains so until it either moves out of sight or is
killed?

ANSWER: Yes.

GENERAL SIGHTING
Does a sighted unit become visible to all units within the sighters command radius?

ANSWER: Since you sight by unit, all members of a unit (i.e. squad) are aware of where the enemy
is. There is no provision in the rules for "handing off" acquisitions to other units. Communication
between units is generally constrained to be at Command Radius, so at least the other friendly units
with that range can be told where to look. If you feel it warrants a column shift on the Sighting
Table, add it as a house rule.

MORALE CHECKS
Do you take morale checks for the group of men or individuals? Individuals seems very intensive
but whole groups disappearing as Craven Cowards seems strange?
ANSWER: Only dealing with infantry, s normal morale check is taken by individuals. If enough
guys are KIA, HW, or broken, you have to take a Squad Morale Check for the entire squad. If you
roll a natural 20 for the Squad Morale Check, the entire squad runs off.

FURTHER QUESTION: Am I right in thinking that regular troops have only a 50 per cent chance
of making their morale check (i.e. under 10) when they come under fire?

ANSWER: Correct.

SPOTTING AND MOVEMENT QUESTION/EXAMPLE


Tonight I was introducing BG to my local club, and playing a very one sided skirmish. However, the
defending Germans were kept off board with their position mapped, and their facing noted. As it
happened they were in a large patch of light woods. An American Squad approached from their
right, at a 90 degree angle or there abouts, out of their line of sight. As luck would have it, they
moved close, and then the first card out was theirs again. They swiftly moved straight over my
German squad without making any sighting check first. This leads to the point of my question.
Since no sighting check was made, and the Americans were out of the Germans arc of view, what
should happen? The Germans were prone, concealed and had not fired. The range before moving
was probably no more than 6 inches.

As it happened, I made myself and the American player take an initiative roll, the lowest on a D20
getting to go first. The American won and elected to fire on the move, missing me. I judged that the
fairest way of representing the sudden appearance on the flank was to roll under no target, and
promptly missed too. (I only took 1 action of fire having conferred with the OpFire rules.) However,
the rest of the American Squad then opened up on me and wiped me out. How would others have
dealt with the situation?

ANSWER: Soldiers do not normally have a facing unless an Opportunity (OP) marker or other
special fire marker was placed, then they are restricted to the direction they were looking, 45
degrees. Must stay within the rules of LOS. Sometimes they can look but not fire, especially if for
example a MG team was facing North but the enemy advanced from the South in the open, most
likely someone from the team would see them but they would be unable to fire until the next turn. A
turn is only a matter of seconds.

We allow soldiers to see 360 (if LOS permits), even if they are manning a support weapon they can
still spot in any direction, but the player must declare what that direction will be (45 degrees) before
rolling the die (although they may not be able to fire.) Spotting normally occurs on the player's card
before movement. Any piece that will be automatically spotted can always be seen.
If the German player did not spot them or automatically acquire them, the Americans would not
have been spotted after their move. Having not been spotted themselves, this would allow the
German player to place a OP marker for the next turn on his hidden squad.

After having their card drawn first, the Americans might even spot the Germans before the
Germans could even react. Spotting occurs before movement, so the Americans could try to spot and
choose to shoot or keep moving depending on the outcome of the spot. Spotting does not count as an
action, it is free before
movement unless a squad leader is spending his entire action spotting for better results.

I play it as sighting counts as an action under OpFire. All it takes to be spotted is a lens flash off a
pair of binoculars... the top of a helmet sticking up over wall... etc.. Anything that happens when
you're just looking around that could call attention to your position even when you're trying to
conceal yourself.

In your example, the U.S. squad doesn't spot and keeps on moving; was an OP set by the Germans?
If so, and they failed their spot check. oh well. If not, the Germans could check on their turn against
infantry moving concealed. Remember they can declare what direction they want to spot. Even if
the target is no longer in their LOS they may still see troops move in front of them. You can also roll
for hearing movement and not seeing them.

Infantry are not normally allowed to fire on the move. This rule is for vehicle movement and
shooting. Imagine if infantry could fire and walk at the same time every turn, (which they did, it
was called walking fire) then every man would be shooting while they walk. The game would take
for ever and no with little effect with half to hit.

ANOTHER TAKE: As a previous reply noted, in the rules infantry can spot 360 degrees, but you
have to declare the direction they are spotting on every spotting attempt. The exception to this is the
AQ on the spotting chart, which is an automatic acquisition. Of course, as you no doubt noticed,
there is no AQ for concealed infantry - moving or unmoving. In general, if a player forgets to make
his sighting checks, he deserves to get ambushed.

QUESTIONS ON SHOOTING
A U.S. Jeep w .30 cal MMG moves on the first action to within 4" of a German 251 half-track. On its
second action takes its shot on the half-track. Is it Point Blank (16 to hit)? Does this use the
modifier of 1/2 for moving or +12 vehicle moving modifier to hit? And do you consider the movement
of the half-track also? Moved 7" so shooting side +1/3" movement.

ANSWER: Yes you need a 16 to hit if you stopped moving on you second action. If you are still
moving during your second action then 1/2 to hit. You would need an 8 or less. A MMG firing while
moving would receive the 1/2 to hit modifier on the infantry chart not the +12 vehicle moving
penalty. You only use the "to hit modifiers" on the vehicle chart if you are using the main gun on an
AFV or bazooka/panzerfaust.

Rules are not clear what table to use, infantry or armour, but we use the infantry to hit chart, so no
penalty, not found on infantry to hit chart. Must score a majority of hits to penetrate, 3 hits out of 4
for a MMG. Other wise no penetration. But you could use this penalty, it makes sense.

FURTHER QUESTION: Lets say it hits. At 4" away it has a penetration value of 5. Half-track
armour is 2. Needs a 3 to penetrate. US player rolls 2. Penetrates. Rolls on location. Does the MMG
still roll on the Penetration Effects Chart?

ANSWER: Yes but with a +3 penalty because it is a size 37mm gun or smaller. No way to achieve a
"catastrophic" effects must roll a 1 for "total destruction." If no penetration occurs then no further
effects takes place.

Although you can't use small arms to target soft vehicle targets, you may shot at passengers, i.e.;
exposed tank crew or infantry riding in a truck.

LMGs HOUSE RULE


LMGs were designed to be used with the bipod. In addition, their weight makes them hard to fire
while moving. So, LMGs should get half to hit when not fired from a braced position. BARs are not
subject to this because they can be fired from the shoulder effectively. I've done it with live ammo.
Doing live fires, we've found the DPs, MG-34s and MG-42s were too heavy and/or had too much
recoil to do anything but hip shoot. When you're hip-shooting, you're not using the sights. Just like
blind fire.

ANOTHER TAKE: I'd mostly agree except that you can walk rounds around visually with a belt fed
weapon, whereas with lower capacity weapons you would be out of ammo possibly before corrections
get you on your mark. But I would disagree that you can't shoulder fire LMGs, you can, but you
can't get a MG rate of fire and expect to hit. You can get at least semiauto rifle rate of fire and hit
though.

But once again in basic agreement, firing while standing should be much harder than firing while
prone (with all weapons.) As should firing at moving people.

We've added the +1 front movement and +2 side movement to infantry engagements. We should also
change the standing vs. prone firing, either giving at least a +2 prone or a -2 standing penalty. The
real difference is probably MUCH grater than 10%, I'll check Camp Perry prone vs. offhand scores
and see what the real difference is.

MORTAR FIRE VS MOVING TARGETS


The ruling to hit a vehicle is if the artillery does land on the vehicle a d6 is rolled. A one or a two
means that it hits directly. If it does hit directly you roll to see where on the vehicle chart,
penetration... so on.

There is no modifier when shooting at moving vehicle targets, and probably should be. You could
subtract one and make it a 1 out of a six chance if the vehicle is moving. I would think that it would
be extremely hard to hit a vehicle moving fast.

I think on-board mortar fire should impact on their card. I don't think it gives you the effect of them
trying to guess where people will be when the shell lands. Maybe the very small mortars work with
that rule because from what I've heard is that they are just lobbed, unlike a larger mortar where it
was shot high in the air. If an action is supposed to be in about the time a rifleman can pull off a
couple of good shots. I would think a large mortar should take at least an action to arrive after
being fired.

ANOTHER TAKE: I'm not sure in game mechanics how you would do it, but in real life it would be
nearly impossible to hit a moving vehicle by sighting on it. The flight time is just too long (coming
from a former mortarman) You can aim at a spot you predict the vehicle will move through. You
would have to see that spot (impact) and the spot (initiation) that you would call fire at. The impact
spot would need to be reregistered (you've hit it before on purpose) and you would probably have to
run it like an OpFire or ambush fire. When the vehicle goes through the initiation spot you call the
fire it lands at the impact spot.

This would be possible if you had timed vehicles moving through both spots before (or you are a
really good estimator) because the mortarmen have tables that will tell you flight time.

One thing to keep in mind. If the round was fired from on-board artillery then the vehicle must be
under the "A" ring for this rule to apply. Otherwise it lands to the side of the vehicle causing no
damage unless their are crew members exposed or other exposed riders.

If the round(s) came from Off-board artillery then anywhere with the template may cause a shell to
hit. This happens because there are multiple rounds landing throughout the turn. But there is only
one chance for this to happen unless actions are taken. Also vehicle are immune from artillery fire
in the woods.

In the game it is very hard to hit a moving vehicle. The first round has no chance of a direct hit (all
rounds must roll for deviation then a direct hit could land by chance) and most vehicles, especially
trucks move faster in two actions then a spotter can adjust fire. So someone attempting to hit
vehicles must guess where they think they will go or hope for a lucky roll.
However, vehicles and especially trucks and jeeps may have crewmen or riders that take damage
although no direct hit was taken. They may receive a +5 cover depending on the circumstance etc..

AUTOCANNON FIRE ON THE MOVE


This applies to Sdkfz 222 and other 20mm autocannon armed AFVs. Since the auto-cannon is the
vehicle's main gun, as stated in the statistics chart of that vehicle, does it suffer the +12 to hit
modifier if it's moving like all AFVs. Or is it treated like a mounted machine gun and only gets the
halved to hit penalty?

I feel that it should be treated as the main gun since it's part of the turret and shakes and moves
with the AFV. He says that since the sights where like machine guns it shouldn't be penalised like a
main gun.

ANSWER: Autocannons use MG to hit rules. I believe it's in the artillery section this is stated. It is
a main gun weapon with all the advantages and disadvantages. Its RoF and primitive fire control
requires firing from the short halt.

SLR ARE TOO POWERFUL


I feel that the Self Loading Rifles (example, M-1 Garands) are way to powerful in Battleground
WW2. Some people have replied to this saying that the MG42 should balance it out, and in the rules
it is not effective enough to counter-balance that. I would say that the rules for the MG42 are good
when facing units with bolt action rifles. With 4 die to one it makes the MG42 comparable to about
four bolt action rifles. I agree. The problem I see is when you add the self loading rifles. At a rate of
2 die an action, it makes it double effective as a bolt action, and two M1's would be almost as
effective as a MG42. I think any German soldier would be pretty offended saying that one US M1
equipped infantry man was as good as two Germans. I would also think that a set-up MG42 would
be a good match for three to four M1 equipped soldiers. I feel this rule makes it very hard to have
battles that are close without giving the Germans many more models or vehicles. My thought on
this is to make SLR only one die with a plus 2 or three to hit and damage. Making it more effective
but not overpowering. What do you think?

ANSWER: Well this is where the old adage of game balance versus realism comes into play. In the
"game" it is pretty powerful, but in fact, an American rifle platoon could lay out as much fire power
as an entire German company. Germans feared the Garand nearly as much as the GIs feared the
MG42. The Garand is also part of what lead to the development of the Stg 43 and 44... the first real
assault rifles. WW2 was saw the development of new tactics based upon firepower rather than
marksmanship, and the Garand was one of the factors that added to this. The person I play all
wargames with and I have an agreement we play by. We look back in history and try to recreate
events of the past in miniature. In so doing, we realise that there are rarely, if ever, even battles. We
play more for the enjoyment of recreating the history no matter how poorly balanced the game is.
Usually this means one side gets thrashed to bits, but it is more accurate that way, and we measure
victories in what was achieved with what we had to work with etc..

ANOTHER TAKE: I own a M-1 and a Kar-98. Point one. The sight on the M-1 is far superior to the
Kar. Point two. Even with the eight round enbloc clip I can fire forty accurate shot about as fast as I
can with my M-14. Point three. I have been on a range with ten M-1s firing and I came to the
conclusion that I would pity any poor bastards that would have to face the shit storm that a platoon
of M-1 and Bar armed dog faces would lay down. The rules for the M-1 may be frightening but until
you've seen one in use don't complain.

OPFIRE FROM AFVS WITH CREW/PASSENGERS/RIDERS


Can Crews manning MGs, and Passengers\Riders declare Opportunity Fire? Example: a
Panzergrenadier squad in a 251\1 Half-track at the start of a turn states the following actions: The
passengers declare Opportunity Fire and state the Squad is Crew Exposed. The unit card is flipped.
The driver member of the squad drives forward, while the rest of the squad is in Opportunity Fire. I
see this happening in real-life. Tanks\AFVs moving up while Crew\Passengers\Riders are in ready
to take down any Infantry threat. Is this allowable in game terms? I model the Opportunity Fire is
at 1/2 to hit, due to the Tank\AFV moving.

ANSWER: That is the way we play, using the 1/2 to hit penalty. This happens quite a bit with tanks.
We usually drive around with the Hull MG gunner on OpFire looking for infantry. Doesn't happen
too often for us to have infantry riding in half-tracks exposed with an OP but it could happen. In
regards to tank riders, according to the rules infantry may not fire form a moving tank, so no they
cannot set an OP unless the tank is not going to move for the entire turn. Look under the section
tank riders and tank capacity in the armour section.

One thing to remember if the half-track drove by some Americans who were on OPfire, and they
fired at the CE in the half-track, with an OP you could fire back on the next action using your OP,
however you could have done that anyway with your second action.

On the other hand, if the half-track had just finished its move (end of 2nd action) and then on the
next card enemy infantry try to assault the half-track, then having the OpFire would allow you to
get one action of firing at the advancing infantry, if they have LOS, before they closed. However the
half-track would still be considered moving for purposes of the assault as well as the half to hit
penalty for the CE on OPfire.

STOP VEHICLE ACTION


I am unclear about the stop vehicle action. Does it take 1 action to stop a tank? Or after moving in
an action can the tank declare a stop on the same action? And thus, only penalised the +5 Modifier
Shooting when moved in the previous action to shoot in the 2nd action. Is this correct?
ANSWER: Not as the rules are written, as a house rule I would make it necessary for the driver to
use an action to stop the vehicle. After moving in an action a tank can declare a stop in the same
action, as written in the rules. Yes, in either case you would only use +5 modifier when shooting
after moving in the previous action.

SQUAD COHERENCY
Is there any restriction as to how far squad miniatures can be to maintain coherency? Squad
members seem to end up being split-up and far from each other. Do they have to stay within
Command Range and LOS of each other? If they stray too far from each other, do they have to take
the Squad Morale check at the start of the turn?

ANSWER: You can always charge out your single infantry men to accomplish tasks. The challenge
being if they venture too far out of command range they could be subject to the "man alone" morale
penalty. Try to keep your men within a leaders command radius if at all possible. For the Russians,
it is good to keep the leader behind the other squad members. This will give you an opportunity to
rally if they break and hopefully allow the leader to keep from being a quick casualty.

MORTAR HITS ON BUILDINGS


City fight. Russians attacking a dug-in German force. Russian have an assortment of 80mm and
120mm Mortar. What affects are there when the mortar rounds hit a building? Does the rounds go
through the roof and into the building? How much punishment can a building take before
collapsing?

ANSWER: H.E. effects vs. buildings are covered on page 12 of the Terrain section. As far as I know,
both Russian and German mortars used only super quick fuse, and thus building penetrations of
anything heavier than a hut are unlikely. Since most of the fragment spray of a mortar round is
horizontal, most of the fragments should be above the building. Now, if a roof has a number of holes
in it, model what percentage of the roof is left, roll percentiles, and if you roll higher than the
amount of roof left, the shell explodes inside.

GERMAN MOLOTOVS
Can the Germans have makeshift Molotov Cocktails?

ANSWER:

AP EFFECTS ON BUILDINGS
What are the effects of an AP round on a building?

ANSWER: AP rounds have no effect Vs wood buildings. Vs stone buildings use the narrow cone on
the HE template to show the shrapnel effect of the AP round shattering the stone. See page 12 of
the terrain section under HE effects Vs buildings.
AT FIRE QUESTION
A Russian T34 tries to run over a Panzerschrek team. The gunner passes his morale check and
moves away while the loader is run over. The gunner now is 1" away on the side of the T34. His card
is drawn. The Panzerschrek is already loaded. Is the shot considered "while moving" when firing the
Panzerschrek at the T34? Which modifier is used, the +1 per 3" or just the +2 for vehicle moving
towards the Panzerschrek?

ANSWER: The modifiers state that they are applied for vehicles moving. If the team was some sort
of AFV I think they would apply, otherwise no. I would be tempted to introduce a new penalty for
firing a crewed weapon with only one person (say Captured use or No Commander). To make it
simple, I would apply the target movement relative to the current shooter's position. He is facing the
side of the tank. The tank is currently moving parallel to him. He is firing at a tank that is now
moving from a side-to-side direction.

Actually you need to make two checks. The first is a Gut Check to not move (Armoured Combat pg.
16). If the tank is trying to run them over, then the infantry have to pass a skill check to avoid being
crushed (Armoured Combat pg. 18).

TCs AS ARTILLERY OBSERVERS


Can a Tank Commander spot for onboard/offboard artillery?

ANSWER: A German TC should be able to spot, but only has his own battalion net on his radio, so
he's probably only going to have access to 81mm mortars and 75mm IGs. If he wants anything else,
it better not be a moving target, because it's going to be awhile arriving. However, nobody below
platoon commander is going to be able to call/spot artillery - and, in most cases, nobody below
company CO. Of course, it also depends on what level of arty asset you're talking about.

In reality they did, but they were usually company commander or higher or specifically tasked in
doing so. Armoured FOs were common in Panzer/Panzergrenadier Divisions. Tank commanders did
not have to exposes themselves to do so as they probably used scissor rangefinders/binoculars within
the copula of the vehicle. Some vehicles, like the late StuG variants had a special armoured hatch
that allowed the commander to use a scissor binoc while buttoned up.

ANOTHER TAKE: This is a yes and no answer question.


1. Battalion command tanks, most likely yes since any artillery supporting the Tiger battalion (or
any panzer battalion in a panzer or panzergrenadier division) would be listening in on the
Command frequency.
2. Tiger battalions have no artillery in support, just a recon platoon, AA platoon, and recovery units
and supply units.
3. Panzer and Panzergrenadier tank battalions (the latter often SGIII) could have artillery support
from either the PzGrenadier Regiment - SP 150 battery of 6 guns, the Heavy Weapon Company if a
Recon BN is supporting them, or the division's guns. Most had three artillery battalions with one
usually attached to one of the battlegroups. Since only one infantry battalion had APC it and the
one SP artillery battalion would support the tank Regiment. That battalion had 6 150mm SP and
12 105mm SP. See the Portland website for my test rules for mass artillery fire (by battery instead
of gun).
4. Company commander may have a FO from a supporting artillery unit in his tank, with his own
radio, who could call in fire support and direct it.
5. Company commander in most cases would have an overlay for his map showing the registered
artillery fire points and a "box" map grid. He can call to battalion for artillery support to be fired on
either the registration point "101 requests HE registration point 145, dug-in infantry, over" or on a
grid. "101 requests smoke concentration on grid 148990, over." This has to go to battalion and then
to the guns so it may take some time.
6. A platoon leader could inform the Company Commander of an artillery target and then the
request would go up from him to the artillery support.
7. If SP IG are with the Company or Battalion, the tank commander would likely run over to the SP
command vehicle with his map and request a "shoot there" directly from the support commander.

One reason the Germans had so many infantry guns, mortars, and SP guns like the Grillie at
Regimental and Battalion levels was so they would have the guns now. The U.S. Army on the other
hand, had a computer and it was used to do Naval firing tables and Artillery firing tables. Give a
US Army artillery command post, your location, the direction (compass) of the target and its
estimated location, and the tables would give the US fire direction centre the elevation and azimuth
to fire. Shortly thereafter several battalions under that fire direction centre would start shooting.
Not quite as fast but quite deadly.

ANOTHER TAKE: Matter of fact, no unless the tank is a BefehlsPanzer. A platoon commander can
request direct support through the company commander, but only the command tanks had the
assets on board (right radios netted into higher command & supporting units), map & plotting
boards and AUTHORITY to do such. They may only request support from units assigned directly to
them or their direct superior HQ. Any thing else has to go up the chain. This rigid structure was a
real disadvantage compared to British or American operational doctrine for supporting arms.

MG FIRE ARCS
The rules state that MMG's and HMG's on tripods have a 90 degree field of fire in the direction the
weapon is set up. Is there any restriction for the fields of fire for LMG's and PMG's ?

ANSWER: Typically for effective fire, no. LMG do have to be set up though, so in certain
circumstances further actions need to be taken if the field of fire were to be changed (Infantry pg.
12). A good example would be a person bracing a LMG in a window sill firing outside a house. If
someone approached to the rear of him, he would have to turn around (and spend an action going
prone). He could not simply state he is now firing behind him because there is nothing to support
the LMG. (He could jump out the window and use the sill again to fire, but that would still take an
action).

A good rule of thumb is to allow about 180 degree arc where a unit does not have to expend an
action to move and change fire arcs. Any thing more than that and the player will have to use an
action, thus having only one action of effective fire.

A PMG ignores this restriction.

TURRET TRAVERSE SPEED


Does BG WWII take into account different traverse rates for the turret of tanks?

ANSWER: Yes, page 7 of the Armoured Combat rules have this listed under the gun mounts
section. Basically you have 2 speeds, slow and normal. On page 21 (Armoured Combat) there is a
legend for the vehicle lists. TR indicates the information of the turret traverse speed (and other
information for the turret).

SUPRESSION HOUSE RULE


A house rule that I use quite effectively is: If a model is standing when suppressed it goes prone
after that or if a model is already prone a chit is placed by the model (it takes one action to remove a
chit) If the same model is suppressed multiple times then a chit is added each time suppression is
rolled. This really is effective if several squads/MGs are firing on the same unit and can keep the
unit tied down for several turns.

MORE ON TANK COMMANDERS AS ARTILLERY SPOTTING


A tank commander may not spot for onboard or offboard artillery unless the tank is a command
tank.
1. All targets must be pre-registered if Germans. Russians may NOT use onboard or offboard
artillery fires. Russian On board SP fire direct only.
2. US players add one turn for every turn up the chain of command the request has to go. The judge
may make the FO an on table vehicle, or a Company support or a Battalion support unit. If the on-
table FO can see the target and his card comes up, he may request artillery support without
receiving the request through the chain (i.e. no added turns before fire because he is directly linked
to the battery). If not on the table or on the table and FO can't see target, then:

Unit Requesting FO at Coy FO at BN


Squad Ldr or TC 4 turns delay 6 turns delay.
Plt Ldr or Plt TC 3 turns delay 4 turns delay.
Coy CO 2 turns delay 3 turns delay.
BN CO 3 turns delay 2 turns delay.

All artillery fire subtracts 1 turn from the above if using pre-registered fire.
Pre-registered fire falls on the target point (see BG rules)except the German fire which has to be
rolled for to determine where it lands.
Japanese add one turn to the above.
All sides subtract one turn if using wire instead of radio to request fire (minimum number of turns
is 1).

If British the FOO may request up to the maximum number of guns available to fire and if
successfully rolling to obtain the fire, may use the requested number of guns for fire for effect.
If US or German or Japanese and the FO successfully rolls for artillery then roll a D6. 1-2 no more
then 4 guns, 3-4 no more than 8 guns, 5-6 Up to 18 guns. Subtract 2 if German (1 in 1941). Subtract
2 if Japanese and reduce the # of guns by 2. Adjusted Rolls under 1 equal 1.

The number of turns delay is taken BEFORE rolling to get the artillery support.
1. FO on table (and can't see the target - must still be assigned as a Coy or BN support and it takes
the same number of turns delay.)
2. Coy support can be up to six guns. BN support can be up to 18 guns, although 4-8-12 was more
common for US/Can/British/Commonwealth units. Normally the SP guns were in batteries of six,
towed guns batteries of 4 guns, with both having 3 batteries in the battalion. British had two sub-
batteries of 4 guns (total 8) in three batteries (total 24). These would, though, be 25 pdr (88mm).
Most other support weapons were 105mm (Japanese 75mm).
3. German support is normally one battery of 3-6 guns from Coy down, and no more then 12 guns at
BN. German FO are BN FO. They have no Company FO for support batteries BUT may have for
infantry guns and mortars.

Most artillery support in the time frame of our games is either direct fire over open sights (the
Soviet way), direct support from the company weapons with maybe some battalion mortars joining
in, or pre-planned fire. The U.S. and British could pre-plan their fire with some accuracy. The
Germans usually used a map grid as the target for units on the move, and which needed either
suppressive fire or smoke. It was fast but not accurate.

Pre-registered fire on map targets used either on a pre-game basis or available by radio request or
wire (if on defence) can be used. Russian pre-registered fire always misses like the German mobile
support fire, but German pre-registered fire in support of infantry will be on target as will British
and US weapons. (usually mortars or one big barrage of 105mm/25 pdr/88mm).

For the massive Soviet barrages I have just told the German player to roll a D6 for each of his
squads/teams and take those models off as casualties. Unless in shell-proof bunkers the Soviet fire
would chew them up pretty good. Happens when you line up hundreds of guns wheel to wheel. Roll
for casualties. Roll for morale. (optional: roll to see when the troops recover - good for strategic
bombing victims as well). Then the Soviet attack comes in.

So a tank commander can call for fire. He just isn't going to get it for a while.

RoF CLARIFICATION
A RoF of "1" means that it takes one action to load. That requires one action to load, another to fire.
The "1/2" load RoF allows half an action to load, then the remainder of the same action to fire, hence
two loading/firing per turn. As you look at the data sheets, normally only smaller calibre ATGs and
mortars have that advantage. However, to fire twice per turn, one losses the "aimed shot" advantage
(gunner cannot aim and fire in the same action).

ANOTHER TAKE: During a turn each an ATG crew's two actions are basically split into two halves:
Loader can load the gun in 1st half of the action. This allows the gunner (who according to the rules
is always assumed to be quickly finding his target while the gun is loaded) to either fire the gun in
the 2nd half of that same action or spend the 2nd half aiming, in which case he would fire in the
second action with the 'Aimed shot' bonus.

This means that you either get off two 'quick' shots (with no 'aiming bonus') or one well 'aimed' shot
with a bonus.

The advantage of the ATG version of the same gun fitted in a tank is that it can be either 'aimed' or
'fired' in the same action that it was loaded.

ANOTHER TAKE: the actions of LOAD, AIM, FIRE all take one action for the man to complete,
none can be done simultaneously, i.e. all in the same action by different men. under gun actions
aiming cannot take place
while unjamming or loading any MAIN GUN...

OK, this is fine for tanks but for ATG's with full CREW or SPG with full exposed crew and
stationary, there is a special load / fire sequence, it is assumed the loader has more freedom of
movement can load a round and the gunner can fire it at the final seconds of the round, seeing as
the loader does his job real fast, this 1/2 load is on top of modifiers, i.e. vet or elite crew can take one
off a 2 load Nashorn or 105mm Howitzer, this then if they meet the pre required like full crew,
(stationary and exposed) for SPG's will allow it to come from 2 to 1 for vet or elite then 1/2 for SPG ,
which allows for 2 shots to be put down range.

It is hard to say, but my understanding of exposed and covered crew for SPG's is exposed, able to be
shot from all sides of the tank but with +5 partial tank, assumed they are walking around tall, not
crouched & congested in the fighting compartment. Covered can only be shot from rear or top with
no penalty.
Just take 1/2 load to load and be ABLE to fire if you like! In the same action, only if the gun has full
crew, if not it double all loads for under crewed guns, i.e. 1/2 to 1, 1 to 2

You cannot aim while unjamming or loading, shakes the gun too much, this is in the rules under
gun actions in armour section.

ANOTHER TAKE: We use a house rule allowing to aim while loading; this is based on practical
experience. With the gunner laid on the target, the closing of the breech after the round is loaded
only moves the aiming point 1-2 mils, which only take 1/2 second to adjust and fire - well within a 2-
second action phase. That is not the same as aiming while moving in WWII era unstabilized tanks,
where the sight alignment is moving all over the place. Hence, we play aiming while loading for
stationary ATGs and AFVs, but not for aiming and moving.

RIFLE GRENADE FIRE VS AFVS


Any idea how you deal with rifle grenades Vs vehicles. I don't think you use the grenade placement
charts.

ANSWER: There is a Rifle Grenade Table giving you the chance to shoot RG at targets on the
EFFECTS CHART at the bottom in the middle, plus modifiers for using a RG, plus if you hit you
use the hit location charts - top attack if from above or range band 6-12" and front-side-rear if at
range band 0-6. You can't use a RG at 0" since it won't arm but I think this is for when you stick it
into an open or broken window and shoot.

RG fire: HE, HEAT, Smoke (WP for US 44-on). The HEAT round explodes so there is an anti-
personnel effect as well. I would recommend GRENADE EFFECTS Tables A and C but drop E as
the shrapnel effect is reduced. It takes an action to load the rifle grenade. You can fire the rifle with
the GL on it without a grenade, but it operates as a BA rather then a SA rifle (single shot, manually
pull the bolt to eject the cartridge - the GL screws into the gas regulator on the M-1). GL can be
used on any US rifle and the M1 Carbine. The hit location on the vehicle table is a HOUSE RULE. I
think the standard rules use the normal table unless firing from above.

"THE EXHAUSTED ONES" SCENARIO CLARIFICATIONS


The direction North is the right side of the page, the town is considered to be in the Eastern zone of
the map.

The French enter from the west. I recommend that you give the French Infantry trucks to ride in
from the west edge of the table.

SIGHTING RULE EXPLAINED


At the beginning of each units turn it is allowed a spot check before an action is performed by that
unit. One die roll is all that is allowed. The free spot check before every action is to represent sight,
sound, smell etc.. in a 360 degree arc from the unit. If you were to spend an action spotting this
would represent that the someone in the unit like the squad leader is actually concentrating on a
certain location.

As for sighting. Example: A US rifle squad is advancing through an open field toward a small
village. There are 2 German units that are hidden at different distances and behind different types
of cover. The US player rolls a d20 and consults the sighting chart. The distance in max. inches that
the unit can see is under that in inches in the non-firing unit in the open.

Now if the first German unit is camouflaged, prone in light woods and 16" away. Use the modifiers
to move the sighting distance to the left. Other words, if the unit is further away in inches than is
allowed do to the sighting chart then that unit cannot be spotted. But lets say that the next unit
that is camouflaged, in a stone building and is firing and 39 inches away, then you would consult the
chart that is - unit firing, using the same die roll result from before and the modifier for camouflage
you will then see them. This is because of the sound of gunfire and being able to see the gunflash.
(note: you do have to have clear line of sight to the firing unit.

Remember that you might only spot the enemy MG team and none of the riflemen of a squad if they
hadn't fired or were not in your LOS at the time of the spot check. So a successful spot may not
reveal the entire unit. The rules are kept vague on how much of an area one can spot, we normally
allow a team/unit to spot in a 45 degree from the spotter to the area being searched... but of course a
large open field in another thing. Oh by the way, anything that is AQ on the chart should be placed
on the table unless out of LOS, in other words no check is needed.

STEILGRANATE 41
On page 8 of Normandy Nightmare, there is a listing for the Steilgranate 41. Does anybody have the
penetration value for this? Also, what are the dims for the "rocket"?

ANSWER: The Armour Penetration is 39.

ARTILLERY CONTACT AND AVAILABILITY


We play with the following rolls for off-board artillery these rules are a mixture of our own House
Rules and rules from the Fury on the Fatherland expansion and from the Battle Builder FO
statistics.

"Divisional Support" (This is usually a large collection of towed large calibre weapons that are in a
some what of a fortified position in the rear i.e., US 155s, German 150s, etc..) Availability 8
"Mobile Support" (This is made up of SPG that are on the move and had faster deployment time
then the cumbersome towed weapons. They could move quickly to hot spot on the line and could
respond to fire missions more quickly. This would represent the US M7 Priest, German Wasp or
Hummel, etc..) Availability 12

"Company Support" (This would be the most accessible type of supporting fire for grunts on the
ground as these weapons were usually of small calibre but easily transported by the actual front-
line troops, i.e. the US 81mm Mortars, German 81mm, etc..) Availability 15

Now contact is represented by the type and power of radio/field phone technology that the front-line
troops have access to. Here are the rules we play by and are found in the Fury on the Fatherland
expansion set as well as some of our own hose rules to.

"Small-Sized Radio" (walkie-talkies, etc..) These are hand-held units and have a very limited range,
1 mile or so. On-Board: 10 Off-Board: None - Can't transmit that far!

NOTE: These radios can only contact radios of the same model and type. Ex. A walkie-talkie cannot
transmit to a Sherman that is on the table, unless the Tank Commander has his own unit as
personal equipment.

"Medium-Sized Radio" (Small Vehicle Radios or man portable via a back pack harness) These radios
have fair to good range of 1 to 10 miles. On-Board: 16 Off-Board: 12

"Large-Sized Radios or Field Phones" (Vehicle Mounted Radios Only & Field Phones) These radios
used generated power from a vehicle's batteries and give it a large range. Field Phones were laid
and were very common on the battlefields of WWII on all sides. On Board: 18 Off-Board: 16

NOTE: The Germans used a lot of AM-band radios which were not as good as FM- band in combat
conditions. So any AM-band radios will suffer with a +2 result to any On-Board transmissions and
+4 to any Off-Board.

TARGETTING INDIVIDUAL MINIATURES


The Infantry shooting rules make no mention of hits on a squad being randomised - they essentially
make it sound like you can target any model in firing range. However, in the sniper rules under
"Target Selection" it states that "generally hits are randomised amongst a squad and no firer can
pick to shoot a squad leader or other special squad member." (p.23) The point of the section is that
snipers are the exception to this rule.

Does this mean that if one of my (non sniper) miniatures attacks an enemy squad and measures
against a particular enemy soldier I must roll randomly to see who takes the hit in the squad? What
if the squad is split into multiple teams or widely spread out? Is this a game like Warhammer
wherein the "special" miniatures are always safe from enemy fire until they're the last one's
standing?

ANSWER: Snipers can pick specific targets as were other weapons or fire hitting a group will
randomise. This is ignored if say a point man is several inches forward of his squad then he I
suppose could be targeted alone or bypassed for his buddies. Its really up to you but we play were
only dedicated Snipers (not sharpshooters or troops with sights) and special Leaders are the only
ones able to specifically target a individual in a group.

When you roll the random hits the same soldier could even be hit more than once, in some cases you
see one guy take them all. Remember that most MGs have a band width to hit so a MG with A 4"
band may only hit models in that band. This might help with hitting squads that split or to single
out an enemy MG team.

HE BLASTS AND VEHICLE ANTENNAS


If you guys try to be realistic as possible, be sure to roll for damage on any vehicle antennas that
might be caught in a HE blast template. The loss of radio antennas will greatly reduce that enemy
radio traffic that could burn you later in the battle.

SATCHEL CHARGES VS VEHICLES


What is the penetration value for a satchel charge? And is it always an attack on the top armour or
is it side? Or does the attacker state?

ANSWER:

THROWING GRENADES FROM MOVING VEHICLES


What are the modifiers for throwing grenades from a moving vehicle? Would anyone even allow
grenades to be prepared and thrown from a moving vehicle?

ANSWER: Are the men in the carriers exposed? If they were ducked down to avoid enemy fire and
are throwing blind they would suffer a 1/2 penalty to hit. Any fire from a moving vehicle suffers a
1/2 penalty also. I don't see why throwing from a vehicle couldn't be done, but any deviation back
into the carriers would be quite horrific.

GAME AND MODEL SCALE


I have several people I play 25 and 28mm with and then another group who uses 10mm. I needed to
know the conversions. I made a spreadsheet which of course I can't find right now but this is what I
came up with as information:

10mm = 1/144 scale


15mm = 1/96 Scale
20mm = 1/72 Scale
25mm = 1/58 Scale
28mm = 1/51 Scale

Knowing this if you have the BGWW2 rules based on 28mm then a conversion to 15mm would be
0.53125 that of the 28mm scale measurement. You will quickly notice that this is not very practical
because you are measuring not 4 inches to move but 2 and 1/8th inches on your new scale. On 15mm
that isn't too bad but on 10mm it's a killer. To beat this I convert all inches then to centimetres and
round up. So your 4 inches on a 28mm scale convert to 2.125 inches on a 15mm scale or just 5 cm.

RALLYING
During the rally phase of the game, does a broken soldier who is within command range of a leader
get both chances to rally? i.e. leader rally and self rally as long as he is in cover. Or does he only get
one or the other. My group had always played in the past to give the broken soldier both chances.

ANSWER: Only one chance. If the leader is present (within range) that is the most preferable
because self-rally is 1/2 die roll. And if wounded too (-5 to the DR), then the chances for a rally drop
way down.

QUESTIONS ON Pinning Fire


Question 1: Pinning Fire/Raking fire is described as being a few feet off the ground. What happens if
you want to pin a top level of a house? Which Pinning Fire should you use?

ANSWER: We would play this as normal raking fire at the top level of the house, but only at the
front of the house (i.e. not from the gun all the way to the house, and not to much further to the
rear, as they are firing elevated at an angle).

Question 2: Does having had Pinning Fire on you last turn effect placement of special fire modes?

ANSWER: No.

Question 3: What happens if an MG42 puts Pinning Fire onto a group of infantry, and a separate
M1919 in turn puts Pinning Fire on the MG42? (My interpretation of this, was that the MG42 fired
a single die per action which occurred within it's Pinning Fire zone. This then creates a single die
roll for the M1919 for each single die the MG42 rolls. Is this correct?).

ANSWER: This is one of those oddities, and not covered by the gun duel rules (since by your
description they're not firing at each other). We would resolve the M1919s fire at the MG42 at the
end of the Place Special Fire modes phase. If the MG42 suffers no ill effects, it's raking fire is still
effective for the remainder of the turn, otherwise it lifts.
Question 4: Just to make things more complicated, what happens with a broken model in a Pinning
Fire zone. Does the MG42 get to fire as the broken man stands up (provided he is prone) and again
as he runs away? In this case, will it again trigger retaliatory fire from the M1919?

ANSWER: I would rule the broken model crawls away.

Question 5: Sniper's shots - Do they automatically count as aimed, or do they need to take an action
as normal?

ANSWER: According to the German Sniper sheet, if the Sniper Team is in the Ambush Special Fire
Mode and both the sniper and spotter are in good order, he gets a total -5 to hit (-3 sniper, -2 aimed
shot). Otherwise, he must expand an action to aim.

Question 6: A squad is prone in a building, receives incoming fire, and it results in suppression of
several models. Are these models considered to be now out of sight, and therefore not involved in
determining who receives any further effect results?

ANSWER: Yes. Your example assumes they were spotted previously to going prone, so they were
shot counting as "out of sight". However, they might be hit in subsequent turns by enemy shooting,
counting as "out of sight".

Question 7: What effect modifier do people play, for being in a ruined stone building. To me, the +7
is too high, especially for the top floor (which on my models are quite broken up) and therefore, I
took the +4 rubble mod. What does everyone else think?

ANSWER: Players discretion, but a ruined stone building sounds like rubble to me.

RIFLE GRENADES
In the German army, rifle grenades were numerous and very plentiful. The Kar series and Gew
series as well as the MP 44 (not the MP 43) were all able to fit the standard German rifle grenade
adapter and all fired the same wooden blank with the MP44 firing a smaller one of course. This
allowed the Germans to issue rifle grenades in large amounts as almost anyone with a rifle could
use them if they had an adapter. The Germans made several HE and AP rifle grenades. HEAT
rounds were also coming into their own in rifle grenade form next to their Panzerfaust cousins. The
old German anti-tank rifles used in the Polish and France campaigns were converted later in the
war to fire rifle grenades as they no longer were an effective anti-tank weapon. Most Sturmpistols
were issued to Pioneer, Sturm or other speciality troops but flare pistols were common to squad
leaders and command elements. All German vehicles were issued a flare gun with several flare and
whistle rounds.

The Easy Eight penetration value for rifle grenade is WAY to powerful!
The Americans I believe had a couple rifle grenades per squad al least but I have not read any
official War Department materials on this.

The Soviets did not produce a rifle grenade arsenal as far as I know.

In game turns, it takes the grenadier 1 action to affix the adapter and 1 action to load and brace the
weapon. It is assumed that during the loading action that the grenadier is also loading another
wooden bullet into the rifle as well as the rifle grenade. Once the adapter is fitted it will only take
an action to load it and then an action to fire it.

HMG ON SPW251
In panzergrenadier units, the SdKfz 251/1 was also designated to transport the Company's HMG
sections. The only alteration to this vehicle was the LMG's gun shield was removed. The HMG was
able to set and fire from the vehicle in its HMG mode to the vehicles front. I have seen numerous
photos and read several book on this practice with panzergrenadier units. Once set on its tripod it
cleared the hull just above the crew compartment. This gave the HMG section more protection from
small arms fire as they were completely covered and only the HMG was exposed. I have seen them
fire it via their tripod sight as well and using a spotter from within the crew compartment via a
scissor periscope. The official statistics for this is as follows:

SdKfz 251/1 mittlere Schutzenpanzerwagen


Weight: 9 tons
Crew: 11
Weapons: x2 LMGs, x1 HMG
Ammo: 2010 rds for HMG version

SNIPERS AND MORALE


How do you treat snipers and their morale checks? Is a lone sniper working without a spotter
treated as a Team of One when he is operating out of the command range of a squad? If so would he
suffer the normal penalty of making morale checks at 1/2 his normal morale rating? As far as I can
see the rules state that snipers work in teams of two and do not allow for solo snipers. This example
would assume that the spotter has been removed from play for some reason. I can't help feeling that
trained snipers would be able to cope better than normal troops when operating on their own. I keep
reading the rules and the sniper team sheets but I'm still uncertain on this point.

ANSWER: I don't think the penalty is all that excessive under the circumstances. The spotter's job
is both to acquire targets and also to observe the overall situation - to watch the sniper's back.
Without a spotter, the sniper can't optimally focus on his job, and anything that gets his attention is
more likely to encourage him to bug out and attempt to redeploy. Remember also that a sniper who
has to make a morale check due to direct fire in the first place has presumably lost the element of
surprise/the benefits of concealment, and would likely be well-advised to withdraw.

Certainly special circumstances might justify not imposing the penalty on a solo sniper: e.g.,
fanatical Japanese or Hitler Youth "suicide boy" snipers, or a particularly steel-nerved individual
"hero", but I
think the rule still makes sense as a standard.

The way we've done it is that a sniper out of command range still has to make all the regular morale
checks, but just at his regular morale (which we usually boost up to about 12-14 or so, depending on
the scenario, just to represent his better conditioning/training)

However, when he does fail the morale check, this doesn't mean he's dropping his weapon, turning
around and screaming frantically for his mother until he hits a cover of +3 or greater. It wasn't very
common of a sniper to do this, they were too well trained. However, it was in their training to know
when enough was enough, so to speak, and when to pull back and redeploy. Even without a spotter,
a sniper had a better idea of the battlefield than most regular infantry.

To show this, when the sniper fails a morale check, we pretty much allow the player free range as to
where he wants his sniper to fall back to, covered or not.

ANOTHER TAKE: We allow a sniper to act as "team of one" until wounded. Then they suffer the
effects of self-morale recovery (1/2 morale value plus -5 DR). This reflects the reality that the sniper
cannot effectively do his (or her for the Russians) mission and would try to slip away to safety. We
suspect the "fight-to-the-death-while-wounded" was a rarity and should not be a wargame table
norm.

SOVIET 85MM GUN


I was wondering if anyone could make sense of the Soviet HE rules for the 85mm gun. Says
something like treat as 60mm mortar, use large blast due to special rounds that were very effective.
So whats the 60mm mortar part about?

ANSWER: You would use the information for the 60mm i.e.; range, crew, set-up etc. for the gun but
use the larger template for effects.

STEILGRANATE STATISTICS
It can penetrate f/s/r of ALL allied armour (British, Russian and American).

No HE factor... it was a shaped charge which could be used against bunkers and such (we use 75mm
effect less 25% as a rule of thumb in most rules I play).
The round is fairly unstable in flight so we generally us 150meters as effective although it actually
can go much farther.

Generally we use it as an ambush weapon for first fire. Reloading one to the front of the barrel is a
time consuming, not to say risky to the crewman loading it probably under fire, so we seldom use it
for more than 1 shot initially (most German accounts of its use agree that this was the normal
practice).

MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS

Katyusha
M8 M13 M13DD M20 M28 M30 M31
Calibre (mm) 82 132 132 132 280 300 300
Bursting charge (kg) 0.5 4.9 4.9 18.4 60.0 28.9 28.9
Maximum range (km) 5.9 8.47 11.8 5.05 1.95 2.8 4.3

Nebelwerfer
150mm rocket HE 7330 yds. Smoke 7550yds.
210mm rocket HE 8600 yds. (28 pound bursting charge)
280mm rocket HE 2100 yds. (110 pound TNT bursting charge)
320mm Incendiary rocket 2400 yds. (11 gallons oil)
300mm rocket HE 5000 yds. (100 pound Amotol bursting charge)

RIFLE GRENADES VS VEHICLES


Any idea how you deal with rifle grenades Vs vehicles? I don't think you use the grenade placement
charts.

ANSWER: There is a Rifle Grenade Table giving you the chance to shoot RG at targets on the
Effects Chart at the bottom in the middle, plus modifiers for using a RG, plus if you hit you use the
hit location charts - top attack if from above or range band 6-12 and front-side-rear if at range band
0-6. You cant use a RG at 0 since it wont arm but I think this is for when you stick it into an open
or broken window and shoot. RG fire: HE, HEAT, Smoke (WP for US 44 - on). The HEAT round
explodes so there is an anti-personnel effect as well. I would recommend Grenade Effects Tables A
and C but drop E as the shrapnel effect is reduced. It takes an action to load the rifle grenade. You
can fire the rifle with the GL on it without a grenade, but it operates as a BA rather then a SA rifle
(single shot, manually pull the bolt to eject the cartridge - the GL screws into the gas regulator on
the M-1). GL can be used on any US rifle and the M1 Carbine. The hit location on the vehicle table
is a House Rule. I think the standard rules use the normal table unless firing from above.

BUILDINGS ARMOUR VALUE


Does anyone give an armor value to buildings? Per the rules, you hit a building with an HE or AP
round it automatically punches through and causes a blast inside.

ANSWER:

DISMOUNTING HOUSE RULE


I have made a house rule on dismounting: you must move at least 1 action at normal speed (x1)
before you can dismount. We had some motorcycles moving down a paved road at x3 for 45" and
then wanting to dismount. I disbelieved and made them move one normal move first. It seemed
more reasonable for the time scale. Going from 50 to jump out speed would take sometime. I have
decided to make it a standard rule for all dismounts. So its only an issue here road movement is
involved.

SPOTTING MODIFIERS FOR CAMOUFLAGE


How exactly are the sighting modifiers for hasty, concealed and constructed camouflage supposed to
be used? For example, if a model is in a building would that model considered to be given the
constructed camouflage modifier when trying to sight it?

ANSWER: If in a terrain feature, this is how the sighting modifiers work. Hasty: your model moves
into a position of cover. Concealed: your model started out in a position of cover. Constructed: your
model has been camped out here for some time with lots of time to prepare his position for
maximum concealment.

Use HASTY factor but treat the unit you are trying to spot as in concealment when it has just
moved into the cover/concealing terrain. Use Concealed factor and treat the unit you are trying to
spot as concealed. Use Constructed factor for a unit that is concealed and has had time to
camouflage the position.

The Concealed Terrain and In the Open are the difference in being in or out of concealment.
Cover = Concealment, but Concealment does not necessarily mean Cover.

So if a model that action is moving into a structure, then they would be considered in Hasty
Camouflage? But if they started the action in the building, they would be in concealed camouflage?
Is that correct?

If they start the turn there, not the action. That is the difference in this example. Sorry for the
confusion.

QUESTION: Can a prone soldier throw a grenade? If so, what modifiers for the to hit/ range should
there be?
We always count this as taking an action. This means that if they are under a special fire, they
will take a to hit roll. Otherwise, we use no modifier. What I might suggest is allowing the model to
retain its prone modifier, but have it take two actions to throw the grenade.

In addition, you may allow to throw a grenade while prone up to 2 away (use the same modifiers as
when standing).

QUESTION: May tank commanders act as artillery spotters?


A tank commander may not spot for onboard or off-board artillery unless the tank is a command
tank. This is a yes and no answer question. In relation with German troops:
1. Battalion command tanks, most likely yes since any artillery supporting the Tiger battalion (or
any panzer battalion in a panzer or panzergrenadier division) would be listening in on the
Command frequency.
2. Tiger battalions have no artillery in support, just a recon platoon, AA platoon, and recovery units
and supply units.
3. Panzer and Panzergrenadier tank battalions (the latter often SGIII) could have artillery support
from either the PzGrenadier Regiment - SP 150 battery of 6 guns, the Heavy Weapon Company if a
Recon BN is supporting them, or the division's guns. Most had three artillery battalions with one
usually attached to one of the battlegroups. Since only one infantry battalion had APC it and the
one SP artillery battalion would support the tank Regiment. That battalion had 6 150mm SP and
12 105mm SP. See the Portland website for my test rules for mass artillery fire (by battery instead
of gun).
4. Company commander may have a FO from a supporting artillery unit in his tank, with his own
radio, who could call in fire support and direct it.
5. Company commander in most cases would have an overlay for his map showing the registered
artillery fire points and a box map grid. He can call to battalion for artillery support to be fired on
either the registration point 101 requests HE registration point 145, dug-in infantry, over or on a
grid. 101 requests smoke concentration on grid 148990, over. This has to go to battalion and then
to the guns so it may take some time.
6. A platoon leader could inform the Company Commander of an artillery target and then the
request would go up from him to the artillery support.
7. If SP IG are with the Company or Battalion, the tank commander would likely run over to the SP
command vehicle with his map and request a shoot there directly from the support commander.

One reason the Germans had so many infantry guns, mortars, and SP guns like the Grille at
Regimental and Battalion levels was so they would have the guns now. The U.S. Army on the other
hand, had a computer and it was used to do Naval firing tables and Artillery firing tables. Give a
US Army artillery command post, your location, the direction (compass) of the target and its
estimated location, and the tables would give the US fire direction centre the elevation and azimuth
to fire. Shortly thereafter several battalions under that fire direction centre would start shooting.
Not quite as fast but quite deadly.
As house rules:
1. All targets must be pre-registered if Germans. Russians may NOT use onboard or off-board
artillery fires. Russian On-board SP fire direct only.
2. US players add one turn for every turn up the chain of command the request has to go. The judge
may make the FO an on table vehicle, or a Company support or a Battalion support unit. If the on-
table FO can see the target and his card comes up, he may request artillery support without
receiving the request through the chain (i.e. no added turns before fire because he is directly linked
to the battery). If not on the table or on the table and FO can't see target, then:

Unit Requesting FO at Coy FO at BN


Squad Ldr or TC 4 turns delay 6 turns delay.
Plt Ldr or Plt TC 3 turns delay 4 turns delay.
Coy CO 2 turns delay 3 turns delay.
BN CO 3 turns delay 2 turns delay.

All artillery fire subtracts 1 turn from the above if using pre-registered fire.
Pre-registered fire falls on the target point (see BG rules)except the German fire which has to be
rolled for to determine where it lands.
Japanese add one turn to the above.
All sides subtract one turn if using wire instead of radio to request fire (miniumn number of turns is
1).

If British the FOO may request up to the maximum number of guns available to fire and if
successfully rolling to obtain the fire, may use the requested number of guns for fire for effect.
If US or German or Japanese and the FO successfully rolls for artillery then roll a D6. 1-2 no more
then 4 guns, 3-4 no more than 8 guns, 5-6 Up to 18 guns. Subtract 2 if German (1 in 1941). Subtract
2 if Japanese and reduce the # of guns by 2. Adjusted Rolls under 1 equal 1.

A German TC should be able to spot, but only has his own battalion net on his radio, so he's
probably only going to have access to 81mm mortars and 75mm IGs. If he wants anything else, it
beter not be a moving target, because it's going to be awhile arriving.

The number of turns delay is taken BEFORE rolling to get the artillery support.
1. FO on table (and can't see the target - must still be assigned as a Coy or BN support and it takes
the same number of turns delay.)
2. Coy support can be up to six guns. BN support can be up to 18 guns, although 4-8-12 was more
common for US/Can/British/Commonwealth units. Normally the SP guns were in batteries of six,
towed guns batteries of 4 guns, with both having 3 batteries in the battalion. British had two sub-
batteries of 4 guns (total 8) in three batteries (total 24). These would, though, be 25 pdr (88mm).
Most other support weapons were 105mm (Japanese 75mm).
3. German support is normally one battery of 3-6 guns from Coy down, and no more then 12 guns at
BN. German FO are BN FO. They have no Company FO for support batteries BUT may have for
infantry guns and mortars.

Most artillery support in the time frame of our games is either direct fire over open sights (the
Soviet way), direct support from the company weapons with maybe some battalion mortars joining
in, or pre-planned fire. The U.S. and British could pre-plan their fire with some accuracy. The
Germans usually used a map grid as the target for units on the move, and which needed either
suppressive fire or smoke. It was fast but not accurate.

Pre-registered fire on map targets used either on a pre-game basis or available by radio request or
wire (if on defense) can be used. Russian pre-registered fire always misses like the German mobile
support fire, but German pre-registered fire in support of infantry will be on target as will British
and US weapons. (usually mortars or one big barrage of 105mm/25 pdr/88mm).

For the massive Soviet barrages I have just told the German player to roll a D6 for each of his
squads/teams and take those models off as casualties. Unless in shell-proof bunkers the Soviet fire
would chew them up pretty good. Happens when you line up hundreds of guns wheel to wheel. Roll
for casualties. Roll for morale. (optional: roll to see when the troops recover - good for strategic
bombing victims as well). Then the Soviet attack comes in.

So a tank commander can call for fire. He just isn't going to get it for a while.

HOUSE RULE: Mantaining Aim while Re-loading


A home rule allowing to aim while loading is based on practical experience. With the gunner laying
on the target, the closing of the breech after the round is loaded only moves the aiming point 1-2
mils, which only take 1/2 second to adjust and fire - well within a 2 second action phase. That is not
the same as aiming while moving in WWII era non-stabilized tanks, where the sight alignment is
moving all over the place. Hence, we play aiming while loading for stationary ATGs and AFVs, but
not for aiming and moving.

HOUSE RULE: Heroes and Craven Cowards


On page 3 of the Infantry rules regarding Morale Checks it states that Heroes and Craven Cowards
are only created on "an initial Morale Check, not a Rally, and the Morale Check must be the direct
result of enemy fire." Some of us are confused by the phrase "initial Morale Check". Does this mean
that a model can only become a Hero or a Craven Coward on its first morale check from enemy fire?
In other words, if it does not become a Hero or CC on its first check, but rolls an unmodified 1 or 20
on a subsequent check from enemy fire, it does not become a hero or CC?

A model can go Hero or Coward on any Morale Check. A model can go Hero, Craven Coward, or
Broken from any Morale Check. A Morale Check is always the direct result of enemy fire, including
those MC's caused by a nearby Gory Death or the loss of a Squad Leader. A Rally, Gut, or Skill
Check will never cause a Hero, Coward, or Broken. The use of the phrases "initial Morale Check",
and "direct result of enemy fire" are holdovers from an early versions of the Morale rules, before the
rules for Rally, Skill Check, and Gut Check where fully developed. In early versions all of these
rules were collectively called Morale Checks.

ORDNANCE FIRE AGAINST INFANTRY


What target size is used to shoot at infantry with a tank gun or artillery piece using an HE or
HEAT round?

There is no modifier for firing at infantry. When firing direct fire with HE or HEAT at infantry the
gunner is really trying to hit the ground near them. All shooter based modifiers, such as vehicle
movement or crew quality apply as normal. Gunners trying to hit a window or similar small object
receive a +3 To Hit.

SOLID SHOT PROJECTILES


Should weapons like the British 2-pounder whose AP round was solid shot without any explosive
charge at the base be given the +3 modifier to Penetration Effect that weapons under 37mm get?

This question raises the issue of shot vs shell in AP rounds. An AP shell is a solid penetrator with
an explosive filler that would theoretically explode after penetration. An AP shot is a solid
penetrator with no filler. In theory a shell was more effective. In reality an AP shell exploded before
penetrating as often as it exploded after. When an AP shell exploded after penetration it was often
more effective. But for most gaming purposes no distinction is made between the two types of
rounds. Players who are gung ho to represent the difference between a shot and a shell can use the
following rules, or develop their own. In play-testing we found these rules bogged down play:

a. Any AP shell has a +1 on any roll To Penetrate, this represents the chance of the shell exploding
prematurely.

b. Any AP shell receives a -1 on the Penetration Effect.

Regardless, the British 2-pounder is a 40mm weapon and suffers no additional penalties.

PENETRATION EFFECTS ROLLS


Are penetration and penetration effects always rolled for? In other words, if I can see from the chart
that it is a straight suspension hit, do I still roll for effect beyond the vehicle being immobilised?
Yes, always roll for Penetration and Penetration Effect unless the location is covered by terrain.
Each location covers a certain area, slightly larger then the numbered square. And it is very hard to
determine if the round will be defected into the vehicle, ricochette off, or bore straight through. All
of these possibilities are covered with the rolls to Penetrate and for Penetration Effect.
FLAMETHROWERS VS AFVs
Do flame weapons (flammenwerfers and molotovs) used on a vehicle cause the engine to die out? I
know that flame-throwers were developed in WWI to knock out bunkers by asphyxiating the
occupants (as the flames would consume all the Oxygen). Is it possible to knock out a tanks air-
breathing engine the same way? would a fire on the engine deck kill the motor (and consequently
the power) for the tank?
Excellent point. For general purposes the rules for flame-thrower attack Vs a vehicle remain as
printed. You are encouraged to develop your own house rules to cover this phenomenon or any other
situation you can imagine. This is one of those places where we felt we had to chose in favour of
quick rules over detailed effect. But the effect you describe can be included in your games if you
want to develop your own rules. This same answer applies to a myriad of effects that the rules cover
simply

LOW GROUND PRESSURE AFVs


T-34s are not effected by snow or mud? Only the T-34/85 specifically mentions immunity to snow
and mud effects.
Any vehicle which is listed as "Low Ground Pressure" suffers reduced effect from mud and snow.
The T-34 M1941 is in this category. The T-34 M9141 does not specifically list this reduced effect
because it was completed before the rules for snow and mud were written.

CREW REPLACEMENT
When a loader or driver in a tank is killed, can another member of the tank crew replace him? If
yes, how many actions does it take to replace a killed crewman (e.g. the radio operator replacing the
loader)?
It takes one action for a crew member to dismount, one action to remove the casualty, and one
action to re-enter. If the casualty crew member is so far gone that there is nothing to remove (at GM
or group consensus) then the replacement crew member must pass a half morale check to enter the
seat. Failure will indicate the dismounted crew member is Broken.

HALF SQUADS
When we play we generally have our ten man squads break up into two sub units, one led by the
squad leader and the other led by the assistant squad leader. The two half squads tend to operate
relatively independently. Are assistant squad leaders Leaders as described on page 4 of the
infantry rules?
We do the same thing when we play. Yes, we generally assign them a Leadership bonus one point
less then the Squad leader. A +0 will indicate the model has all leadership abilities but can apply no
modifiers.

HALF SQUAD MORALE


When split, do the half squads still check squad morale by including the damage to the whole
squad, or do they in effect become two mini-squads for morale purposes?
If the two teams are still within LOS and command range then check Squad Morale for the whole
squad. If the two half squads are out of LOS or Command Range, then check Squad Morale for each
team individually.

TEAM WEAPONS FIRING WHILE PRONE


If an HMG crew is behind a wall, and the assistant gunner and spotter are prone, can the HMG still
fire? It would seem to me that both the gunner and the spotter would need to be able to see over the
wall to shoot, and the assistant gunner/loader could remain prone (and unable to see the target),
but we are unclear on this.
I don't see a problem with a prone loader, but then do not include the loader when randomising hits.
The spotter must be able to see if using any special fire mode Pinning Fire (any type) OpFire, or
Ambush. If both the spotter and the loader are prone behind cover then only the gunner can be
effected by any incoming fire.

LEADER EFFECTS
Can squad leaders lend the "Leader" benefits to models that are from a different squad?
Yes.

ARMOR LEADERS
A rule we have altered is the tank leader rule. We have decided that every vehicle commander is a
tank leader and not just a platoon commander as it states in the rulebook. This is a more realistic
modification as it shows the tank commander (TC) has worked his way through the tank positions,
gaining the knowledge and skills to assist the other vehicle crew, and is in short a squad leader. So
the TC will be considered to have the Leadership and modifier of a leader of their troop quality.
Makes for a bit more consistency with the rules, but this only applies to dedicated TCs, not just
crewmen of a vehicle.

TRACING LOS THRU RUBBLE


Does rubble block line of sight if the firer and the target are not in it themselves, but the LOS
passes through rubble? If not, does the target get the +4 modifier for effects of the fire?
This depends on the rubble. If the terrain on the table appears to block LOS then yes, otherwise no.
Discuss this with everyone before beginning play. If the rubble is too low to block LOS models not in
the rubble receive no cover Vs fire crossing the rubble.

GRABBING OTHER TROOPERS WEAPONS OR EQUIPMENT


Can the assistant gunner, or another member of the squad, seize the LMG from a broken squad
gunner?
Generally no. But if the GM rules such activities are possible and make sense go for it. Some sort of
roll, be it Hand to Hand attack or a Skill Check of some kind would be required.
AT WEAPONS FIRE INSIDE BUILDINGS
Can a bazooka, panzerfaust and/or a panzerschrek be fired in an enclosed building or pillbox? If yes,
is there any penalty?
No. All of the infantry carried AT rockets in WWII created a significant back-blast that made firing
from an enclosed area VERY dangerous. Players wishing to ignore this fact are referred to the rules
governing grenades landing in a foxhole. The British PIAT (see Red Devils in the Night) is the
exception to this rule. The PIAT used a much less violent charge to propel its warhead.

AFV HIT LOCATION CHARTS


The primary use for these sheets is to determine hit location, in particular whether a given location
is covered by terrain and therefore a miss. FOR THIS PURPOSE THE CHARTS ARE GENERIC
AND MAY BE USED FOR ANY VEHICLE. The Non-Penetrating and Penetrating effects are also
90 - 95% generic. These may also be used for any vehicle for whom a specific chart is not available.
The Hit Location sheets also include special rules and effects for the specific tank covered. When
using a vehicle covered by its own sheet, these specific locations and rules will increase realism and
excitement. Tankers Challenge includes more charts, and more are available on the www.

AUTOMATIC ARMOR PENETRATION


A rule we have changed is the 1 result of automatic penetration on location rolls. I have read just
one account were this happened and I read a lot of armor warfare books and memories, and to have
this be a 1 in 20 chance of happening is crazy. We changed it to that if a 1 is rolled we re-roll the
location and that locations armor is halved.

VEHICLE ACTIONS
Page 4 of Armored Combat is unclear. It states both that each crew member receives two actions
each turn and that each vehicle receives two actions each turn. The former is correct. Each crew
member receives two actions each turn. However, the actions of one member can ruin the action of
another. For example, the gunner firing will disallow the loader loading in the same action. The
driver moving the vehicle will disrupt the aim of the gunner. So you could, as one gamer asked,
move in reverse, fire vehicle smoke dischargers, and fire the main gun all in one action. The main
gun will suffer a Firing on the Move penalty, but the smoke will not effect the shot.

GRENADE TYPES
Red Devils includes rules for several different grenades, where do I find a listing of grenade types in
the main rules?
The Red Devils scenario pack includes special rules for the grenades carried by the British Paras
on D-Day. One of these, the Mills grenade, is listed as a standard grenade. There is only one type
of grenade listed in the main rules, all three countries had access to a grenade we would call a
"standard grenade". We could not include specific grenade types for the US, USSR, and Germany
because of space limitations. The specific grenade types of each nation will be covered in later
expansions.

AP EFFECTS ON ORDNANCE
What is the effect of an AP round on an AT gun or other artillery piece?
For game purposes it is not possible to harm an artillery piece with an AP round. The chances of
striking the barrel, gun mechanisms, or suspension directly are too slim to be considered on a d20.
Full rules for attacking an artillery piece with a HE or HEAT round are included in the HE update
in the rules section of this website.

SMALL ARMS FIRE AGAINST MOVING INFANTRY TARGETS


One of my friends insists that there should be a To Hit penalty for firing at a moving target with
small arms. I disagree, believing that all stationary targets to be in a low crouch while moving
(running) targets would be closer to standing up straight and therefore the chance of hitting is the
same. Add to that more things to keep track of with markers. Who is right?

ANSWER: Youre both right. We decided against a penalty for the very reasons you have raised. But
your friend has a totally valid view of the situation as well. This is a conversation we held many
times around the play-test table. In the end we left out the modifier because we could justify it and
the modifier led to too much record keeping.

TURRET ROTATION SPEED


On page 7 of Armoured Combat it states that a slow turret can only fire in the same action if it
rotates 45 or less and Normal turret rotates 90 degrees or less. On page 10 (turret moved) it says to
use the outer ring for slower turrets. This indicates the turret could rotate 180 degrees and fire in
the same action. Which is correct?
Page 7 is correct. In the Armour Update, available under the rules section of our web-site, we
explain that the Turret Moved modifier should be ignored, as should the Chart on the Gun To Hit
table.

LEADER MODIFIER ON LOCATION TABLE ROLLS


May a vehicle commander with a Leadership bonus shift locations so as to hit the gun barrel?
Yes, if the commander is spending his action to direct fire, and has specified that he is using his
bonus to effect location and not To Hit. See Armoured Combat pages 10 and 12, under Leadership
Modifier. Assuming that the commander is
following all the rules listed he can chose to shift a location to the Main gun, generally location 18
from the front and 16 from the side.

TROOPS AS LOS OBSTACLES


Do vehicles, guns, and men block line of sight and fire?
For guns and vehicles if the model on the table blocks LOS then yes. Infantry models will not
generally block LOS.

GUN SHIELDS
When firing HE an AT gun, does the crew benefit from the gun shield (+5)? If the shot misses and
goes long do they still benefit from the gun shield?
If the gun shield is between the centre of the explosion and the crew the crew receives the +5 bonus.
If the gun shield is not between the centre of the explosion and the crew then the crew does not
receive the +5 bonus.

MG AND PMG FIELD OF FIRE


Is there any restriction for the fields of fire for LMGs and PMGs?
Good question. Typically for effective fire, no. LMGs do have to be set up though, so in certain
circumstances further actions need to be taken if the field of fire were to be changed (Infantry page
12). A good example would be a person bracing a LMG in a window sill firing outside a house. If
someone approached to the rear of him, he would have to turn around (and spend an action going
prone). He could not simply state he is now firing behind him because there is nothing to support
the LMG (he could jump out the window and use the sill again to fire, but that would still take an
action).

A good rule of thumb is to allow about 180 degree arc where a unit does not have to expend an
action to move and change fire arcs. Anything more than that and the player will have to use an
action, thus having only one action of effective fire.

A PMG ignores this restriction.

SIGHTING CLARIFICATIONS
At the beginning of each units turn it is allowed a spot check before an action is performed by that
unit. One die roll is all that is allowed. The free spot check before every action is to represent sight,
sound, smell etc. in a 360 degree arc from the unit. If you were to spend an action spotting this
would represent that the someone in the unit like the squad leader is actually concentrating on a
certain location.

Sighting example: A US rifle squad is advancing through an open field toward a small village. There
are 2 german units that are hidden at different distances and behind different types of cover. The
US player rolls 1 d20 and consults the sighting chart. The maximum distance in inches that the
unit can see is under that in inches in the non-firing unit in the open. The first german unit is
camouflaged, prone in light woods and 16 away. Use the modifiers to move the sigthing distance to
the left. In other words, if the unit is further away in inches than is allowed do to the sighting chart
then that unit cannot be spotted. The next German unit is camouflaged, in a stone building, firing
and 39 away. Consulting the chart using the same die roll result from before and the modifier for
camoflauge you will then see them. This is because of the sound of gunfire and being able to see the
gunflashes (note: you do have to have clear line of sight to the firing unit.

Also, remember that you might only spot the enemy MG team and none of the riflemen of a squad if
they hadn't fired or were not in your LOS at the time of the spot check. So a successful spot may not
reveal the entire unit. The rules are kept vague on how much of an area one can spot, we normally
allow a team/unit to spot in a 45 degree from the spotter to the area being searched... but of course a
large open field in another thing. Oh by the way, anything that is AQ on the
chart should be placed on the table unless out of LOS, in other words no check is needed.

ARMOR THICKNESS CORRECTIONS


Front hull armor for a Panther should be 80mm at 55 degrees. A Sherman front hull is 45mm at 60
degrees or 52mm at 47 degrees (later is late hull which is smooth). Sherman side armor is 50mm at
zero degrees. Zero degrees is a straight on hit. 60 degrees means it is 60 degrees from horizontal or
30 degrees from vertical.

This may help you model the formula out. Note that some of the armor factors in the rules are
wrong. This includes the SGIII/G frontal armor and the Elefant/Ferdinand frontal armor. Also, the
King Tiger side turret armor is 9 not 19.

ORDNANCE AS TARGET
I cant seem to find the rules concerning how you resolve attacks against AT guns. For example,
what happens when a Sherman shoots at a PaK 40 or when an infantry man throws a grenade at a
gun? How do you determine if the gun is hit, damaged, destroyed, etc?

ANSWER: Place the appropriate blast template down and note which ring the breach of the gun is
under. Roll on that column as usual modified by HE explosive power. A HW or KIA puts the gun out
of action. Note that if the center of the explosion is in front of the gun shield the roll is at +5. I don't
recall rules for AP shots but in the past we have treated it
like a very small target (a PaK 40 anyway) and once again the damage roll must be HW or KIA.

QUESTION: Can a tank commander direct fire when buttoned up?


After applying the appropriate modifiers, yes he can.

TURRET COAXIAL MACHINEGUNS


Does a tank gunner suffer any modifiers when shooting the main gun if he fired the turret MG the
action before while it was being loaded?

ANSWER: Every crewman in the tank has two actions. Its important to keep in mind how many
crew are operating in the turret, which normally is either two or three men. In a two man turret the
gunner is also the tank commander, so he will be using one of his actions looking for targets as well
as aiming and firing the main gun and Coax MG. There are modifiers covering two man turrets, as
well as whether the tank is buttoned or unbuttoned.

If the targets of both the coax and the main gun are on the same line of sight, then the shots count
as aimed. Because the gunner used his first action to lay the gun(s) on target. If the target of the
MG and main gun are along different lines of sight, then the shots do not count as aimed.

Im not aware of any tanks in which the loader fires the coaxial MG; the gunner is the one that fires
the coax. The coax is fixed to the main guns elevation, and traverses with it, otherwise it wouldnt
be co-axial. Generally, with only a few early-war differences, coaxial guns were inevitably fired by
solenoid, and the gunners periscope included a graticule for aiming the coax. The only tanks in
which the loader had a specific MG position that comes to mind are the various Russian tanks with
rear-turret MGs. Really, the loader's the busiest guy in the tank in combat, because it's not enough
that he has the gun loaded, he also has to get out of the way of the recoiling gun and get the NEXT
round ready, and possibly change fusing on the round if the commander calls for CP or slow fuse.
Oh, and as an aside, the loader would be rather unlikely to hit anything while firing the coax, as in
the majority of designs, he has no vision blocks at all. That is my understanding of a coax. I suspect
the loader would have to clear jams though.

I dont know about modern tanks, but in the WWII tanks, the coax machinegun is rigidly mounted
to the same frontal plate that the main gun is. If the coax machinegun is to be fired by the loader,
that would mean the tank would require two sets of main gun controls, effectively. It would also
mean that the gunner could not aim the main gun when the coax machinegun is being used, as the
loader is busy slewing the turret around. The position of the coax machinegun on the loader's side
does not mean the loader is in charge of that machinegun. Since he's in charge of loading weapons...
that means he is in charge of loading the MG as well.

So when the main gunner fires the coax MG the action before firing the main gun I would think that
you cannot give the gunner an acquired target modifier figuring he has shifted his eyes to another
target.

The tank gunner may fire the main gun after firing the turret MG with no modifiers. Just
remember that laying the turret onto a target may take an action for larger, slower targets, and
depending on how far the turret has to rotate (which is also part of the gunners action of fire).

The gunner fires the Coax, and the loader loads it. It is normally electrically fired, as is the main
gun. There is a switch for the gunner to select ammunition type and coax on current tanks. WW2
tanks would have only the main gun or coax option (no ballistic computer which needs to know the
ammo type selected) and the gunner would use the appropriate ammo type when setting the range
on his gun sight. (see PANZER ELITE site, good article on how to use the U.S. and German tank
sights). One other choice on the gun sight is the coax.
BGWW2 treats the coax and hull machineguns as LMGs with a restricted range. This is correct in
my opinion for the hull machinegun or any other machinegun other then the coax machinegun or a
LCMG AA mount (KV1 and IS-2 rear turret LMG for example).

The coax machinegun was very accurate because you had the use of the main guns sight to aim,
and especially on German tanks, good optics with magnification. Even on other tanks you still had
the sight. Setting the range, usually estimated by the TC, on the gun sight using the machinegun
scale and setting the gun switch to fire the coax machinegun (some tanks had, I think, a foot control
for firing the weapons) allowed a gunner (stationary) to accurately fire out to the maximum effective
range of the machinegun. I would treat the coax as a MMG limited to that weapons effective range.
As for no loader and limited ammo, a tank normally had in WW2 several thousand rounds of
machinegun ammunition in it, and the loader was in a position to fix jams and reload. When moving
the machinegun wasnt any more accurate then the main gun, so it would get the moving vehicle
penalty of 1/2 chance to hit (from the infantry weapon's table).

RELATED TURRET CREW ACTIONS


The gunner cannot aim the main gun nor fire it while using the coax machinegun in a single action.
This is because he cannot fire both at the same time, nor aim since the range markers are different
for the machinegun and for the cannon in the gunners sight. The loader cannot unjam a coax
machinegun in the same action he is loading the main gun.

A tank can:
1. Have the hull MG fire in each action.
2. Have the gunner fire the main gun at a target in the first action and in the second action while
the loader reloads the main gun engage an infantry or soft target with the coax machinegun. The
commander can direct both the main gun fire and the machinegun fire OR
2. Have the gunner engage a target with the coax machinegun in the first action while the loader
reloads the main gun, then fire the main gun in the second action. The Commander can direct the
fire during both actions.

Note that the turret movement limitations apply in both actions, but you can turn the turret and
fire the coax machinegun at the same time, find your hard target, and on the next action let loose
with a main gun round.

If aiming either the coax or the main gun in an action, neither can be fired.

By the way, does anyone know what kind of machinegun ammunition was used in U.S. and Soviet
tanks? I ask because in one of the Thomas Jentz books on the war in the desert he meantions that
one great German advantage was that the British tank machineguns had lead bullets and the
German tank machineguns used armor piercing bullets. The difference here is that the German
anti-tank gun shields, usually designed as spaced armor (look at Pak38 and Pak 40 shields), would
stop the regular machinegun bullets, but the armor piercing rounds from the German machineguns
would penetrate the British single piece gun shields on their 2 pdr, 25 pdr, and 6 pdr guns. This
meant the Germans could open fire at 500 meters and effectively take out the British ATG with
machineguns, or at longer ranges with HE. The British machineguns were largely ineffective to a
German gun crew behind their gun shield and the British 2 pdr and 6 pdr didn't have HE. Don't
forget at one period of time the British used the coax as a ranging machine gun. So it had to be able
to get down range more than just a LMG.

MORE ON THE COAX


I think I should make a point here regarding hull MGs. US hull MGs had a distinct disadvantage
over those of other countries - the gunner had no sight. The only way for him to aim was by
observing the fall of the shots or using tracer. This is also true for the rear MGs on Russian tanks,
only more so because vision is via only a simple slot.

To further the info on tank coaxial MGs. I know that modern coax's are controlled by the gunner.
The old American M60 tank used the coax as a ranging machine gun in which the coax was fired to
estimate distance to the target. Crews were trained to know the burn out distance of thier tracers.
The MG was fired at the target and data for firing the main gun was aquired by watching for how
long it took for the tracers to burn out before/after they reached the target. Since many modern
American tank tactics were adopted from the Germans after WWII, I would assume (always a
dangerous thing to do) that this was a German concept.

I am not sure of that. For example, a foot pedal on a Tiger I moved the turret. Also, the main
question is range and the sight. If firing a tank shell at a target from point blank range out to about
500m (or less) then it may be possible to hit a target with a shell and machinegun fire at the same
time. At longer ranges the difference in trajectories of the machinegun round and the tank round
will make one or the other miss.

Having been a tanker (albeit on M1A1s) I modeld I could weigh in on this subject. As for if it is
possible to fire the Coax and Main gun simultaneously regardless if the Loader or the Gunner or
Tank Commander for that matter did it or could do it, is irrelevant. When the Main gun is fired it
rocks the whole tank and creates a momentary smoke screen that would knock the aim off for the
coax. Not to mention the fact that the breach on a main gun kicks back quite a bit, in an M1 its
about 13 inches.

Dont treat a tank crew as 3, 4, or 5 independent models doing their own thing. In reality, in a tank
everyone is doing the
same thing, fighting the battle one target at a time. If there are tanks, the crew isnt worried about
infantry, if there are AT teams the crew isnt worried about that guy with a Submachine gun. In a
tank fight each crewman has a role. Here is a breakdown of how it works today and from what Ive
read, how it worked then. The Tank Commander is up in the hatch finding targets and guiding the
driver, (who cant see very well, remember he cant even back up without help), the gunner is also
scanning for targets and engages what the Tank Commander directs him to engage (he also has
limited view), the loader is typically in the tank feeding the gun new rounds (this is a full time job),
the driver assist in watching for targets and moving or not moving the tank so that he doesnt blow
the gunners shot, in the case of a hull gunner he is scanning for targets and probably firing at will
when possible at infantry. Now in a lot of small tanks (especially early models), there is only a
driver and Tank Commander. That makes the Tank Commander very busy looking, guiding the
driver, firing, and re-loading.

Just because a vehicle has a weapons system doesnt always mean it used. On the M1A1 the loaders
MG is rarely used, its really a replacement in case the coax is damaged.

Another gripe I have with the tank rules is the thought that tankers would stay on the battlefield
and fight after their vehicle is destroyed. They would in a pinch, but you should really think of them
as downed pilots, all they want is to get back and get another tank. Also, I see shot up tanks all too
often used as a place to go and get weapons and use as MG platforms, not many people would climb
on a burning vehicle to use its MG when they just saw it get hit and taken out. Im not saying never,
but not often.

Regarding the Coax/Main Gun firing question, I received this from the Fort Knox Museum:

The training and gunnery manuals for the American WW II tankers calls for the use of either the
main gun or the coax, not both, when firing. This is because .30 cal and the 75 or 76mm main gun
do not have the same trajectory. Although the weapons are fired using the same gun-sight, the
ranges marked on the sight only for the main gun. The sight ranges must be interpreted and
converted for the .30 cal LMG. For example, the mark of 400 yards for the APC shot would be 500
yards for the .30 cal. Firing at a target with the main gun would mean wasting .30 cal ammunition -
since the .30 cal would be falling short by about 100 yards. I doubt that they would change range,
but would rather use HE to get the tank crews at long range - machinegun at short ranges under
400 yards where the range differential was the smallest between the main gun and coax.

The coax can be and was used for ranging in the main gun, but since the sights did not match up,
the gunner would have to extrapolate the range differences - converting one to the other.

The main gun of the Sherman tank could be fired either electrically or by mechanical means. The
coax was fired electrically. The two electrical switches are mounted on the floor by the gunner's left
foot - main gun to the left, coax to the right. The mechanical firing device was placed just to the left
of the electrical switches and operated the firing mechanism by cable.
The gun-sight in the M4 Series of tanks has a dash pattern reticle laid out for range vertically and a
very rudimentary lead or trail horizontally. As with all WW II vehicles, there was no built-in range-
finding equipment. The Germans did have a small binocular rangefinder, designed for artillery, but
it was very cumbersome and not usable in a running battle. Same case for the allies.

Gunnery information is drawn from FM 17-12, Tank Gunnery, 10 July 1944

HALFTRACK CREWS
I have a question about mechanized infantry vehicles and their crew. Mainly dealing with
halftracks, but also with trucks and and other small APC. I have been told that most mechanized
infantry, did not have a dedicated crew assigned to the vehicle, but that one or two guys from the
squad would crew the vehicle, i.e. driver, machine gunner. I'm not saying that this was true 100%
with all units, but that there were a lot of units that operated this way. Example, in North Africa, if
you had a platoon of DAK out and about, typically they had 8-10 man squads, correct? What my
gaming group is saying is that each of the 3 halftracks would have 2-3 dedicated crew members on
top of the 8-10 man squad assigned to this. I just dont see this in most cases. Some of their
arguments are, they would not all dismount and leave a halftrack sitting with no one around. The
way I look at it, two troopers would stay behind and so have a mobile machine gun to support the
squad in addition to the LMG carried by the squad....

ANSWER: From what I understand, panzergrenadier units had a driver and radio operator/gunner
per halftrack, that were supposed to stay with the track. I believe they were counted among the
members of the squad, but were not part of the squad itself. It is also my understanding the
panzergrenadier infantry half-tracks had an assigned vehicle RTO/LMG and a driver in addition to
the dismounts. And they were all part of the same squad.

US infantry/cavalry half tracks also had a full time assigned MG and driver, in addition to the
dismounts, and they too were part of the same squad. The assigned gunner would man the .50-cal
HMG, and dismounts would man any other MG attached to the half-track.

Jeeps would also have an assigned driver, and may or may not have 1 or more MG mounted on them
by infantry or cavalry dismounts, and usually had driver, plus 2-3 passengers riding in them.

US armored cars all had full time crews, and some, if not all, had infantry /cavalry dismounts riding
in them too.

Trucks, of all types had at least one assigned driver, maybe 2, either from full time transport units,
or from unit motor pools if these vehicles belong to a company's TOE. It seemed like some one from
the company HQ platoon was the driver in this case, but in the field, soldiers from a platooon coud
be assigned as vehicle operators during movements or logistical duties. The troops in the back of a
truck were troopers hitching a ride to the war, and it was entirely possible to cram an under
strength platoon into the are normally occuppied by 2 squads of GIs.

I suspect (from talking with old landsers) this was also true in the Heer, other axis, allied and US
armored or mechanized formations as well. Remember, the Wehrmacht was never as mechanized as
the US army from 1942 onwards, and used extensive draft animals and assorted wagons/carts, and
even horse for transport. Also, lots of impressed civilian vehicles and captured enemy vehicles for
transport through out the war by the Wehrmacht.

It is my understanding from speaking with GD vets that the FEW halftracks that they did ride in
the driver and gunner came from the squad that rode in it. The forward MG came with the vehicle
and the rear facing MG was the squad weapon if they chose to mount it at that moment. The Vets
told me that they RARELY rode in halftracks and some could not even remember riding in one more
than once.

MORE THOUGHTS: While TO&E charts show lots of halftracks and vehicles, the prime mover of
he German army was the horse. Gamers tend to forget this unless theyre forced to remember it.
And most games with point values for weaponry don't take into account the real cost of a vehicle,
rather than it's approximate effectiveness. That Tiger IIs cost, for example, should not only
represent it's gun and armor, but the fact that it was bloody hard to ship one to the site of a battle,
and that the majority of IIs were torched after being abandoned by their crews for lack of spare
parts! Face it, US tanks are crappy, until you realize that a Sherman would run 20 times as long as
a PzKfw IVJ without maintenance, and US halftracks seem uncommon when you look at TO&Es,
until you realize there were regiment-sized transport units made up completely of halftracks and
drivers, assigned permanently to infantry units to completely mechanize them. In fact, a US unit
without transport that isnt an airborne unit is pretty unlikely on the battlefield. For all practical
purposes, by D-Day, the US has no 'leg' infantry at all and the Germans are having trouble getting
enough trucks to motorize panzergrenadier units, much less halftracks.

So as for the half track and its crews question:


You could assign a points value to the crew members and let the player decide if he wants to buy
more for the vehicle or use the members of the squad he purchased.
Factor crews with the vehicle (after all, no matter what side you are playing on, axis or allied, you
are both going to need crew men for your vehicles).
Do the opposite: all crew have to be purchased as no vehicle comes with any crewmen for free.

The German Army in WWII was, at most, 25% mechanized which counts all panzer and
panzergrenadier divisions and special units (StuG detachments for example). This means 75% was
not. Even the panzer divisions were mostly truck mounted. There was usually only 1 in 4 (1 in 6 in
the SS) panzergrenadier battalions actually in half-tracks. The rest had trucks. The
Panzergrenadier Divisions didn't, I think, have any armored units except the tank (usually assault
guns) battalion, reconnaissance battalion, and one engineer company. Most of the war for the
Germans was walking. Infantry companies might have a couple trucks, but normally they were
assigned horse drawn wagons. Recon had horses, then bicycles. Only the anti-tank battalion in an
infantry division, and sometimes the artillery battalion would have vehicles, plus HQ units. The
entire Russian front was for the Germans like the Italian situation in North Africa, where the
Afrika Korps was motorized but most of the Italian infantry were on foot. If the Russians (British in
NA) made a break-through with mechanized units the German infantry was in the lurch.

Allied units also walked. Only behind the lines - for example the movement of 101st and 82nd
Airborne Divisions from reserve to Bastogne and the St. Vith area by truck - was transport ridden
much. In a break-through trucks carried supplies. The infantry walked or rode on the tanks.
Armored Divisions were different. They were fully motorized with a HQ & HQ Battalion, three tank
battalions, three armored infantry battalions, three SP artillery battalions, an AA Battalion,
armored engineer battalion, and a Tank Destroyer battalion (SP). The only German units I know of
that had all of their infantry in half-tracks was Panzer Lehr Division in Normandy in 1944, and
Gross Deutschland and I think I am wrong about GD.

By the way, BGWW2 has the wrong order of battle for a U.S. Armored infantry platoon. It is, in
1944:
M3A1 half-track w/M2 50 cal HMG, Platoon HQ and 1st Squad
2 M3 half-tracks w/.30 cal LMG, 2nd and 3rd Squad.
1 M3A1 half-track w/M2 HMG and 2 .30 cal LMG; LMG Squad (who dismounted the LMG when
they moved off the track), and
1 M3 half-track w/.30 cal LMG, and a 60mm mortar squad.

Each of the three squad halftracks also has a bazooka in it so each of those squads can have a
bazooka team when they dismount, 12 men of which 1 is the driver. Driver normally has a M3A1
grease gun, otherwise the squads are normal with 1 BAR, a couple SMG, and M1 rifles. However,
these units often picked up any weapons they could get their hands on so two of my squads have 2
BAR instead of 1.

The Company had one M3A1 w/50 cal as the Coy HQ vehicle (and 3 jeeps) plus an anti-tank platoon
with three M3A1 half-tracks towing 57mm ATG. They also had a bazooka aboard.

By the way, there were 2 M-20 armored cars assigned to each self-propelled tank destroyer battery,
used for recon, close-in defense (dismounted), and communications. Each of these had a M2 .50
HMG, and a stored bazooka.

TARGET SELECTION
Could someone in the group please answer this question on selecting targets. If a squad are
shooting at an opposing squad which is advancing towards them, there are situations where some of
the advancing troops can be closer than others and so fall into a closer range (ie: 3 x troops are 14
away and the ones behind are 16 away). The three closest are at effective range for a rifle and the
others are at long range.

Obviously the three closest are easier to hit but if they are part of one squad (moving together) can
they then be targeted as a separate group because of this difference in range. If not which range of
the To Hit chart is used when shooting at targets that overlap the ranges ? Is there any general
concensus on this or is it a case of do what you think is best ?

ANSWER: We have used the range of the model at the most extreme distance from the assaulting
piece. This is done to show the effect of firing into a group. With the 5 man squads that were
released, we now only use the 1/2 squad for targeting. This is good for rifles only. Weapons with a
rate of fire of 3 or more fall under the "Who is Hit" Rules Update. This gives a cone of fire for fully
automatic weapons. I still have some players that like the center of a group and call it good. This is
the best part of the Battleground WWII Rules, they are flexible.

SEWER WARFARE HOUSE RULES


All of the following information is basic, and should be modified by the availability of water to
conduct a sewage flow, as well as the time/space location of the sewer being considered for combat.

1. Sewers are dimly lit at best, and totally black at worst. Mostly totally black ( as in cannot see your
own nose!).

2. Most modern sewers (and even some very forward thinking ancient sewers) have either street
names or numerical addresses at major intersections to aide in sewer navigation. of course you
have to be able to "read" the info to follow the directions for accurate navigation inside a sewer.

3. Most modern sewer systems have detailed maps or plans available for navigation and repair
work.

4. Normal sewers have dangerous methane gas pockets that can explode when exposed to flame or
spark, and suffocated the unwary who have no breathing gear!

5. Gunfire, explosions, and flamethrowers in side a sewer have ferocious side effects.
Muzzle blasts, explosions, and flamethrowers all dazzle the unprotected eyes.
Muzzle blasts, back-blasts, explosions, and flamethrowers can set off methane explosions that
devastate everyone in or near the gas bubble.
Explosions can cause cave-ins, accidental flooding , and flash fires. Blast templates are forced to
conform to the width and length of the sewer passage instead of expanding as normal!
Flamethrowers will tend to fill a sewer with a tongue of flame, floor to ceiling, wall to wall.
Exceptions to this are areas of the sewer which are larger than the "head" of the flamer template.
Triggering a flamethrower inside a sewer that is shorter than the template length will result in a
splashback of flame that will hit the shooter and all bystanders within the "splash-back zone".
Ricochets from all projectile weapons will pose a threat to friend and foe alike. Also flying debris!

6. Flash-fires may result when POL or other chemical soups floating on the sewer water are ignited
by gunfire, explosions or flamethrowers; such a flash-fire would go out in all directions from the
point of ignition until the fuel is exhausted!

7. The use of flares, torches etc, could be extremely dangerous to friend and foe in a sewer
environment! Same for cutting torches, even drills might cause a spark!

8. Noise in the sewer tunnels and passageways is AMPLIFIED so a by-product of shooting and
explosions would be temporary deafness for unprotected ears!

9. Vapors, gasses, as by products of wastes in the sewers, combat, or from chemical weapons used
inside the sewer should be considered for harmful side effects.

10. Hand to hand combat inside of a sewer system would certainly be limited by the size of the
sewer the combat takes place in!

11. The types of hand to hand combat weapons in use would also effect the combatants abiity to
fight in the sewer.

12. Visibility will damn sure effect any hand to hand combat! If you cannot see your nose with the
unaided or dazzled Mark 1 Human Eye Ball, you chances of hitting the enemy are nil at worst, or
very low at best.

13. The other sewer conditions would also effect any hand to hand combat fought. Water/sewage flow
depth, slippery footing, obstacles, etc.

14. Rats and wildlife attracted by the scent or taste of blood and etc, might prove to be a real
hazard to combatants.

15. Movement inside a sewer will be at variable speeds, depending on conditions; visibility,
obstacles, water depth, slippery surfaces, sewer dimensions, etc.

16. Sewers are very varied in size! These range in size from small feeder conduits (say, 6" through
36" in diameter) to tunnels as wide/tall as 2 lane to 8 lane roadways are across!

17. Sewers might have slippery walkways, with or without (mostly without rails) along the walls
above the normal water/sewage flow), but most do not!
18. The depth of water/sewage flow is variable, and can change in the blink of an eye (rainstorm =
flashflooding, tunnel broach = flooding or flash flooding). This water/sewage flow can conceal hidden
dangers, too. Vertical flow conduits for the unlucky to step into, become trapped and drown, or drop
into another passage and be swept away by the water/sewage flow and drowned. Some sewers I have
seen actually require BOATS to move around inside of them!

19. Waterfalls and pools! yes, there are huge underground waterfalls and collection pools built into
some sewer systems to expedite the flow of water/sewage.

20. Current! This varies from a barely discernable movement to a raging torrent of water/sewage
that none can cross or
stand against!

21. The very nature of the sewer tunnel materials used in contruction needs to be rated for
durability. Same for manhole covers, ladders, etc.

22. GM needs to develope a system of navigation for use by sewer fighters, one that connects
manholes with sewer tunnels. I use a chart system, linked to numbered manhole covers on the
streets and inside of building basements.

23. Medevac/casevac would be a problem too. And let us not overlook the possibility of reduced
recovery rates (ie, DEATHS!) from wounds due to the incredibly filthy conditions likely to be
encountered in a sewer fight!

24. Include the problems of communication when fighting inside a sewer system! Basically radio
and similar signals will have to be LOS in the sewers unless you are wiling to kiss commo good bye
at the first change of direction and or level encountered! This can be avoided by leaving 1 or 2
soldiers behind to act as signal relay stations, but this rapidly cuts down on unit combat manpower,
and leaves these guys twisting in the wind as well as in the darkness or dimness of the sewer
system. Or by stringing land line telephone wire out behind the unit as it moves forward and hope
to God that you have enough wire, and that no friend breaks the connection by accident ot an enemy
finds and cuts the wire!

Systems may be runners, travelling alone and in the sewer from point A to point B to maintain
commo with other units; morse code or similiar used along a landline strung out behind the unit as
it advances to maintain commo with and other units; if it is quiet enough, use the morse code or
similiar to signal by banging on piping running along the sides of the sewer; morse code or similiar
coded commo via flashlights along an LOS between relay stations.
Any use of morse code or similar might prove hard to do as not many soldiers, seamen, airmen, etc,
are actually trained to send and recieve coded messages like this in the past, the present or the
future! And unless you are using another code to send your messages in, anyone who can read.send
morse, knows what you are saying!

MORE ON AFV ACTIONS


The actions of load, aim, fire all take one action for a tank crewmen to complete; none can be done
simultaneously, i.e. they cant be performed simultaneously in the same action by different
crewmen. Under gun actions, aiming cannot take place while unjamming or loading any main gun.

This is how it works for standard tanks, but for antitank guns with full crew or self-propelled guns
with fully open-topped fighting compartment and stationary, there is a special load/fire sequence: it
is assumed that the loader(s) in these cases have more freedom of movement. The loader can load a
round and the gunner can fire inmediately (effectively, in the same action) as the loader does his job
real fast; this action cost for loading is standard. Quality modifiers (i.e. veteran or elite crew) can
reduce one action of the required loading time in actions of a 2-load Nashorn or 105mm howitzer, if
they meet the requirements (full crew, stationary and exposed) for self-propelled guns. This will
allow it to come from 2 to 1 for veteran or elite then for self-propelled gun, which allows for 2
shots to be put down range.

ANOTHER TAKE: My understanding of a crew being exposed and behind cover in a self-propelled
gun is exposed, being able to be shot from all sides of the vehicle but with +5 partial tank, assumed
they are walking around tall, not crouched (meaning not exposed) in the fighting compartment.
While not exposed, they could only be shot from rear (depending on the particular self-propelled
gun) or from the top with no penalty.

In this optimum case it would just take action to load and it would be possible to fire in the same
action round (by a simultaneous performing of an action of fire). This is only if the gun has full
crew, if not double all actions for under crewed guns, i.e. to 1, 1 to 2.

You cannot aim while unjamming or loading, shakes the gun too much, this is in the rules under
gun actions in armour section.

STEILGRANATE 41
The Armour Penetration is 39!

AP SHOTS VERSUS INFANTRY


When a gun fires a solid AP shot against infantry, what target size modifier do you use? When a
soldier is hit by a AP shot, do you treat it as an automatic kill (KIA), or do you use any of the fire
result columns? On the Penetration effect chart, a result of >20 (remember, a caliber size of <37mm
yields a +3 modifier) is no effect, isnt it?
ANSWER: Unless the gun is an automatic cannon (40mm or less) hitting single infantrymen with
AP is relatively impossible. The exceptions are when he is unable to move because he is in cover
such as a building where the damage is
from the splinters rather then the shot. German 88 AP rounds were fired through buildings in
Arnhem making a hole in each wall, but normally not hitting or hurting anyone. Normal procedure
is to then fire an HE round through the hole.

ANOTHER TAKE: I would normally not allow direct fire with AP on infantry. You have to change
ammunition to HE, or if an AFV, use your machinegun. The exception, as mentioned above, is for
example a 20mm - 40mm automatic cannon, which in WW2 would be either on an armored car or an
AA weapon.

TANK/AFV MACHINEGUN FIRE


I know the cover modifiers that apply normally to MG fire, are there any modifiers unique to AFV
MGs? Example: does the button up modifier apply when firing the MGs? Does a tank that fires on
the move with MGs have those modifiers applied? Do any of the main armament modifiers apply as
well?

ANSWER: We play AFV MGs as follows:


Button Up penalty does not apply
Vehicular MGs never gain aquisition (for subsequent bursts against same target)
All other modifiers apply (like moving tank, just moved, etc.)

LEADERSHIP MODIFIERS ON AFV MG FIRE


A commander can NEVER modify any score unless that is his only action. For example you get two
actions a turn. If he would want to modify the score of the gunner firing the coax machine gun then
the score could be modified but he would never get to modify his own score. The score modifier
reflects the commanders ability to direct combat and tell gunners the best place to fire. That doesn't
make them a better gunner and does not take the distraction of actually firing the gun away from
them if they are the ones behind the barrel. In the rules in several areas it talks about commanders
being able to modify the to hit or the effect roll if they forgo all other actions.

OTHER AFV MG MODIFIERS


The buttoned up modifier should most definitely apply to the Coax and any Hull mounted machine
guns. Your field of vision is severely limited by the hatches being closed. If you have ever sat in any
armored vehicle once it is buttoned up you have huge blind spots. This penalty is to reflect the
limited view. For that matter any pintle mounted machine gun on top of the tank could not be fired
at all since the commander would be down inside of the tank with the hatches closed meaning that
he would not have access to the gun.
As far as other modifiers since I do not have the rules in front of me I cannot remember the exact
numbers but basically any AT guns on a tank or any other vehicle will get a much more severe
penalty for firing on the move than a MG. I remember that with an AT gun it is a -5 for firing if the
vehicle moved in the previous action, this penalty reflects the rocking of the tank after it has
stopped moving. This penalty does not apply to MGs at all. I want to say that it was a -8 or -10
penalty for firing a main gun on the move. For MGs this penalty is just half of the normal to hit so
for example say you are on the move and firing away with the machine guns on board at a target
within effective range. The normal to hit with standard crew would be 12 or less. If you were firing
on the move the to hit would be 6 or less because it is 1/2 of the normal to hit. All other modifiers
would apply.

Also remember that all vehicle mounted MGs suffer a higher jam number since it is a crewed
weapon that does not have it full complement. Examples would be on German armor with MG34s or
42s or on Russian vehicles with DPs or what ever the jam number is increased by 1 because there
should be a gunner and a loader. Since there is only a gunner the jam number goes to 19 from 20
giving you a 10% chance of jamming. On American armor for example using either .30 cal or .50 cal
machine guns there should be a crew of 3. Since there is only a gunner the jam number would go
down to 18 meaning that the gun will jam 15% off the time.

Other than what I have mentioned the armor mounted MGs act exactly like their infantry operated
brethren. For example if you notice when firing AT guns into wooded terrain the woods modifier is
applied to the to-hit modifier rather than the effect as it would be with small arms. While this is the
case with main guns if you are firing armor mounted MGs into wooded terrain the to hit is NOT
affected and the effect roll would be modified the same as any other small arms fire.

The last issue I want to bring up involves armored infantry transports like half tracks and White
Scout cars. If you have infantry standing in the back of a half track firing out of the vehicle they
would suffer all the same penalties that the armor mounted MGs would suffer. Fire on the move
would be the penalty for all fire originating from an AFV in motion. By having them standing they
are considered unbuttoned. If they are sitting down and there for buttoned up then they cannot fire
at all because they are now out of sight. There are often some MGs mounted on these vehicles that
are crewed by members of the infantry unit that is operating the vehicle. These work the same way.
There may be a handful of exceptions to the half track mounted MGs. One example I can think of
involves some American half tracks. I have a friend who has a military vehicle collection. One of his
half tracks has a machine gun that is fired by the front seat passenger but rather than it being
pintle mounted on a ring as is standard it has a limited traverse mount so that the gun is fired by
the passenger when he is seated. This may be able to be fired while buttoned up but the standard
pintle mount that is typical on American and German half tracks would not be able to be fired while
buttoned up.
No matter what a person was trying to shoot from a moving vehicle it would be more difficult to
shoot. The only difference in modifiers is between the AT guns and the small arms.

Dont forget when playing that any time infantry wants to assault a vehicle or when ever a vehicle
moves within a certain number of inches (depends on scale used) of infantry they have to make a
half gut check to see if they will assault the tank/stay in place or if they will fall back to some cover
that is further away from the armor that is close to them. Another possibly beneficial rule for you
would be the one that states if you begin and end a move action on the road you get to increase your
movement (it depends on the type tanks are double I think). Getting in close with the tanks will be
your best bet. The AT gun will be much more difficult to manuver at close range. The gun shield on
AT guns and Field guns (if they have them) are only affective if the blast comes from the front of the
tank so if you can fire from the rear of the gun the crew will suffer the blast unprotected. Also any
round that hits an AT gun will destroy it if a KIA is rolled. I forget which column is used but it is in
the Battleground rules. When spotting and shooting at AT guns or Field guns they are treated like
vehicles but if you shoot at mortars they are sighted and fired at like infantry.

HEROES
A normal hero gets +1 Morale and Elite status. So, if I have a veteran who becomes a normal
hero, does this mean that his morale only goes up one point and then he gets the chart modifiers
that apply to elite units? Or does it mean that he gets the Morale of an elite unit with an additional
modifier to his die rolls?
ANSWER: We would give him the normal morale for Elite and then a +1 on top of that.

RANGE FINDING
If I shoot at a unit, Im not allowed to pick my target unless Im a sniper. Therefore, how do I
determine range if the target unit is spread out? Do I use farthest model in the target unit? Where
do I measure range from? The center of the base? The edge of the base? Especially important
question for my crew weapons which are on 60mm bases.
ANSWER: For range finding we do it like this. If I have a squad that is firing at an enemy squad
range is determined my measuring from the center of one squad to the center of the other. That
gives the effect of averaging things out. Now if the firing unit is all with in effective range but they
have on guy way behind that is in extreme range (say all with rifles) then the player would have the
option to have that one guy count as extreme range to help keep the rest of the squad in effective.
Measure from the center of the base of the models.

RIFLE GRENADES
Is it true that there is no to hit roll with a rifle grenade - just automatic deviation?

ANSWER
That sounds right. They would not be too accurate.
OPFIRE
A clarification on how the rule is written, when describing how to set up OpFire. In the same
paragraph it tells you first that you cannot have an enemy in your LoS and within effective range,
then at the end of the same paragraph it says something like in order to use OpFire you cannot have
an enemy model in your LoS or effective range. I think the 2nd part is a typo and the or should
have been an and.

ANSWER: No! Both conditions are grounds to allow you to setup OpFire. So for example if you have
a squad with 6 riflemen that are all using M1s your effective range is 12. Lets say there is a
detected enemy squad around the corner of a house but only 8 away. Now you DO have targets in
effective range, but as long as those are the only models within effective range they are not within
LoS, so the 6 riflemen can go on OpFire. Say that the only enemy squad anywhere near this 6 man
rifle squad is 37 away and in plain view. Since they are outside of effective range you can go on
OpFire. This rule represents a foot soldiers ability to hold fire until he has a better chance of
hitting. The rulebook is correct. Otherwise if the description used and, you wouldn't be able to set
OpFire at detected models out of LoS but within effective range.

PICKING OUT TARGETS


I read that Snipers can pick out targets unlike the normal way of firing. However, nowhere in the
rules does it say that you cannot target squad leaders or any other individual model when firing
with other units. Did I miss something? Our game on the weekend saw my squad leader getting
picked off by an MG and practically my whole squad running away including the Assistant Squad
Leader. The way we fire is if a single shot we choose a target, if support fire weapon we fire down the
cone of fire and roll to see who we hit rolling for as many hits as needed.

ANSWER: Snipers are the ONLY unit that can pick out targets. Shots fired from any squad, MG
team, vehicle or even single soldier are randomly applied to the target unit. However snipers can
only pick out a target if set in Ambush Fire or using an aimed shot. Non-snipers who aim cannot
pick targets. Remember, lone models are considered to be in a group all on their own. Non-Snipers
can only target a single model if that model is a) the only valid target, or b) the model has become
clearly separated from the rest of its unit. If a squad is advancing down a road, and they have a lead
scout out in front (5 or more away), then that model would be a valid target. As for Mg fire, this
also stands, but if there are various models in the cone of fire then hits are randomised between the
possible targets.

OPFIRE SIGHTING
To clarify Opportunity Fire sighting. Say you have a group of 3 models on OpFire, and there is a
group of enemy models crossing a road. Would you roll one sighting check for each friendly model for
each action the group of enemy models take in their LOS? So in this case you would roll 3 times, but
only once (for the group) not for each enemy model. If the enemy group moved a second time, then
you could try to spot again if you missed the first time. Does this sound right?
ANSWER: As I understand the rules, a sighting attempt can be taken per action taken within your
LoS, and sighting attempts are performed per unit sighting, not individual models (although the
rulebook refers to models, not units). If the enemy models cross one at a time, you would certainly
roll at each opportunity.

So say that a card is flipped and that a squad makes two actions of movement within LoS of an
OpFiring enemy squad. The first sighting check is made and failed. During the next action the roll
is made and is successful. Now the enemy squad has the choice if they want to fire or not. This
continues until the squad spots a target and then performs their single action of (Op)fire. You only
ever get ONE action of fire with a squad on OpFire. Once you fire you stop making the sighting
checks but even if various squads move 12 actions worth of movement within LoS of the OpFiring
squad, the squad will make a single sighting check for each and every one of those actions of
movement until they finally decide to fire. Remember if you keep passing and at some point the
squad has not fired yet and no other squads move, fire or perform any other action within LoS of the
squad, then their action of fire is lost. It is very situational where your OpFiring squad can either
fire or pass any time they make a sighting check but they cannot go back and fire at a squad that
they passed on before.

In relation to this, loaders are required to set up and maintain special fire modes. MG teams may
fire without a loader every action, but suffer a -1 penalty to its jam check for each missing
crewmember (page 6). Crew served weapons must have a loader to set OpFire, Spraying Fire or any
other special fire. If either the loader or the gunner is missing or takes a combat effect, failed MC,
wound or suppression if not already prone, then the special fire is lost.

ASSISTANT SQUAD LEADERS


Assistant squad leaders are mentioned in the rules, but these say nothing about what they can or
cannot do. Apparently the squad is divided in two half squads, with the squad leader taking one
half and the ASL taking the other, or the LMG team. Is this right?

ANSWER: We are treating the ASL as a 0 modifier leader. Dont forget that without a leader,
morale, rally and gut checks are made at half the models normal morale so even within range of an
Assistant Squad Leader they can really help.

If using leadership modifiers, the ASL could have a better modifier than the squad leader, just not
as high of morale in the first place but then again it could be. It is possible to have a captain with
poor skills, motivation training, experience than the sergeant, likewise a corporal. You can even
make them +1 or more for terrible leaders. Splitting a squad is okay but most likely not really very
far from each other.
Depending on what time frame the battle is being played in and the overall experience/morale of the
unit, assistant squad leaders often could have a higher morale and the rest of the squad can use
that higher morale any time they are in command range and they need to make a morale based
check. That allows you to split the squad up into two different elements. For example maybe you
have a German squad that has 6 riflemen, an assistant squad leader, a squad leader that is good
enough to have a -1 modifier and then an MG34 gunner and assistant. Now you could break the MG
team off with the commander since the commander could either modify their to hit or their effect
rolls by 1 and you could have the ASL lead the rest of the riflemen as they will be able to take
advantage of his higher morale.

SIGHTING CLARIFICATIONS
I see a modifier for the sighting chart for the infantry target that has a soldier firing a single shot
and getting a +2. Yet on Full Auto they get a -1, and prone gets a + 2. Did I miss something? This is
telling me that if I fire a single shot as opposed to a burst and am prone I get a +3 which makes me
harder to see. So if I am advancing and have not been spotted it is to my advantage to be firing my
rifles as I creep through the woods to get a +2 modifier.

And in relation to hasty cover/concealment. Why do you get a -1? I would think any kind of cover is
better than no cover in concealing a model.

ANSWER: I believe that someone firing in the woods is a lot easier to see then someone who is just
moving without firing. So the step to the next row for firing would not outweigh the benefits of firing
single shot even with the column shift. Yes firing a single shot while prone would be tough to see but
not as hard as trying to spot someone who has not fired and is prone.

Infantry walking and firing is not allowed in the rules even though it was sometimes practiced by
Americans as they advanced. The chart modifier for moving fire is used to modify fire from moving
vehicles or MG fire from moving tanks.

Chances are that anyone who fires will be seen anyway regardless of the modifier however the
modifier is more important for snipers, long range firing/spotting and night scenarios.

And if you are playing those sneaky Germans, remember that there is an additional +1 due to
Smokeless, Flash-less gunpowder.

The way we are treating hasty cover/concealment is the motion being done to get concealed. If a
model is being viewed on his first action while concealing then we use the modifier. Once he is in
position, all his movement stops and he simply gets the usual sighting procedure, no modifiers this
time.

NOTES ON AMBUSH AND OPPORTUNITY FIRE


When you are on Opfire, EVERYTIME that someone moves within your units line of sight it MUST
make a Sighting Check. If the check is successful you have the choice whether to take your one
action of fire or not. If you do not take a shot at that enemy target, you are basically saying I will
pass on this target and hope for a better one. Now what that means is if you have watched three or
four squads move but were holding out hoping that the bazooka team would move and you could
spot them. If they are the last squad on the board and don't move and it either makes the spot check
too hard or you miss it or whatever that basically means you lost your chance to shoot at any squad.

Ambush Fire is only out to 15. Opfire is at any range, but I thought I remembered it only being
within effective range. There is another benefit when in Ambush Fire as well but I forget what it is.
Maybe you can throw grenades or something. With Opfire you only get one action of fire. Do you get
the full two with Ambush Fire?

ANSWER: You only get one action with each. My thought after reading the rules many times is that
with Ambush you can spot a target, and then wait for it to get closer before you actually fire,
whereas with Opfire you have to fire as soon as it pops into view. So I could spot a juicy target and
keep it in my sights for a turn or two and fire when it came within 15 whereas with Opfire I cant
attack at all if there is a target in LOS and effective range already. Still very confusing the way it's
worded in the rules.

You are to engage any target that you sight when in Opfire. Ambush Fire must be declared before
you take any actions so you commit to ambush for the entire turn. Ambush also allows you to throw
grenades and other hand-held explosive but not Bangalore Torpedoes or demo charges from what I
remember.

EXAMPLES: OPFIRE AND AMBUSH FIRE


OpFire and Ambush are both declared (or a marker placed by the unit an upside down card
counter is best as it cant be read like a colored marker by your opponents) at the beginning of a
turn before any cards are drawn.

OpFire cannot be declared if any enemy troops are in sight of the unit you want to go on OpFire. It
is declared ONLY if there are no spotted enemy in sight.

Ambush fire can be declared even if spotted enemy troops are in sight. THIS IS THE
DIFFERENCE. OpFire IF NO ENEMY IN SIGHT ON THE FIRST UNIT THAT COMES IN
SIGHT, AMBUSH FIRE IF ENEMY TROOPS ARE IN SIGHT WHEN THE AMBUSH IS SET AND
AT 15 RANGE.

House Rules: FIRING AT THE FIRST UNIT, especially the first element (model is an element of a
squad; a tank is an element of a platoon) as previously discussed really makes no sense, so I use a
couple of house rules for both OPFIRE and AMBUSH FIRE, but still restrict them to being set-up if
no enemy is in sight (Opfire); or if an enemy is in sight (Ambush).

OPPORTUNITY FIRE HOUSE RULE: A unit on OpFire doesnt have to fire at the first enemy
model or unit that comes in sight. Especially for infantry, the unit on OpFire can wait until the end
of the enemy units movement and then declare OpFire on it anywhere during the units movement
that it was in sight. A unit on OpFire can also NOT fire. Units on OpFire that dont shoot require a
successful Gut Check to not shoot the first element of a unit (like the squad) that moves into sight
and a successful Gut check to not fire at all. A leader within command control of the unit doing
the OpFire MUST add his command bonus to the roll.

AMBUSH FIRE HOUSE RULE: A unit on Ambush may select to spring its ambush (i.e. open fire)
at a range other then the standard 15, but must do so when the ambush is sprung or when the
closest enemy unit/element moves 15 or closer to the ambushing unit. In order to spring an
Ambush early or late, a successful Gut Check, made at the time the unit declares it is doing an
Ambush, or not (at 15) springing the Ambush when it would normally be required. If unsuccessful
the ambushing unit may not fire, and is auto-spotted by the unit it was trying to ambush. Leaders
within command control of the unit doing the OpFire MUST add his command bonus to the roll.
Ambushes sprung at 15 (the distance in the rules) do not require a gut-check.

Keep in mind that a Leaders modifier may be either none, or a positive or negative number. Bad
leaders will decrease the chance to change a units opportunity/ ambush fire; and a good leader
increase it.

MORE NOTES ON AMBUSH AND OPFIRE


I think the difference is application. On OpFire, let say you want to make sure an MG doesnt pop
up and hose your maneuver squad. So you put your BAR team on OpFire so if someone pops up in
the other building you hose them. In Ambush, you are waiting for someone to fall into a trap or gain
a first fire advantage if defending a position and you think the other guy may get the drop on you. In
any case you cannot ambush or OpFire a unit previously spotted unless they are no longer
observable.

So basically as the rules are written, OpFire is against the first unit to appear within effective range
and Ambush Fire against the first visible unit to enter 15 range. I never would have inferred the
must fire at first eligible target thing from reading the rules, and we have basically played it as
you can choose who to OpFire on.

ANOTHER TAKE
Opportunity Fire: Orders to hold and fire on the first sign of enemy combat units advancing through
your unit's zone of control (spotting area). Basically, the first target your unit spots.
Ambush Fire: Orders to hold and fire on the best target type / solution of those enemy combatant
units already spotted and moving through your unit's zone of control. Basically, the best moving
target already spotted.

ANOTHER TAKE
First off, for OpFire it is not a matter of whether the unit has been sighted or is in line of sight.
That can be a factor but is not the only one. You can only go on OpFire if there are NO units in line
of sight and effective range. That means that there can be units within line of sight as long as they
are outside of effective range and there can be units within effective range as long as they are not
within line of sight. The rules for OpFire also do not state that you MUST shoot at anything only
that you MUST make a spotting check for every unit that moves within your line of sight. You can
choose as each check is made if that is the ONE unit you would like to take the action of fire
against. You will basically get one chance to fire at which time you have completed your OpFire and
would stop making sighting checks.

For Ambush fire it makes no difference if they are up close and in line of sight, you can go on it but
just cant fire until they are within 15.

TANK CREW RATE OF FIRE


So, the average tank crew has a RoF of 1 shot per turn with the loader loading on action 1 and the
gunner firing on action 2, right? (We originally thought that a tank could fire 1 rd per action until
reading the armor crew actions update.) But what about for really experienced Tank Crews? I'm
talking the Michael Wittman type crews. Would it be reasonable to say that an elite tank crew could
fire once per action (i.e., two shots per turn for an average tank) with maybe a half chance to hit?
When I think of Villiers-Bocage it seems to make sense.

QUESTION:
I notice that there are no morale check modifiers used in the rules save for leadership modifier -
does anyone have any suggestions as it seems likely that some circumstances would help bolster
morale or lower it e.g. if a friendly tank was nearby or if wounded.

ANSWER:
In the game, there are modifiers to morale when.....
1. Assaulting/HTH Tanks
2. When tanks drive-by friendly units
3. When units are reduced in number (some have different break numbers).
4. When a model(s) is in HTH combat
5. When a unit suffers a Gory Death (viewing units must roll)
6. When models are wounded
7. When a tank/vehicle is immobilized
8. When a tank/vehicle' s crew man is killed
9. When a tank/vehicle' s main gun is knocked out
10. When a tank/vehicle is flamed
11. When a tank/vehicle chart says so
12. When broken infantry are viewed by good order men (see: Ripple Effect)

... and those are the ones I could think of off the top of my head. Now... assuming that all those are
academic to you and you knew those already, but were looking for more, I do not know if there are
more in the official rule books... but my group does have some unofficial Morale Checks and
modifiers that we use in our games:

Here are some MC 'conditions' we do use...


1. When a unit sees a flamethrower assaulting their position. If the FT model is within potential
firing range, all models that might be able to be hit must make a Morale Check (penalty of -4) as no
unit relishes the idea of being burned to death. We merely measure the distance to the FT template
from the vehicle and ANY enemy unit that could be harmed by the FT and force a MC on all the
models... BEFORE the FT fires (now its important to understand .. the FT doesnt HAVE to fire or
have fired. This is merely the shock and horror that men faced when they saw a FT weapon moving
into their sector). The resulting 'broken' men are resolved with immediately. So you can see the
potential for a units plans to get messed up merely by having an FT near by (let alone firing).

2. Firing Main Guns on tanks at POINT BLANK range. We found from our readings that tanks and
the like were trained to kill at range. This meant that the enemy was to be killed when it was far
away, and not when it was so close it was trading paint with your vehicle. We read many accounts of
men in tanks and the like panicking from just the noise of enemy vehicles in close proximity, and
the likelihood of merely firing at anything that moved outside their vision port (especially Soviet
tanks who had no radios to communicate with their fellow tankers)... so we have a MC made when
tanks and ATGs are at 'Point Blank' range with an enemy vehicle. Any time an enemy vehicle is at
Point Blank range, both crews must roll a MC immediately. One roll for the entire crew. If they
'pass' they proceed as normal. If they fail, they 'panic' and bad things happen. We have a 'standard'
result of 'the crew can do nothing'. They are too disorganized, and men are shouting at each other
etc. and the vehicle/crew can do no other action until they pass a MC or the enemy vehicle has
moved away or has been destroyed. We also have a more 'detailed' chart for a more 'random' reaction
to the failed MC... and I will pass that along if you desire to have it. This rule was to prevent guys
from always moving their tanks up to Point Blank range to shoot. It looked really bad, and was in
no way supported by 'historical record' as the 'norm'. Maybe in very special conditions with special
crews (ones that pass their MC)... but not the every day crew of most armies.

3. We force MC on any units that witness a supporting tank in their force getting Catastrophically
Killed or Total Destruction... as THAT is such a buzz kill to morale. The only units 'forced' must
have Direct Line Of Sight (DLOS) to the dead tank, and the models must be within 'command
range' of that unit making the MC roll (we modeld the further away the tank was, the less
'immediate' it would feel to the unit fighting with it.)

Now as for Modifiers to Help/Hurt a unit in the game (but not necessarily a MC condition), we have
the following:

a. Unit is considered by the Referee (or players, what have you) to be Highly Motivated. Give the
unit a Bonus of -1 to their morale rolls.

b. Unit is considered by the Referee (or players, what have you) to be Reluctant/Weary. Give the unit
a Penalty of +1 to their morale rolls.

c. Unit is considered by the Referee (or players, what have you) to be Fanatical/Crazed. We make it
so they never roll MC, as they have either lost their mind or have nothing left to loose. They have no
fear of death any more.

d. Unit has a medic in the unit/platoon. Give the unit a Bonus of -1 to their morale. We have read,
found and experienced for ourselves that having a medic in your unit means that if you get
wounded, you have a better chance of making it than if you do not have one. Inversely, if you HAD
one, but he was killed, you get a penalty of +1 to your Morale rolls. Units that started without one,
get no penalty or bonus.

e. We have unit with low ammo rules. When a unit has 'low ammo' as a condition to the scenario,
they also get a Penalty of +1 to their morale rolls.

f. Commissar present: Bonus of -1 to MC rolls on all affected units. The 'Commissar' also can
'automatically rally' any unit that 'breaks as a whole' by removing one model (he obviously 'made an
example of some one' by shooting him, and the rest of the unit got the picture.) The unit(s) or models
need only to be in DLOS and with in the Commissar's Command Range band.

So, if you and your guys want a Bonus to the MC rolls for having a friendly tank near by, I say go for
it. Just make sure you spell it all out BEFORE you all get down to dice rolls.

HIDDEN-STEALTHY MOVES
Anyone have thoughts and rules ideas on how to handle models attempting to get into a building or
jump someone without being seen or heard in relation to current spotting rules for use with
scenarios especially commando and infiltration mission stuff.

ANSWER: We have some house rules that if a model wants to perform a sneaky move they have to
pass a successful skill check to do so or they will be heard. They also can only move 1/2 their normal
movement when doing so. It's harder if its a really tricky move like crawl into a window with your
gear and weapon without being heard would be a 1/2 skill check. Needless to say that many a sentry
have gone down with a successful skill check and an little knife play.

I use this for elite snipers. As long as the model/models move at half speed (Stealthy movement)
they only get spotted if they fail a skill check and they are spotted. The GM can do this by looking at
the table and determine if someone could spot the sniper/commando. Then have them role without
informing them as to the purpose. Also, if the sniper fires a weapon, he is automatically spotted on a
19 or 20 or if he fires twice on an 18,19,or 20.

Maybe you could say that unless especially alert this is a straight test - if you fail then enemy spot
on a successful test if they fail then they at least become alert to something maybe being up - any
further stealth rolls would then be opposed.

Dont forget the sound rules in the Night Fighting rules update. You can hear a trooper moving up
to double the range it moved, I think it may be tripled. So if they failed they would be heard auto if
within that range. The sound and light rules are great and often overlooked when playing but when
used makes for a more realistic and in-depth game.

HE VS BUILDINGS
Im having a little trouble figuring out how to treat HE for infantry in buildings. Does HE always go
through the wall to hurt the infantry? Is there a penetration roll, if so what is it for stone/wood?.
Also how to treat deviation? will it go further into the house or miss and hit the roof?

ANSWER: The rules are within the scenery section in the main rules. You roll to hit and if
successful it produces a template that rips into the house. Anyone within the template is hit with
the appropriate ring. The size of the template changes with the type of round used. In the Crusade
for Empire rules it gives some modifiers for HE hitting rock outcrops making it more lethal due to
the additional shrapnel. There is also a HE update that gives template sizes for HEAT rounds used
against infantry that you may need to check out as well.

When the HE round is fired direct at a building (i.e. Tank or Artillery) you use the appropriate
template centered on the point of impact. On the template there are segmented lines that you line
up pointing away from the firing gun. This area gets no cover bonus, outside of this area cover would
be available.

HE NEAR MISSES
But how about when you miss? can the round move further into the house? Penetrate walls? How do
you determine if the round even can penetrate the wall? If it does penetrate when would it explode?
I just have a hard time believing that a HE round always explodes exactly where and when you
want it without maybe going through a wall or two that you didnt expect every now and then.
ANSWER: If you miss roll the normal deviation rules. If it lands away from the building then it
explodes their but if it hits somewhere else on the building then it hits there.

The penetration is the smaller template. This represent the actual explosive effect that has
penetrated the building.

HE and HEAT fuses generally exploded on impact so unless you are aiming directly into an opening
within the building it would detonate on contact with the walls. We have special rules when you roll
a 1 to hit, that the shell has passed through the wall and then detonates D6 into the building
causing a full HE template. Ouch!

You can fire AP shells into buildings which I believe cause an even smaller penetration template
due to the shrapnel and debris it causes when ripping into the building.

As a general rule for penetrating buildings, we say unless it has been specifically constructed for
some sort of armor protection then it will penetrate automatically. If made of very very sturdy
materials like heavy stone, steel, concrete, etc then we give it a arbitrary AP value, usually from 1-
4. Bunkers and the like would have a very high AP to penetrate so we say its in the ball park of a
40+.

Note that there is an HE armor penetration factor, so unless a stone or concrete walled building the
HE will blow a hole through the wall. That is what the large HE penetration template angle
represents. I just read about an engagement in which Panther tanks were firing on U.S. infantry in
buildings in a town (during the Bulge). These buildings were solidly built of stone and the HE shells
had no effect, until one went through a window (the "1" die roll mentioned in one of the prior
messages). HEAT also has a penetration value greater then HE but has a smaller angle of effect. AP
has a high penetration value but a very narrow damage angle going through the wall.

Then, again, I don't think the rules cover:

a. Fire APCBC through the wall at close range. This normally went through the building. Then fire
an HE round through the hole.

b. Fire APHE into the wall. The Germans used APHE in most of their tank and anti-tanks guns
(even the Pak 35/36 37mm) which had a delayed action fuse. Bang through the armor then the HE
went off inside. In 75mm through 88mm it was fairly effective. One of the reasons the Sherman
burned. The round would punch through the armor (especially the sides) hitting the ammo stored in
the open ammo racks bursting them into fine particles of explosive dust, and then the small amount
of HE in the German round would go off setting off the particles. Instant fire.
When we play it is assumed that the explosion has created a hole at the point of contact. I suppose
that hole would vary in size depending on the buildings construction and the caliber of the weapon
being used. It is because of this that HEAT rounds were defensible by using spaced armor lessening
the penetrators chance of punching through.

We have a house rule that if the round-super penetrates anything it has passed through the target.
This represents those actions in WWII were large caliber weapons were being fired through terrain
at targets hidden behind and still scoring a kill. I believe Whitmann and Woll did this in Villars-
Bocage against the Brits. The rounds penetration lessens drastically but it would still have enough
kinetic energy to do some damage. Super-penetration is that the final penetration roll beats the
target armor by x3 and lessens the next penetration by due to deflection and slowing of the
projectile.

I suppose you could follow up a HE after a AP but you would surly have to have some to hit
modifiers for such a perfect shot.

I think the HEAT penetration number takes into effect the process of delayed action in its normal
penetration number. That is why they can penetrate at all.

As for the Ronson Shermans, (thats what the Brits called them after a lighter popular for the day
that was guaranteed to light after I strike or a tommy-cooker so happily applied by the Germans) it
was their ammo storage configuration within the turret that tended to end their fight.

The one thing I wish the rules stated is a reference chart for armor values. I'm not sure how they
arrived at the numbers they did but if their was some sort of chart that showed the armor value of a
brick structure compared to a wood structure it would allow us to actually place AP values on
scenery instead of using the reducing scenery process.

MORALE CHECKS AND SUPPRESSION


When men get a moral check, are they suppressed AS WELL? And being suppressed, does it take an
action to get back up or are they simply forced prone and able to carry on normally except for the
fact they were forced to the ground? Im a little confused on the suppression effect. I have been
playing with Suppression just forcing men prone.

ANSWER: When you receive a MC you dont lose an action but are forced to roll your MORALE as a
immediate compulsory roll and flee if failed. If you fail, you will break as normal rules but if you
pass you are OK but forced prone. Suppressed causes you to go prone and it does take an Action to
get back up. They can continue to act as normal while suppressed just as long as they are not being
suppressed by a weapons suppression fire arc. This is due to a continuous rate of fire in that area at
a steady rate unlike a couple rounds.
Remember, results are randomly applied to targets (unless an aimed shot by a Sniper). An
individual in a group could theoretically take all the results of enemy fire while his comrades forge
ahead. The exception to this is when an individual rolls an MC and becomes a Hero - all immediate
results are applied (no point seeing if the guys a Hero when he is already shot between the eyes).
Time stops and he uses his one or two extra moves. I think if you want a scenario in which troops
are not likely to be suppressed by a morale result, declare No Quarter or make the troops
Fanatical / Hot Blooded.

I cant find in the rules anywhere that a MC forces anyone prone or negates any actions.
Suppression is below because the result of the MC could be both good or bad for the effected ie a No
Effect, Break, Coward or Hero result. The only things that forces anyone prone is if they are in a
blast template, hit with a suppression result or suppressed by a RoF weapon set on a special fire
mode. So in your games a MC is also considered a suppression? Wouldn't a MC just negate the
suppression result on the table? Seem that you are double uping on the suppression effect but I
guess its just a matter of opinion.

NO QUARTER RULE
I just dont get this rule the way it's written. Is the idea that the capturing player has to make a roll
in order to gun down the surrendering enemy troops? Or is the idea that the surrendering player
has to make a check to keep from going fanatic? I just don't get it. Can someone explain this to me?

ANSWER: I've never used the rule myself but I take it to mean that if Player A decides not to accept
the surrender of a surrounded enemy model he can shoot it to save wasting actions or men to
disarm/guard it.

As soon as Player A shoots a surrendering enemy miniature the No Quarter rule kicks in and
affects Player Bs troops (who will be outraged), so that if any of his troops are surrounded later in
the game they will make a Morale Check on the No Quarter Chart and if the roll is failed they go
fanatic instead of surrendering.

You can also shoot your own men to prevent them from surrendering and being captured (the way
the No Quarter Chart is written it would seem to imply that this tactic is only available to Russian
and German players - there are historical examples of this being used as a way of instilling
discipline in wavering troops). In this case the No Quarter rule would affect your own men and
should inspire them to fight on rather than surrender and risk being shot as a coward by their own
side.

SPECIAL AP AMMUNITION TYPES


German HVAP was normally restricted for use on the Russian Front as the Allies didnt have a tank
that really required its use. Although the only HVAP ammunition produced in quantity was for the
PaK38 (at the time, 1942, the ONLY gun available that could take a T34 out frontally) a limited
number of rounds were made for the German PaK40, 75L48, 75L70, and the 88L56 and L71 guns.
These were used only on the Eastern Front and I would make the die roll to obtain any a 20 on a
D20. If successful roll a D4 for the number of rounds.

On the other hand, in 1941 the German Mark III tanks with 50L42 rounds could each roll a D6-1
for HVAP rounds.

In February 1942 Hitler authorized the use of the German HEAT anti-tank rounds available but
held back. This would be available for the 75L24 gun, 105mm leFH18 howitzer, and the 75mm and
150mm IG.

Late war German tanks had HEAT, HE, APCBC ammunition and smoke. HEAT and smoke would
be available for the 75L24 tanks and SPH (Mark III Ausf N, 251/9, 250/8, 233 and 234/3 armoured
cars; Wespe, 105mm leFH18, SHIII 105mm). HEAT would be available for the Mark IV, Panther,
and Tiger tanks and the StuGIII and Panzerjager. It would be a limited availability round not likely
to be carried but with a better chance then the HVAP rounds on the eastern front. The main reason
for using it was that at combat ranges a hit would not only knock out the tank but any infantry
being carried. Hence, HEAT was also found more often on the Eastern Front.

British Ammunition: The 6pdr towed anti-tank gun had limited APDS as of D-Day. By the time of
the break-out the 17pdr Achilles and Archer would have limited APDS. The British kept 6pdr
armed Churchills to support the 75mm armed ones in Italy to provide a better anti-tank capability.
The US didnt get HVAP until September 44. This ammunition went to the TD units, both towed
and SP and was in limited quantity. Note that the M18 HVAP was usable in the 76.2mm armed
Sherman, but the M10 GMC and towed 3 gun ammunition wasnt. M36 GMC also had limited
HVAP when introduced (again, approximately in September 44).

Check the vehicle statistics on the Yahoo Groups site under Files. It fixes the original tables and
includes ammunition availability. No vehicle hit location charts but the armour values are provided.

MULTIPLE LIGHT WOUNDS


What do you do when a model takes multiple Light Wounds? Is a second Light Wound equal a
Heavy Wound? What about a third one?

ANSWER: (I was in Easy Eight's Pathfinders program and was involved in some work on future
projects.)

This was the planned wound progression:

Light Wound + Light Wound = Heavy Wound


Heavy Wound + Light Wound = KIA
Light Wound + Heavy Wound = KIA
Heavy Wound + Heavy Wound = KIA

ANOTHER ANSWER: For all intents and purposes a second Light Wound disables the combatant.
We remove Heavy Wounded because they are incapacitated. Some guys play with Medics, which just
drags the game down. What we do sometimes is mark where a model went down so other
combatants can scrounge from it.

SMOKE DISCHARGERS SMOKESCREEN PATTERN/SIZE


How much of an area does a vehicle smoke discharger smoke screen cover? I cant find that in the
rules anywhere - does it shroud the entire vehicle in smoke, or does it cover just the front of the
vehicle?

ANSWER: If your copy of the main rule book is fairly recent then the rules for smoke dischargers
are explained in more detail at the back of the book (tucked away between the small arms and
sighting updates).

PANZER IV D/E HE ROUNDS


The play sheet I downloaded from Rolandos lists the Panzer IV D/E as having no HE - which I know
is incorrect. Anybody have a notion of what the proper HE value should be?

ANSWER: AP:18, HE:13, Size: Medium

MOTORCYCLES AS TARGETS
Was anything ever stated on how to deal with motorcycles? When using small arms, do you fire at
an open vehicle or at personnel?

ITALIAN 20/65 GUN


Does the Italian 20/65 use the small HE burst template or the HMG numbers with results on the
LCMG-2 table?

MG34 MG42 HMG SETUP ROF


When in its tripod HMG role it receives a additional D20 giving it a total of 5. It isnt called Hitler's
buzz saw for nothing! Keep that ammo coming!

U.S. AIR SUPPORT VARIANT RULE


One of the things we do for the U.S. is air support; every turn the allied team rolls a six-sided die
when the designated air support card is played, if they roll a six they get a P-47 rocket attack
mission to declare immediately, but the attack is not carried out until the air support card plays the
following turn. This gives the allied player support but needs to make a tactical decision about what
to do with that target between the time the mission is ordered and when its carried out.
ILUM MORTAR ROUNDS VARIANT RULE
Another thing we do for night battles is allow 1-3 illumination mortar rounds to spice things up.
This speeds up play a little too, for night battles, as the infantry you light up is typically less
concealed than normal.

AFV CREW BAIL OUT


When a crew is forced to bail-out from an AFV, does anyone know what the standard small arms
complement for the various crew nationalities was, particularly German and Soviet?

ANSWER: Tankers were always issued with submachine-guns and pistols. model they need
something more than a side arm and a rifle isnt suitable for popping out of a hatch to pick off some
fanatic trying to stuff a hot potato up your tailpipe.

Anyone use a die roll to keep from catching a pistol holster/ammo pouch/canteen on a hatch edge,
either entering or exiting? Maybe that is something to think about for Green crews? I dont think it
would be a problem for Elites, but a small chance with Regulars and a really good chance with
Green. Failure would mean they dont succeed in entering/exiting completely in that Action.

From the Actions list, I would say this is a GM call if there is one. Ill have to check the scenario for
Fury in the Fatherland, the one where the scouts encounter the Tiger with the crew fixing a track. I
think it had special rules for the situation.

The TC will probably have a side arm if he is American or German. As to the rest of the crew it
should be variable. The urgency of departure limited the scrounging of weapons. So we use a d6
system. 1= SMG, 2 or 3= pistol, 4 or 5=nothing, and 6= a grenade. That doesnt limit the crew to
scrounging the dead if they stick around. Most tank crews do not stick around for an infantry fight
after they bail out.

AFV CREW RE-ENTERING ABANDONED VEHICLES


Can they really all climb back by spending one action, or would that occur over several actions? And
if they do manage to climb in, can they spend actions as normal in the following action?

ANSWER:
I would think one action for boarding (maybe 2 depending on the size of the vehicle and the hatch
arrangement - the early Sherman front hatches ran front to rear, and were considered crew killers
in a crises); a second for starting the engine/putting in gear/etc for those who have a hatch available,
but for things like a Sherman with only a single turret hatch, it will take at least one action for each
crewman to get in through that hatch. The 2 hatch models still need to get one crewman in before
the other, so that would still tie things up for a second action at least.
If a tank crew recovers morale they should have to take a gut check to re-enter, especially if the
vehicle was immobilized. If they dont pass... adios. Dead crews should also create delays (like dead
drivers etc...).

ELEVATION DIFFERENCES
Does anyone have any house rules to address model elevation as it pertains to sighting and hit
modifiers? Example: if a rifleman is on the third floor of a building firing out a window, it seems to
us that they should get a sighting advantage and it seems reasonable that a target that is prone
should get less of a hit modifier if any.

HE FIRE AGAINST EXPOSED AFV CREWS


Is the tank commander the only one that can potentially get hurt? What if the hatches are just open
(because of constant buttoning and un-buttoning)?

ANSWER: We only put exposed crew at risk with direct fire HE. We just assume that the others
have the presence of mind to close up with then drop down. Maybe not in the "Hollywood" spirit of
the rules, but works for us.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Use the overlays with the appropriate cover. As to open hatches, we use a
rule for hard cover that could be applied. If an Mg or Flak weapon roll a one on any hit on a
building, we roll straight up on the rifle chart for hidden models. This represents ricochets, broken
glass, debris etc that fly around with large volumes of fire. It works pretty well and is realistic.

COAX AND HULL MG FIRE MODIFIERS FOR AFV MOVEMENT


Should they be penalized for tank movement both during the firing and as a previous action? It
seems that the +12 for firing while moving and the +5 for moving is a bit harsh for machineguns,
but no modifiers doesnt seem right either. I can't find anything that addresses this in the rules.
How do you guys play it?

ANSWER: We have the idea, can't say from where, that their hit probability is halved. So if you run
up to 5 of enemy infantry and open up you would be looking for a base 6. The effect of bouncing
about on what is basically a spraying weapon is much less pronounced than a one shot wonder.

MGs fire at half when moving and half again if the target is concealed (firing at an area). So, if you
have 6 shots (3 turret MG and 3 bow MG) at normal range while moving you would have 6 shots for
6 and at an area target 6 shots for 3's. By the way we have markers to indicate forward motion or
backward so players don't get confused as to the vehicle status.

ARMORED CARS
How do you all use them (rules-wise) in a game? We had a couple of Russian armoured cars with
mounted Light MGs (dont remember exactly what kind) the other day and several questions arose
and heres how we handled them.

Opening up on one with a MG-42: We counted hits and then determined chances to take hits on
armour plating, gunner, or tires. The gunner could choose to aim high or low to alter the chances of
hitting the tires or gunner.

Infantry Mine fields: Infantry mines could be triggered by the tires, automatically blowing out the
tire and rolling on the tank mine effects chart with a modifier.

Anti-tank mines: Same as tanks, but much increased chance of being blown up. We also decided to
randomize which tire was blown out to determine which way the vehicle rolled (or turned towards
rather) if the driver failed a gut/skill check. It worked pretty well with a nice Hollywood effect of one
of the Soviet AC losing control and slamming into a fountain.

ANSWER: I like the random rules. What we do with MGs and any armoured vehicle depends on the
crew being exposed or not. The +5 modifier: We have a rule for all hard targets that if a 1 is rolled on
a 20 sider, that all cover modifiers are void and a we roll for a hit result on a nearby target straight
up on the rifle chart. This reflects splattering, a bullet through a vision port, ricochets, shattering
glass, wood splinters etc... Of, course if the driver was the random target and gets a bad result, the
AC crashes, people get run over, flips... why the misery is endless. We've had a few good laughs at
some of the results. Hey stuff happens! You guys sound like you have fun, that's what gaming is
about. The only other thing I might add is that AC dont have the same traction off road as tracked
vehicles and should be penalized especially in mud. I was reading about an SS tank ace that had his
AC steering lock up. When he crawled under the vehicle he found a frozen Russian jammed in the
steerage. He had to hack saw the guy out while the body stared at him...

Note that like many Russian armoured cars the BA-64 was fitted for combat with bullet-proof
hard tires (of type GK) so that they wouldnt be subject to the kind of Hollywood effects you describe.
The hard tires wore out quicker and limited top speed to 40 km/h, so regular tires were used in the
rear areas. Perhaps your unit ran out of hard tires and had to make do with regular tires. Maybe
have the Russian commander roll to see what tires are on. Maybe with type GK (solid bullet-proof)
the movement is slightly reduced.

You can still get a Hollywood effect if the vehicle gets knocked out while moving. Roll to see how
much forward movement it gets after being hit and randomly the direction it takes. Makes for great
theatrics and some crash scenes similar to the picture A Bridge too Far, when Grabers 9th recon
takes it on the nose.

SiG 33 SP Gun
One production lot of 12 was made and committed to Stalingrad. The vehicle is based on the Panzer
III chassis which overloaded it.

Statistics are:
NAMEWtSizeHFTFHS/RTS/RHTTTSpdLoadTRTypeSmkHMGCMGAAMGGunAPAPCRHEATHE
HE
Size
SP Sig 3324S1725663363-Jan-AG15--LMG150S--3628Large

These are estimated stats - I didn't take the time to look up the actual vehicle stats, but they should
be close.

T34 SMOKE AMMO


Does anyone know if the T-34 regularly carried smoke rounds for its main armament?

ANSWER: I have never seen a reference to any Russian WWII AFV carrying smoke rounds. As far
as Ive read (and Ive read a lot), only US and British tanks appear to have regularly carried smoke
rounds. Ive read several accounts where Sherman crews fired smoke rounds at Tigers and Panthers
causing the German crews to bail thinking their tank was on fire.

Smoke rounds were issued to commanders vehicles on a LIMITED basis for the sole purpose of
marking targets. The use of smoke rounds for concealment was not a consideration, as the killing of
Germans was the only concern for tank weapons.

BATTLEGROUND WW2 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

NO QUARTER RULE
I just dont get this rule the way its written. Is the idea that the capturing player has to make a roll
in order to gun down the surrendering enemy troops? Or is the idea that the surrendering player
has to make a check to keep from going fanatic? I just don't get it. Can someone explain this to me?

ANSWER: I've never used the rule myself but I take it to mean that if Player A decides not to accept
the surrender of a surrounded enemy model he can shoot it to save wasting actions or men to
disarm/guard it.

As soon as Player A shoots a surrendering enemy miniature the No Quarter rule kicks in and
affects Player Bs troops (who will be outraged), so that if any of his troops are surrounded later in
the game they will make a Morale Check on the No Quarter Chart and if the roll is failed they go
fanatic instead of surrendering.
You can also shoot your own men to prevent them from surrendering and being captured (the way
the No Quarter Chart is written it would seem to imply that this tactic is only available to Russian
and German players - there are historical examples of this being used as a way of instilling
discipline in wavering troops). In this case the No Quarter rule would affect your own men and
should inspire them to fight on rather than surrender and risk being shot as a coward by their own
side.

SPECIAL AP AMMUNITION TYPES


German HVAP was normally restricted for use on the Russian Front as the Allies didnt have a tank
that really required its use. Although the only HVAP ammunition produced in quantity was for the
PaK38 (at the time, 1942, the ONLY gun available that could take a T34 out frontally) a limited
number of rounds were made for the German PaK40, 75L48, 75L70, and the 88L56 and L71 guns.
These were used only on the Eastern Front and I would make the die roll to obtain any a 20 on a
D20. If successful roll a D4 for the number of rounds.

On the other hand, in 1941 the German Mark III tanks with 50L42 rounds could each roll a D6-1
for HVAP rounds.

In February 1942 Hitler authorized the use of the German HEAT anti-tank rounds available but
held back. This would be available for the 75L24 gun, 105mm leFH18 howitzer, and the 75mm and
150mm IG.

Late war German tanks had HEAT, HE, APCBC ammunition and smoke. HEAT and smoke would
be available for the 75L24 tanks and SPH (Mark III Ausf N, 251/9, 250/8, 233 and 234/3 armoured
cars; Wespe, 105mm leFH18, SHIII 105mm). HEAT would be available for the Mark IV, Panther,
and Tiger tanks and the StuGIII and Panzerjager. It would be a limited availability round not likely
to be carried but with a better chance then the HVAP rounds on the eastern front. The main reason
for using it was that at combat ranges a hit would not only knock out the tank but any infantry
being carried. Hence, HEAT was also found more often on the Eastern Front.

British Ammunition: The 6pdr towed anti-tank gun had limited APDS as of D-Day. By the time of
the break-out the 17pdr Achilles and Archer would have limited APDS. The British kept 6pdr
armed Churchills to support the 75mm armed ones in Italy to provide a better anti-tank capability.
The US didnt get HVAP until September 44. This ammunition went to the TD units, both towed
and SP and was in limited quantity. Note that the M18 HVAP was usable in the 76.2mm armed
Sherman, but the M10 GMC and towed 3 gun ammunition wasnt. M36 GMC also had limited
HVAP when introduced (again, approximately in September 44).

Check the vehicle statistics on the Yahoo Groups site under Files. It fixes the original tables and
includes ammunition availability. No vehicle hit location charts but the armour values are provided.
MULTIPLE LIGHT WOUNDS
What do you do when a model takes multiple Light Wounds? Is a second Light Wound equal a
Heavy Wound? What about a third one?

ANSWER: (I was in Easy Eight's Pathfinders program and was involved in some work on future
projects.)

This was the planned wound progression:

Light Wound + Light Wound = Heavy Wound


Heavy Wound + Light Wound = KIA
Light Wound + Heavy Wound = KIA
Heavy Wound + Heavy Wound = KIA

ANOTHER ANSWER: For all intents and purposes a second Light Wound disables the combatant.
We remove Heavy Wounded because they are incapacitated. Some guys play with Medics, which just
drags the game down. What we do sometimes is mark where a model went down so other
combatants can scrounge from it.

SMOKE DISCHARGERS SMOKESCREEN PATTERN/SIZE


How much of an area does a vehicle smoke discharger smoke screen cover? I cant find that in the
rules anywhere - does it shroud the entire vehicle in smoke, or does it cover just the front of the
vehicle?

ANSWER: If your copy of the main rule book is fairly recent then the rules for smoke dischargers
are explained in more detail at the back of the book (tucked away between the small arms and
sighting updates).

PANZER IV D/E HE ROUNDS


The play sheet I downloaded from Rolandos lists the Panzer IV D/E as having no HE - which I know
is incorrect. Anybody have a notion of what the proper HE value should be?

ANSWER: AP:18, HE:13, Size: Medium

MOTORCYCLES AS TARGETS
Was anything ever stated on how to deal with motorcycles? When using small arms, do you fire at
an open vehicle or at personnel?

ITALIAN 20/65 GUN


Does the Italian 20/65 use the small HE burst template or the HMG numbers with results on the
LCMG-2 table?
MG34 MG42 HMG SETUP ROF
When in its tripod HMG role it receives a additional D20 giving it a total of 5. It isnt called Hitler's
buzz saw for nothing! Keep that ammo coming!

U.S. AIR SUPPORT VARIANT RULE


One of the things we do for the U.S. is air support; every turn the allied team rolls a six-sided die
when the designated air support card is played, if they roll a six they get a P-47 rocket attack
mission to declare immediately, but the attack is not carried out until the air support card plays the
following turn. This gives the allied player support but needs to make a tactical decision about what
to do with that target between the time the mission is ordered and when its carried out.

ILUM MORTAR ROUNDS VARIANT RULE


Another thing we do for night battles is allow 1-3 illumination mortar rounds to spice things up.
This speeds up play a little too, for night battles, as the infantry you light up is typically less
concealed than normal.

AFV CREW BAIL OUT


When a crew is forced to bail-out from an AFV, does anyone know what the standard small arms
complement for the various crew nationalities was, particularly German and Soviet?

ANSWER: Tankers were always issued with submachine-guns and pistols. model they need
something more than a side arm and a rifle isnt suitable for popping out of a hatch to pick off some
fanatic trying to stuff a hot potato up your tailpipe.

Anyone use a die roll to keep from catching a pistol holster/ammo pouch/canteen on a hatch edge,
either entering or exiting? Maybe that is something to think about for Green crews? I dont think it
would be a problem for Elites, but a small chance with Regulars and a really good chance with
Green. Failure would mean they dont succeed in entering/exiting completely in that Action.

From the Actions list, I would say this is a GM call if there is one. Ill have to check the scenario for
Fury in the Fatherland, the one where the scouts encounter the Tiger with the crew fixing a track. I
think it had special rules for the situation.

The TC will probably have a side arm if he is American or German. As to the rest of the crew it
should be variable. The urgency of departure limited the scrounging of weapons. So we use a d6
system. 1= SMG, 2 or 3= pistol, 4 or 5=nothing, and 6= a grenade. That doesnt limit the crew to
scrounging the dead if they stick around. Most tank crews do not stick around for an infantry fight
after they bail out.

AFV CREW RE-ENTERING ABANDONED VEHICLES


Can they really all climb back by spending one action, or would that occur over several actions? And
if they do manage to climb in, can they spend actions as normal in the following action?

ANSWER:
I would think one action for boarding (maybe 2 depending on the size of the vehicle and the hatch
arrangement - the early Sherman front hatches ran front to rear, and were considered crew killers
in a crises); a second for starting the engine/putting in gear/etc for those who have a hatch available,
but for things like a Sherman with only a single turret hatch, it will take at least one action for each
crewman to get in through that hatch. The 2 hatch models still need to get one crewman in before
the other, so that would still tie things up for a second action at least.

If a tank crew recovers morale they should have to take a gut check to re-enter, especially if the
vehicle was immobilized. If they dont pass... adios. Dead crews should also create delays (like dead
drivers etc...).

ELEVATION DIFFERENCES
Does anyone have any house rules to address model elevation as it pertains to sighting and hit
modifiers? Example: if a rifleman is on the third floor of a building firing out a window, it seems to
us that they should get a sighting advantage and it seems reasonable that a target that is prone
should get less of a hit modifier if any.

HE FIRE AGAINST EXPOSED AFV CREWS


Is the tank commander the only one that can potentially get hurt? What if the hatches are just open
(because of constant buttoning and un-buttoning)?

ANSWER: We only put exposed crew at risk with direct fire HE. We just assume that the others
have the presence of mind to close up with then drop down. Maybe not in the "Hollywood" spirit of
the rules, but works for us.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Use the overlays with the appropriate cover. As to open hatches, we use a
rule for hard cover that could be applied. If an Mg or Flak weapon roll a one on any hit on a
building, we roll straight up on the rifle chart for hidden models. This represents ricochets, broken
glass, debris etc that fly around with large volumes of fire. It works pretty well and is realistic.

COAX AND HULL MG FIRE MODIFIERS FOR AFV MOVEMENT


Should they be penalized for tank movement both during the firing and as a previous action? It
seems that the +12 for firing while moving and the +5 for moving is a bit harsh for machineguns,
but no modifiers doesnt seem right either. I can't find anything that addresses this in the rules.
How do you guys play it?
ANSWER: We have the idea, can't say from where, that their hit probability is halved. So if you run
up to 5 of enemy infantry and open up you would be looking for a base 6. The effect of bouncing
about on what is basically a spraying weapon is much less pronounced than a one shot wonder.

MGs fire at half when moving and half again if the target is concealed (firing at an area). So, if you
have 6 shots (3 turret MG and 3 bow MG) at normal range while moving you would have 6 shots for
6 and at an area target 6 shots for 3's. By the way we have markers to indicate forward motion or
backward so players don't get confused as to the vehicle status.

ARMORED CARS
How do you all use them (rules-wise) in a game? We had a couple of Russian armoured cars with
mounted Light MGs (dont remember exactly what kind) the other day and several questions arose
and heres how we handled them.

Opening up on one with a MG-42: We counted hits and then determined chances to take hits on
armour plating, gunner, or tires. The gunner could choose to aim high or low to alter the chances of
hitting the tires or gunner.

Infantry Mine fields: Infantry mines could be triggered by the tires, automatically blowing out the
tire and rolling on the tank mine effects chart with a modifier.

Anti-tank mines: Same as tanks, but much increased chance of being blown up. We also decided to
randomize which tire was blown out to determine which way the vehicle rolled (or turned towards
rather) if the driver failed a gut/skill check. It worked pretty well with a nice Hollywood effect of one
of the Soviet AC losing control and slamming into a fountain.

Just thought Id ask and see how you fine folks handle such things.

ANSWER: I like the random rules. What we do with MGs and any armoured vehicle depends on the
crew being exposed or not. The +5 modifier: We have a rule for all hard targets that if a 1 is rolled on
a 20 sider, that all cover modifiers are void and a we roll for a hit result on a nearby target straight
up on the rifle chart. This reflects splattering, a bullet through a vision port, ricochets, shattering
glass, wood splinters etc... Of, course if the driver was the random target and gets a bad result, the
AC crashes, people get run over, flips... why the misery is endless. We've had a few good laughs at
some of the results. Hey stuff happens! You guys sound like you have fun, that's what gaming is
about. The only other thing I might add is that AC dont have the same traction off road as tracked
vehicles and should be penalized especially in mud. I was reading about an SS tank ace that had his
AC steering lock up. When he crawled under the vehicle he found a frozen Russian jammed in the
steerage. He had to hack saw the guy out while the body stared at him...
Note that like many Russian armoured cars the BA-64 was fitted for combat with bullet-proof
hard tires (of type GK) so that they wouldnt be subject to the kind of Hollywood effects you describe.
The hard tires wore out quicker and limited top speed to 40 km/h, so regular tires were used in the
rear areas. Perhaps your unit ran out of hard tires and had to make do with regular tires. Maybe
have the Russian commander roll to see what tires are on. Maybe with type GK (solid bullet-proof)
the movement is slightly reduced.

You can still get a Hollywood effect if the vehicle gets knocked out while moving. Roll to see how
much forward movement it gets after being hit and randomly the direction it takes. Makes for great
theatrics and some crash scenes similar to the picture A Bridge too Far, when Grabers 9th recon
takes it on the nose.

SiG 33 SP Gun
One production lot of 12 was made and committed to Stalingrad. The vehicle is based on the Panzer
III chassis which overloaded it.

Statistics are:
NAMEWtSizeHFTFHS/RTS/RHTTTSpdLoadTRTypeSmkHMGCMGAAMGGunAPAPCRHEATHE
HE
Size
SP Sig 3324S1725663363-Jan-AG15--LMG150S--3628Large

These are estimated stats - I didn't take the time to look up the actual vehicle stats, but they should
be close.

T34 SMOKE AMMO


Does anyone know if the T-34 regularly carried smoke rounds for its main armament?

ANSWER: I have never seen a reference to any Russian WWII AFV carrying smoke rounds. As far
as Ive read (and Ive read a lot), only US and British tanks appear to have regularly carried smoke
rounds. Ive read several accounts where Sherman crews fired smoke rounds at Tigers and Panthers
causing the German crews to bail thinking their tank was on fire.

Smoke rounds were issued to commanders vehicles on a LIMITED basis for the sole purpose of
marking targets. The use of smoke rounds for concealment was not a consideration, as the killing of
Germans was the only concern for tank weapons.

HERO CHARACTER: MICHAEL WITTMAN


On July 1944 Michael Wittman was the commander of the 2nd Company, 101st SS Heavy Tank
Battalion in action in Normandy, on 13 June 44 to 8 August 44. 101st SS Hvy Tank BN, 2nd Coy
and 1st Coy arrived in its assembly areas SW of Panzer Lehr Division, near Villars-Bocage, on the
night of 12 June 1944. In a counter-attack against 200+ British tanks (including 36 Fireflies) with 7
other Tigers (the entire Battalion at that time, mostly from 3rd Company, the unit wrote an
amazing chapter in armoured warfare history. Wittman was killed on 8 August 44. Information on
Villars-Bocage taken from VILLERS-BOCAGE THROUGH THE LENS, by Daniel Taylor, AFTER
THE BATTLE.

BGWW2 stats: Elite Crew. Wittmann is an 18-3 leader (hope I have that right, that 18 is Elite).
Wittmann's Tiger gets 2 cards (total of 4 actions per turn).

The extra card and 2 actions should provide Wittmann's Tiger I with the necessary capability,
combined with the -5 chance to hit, to simulate the action at Villars-Bocage.

Wittmann actually didnt fight from his tank (#201) but instead was in Tiger 222 (commander
Unterscharfuhrer Sowa). It was immobilized by a 6 pdr while he was withdrawing from Villars-
Bocage back to his company, which, with 1st Company was engaged against 'A' Squadron on Hill
213. Note that the 7th Armoured Division was equipped with Cromwell cruiser tanks, except for
some Sherman OP tanks (with a dummy 75mm), Firefly 17 pdr Shermans (1 per Troop or 4 per
Squadron), and Stuarts in the RHQ Recce Troop.

TANK COMBAT ADDITIONS


There are a number of things that BattleGround World War Two does not take into account:

1. For a Tiger like Wittmans, the size round being handled lead to loader fatigue and the rules dont
really handle crew fatigue.
2. Turret traverse in the Tiger often had more impact on rate of fire than reload speed. If you can't
point the gun at the target, being loaded does not matter.
3. The ready rack is only a small part of ammo supply. Rounds stored on the other side of the
breech are usually moved during lulls with the loader and the gunner working together. Sustained
rates of fire are harder to maintain once the ready rack is depleted.
4. Tank firing accumulate shell casings on the floor. I have one account of a crew tripping and
taking the time to pitch some of the expended cartridges out the loading hatch of a Mk. III in the
midst of a battle in North Africa.

Wittman's crew would be faster with Wittman in charge than if Schultz is tank commander.

A possible home rule would be to make you specify the contents of the ready rack for each tank
before the game started. No HE in the ready rack, add two actions to load HE. Want to fire a second
HE, that would take another two actions. Planning for battle is everything. The bookkeeping
amounts to little and this is a big improvement.
As to expended shell casings cluttering the floor of a tank, actions to clear them out (dumping them
out of the turret) will be necessary after a number of shots. After 10+1d10 shots, actions must be
used to clear-up the turret floor or the loading speed in actions will be doubled. Roll after the 10th
shot. The loader and gunner can cooperate to clear the shell casings. Once they have spent as many
actions as the die roll result, the turret floor is clear. Repeat the process after 10 more shots.

SMOKE RULES
I have recently acquired a set of the Battleground rules and I have not been able to find reference
for the rules regarding smoke placement. Namely, is the template for a smoke shell the size of the
appropiate gun and what is the drift rate for smoke. Any thoughts or references would be
appreciated.

The smoke rules are in the Terrain section on page 13 and in the Small Arms Update. Use the
appropriate HE template for the gun. Blocks line of sight but provides no cover. Will drift d6 based
on wind direction, use a d8.

Grenade smoke lasts 3 turns, artillery smoke for 4 turns. Burning vehicles last all game.

Its the size of the HE that the gun would fire. Smoke movement would be random in where you
would roll a D8 to see the direction of the wind and a D4, D6, D8, D10 or whatever you want it to be
and it will move that many inches during the artillery phase. I cant remember the dissipation rate
but I believe it gets 1 ring smaller after its hit. Id have to check that though.

M1 GARAND RIFLE
Should the US M1 semi auto carbine have a smaller range compared to the M1 Garand semi auto
rifle - all my reference material suggests it should be somewhere between an SMG and a rifle?

I've fired both of these weapons (dating myself here). The M1 Garand fires
the .30-06 that we all know. The M1 Carbine fires a .30 cal cartridge that
looks like a .22 on steroids and has a shorter barrel. The carbine does not
have the range or hitting power of the Garand but is easier to handle in
close up action. Both are semi-auto.

The Carbine has a shorter range than the M1 rifle. The books and the
gunsmiths do not lie. :-)
Now....
I have to assume you want this to be answered in 'game terms'.
The carbines in our BGWW2 games has the following stats.

M1 Carbine SLR
RoF:2 Crew :1 Range Type: Rifle 2 Effect: Rifle +2 Jam: 20
Special rules: No Effect penalty at Point Blank range or Effective
range. No Extreme range band.

M2 Carbine (45 on only)SLR


RoF:3 Crew: 1 Range Type: Rifle 2 Effect : Rifle +2 Jam : 19+
Special rules: No Effect penalty at Point Blank range or Effective
range. No Extreme range band.

So as you can see ... the M1 (or later M2) are essentially a 'rifle' at
Point Blank and Effective range.
It has a little bit shorter range in inches for Long and has no
'Extreme' range ... and at Long range .. it also
suffers from a Effects penalty on the Rifle damage with a +2, .... so
.. its not 'hitting' as 'hard' as the
rifle does.

You could rule that it can not be fired at the longest range band. I
don't have my rules with me, but I think that it already assigns a
penalty to the effect roll? So that should account for the lower
caliber round.

Effective range for the carbine is 200 meters, and it was not renown for its
stopping power. It "replaced" the .45 cal pistol or M1 rifle for weapon
crews because it was very hard to train troops to hit anything with the
automatic pistol, and the M1 rifle was heavy. Most pistol ranges are under
50 meters (10 meters effective range is good) and most SMG have an effective
range of about 100 meters.

M1 Rifle Effective range is 500 meters.

The Carbines in our games have the Rifle Ranges ..... BUT there is -2"
on 'Long Range' and 'Effective'
So .. in BGWW2 the rifle has an Effective range of 15" ... the Carbine
(with its -2") would have an Effective Range of 13".
The Rifle has a Long range of 40"" ... the Carbine (with its -2") would
have an Long Range of 38".
... and there is No 'Extreme' range (because .. YES ... they were
renowned for being very poor at extreme ranges).
We have it so that they are 'normal' rifle ranges at Point Blank.

The 'Effects' is that of a Rifle ('E' type damage) .... BUT .. there is
a penalty of -2 on effects at Long range (as to show the bullet is
loosing its stopping power at that longer range.)

So ... in the end you have a weapon that is better than an SMG in the
game ... but not as good as the rifle.
Which is just about where it should be ... according to the history
books and weapon enthusiast out there. :-)
I hope THAT helps!
TTYL...Tony

My 2 cents. It's hard in game turns to express what advantage the carbine
has. Although it didn't have the knock down power of other weapons, it is a
better snap shooting weapon especially in close combat. Since auto fire rifles
have a ROF of 2 and SMG's a ROF of 3 there doesn't seem to be (at least in game
terms) a way to demonstrate this advantage. Also, because the ammunition was
lighter and the ROF manageable, it is easy to see why some favored it. One
thing about SMG's not quantified in game turns is ammo consumption (verses
reliability) . I guess for all intents, we have the same problem for an MP 44. A
true assault rifle, it has an ROF of 2 not 3. So the tweeners are more
difficult to quantify. Maybe you could make the carbine more accurate at close
range (it's real advantage opposed to throwing lots of lead) and give the MP 44
an ROF of 3 at close range ( can fire more ammo before reload ).

TANKERS CHALLENGE ERRATA


Take a look at the German Tiger 2 side turret armour. It probably reads '19' which should be 9.

Look at the SU122, SU85, SU100, ISU122, ISU152, and SU152. They probably
show a LMG in either the hull or as a coax machinegun. None of these
self-propelled guns had a LMG in a hull or coax mount. The ISU vehicles
could have a 12.7mm AA HMG.

There are other errors.

Tracer Rounds
Unless they were handled in Battlewire/line I can't find them. Tracers
should give gunners a bonus to hit, say a +2, since that's their
primary purpose. They should also increase the chance of daytime
spotting (double it), and make it an auto-spot at night. I don't think
that tracer rounds were a common load for infantry, was it? I was thinking something similar in
terms of what the tracers should
do--although I worry a little that the auto-spot at night might be a
little too powerful.

I think maybe tracers were more common in some theaters than others?
What precipitated my question was reading a very interesting account
of a battle in Tunisia of all places between British Troops and
Tunisia where both sides were using tracer ammo.

Answer: The main use for tracers is to show the gunner where his rounds are going
using the tracer trails.

They are actually a detriment at night because they show the location of the
firer and the line of fire. Hint, move between the tracers from the two MG
positions. Some gunners actually removed the tracers from pre-loaded belts
- especially WWI and WWII fighter aircraft since tracer rounds whizzing by
the cockpit were a sure sign someone was on your six. No tracers, no
warning. Tracers actually don't make it easier to see your target, only to
see where your bullets are going.

One major use in daylight was to mark a target using the tracers. This was
one way infantry could show supporting armor a target they wanted the armor
to fire at - shoot tracers from a BAR or LMG at the target (or fire a flare
at the target). This would be pre-arranged so the armor commanders would
know what to look for.

Tracers were also used in night actions during major offensives to mark the
boundaries for the advancing units (usually armored units) to help the armor
navigate. The British and Canadians used Vickers HMG and 20mm-37mm AA
tracer for markers.

Hello to all. This is not the usual question about the HE effects against infantry in buildings.
We are playing the reglament and now we are playing with tanks for the first time. The
situation is this:

There's a small village with several US infantry soldiers in it, the German side is attacking
with infantry and a tank. The tank has not seen any enemy yet (buttoned up, moving) but the
german infantry has seen several enemies in several buildings so he knows the location
of several soldiers. The German infantry is not close to their tank.

The tank owner claims that he can shoot the building normally without applying any negative
modifiers for no target because he
says that the objective is the building, not the models in it (but
the shot will affect the models in it normally).

I say that this is gamey and should not be applied but he claims
that because the rules say:

In the chapter "HE versus Infantry" it says:

"Terrain Check the Terrain rules for special cases to this


procedure."

And in the terrain chapter:

"HE effects vs buildings Any HE direct fire shell that hits a wood
building will blast through and spray those inside with shrapnel.
Once a hit has been determined, use the HE blast template and place
the center point on the wall at point of impact, with arrow pointing
in the direction of fire"

"Any model within this cone is effected, in whatever ring he falls


under, just as any other HE shot"

That he should be able to hit the building as objective so he does


not need to do sighting checks and does not apply the negative
modifier for no target.

Is this correct?. Is it is so, then could I just make direct HE fire


against a tree to kill the infantry near it?. For me this is gamey
but I would like to ask for your opinion because maybe I'm wrong and
tanks are way too powerful with this ruleset.

)))))))))))))))))))))) Hello, I have heard this argued both ways. I only allow area fire (1/2 to
hit) if the infantry are not spotted. Then if the round still hits , it hits. You
would shoot up buildings if you thought there might be enemies
inside...wouldn' t you? What the game does not take into account is near misses or for that
matter building collapse, fires etc... . We have rules for all of these except
near misses. We also have a rule that if the to hit die roll is a one, then
the building defense is reversed (-7 for stone/-5 for wood) critical
hit/shrapnel effect. Yes, HE is deadly so compensate for it...land mines, gammon bombs,
demos etc... . After you play a while, you will get the feel for the scenario
balance you want. After all, that's where the iron crosses grow.
)))))))))))))))))))))) You can do it two ways.

1. The tank can fire only if it spots a target OR an infantry model


in communication with the tank and any other unit that has spotted
fire from an enemy unit can point out the target to the tank.
-snip-

This has been an pretty interesting discussion. I tend to agree with


this interpretation.

The argument described in the original message reminds me of the


largest argument I've ever had with my steady gaming buddy. We were
involved in a quasi-campaign set in the Normandy bocage with he having
German forces and I some Americans. In one game (the last of the
campaign due to this ferocious argument), he had two infantry prone in
a foxhole in front of a building. I had an M5 sitting several inches
away facing the building. I had placed an OpFire marker on the
hull MG during the "mark special fire" phase (more to shoot at anyone
poppping up in a window with a panzerfaust) . The chit for the
infantry in the foxhole came up and he had them stnd and then dash
into the building behind them. I did a sighting check, saw them (hard
to not at such short range), and got a KIA on both. This started the
argument.

His feeling was I could not place on OpFire marker on the hull MG
because a "target" was visibile - the building. I countered that no
infantry or vehciles were visible and thus I could set an OpFire
marker. He countered that since a tank could fire at a building, the
9building constituted a "target" and was clearly visible. And it went
on. We never resolved it and it soured our BGWWII gaming for quite
some time. I even sent an email in to "The Sarge" (this was quite
some time ago) and asked about the situation. "The Sarge" agreed with
me that buildings as such were not "targets" for purposes of OpFire.
As "The Sarge" pointed out, you could fire HE into the middle of an
empty field and that did not make the empty field a "target" just
because you could shoot at it. A "target" had to be a visible enemy
model, vehicle, or crew served weapon.

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) Let the round fly. The target is the building and thats what you
are aming at and anyone in it will get hit as normal. You have
found one of the very few shakey rules in the system.
)))))))))))))))))))))))))))) I always struggle with defining the physical impact to the building, and how to
model it.

I have a hit location for the building so that there is variation in the impact...if the round hits in the
lower left hand corner and the model is in the third story right window there is no effect....

)))))))))))))))))))))) This is one of the tricky aspects of any miniatures game. The player
has an omniscient view of the game that the vehicle never would. This
is a great house rule. Another alternative is to decrease the effect
ring by 1 level, thus an "A" hit becomes a "B" hit and so on. This
will ultimately decrease the chance of being killed by a blind shot,
but still give a lot of morale checks which is to be expected if the
building that you are in is getting pounded.

In addition, make sure that you use the cone on the template. A
model might be within the circle of the template, but still not
within the cone, so they should not be affected.

))))))))))))))))))))) I agree with this somewhat. The building did not present a target of
opportunity and your buddy should have understood that. However, a church tower could
be a target to deny the enemy an observation point, a building a stronghold or
ambush position. So the ambiguity goes on and its best to come to an agreable
solution before the shooting starts.

That's my house rule too, you can aim at a point on the building with
no target at 1/2 to hit. If you hit, you hit the target area. If you
miss I use a very simple deviation resolution method. Use a d12 to
determine scatter as an o'clock deviation from the aim point, and a d6
for distance. So for example, if your aim point is a 2nd story window
and you "miss" you'd roll deviation. If the d12 deviation roll is a
"6" (6 o'clock) and the d6 distance roll is a "2" then you hit the
floor below your aim point and you conduct HE effects as normal for
any models there. OTH, if your deviation was a "12" (12 o'clock) on a
d12, and distance a "2" on a d6 then the round sails harmlessly over
the building.
You can do it two ways.

1. The tank can fire only if it spots a target OR an infantry model in


communication with the tank and any other unit that has spotted fire from an
enemy unit can point out the target to the tank. This normally requires the
tank to be open (turret TC hatch open), the infantry model to be riding on
the back of the tank, and for the infantry model to be within the normal
required distance to another infantryman who is in communication distance of
the unit that spotted the fire (this may go down the line through several
models until it reaches the spotting model/unit) . The distance is due
to the noise outside it is harder to hear and inside you dont hear
anything but the engine, tracks, and your own weapon fire. Unless this
situation occurs, the tank has to spot the firing enemy unit before it can
fire at them. Note that US units added an infantry field telephone to the
right rear of Sherman tanks to allow the infantry to talk to the tank from
behind the tank, rather then having to be on the tank. This was done either
sometime late in the Normandy Campaign or after the Bulge. It was also done
in Italy and in the Pacific, all at different times.

2. The tank can fire at hidden units blind fire. The chance to hit the
building or woods doesnt change, but modify the chance to actually wound
any model in the blast to a very low number. Perhaps 1 KO, 2 Light Wound 3
Morale Check 4+ no effect with no modifiers. For MG fire a 1 is required
for a Morale check to be made. Failure to make the morale check does 2
things a. affects the model as normal per the rules and b. gives the
firing unit a spotted result so the TC now has seen movement or fire from
the previously hidden unit.

Dont forget to make the tank commanders reload and specify the type shell.
AP going through a building will result in a Morale Check on 1 model in the
building in the same room if a 1 is rolled.

Method 1. is much more effective, but it will soon become very hard on the
guy on the tank or assault gun rear deck as he will become the target of
snipers and mortars. It also keeps the turret hatch open even if the TC is
down in the turret.

Shootin buildings - --

All the rules lawyer stuff appears to be in order.


The problem appears to be with the scenario:

1) If the objective is the building (not DESTROY the building) then any damage or fire should confer
victory points to the American (double in spring and fall rainy seasons and triple in winter) infantry
generally sought to capture these intact for shelter.

2) Most scenarios permit all vehicles to start the scenario will a full load of ammo. Given the
capacity of most vehicle ammo racks, the gamer probably can't empty the ready rack in the turret in
a full 8 hours of gaming. We have started the scenario with 3 die rolls
1D4 - Special ammo - Smoke and specials like HEAT and WP.
1D6 - HE
1D8 - AP

In campaigns, we subtract one from the die rolls for each previous action fought. (An alternative is
keep track from week to week, or month to month, and do some supply role or the like.

The tanker can choose to take the specials as a combination of AP & HE after he sees all the rolls.
Any tank on the board without AP ammo, with an enemy AFV present will leave the table. [We just
pick it up and take it off. This may occur when an infantry unit receives armor reinforcements. ]

We also use buildings with interior walls! Template is blocked by wall segments. Since the attacker
can't know the layout of a building from outside, the defender draws a diagram on an index card
and marks the position of his troops. The attackers shoots and the template is laid on the card with
the center on the outer wall. Those in the first room are affected as per the rules. All others are only
affected if the round causes a fire (the reason for the WP roll)

This seems to make a less trigger happy game especially kids playing (regardless of age)!

Brians hit it on the head. Let the round fly!!! If I were a tank commander and suspected enemy
infantry in some buildings I probably would unleash some HE!!

SOVIET BEDSPRING ARMOR


Seems late in the war some Soviet tankers started welding wire mesh frames on their tanks, and
in some cases a sort of armor skirt, to help protect against Panzerfausts and other shaped
charge rounds. How would this be treated in BGWWII rules?? Would it be the same as the rules
for Panzer Schrzen, but only in those locations covered?

ANSWER: I have to admit that if this was something the Red army did, it was not that common. I
have seen a lot of combat photos and I cannot remember seeing one with the application. There
were an awful lot of brewed up Russian tanks in Berlin. The last Knights Cross winner knocked out
16 odd tanks with PF there.

After 43, How many photos are there of German tanks with churtzen? If you use the
chinken wire, it should not be common. PS, I just ran my Hells Corner
scenario for Recon. It had 13 afv's , 4 jeeps, 1 Kubelwagen, 1 motorcycle with side
car, 1 I&R squad, 3 regular US squads, 1 50 cal, 1 30 cal, 1 57l gun, 2 US
FO's, 1 German FO, 1 German sniper, 1 pioneer sqaud, 2 Germ. assault sqauds, 1
Germ MMG, 2 Germ infantry support sqauds and 2 command groups. Even though we
were a turn or two short of a definite resolution (4 hours), the game was a hoot with a lot of
destruction on both sides. The key is putting troops into contact immediately. Play testing the
scenario. Game master stays in control of the game.

In the end we have agreed that a tank firing on a building to an unseen target is done with a no-
target penalty. Seems the more logical solution to all of us.

SOME RULES QUESTIONS


1. How often must I reload the different weapons? Maybe must I count every shot? And, What about
LMGs?
ANSWER: You don't have to reload any of those weapons. The only time you have to expend an
Action for these weapons is if you have to clear a JAM result, move it's tri-pod or break down or set
up the weapon. In general, the game assumes that you can reload quick enough to keep up a decent
rate of fire. The Jam result can indicate an actual jam, or just a slower rate of reloading the gun. It's
one of the things that are a little more abstract in the game. We found in our games that weapons
jammed much too frequently to be realistic, so when a jam happens the gunner does a skill check
(guts check), and if that fails the weapon actually jams.

As already stated reloading is included as part of the jam die. Some weapons dont jam as you
have time to reload while shooting and the weapons are so reliable jamming is statistically
irrelevant. If I remember correctly most LMG jam on a roll of 20 on any of the D20 rolled when
firing. Without a loader it goes up to a 19 or 20. All weapons that can jam (or run out of ammo and
need to be reloaded) use the same procedure.

We've talked about unrealistic jam rates in my group many times. Even a 1 in 20 chance is far
removed from reality. We've never really settled on a fix for it though. I like your idea of making it a
skill check.

Some weapons DO have to be reloaded; notably anti-tank and vehicle guns, bazookas, PIATs and
Panzerschreck. There really isn't a 'reload' for infantry held weapons (tanks and the like... yes... but
men? no.) The only time you would have to use 'man-actions' would be to 'break down' a weapon...
and while you were moving it it would cost you your normal 'move' action anyway. (break down and
move are separate 'actions') The only other is when you roll a 'jam' on you shooting die. When this
happens it means many things (gun jammed, malfunctioned, was out
of ammo and the like) but the result means the gun can not be fired again UNTIL you use a
man-action to remove that 'JAM' chit.

The Jam rate does not only represent a real jam. Running out of ammo and reloading are also
generically included. Run out of ammo and you have to reload... that simple. Since there is no
reloading in the game the jam works nicely. Always inconvenient to run out of ammo at the wrong
moment. The more rapid fire the weapon the greater the chance. We use red, white, and blue die
along with any other for four rollers for MG's to determine when the jam/out of ammo happened.

You have to have some kind of roll where it hinders you from what you want to do. This represents
all those little things that could happen in combat that forces you not to fire at that moment even if
you want to. Jams, reloads, sight corrections, aiming for a quick shot, untangling that barbwire
from around your gun, wiping away the grit in your eyes, stop sneezing, burn your hand on the
barrel, flinch from that hornet bite, stop coughing, finish pucking, leading a target, watching or
listening to your COs orders, etc. A 1 in 20 change of any of those things happening whilst trying to
fire is very fair to me. Just don't get hung up on the word JAM because it could mean a score of
things why you can't fire when you want to.

2. In the main rules i have the "Gewehr43" characteristics, but in the tally sheet i can't equip my
soldiers with it! How many points must I spend acquiring the Gewehr 43?
ANSWER: GeW43 would fire like a SLR with a range of a rifle and they were somewhat rare but
you can still arm your men with them. I usually give them or a MP44 to my men in a 1/5 ratio as I
play late war SS and they tend to have the better weaponry ten the normal Heer units would. The
Gewehr41 and Gewehr43 were relatively rare compared to other German weapons. The GW41 didnt
work well and was usually restricted to sniper use. The GW43 worked better and was much more
successful, but not many were made. Waffen SS, Luftwaffe ground units, and snipers might have 1
or 2 per squad (the 1 to 5 ratio).

A. German forces can have the Gew43 when playing Late war (after 43) scenarios). The weapon was
rare (and usually only given the more elite formations... but this is by no means 'the rule'. In my
games, when we use them we give them out at a 1 gew43 per every 5 models. We also have a
random die roll we sometimes use when we want to have a truly 'random mix' (German for militias,
ad-hoc forces etc.)

Get a d-10. Roll it for every man in the force (except for the LMG gunner you pick.
roll of a '1'= Gew43
roll of a '2'= Stgr-44 (also known as MP-44)
roll of a '3-5' = MP-40/41 SMG
roll of a '6-10' = Kar 98
3. In "Infantry page 5" says: "Normal check", "half check" and "Quarter check". How must I do the
Half and quarter check?
ANSWER: You would make those checks off the miniatures Morale for whatever reason. Also, the
1/2 check is checking at 1/2 of the base morale, and 1/4 would be 1/4 of the morale. The check is for
each model that needs to make it, not necessarily for the whole squad. The only time you have to
check for the entire squad is when you do a squad integrity check.

ANOTHER ANSWER: Normal check. Roll a D20 to make the model or units quality level, say 16. A
half check means you roll a D20 to make a check half normal or in this example you need of 16 or
an 8 or less. A quarter check is of normal or you need to make of 16 or 4 or less on a D20 roll.

ANOTHER ANSWER: you roll this by taking the model's 'skill' Lumber. Example: lets say he is
'normal' and has a 10. A 'Half' check would be a '5' (or less) to roll. (ouch) and a 'quarter check'
would be a 2.5 (but we round up) so a '3' would be needed. (super ouch). You roll these when the
game ask you to (or if in your scenario YOU or the Ref (who ever is running the game) tells you that
you need to.

One example we had in a game was that American fighters were 'bombing' the area nearby (but no
bombs ever made it on our little piece of the ground/table) . Every time we drew the 'Jack' it meant
a bomber was dropping its payload so every model had to make a 'half gut check'. If he 'failed' the
model immediately dropped prone (f he was already prone... it didn't matter... but it still had to
roll... in case it rolled a '1' (hero) or a '20' craven coward'.

Spraying Fire
Every so often the nagging problem of differentiating the special fire modes creeps in.
Last game we had two opposing models armed with SMGs both marked Spraying Fire. We knew we
both only had one turn because of the special
fire but the problem was, do we throw 3 dice for the SMG or do we throw one die? The other
question that came up was if this is a simultaneous
Action, do both models have to take half morale checks to take the action? We've had this come up
often with the question of how many dice are thrown while the different Special Fire Modes are in
play?

PRONE CREWS
Can crewmen remain prone and still man/load their assigned weapons or ordnance? Does this apply
to all types of "crew" served weapons including BAR gunners and such?
Answer: Yes if the weapon natural allows for such operations such as a German 50mm mortar. If a
weapon is fired in a bipod configuration, it is usually being used in the LMG role. Once tripod
mounted they are Medium or Heavy MGs (typically, make sure to check the weapon stats and play
sheets). Many systems will allow for prone firing, however, check the specific crew weapon.
MORTAR LOAD TIME
What does a mortar's load time of 1/2 denote? Are mortars able to load and fire in the same action?
Answer: Yes. Load and fire in a single action. The 1/2 means that you can load and fire in the
same action. This is very useful for AT Guns.

BAR VS BREN
Why does the Bren get the other special modes and the BAR doesn't? They are both clip feed, but the
Bren's listing doesn't list the restrictions the BAR suffers from. I am more than happy to accept a
historical/fire based reason and not necessarily a rules based reason.
Answer: They should both be the same in restrictions. I think that this was addressed in one of the
supplements. I would add that the BAR is a Pre-Machine Gun and would not get the same modifiers
as a sustained fire full automatic machine gun.

The Bren does have the ROF3 due to the magazine. The quick change barrel allows for a better
Sustained Fire over the BAR. The Bren overall, is a better weapon system and is superior to the
BAR. It should receive the ability to use all fire modes as it was used in this role with great success.
The BAR could not be used in this fashion. The BAR is a great weapon, just limited; the BAR has
the range of a LMG and a ROF of 3.

TANK & AFV WEAPON CONTROLS


Gunner. The gunner controlled the turret rotation and gun elevation, and had the firing trigger for
the main gun and the coax machinegun. Triggers could be in the control handle or a foot pedal.
Turret rotation could be electric (Mark IV/H) or hydraulic (Panther, Tiger I, Sherman) or manual
(all). Some vehicles had no assisted rotation - the gunner turned the turret with his body - but this
was limited to very light guns, like the 2pdr. Most tanks were set up so the loader could turn at
least one wheel of the two used to rotate the turret and raise and lower the gun, and the loader was
responsible for clearing Coax machinegun jams and loading the Coax machinegun.

If the turret was electric or hydraulic powered the gunner could fire the main gun or the coax while
the turret was turning, but would be unable to aim. This could and would often be used with the
coax but not the main gun since a spray of fire could be useful. Accurate fire was done when halted.

Some German tanks (Panther) had markings on the inside of the turret ring which matched
markings on the inside of the commander's cupola. This allowed the commander to direct the
gunner to rotate the turret in a direction corresponding to the markings. The only Allied tank set-
up that way I know of was the Centaur which had the directions on the outside of the turret
allowing an outside observer to provide the vehicle a method to aim at targets spotted by the
observer. The gunner would have the same parkings on the inside of the turret.