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Filing Code: ss-407

AM Type 446 Stainless Steel

MAY 1982
@ Copyright 1980. Engineering Publications, Inc. All rights r-em& Publded by
MN: 002-614X Engineering Alloys Digest, Inc.
AISI Type446 Upper Montclair, New Jersey
(Ferritic Stainless Steel)
AISI Type 446 is a high-chromium (nominally 25%) ferritic, heat-resistant alloy with excellent resistance to oxidation and to various forms of hot
corrosion. The alloy is used most commonly for service between 1500 and 2200F (815 and IZOOC), although its elevated-temperature strength is
quite low. Among its many applications are combustion chambers, kiln linings, oil-burner components and annealing boxes.
Composition: Physical Constants:
Carbon 0.15 max. Density, Ib/cu in. (kg/m3) 0.270 (7470)
Manganese 1.50 max. Melting range, OF (C) 2640-2710(1450-1488)
Phosphorus 0.040 max. Specific heat, Btu/lb.F 0.12
Sulfur 0.030 max. J1kg.K 500
Silicon I .OCl max. Thermal expansion See Table I
Chromium 23.00-27.00 Thermal conductivity See Table 2
Nitrogen 0.25 max. Electrical resistivity See Table 2
Iron Remainder Elastic properties See Table 3
Magnetic permeability. r,r (H = 200 oersteds) (Annealed) 62.8

Mean Coefficient Temperature Mean Coefficient
Range, F Per F Per OC Range, F Per F Per C
70- 200 5.7 x 10-6 10.3 x 10-6 70- 1200 6.3 x 10-6 I I .3 x m-6
70- 500 5.8 10.4 70-1400 6.4 11.5
70- 800 6.0 10.8 70-1600 6.7 12.1
70- 1000 6.1 11.0 70-1800 7.3 13.1


Thermal Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Table 3 - ELASTIC PROPERTIES (Dynamic)
F Btu ft/ft2 . hr. F W/m. K ohm . circ mil/ft microhm m Temper- Modulus of Modulus of
ature Poissons
32 13.1
13.8 22.6
23.8 420
345 0.57
0.69 - F Elasticity
psi x 106 Rigidity
psi x (Shear)
106 Ratio
392 14.7 25.5 480 0.80 80 30.4 11.9 0.28
572 15.7 27.2 540 0.89 200 29.8 II.6 0.282
752 16.4 28.5 590 0.98 400 28.7 11.2 0.285
932 17.4 30.1 640 1.06 600 27.7 10.7 0.29
1112 18.4 31.8 685 1.14 800 26.0 10.0 0.30
1292 19.3 33.5 715 1.19 1000 24.0 - -
1472 20.3 35.1 735 1.22 1200 20.0 - -
1652 21.0 36.4 745 1.23


Tensile Yield Strength Elongation Reduction Rockwell
Form and Strength (0.2% Offset) (2 in.) of Area B
Condition psi psi 4 m0 Hardness
Strip, annealed 80000 50000 20 - 83
Bar, annealed 80000 50000 25 45 170.
Bar, annealed and
cold drawn 85000 70000 20 45 90
*Brinell hardness.


(5 /g-inch round bar annealed at 1500F and cold worked
to a hardness of Rockwell B 96)
Test Tensile Yield Strength Elongation Reduction
Temperature Strength (0.24b Offset) (2 in.) of Area
OF psi psi VO 0-0

70 88000 67000 26 64
400 76500 58500 24 62
800 66500 52000 24 64
1000 49000 39000 32 72
1200 18500 15500 48 94
1400 9500 7500 66 98
1600 5000 4000 101 98.5
1800 2500 2000 135 99
Table 6 - STRESS-RUPTURE DATA Welding:
Stress, psi (MPa). to Rupture in AlSl Type 446 can be welded by most conventional welding pro-
cesses. Austenitic weld fillers, such as AISI Type 310 or 29s
F 100 Hours 1000 Hours 10,000 Hours
chromium-9!o nickel welding electrodes, generally are suggested
1100 8000(55.2) SZOO(35.9) 3500(24. I) for a ductile weld deposit. When highly sulfldizing conditions exist
1200 6000(41.4) 4OOq27.6) 27Oq18.6) such that nickel cannot be tolerated in the weld, or where the
1400 2400(16.5) 16Oqll.o) I lOO(7.58) higher thermal expansion of austenitic weld filler is unacceptable,
1600 1200(8.27) 740(5.10) 45q3. IO) Type 446 electrodes may be required. The use of 446 electrodes,
1800 670(4.62) 4Oq2.76) 230( I .59) however, results in a brittle, notch-sensitive weld bead. Anincrease
in notch sensitivity takes place in the heat-affected zone of weld-
ments as a result of grain growth. Stringer-bead deposit technique
Table 7 - CREEP STRENGTH using small diameter electrodes lessens grain growth tendencies in
Stress, psi (MPa). for Secondary the heat-affected zone. Preheating and postheating to 300600F
Creep Rate of (150-315C) may be helpful in controlling base-metal cracking.
OF O.OOOI%/hour 0.001 %ihour Light sections have been successfully joined with austenitic filler
metals without preheating or postheating.
900 16000(110) 20000(138)
1000 6000(41.4) 8OOq55.2) Corrosion and Oxidation Resistance:
1100 3000(20.7) 4500(3 I .O)
Uniloy 446 is the most corrosion resistant of the straight chromium
1200 1500(10.3) 2500(17.2)
non-hardenable stainless steels. It is particularly useful for equip-
1300 680(4.69) 1400(9.65)
ment requiring resistance to scaling at high temperatures. This
1400 260( 1.79) 560(3.86)
grade also resists attack from sulphur-containing gases.
1500 130(0.90) - -
This grade has good resistance to scaling up to about 2000F in
continuous service. It has shown satisfactory intermittent service
up to about 2150F.
Heat Treatment: Cleaning and Pickling:
AISI Type 446 cannot be hardened by any thermal treatment. It Machining lubricants can be removed by alkaline cleaning agents
can be hardened only by cold working. or suitable solvents. Light scale can be removed by nitric-hydro-
Annealing: To remove the effects of cold work, heat IO 1500- fluoric pickling solutions. Heavy scale may require pretreatment
16OOOF (815-870C) long enough to equalize the metal temperature by sand blasting or molten salt baths, followed by nitric or nitric-
and follow by a water quench or rapid air cool. Fast cooling through hydrofluoric acid pickling.
the I IOO-700F (590-370C) temperature range is important to
avoid 885F embrittlement. A temperature of 1650F (900C) Specification Equivalents:
should not be exceeded during annealing or rapid grain coarsening ASTM: A 176. A 268, A 276. A 314. A 473. A 51 I and A 580.
may occur. AMS 5521.
Stress Relieving: Weldments can be stress relieved at 1350-1400F UNS No. S44600.
(735-76OC). followed by a rapid air cool or water quench, depend-
ing upon thickness and complexity of the welded fabrication. General Characteristics:
Both sigma phase and the effects of 885OF embrittlement can be AlSl Type 446 is a high-chromium ferritic stainless steel charac-
removed by a one-hour anneal at 1500F (840C). rapid cool. terized by (I) Oxidation resistance to 2200F (IZGK), (2) Resistance
Ductility can be restored largely after 885F embrittlement by to various forms of hot corrosion, (3) Sulfidation resistance and
heating at 1200F (650C) for one hour at temperature and cooling (4) Relatively low cost.
rapidly. In common with other high-chromium ferritic stainless steels,
Machining: AISI Type 446 embrittles severely when held in or cooled slowly
through the 700-1000F (370-540C) temperature range. This
Machine tools and set-up should be rigid. Slow speeds and deep phenomenon is referred to as 885F (475C) embrittlement. Type
cuts are suggested to minimize work hardening. Sulfur-chlorinated 446 should not be used in this temperature range unless nearly
cutting oils are suggested, thinned when necessary with parafin oil. complete loss of room-temperature ductility can be tolerated. Type
Machinability rating is about 40-60~0 relative to BI I I2 screw- 446 is also subject to room-temperature embrittlement from sigma-
machine stock. phase formation after long-time service in the lOOO-1300F (54O-
All traces of cutting fluid should be removed prior to welding. 700C) temperature range. Both 885F and sigma-phase embrittle-
annealing, or use in high-temperature service. Otherwise, residual ments are reversible. and ductility can be restored by annealing.
sulfur or chlorine may attack the metal at elevated temperature.
Forms Available:
Bar, sheet, strip. plate, tube, pipe. wire and forgings.
AISI Type 446 is prepared for forging by heating uniformly to
1900-2lOOOF (1035-I 150C). It is suggested that large sections be Applications:
preheated at MOO-1500F (760-815OC) prior to heating to the start- pIIS Type 446 is highly suitable for high-temperature parts for
ing temperature. Finishing at relatively low temperatures, 1300- resistance to oxidation. Typical uses include annealing boxes,
1450F (700-790C). is necessary for grain refinement. Residual heaters, metal-to-glass seals, recuperators. combustion chambers.
strains from forging or hot-forming operations can be removed by soot blowers, neutral salt-pot electrodes, oil-burner components,
a 1550F (840C) anneal. AISI Type 446 is notch sensitive and has spouts for conveying molten copper alloys. kiln linings, thermo-
low impact values at room temperature. Careful edge preparation couple protection tubes, stack dampers, boiler baffles, gas-injec-
and preheating, especially in heavier sections, are desirable to tion nozzles for various molten compounds and flame rods.
avoid cracking during forming operations. Reduced forming
speeds are preferred. Edge preparation is especially important. Manufacturers:
Cold-worked material on sheared punched edges should be re- Stainless steel mills
moved prior to heavy forming operations.
Toughness may be significantly improved by preheating IO 250-
400F (IZO-200C) for any bending, drawing, or spinning opera-
tions. Increased incidence of cracking at scratches or notches may
be expected when forming heavy sections at metal temperature
below 120F (50C).
In marked contrast to the austenitic stainless steels, AISI Type 446
in the 1400- 1500F (760-81 SC) temperature range has greatly in-
creased ductility and is readily hot formed. Care should be taken
IO remain below 1600F (87OC) in hot forming IO ensure that
grain growth does not occur.