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Grammar note

The words in bold are called pronouns. Pronouns are words that take the
place of words for people, animals, places or things,


- I, you, he, she, we, they, and it

we use my, his, her, your, and thier to talk about things belonging to people.

1. He is a yet. His clinic is in town

2. The house is a modest one. It is on a hill.
3. Princess was a lovely cat. She loved to be stoked on her head
4. I have a beautiful cat. My father gave it to me as a birthday present
5. We have a beautiful garden, our mother takes care of the garden every
6. My father and his friend are in front of the house. They are talking about
their trip to Taman Negara.

The words in bold are called compound words. They are made up to two to
words joined together.

birth + day = birthday
- gold + fish = goldfish

1. Do not go wear the beehive.

2. They took the highway to go to Johor Bharu.

3. The boys won in the basketball to urnamant.

4. The man met his old classmate at the bakery.

5. The lady bought a lamp for her bedroom.

In compound words, the syllable stress is on the

first syllable
Examples :

The stress is in the word door
The stress is in the word water

The words in bold are irregular verbs in the Past Tense .We usually add-d
and ed to most

verbs in the Past Tense. We do not dose for irregular verbs.

The spelling for the Past Tense of

some irregular verbs do not change but most do.


Yesterday, they put up a banner to welcome the tourists. (put) last

week, Mansing bought a buffalo at the supermarket (buy) find words

from Past Tense.

The words above have the same sound. They have different spellings

and different meanings. They are called homophones.

- Maid has the same sound as made.

- Sight has the same sound as site.

- Knew has the same sound as new

- Knead has the same sound as need.

- Blew has the same sound as blue.

- Deer has the same sound as dear.

- Two has the same sound as to.

- Steal has the same sound as steel.

We can join two sentences by using the word so and because to

show cause and effect. It shows how things happen.

- The health inspector fined the stall owner. His stall was dirty.
The health inspector fined the stall owner because his stall was

- The garbage is not collected. The air smells very bad.

The garbage is not collected so the air smells very bad.

We add ed to words which describe actions in the past.

- last week, they visited Encik Nizams farm.
- Yesterday the workers cleaned the barns.

1. Pain
Yesterday, father painted the wall.

2. Clim
Last week my friend and I climbed mountain Kinabalu.

3. Jump
Just now the cat jumped over the flower pots.
4. Planet
Last month, the gardener planted some trees.

5. Wash
Yesterday, my father washed the car.

6. Watch
Last night, we watched a movie at the cinema.

7. Harvest
Last week, Encik Nizam harvested fich and prawns

8. Post
Last week, my uncle posted the poured to England

Singular Plural

Some plural Man Men

nouns Woman Women
Are different Mouse Nice
from Their

1. a). There is a man collecting the oil palm fruits.

b). The men are working in the paddy field.
2. a). The woman is putting the bottles into a box.

b). The women are arranging the boxes on the shelves.

3. a). There is a mouse eating under the coconut tree.

b). The cat caught some nice.

When we suggest, we put forward our ideas for people to think

e. g
- Lets visit them
- Lets go at four oclock
- Lets go at two oclock them.

When we respond, we say something in reply.

e. g
- No, we cant
- All night
- Yes, thats a good idea.

We use some for uncountable nouns like water, rice, sugar, milk,
and bread.

e. g
- Would you like to buy some green peas ?.
Id like to buy some of that spinach please.

We use any with questions and negative statements :

e.g -

- a), would you like any long beans ?. (question)

b). I dont think I want any ( negative statements)

We use singular verbs is, was, has, and does, with singular subject
(nouns or pronouns)

We use plural subjects (nouns or pronouns)

Is Very
Singular Was heal they
Are Late for
Were the party
He We
Does Not want They
She to take
It The The patients Do Exercise
flakes. Will and his every day.
Have Taken the
Has Eaten Syhirah,shahier
the flakes.
and amir

The words a, an and the are called articles.

- We use a with singular nouns that do not begin with vowel sounds.
- We use an with singular nouns that begin with vowel sounds.
- We use the is used with nouns that we are sure about or have been
mentioned before.
- We also use the with a noun which is one of its kind.

The words in bold one names of people and they begin with a
capital letter.

- T.A Edison is the short form for Thomas Alva Edison and Stephenson
are family names
George Stephenson is written as G.Stephenson.

Look at the table and learn how the short forms are used.

Proper nouns Short forms Explanation

Chan Chee Kiat C.K Chan The family name

Chan is not
Arumugam S/D R.Arumugam The fathers name
Rajagopal Rajagopal
Thomas Alva T.A.Edison The family name
Edison Edison is not

A negative statement is formed by placing the word not after the


e.g -
Positive statement Negative statement
He is working He is not working
They are playing football They are not playing
The boy is fiving a model The boy is not fiving a
helicopter model Aeroplane.
This is a pen This is not a pen.

The words such as a and, but, and or, are called conjunctions.
Conjunctions are used to joint words, phrases or sentences.

- Soo Lin wecurs cheongsam during Chinese new year
- Her sister wears cheongsam during Chinese new year.

Soo Lin and her sister wear cheongsam during Chinese new year.

A things or a person can be described using more than one

adjective. The adjective are arranged in this order; size, shape,
age, colour, nationality, and origin.

- A big brown bag, or little green men. The yellow rubber gloves,or a

black wooden table.

- A fast, new car, or that far, ancient city but sometime, there are
exceptions to there rules.It two adjectives of colour are used then we
must use and.
- he bought a red and blue sweater

of general Adjectives of Adjectives of
description shape and colour

Beautiful, Large ,big, Red, blue,

ugly, pretty, small, tiny, green, white.
nice, clean, short, thick , Grey, yellow.
dirty. little, fat.

- A beautiful, little girl

- A large yellow house
- The heavy, fat boy is our friend