fgg
Reading 9: Correlation & Regression H1: b1 0 (linear relationship does bcd (
h
)
10. FStatistic or FTest = =
ggi
exist) bce ( )

! jkhk/
%S e f / d = i f id S f / d Pd
= S f / d Pd
Forward premium or discount: P P
qf/d = f f 16. Interest Rate Differentials, Carry Trades
For one year horizon = and Exchange Rates
Ff /d S f /d = CPI d
q f / d = S f / d
"i i % or
CPI
f
qL/H = qL/H +(iH i L )( H L )(H L )
S f /d $ f d ' S f /d (i f id )
# 1+ id & 12. Fisher effect:
id = rd + d 17. Policy Rate under Taylor rule:
Using day count convention:
( " Actual % +
if = rf + f i = rn + + ( *) + (y y*)
* $  if id = (rf rd) + (f d)
# 360 '& 
Ff /d S f /d = S f /d * (i f id ) (rf rd) = (if id)  (f d) Neutral real policy rate + Current inf
* 1+ i " Actual % 
* d$ 
) # 360 '& , rate + (Inf gap) + (Output gap)
13. When both uncovered interest rate parity
and exante PPP hold: 18. Exchange rates using the Taylor Rule =
7. Forward discount or premium as % of spot
(rf rd) = % Sf/d  % Sf/d = 0 q S/RV = q S/RV + r0R r0S +
rate:
International Fisher Effect: if id = f
Ff / d S f / d d R R S S +
(i f id )
S f /d yR y R yS y S
14. When all the key international parity R S
If uncovered interest rate parity holds
conditions are held at all times:
Ff /d S f /d BOP = Current A/C + Capital A/C +
= = %S ef /d (i f id ) Reading 14: Economic Growth & The
S f /d Official Reserve A/C = 0 Investment Decision
8. Purchasing Power parity (PPP) 15. Real exchange rate = = + 1. Economic growth = Annual % in real
Pf = S f/d Pd GDP or in real per capita GDP
S f/d = Pf / Pd
R
2. P = GDP
R
9. Relative version of PPP = %S f/d = f d
3. Expressing in terms of logarithmic rates:
10. Ex ante version of PPP = %Sef/d = ef
(1/T) % P = (1/T) % GDP + (1/T)
ed
% (E / GDP) + (1/T) % (P / E)
2. Goodwill = Cost of acquisition investors share of the FV of the net Add: Unamortized excess PP (Excess PP Amount attributable xxx
identifiable assets to PP&E)
PP Xxx = Investment in Investee xxx
Less: (% of Ownership Interest BV of Investees Net (xxx)
Assets) Transactions with Associates:
= Excess Purchase Price Xxx 4. Upstream Transactions:
Less: Attributable to Net Assets: Investors share of Associates reported NI (% of Ownership xxx
Plant & Equipment (% of Ownership Interest difference (xxx) Interest Reported net income)
b/wBV & FV) Less: Amort. of excess purchase price (xxx)
Land (% of Ownership Interest difference b/wBV & FV) (xxx)
Less: Unrealized profit (% of Ownership Interest Profit from (xxx)
= Residual Amount (Treated as Goodwill) Xxx
upstream sale in Associates NI)
3. Amort. of Excess PP: = Equity Income to be reported as a line item on Investors I.S* xxx
Investment in associate:
PP Xxx Balance in the investment in Associate to be reported at the end of
Add: Investors share of Investees NI (% of Ownership Xxx year:
Interest Investees NI) PP xxx
Less: Div. received (% of Ownership Interest Div. paid) (xxx) Add: Equity income (as calculated above)* xxx
Less: Amort. of excess PP attributable to plant & equipment (xxx)
Less: Div. received (% of Ownership Interest Div paid) (xxx)
(Amount attributable to PP&E* Remaining life of PP&E)
= Balance in investment in Investee Xxx
= Value of Investment in Associates company at the end of year xxx
Where, *Amount attributable to Plant & Equipment = % of Ownership
Interest of investor (FV of P&E BV of P&E)
19. Goodwill Impairment Test under U.S. 5. Net i income = Discount rate Net 10. Adjusted Pretax Income:
GAAP (Two Step Approach) Pension asset = Reported Pretax income + (Actual
return on plan assets Expected return
Step 1: Goodwill Impairment Test 6. Net return on plan assets = Actual return on plan assets)
Impaired when CV of Reporting Unit on plan assets (Plan assets i rate) Or
(including Goodwill) > FV of = Reported Pretax income + Total
Reporting Unit (including Goodwill). 7. Actuarial g/l = Actual return (Plan assets reported pension and other post
Step 2: Measurement of Impairment Expected return) retirement benefits  Current service
loss = CV of Reporting units costs  i exp component of pension
Goodwill  Implied FV of Reporting cost + Actual return on plan assets
units Goodwill 8. Total Periodic Pension Costs =Sum of
Where Implied FV of Reporting units components of periodic pension costs 11. Adjusted Net Operating Exp=Reported Net
Goodwill = FV of Reporting Unit operating exp Total reported pension and
FV of Reporting units net assets Total periodic pension cost in a given other postretirement benefits + Current
period = in Net pension liability or service costs
Reading 17: Employee Compensation: Post asset adjusted for employer
Employment & ShareBased contributions 12. Adjusted i Exp. = Reported i exp. + i exp.
Total Net periodic pension cost (End component of pension cost
1. Under DC Plans: Pension exp = Co.s Funded Status* Beg Funded Status*)
annual contribution to plans adjusted for Employer Contribution 13. Adjusted i and investment Income
in yrend accruals where *Pension liability is treated as a =Reported i and investment income +
negative Actual return on plan assets
2. Funded Status = PV of DB obligations
FV of plan assets 9. Adjusted Total P&L pension exp (income) 14. Compensation exp. = FV of stock on the
Grant Date
3. Period pension cost of a Co.s DB pension = Current service costs + i costs + ()
plan = in Net pension liability or asset actuarial losses (actuarial gains) + past 16. Compensation
exp
recognized
=
0<340y
040+
adjusted for employers contributions service costs (or plan amendments)
59
3409;y40
O
(+) Actual return (loss) on plan assets
V;y0y0
59y0
<y4
FC Parents Presentation
Currency
1. Cumulative Translation Adjustment = CTA = Assets Liabilities
inventories measured at
Common Stock Retained Earnings market value under the lower
of cost or market rule.
ii) Measured at historical Current rate Historical rate
2. Balance Sheet Exposure: costs e.g. PP&E
Foreign Currency (FC) LIABILITIES
B.S Exposure Strengthens Weakens Monetary liabilities: a/c Current rate Current rate
When assets translated at +ve ve payable, LT debt, accrued
Net Asset B.S
current X rate > liabilities translation translation exp., and deferred income
exposure
translated at current X rate adj adj taxes.
When liabilities translated at ve +ve Nonmonetary liabilities:
Net Liability B.S i) measured at current value Current rate Current rate
current X rate > assets translation translation
exposure ii) not measured at current
translated at current X rate adj Adj
(X = exchange) value i.e. deferred revenue Current rate Historical rate
Hyperinflationary Economy
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
Decomposition and Analysis of the Cos Reading 21: Capital Budgeting 9. Profitability index = PI = 1 + (NPV/Initial
Valuation: investment)
9. Parent Co. prorata share of 1. Depreciable Basis = Purchase price + any when PI > 1, invest and when PI < 1, do
subsidiary/affiliates = (Subsidiarys share Shipping or handling or installation costs not invest.
price in FC Shares held by Parent Co.
X rate)/Parent Co. total market Expansion Project 10. CAPM = ri = R F + i [E (R M) R F]
capitalization 2. Initial Outlay = FCInv + NWCInv
NWCInv = noncash current assets Economic and Accounting Income
10. Implied Value of Parent Co. (excl. nondebt current liabilities= NWC 11. Accounting income = Rev Exp
subsidiary/affiliates) = Parent Co.s Mkt
Cap  Value of subsidiary/affiliate holdings 3. Annual aftertax operating cash flow = CF 12. Economic Income = AT CF from
= (S C D) (1 T) + D or CF = (S C) investment + in MV = AT CF from
;<0
4.9
T
; investment + (End MV Beg MV)
11. P/E ratio of Parent Co = (1 T) + TD
4m
;<0
4.
OR
4. Terminal year aftertax nonoperating cash = AT CF from invstmnt. (Beg MV End
12. Implied P/E ratio of Parent Co. =
flow = TNOCF = Sal T + NWCInv T (Sal MV)= AT CF from invstmnt. Eco. Dep
Implied
Value
of
Parent
Co.
(excluding
subsidiary/affiliates)
T B T)
NI
of
Parent
Co. Equity
Income
from
13. Economic Profit (EP) = NOPAT $WACC
subsidiary/affiliates Replacement Project where,
5. Initial Outlay = FCInv + NWCInv Sal 0 + NOPAT = net operating profit after tax
13. Discount to Benchmark = T (Sal 0 B0) i.e. EBIT (1 Tax rate)
03;<T 9 +
;<0
4./R EBIT = earnings before interest and taxes
03;<T 9
/R 6. Annual aftertax operating cash flow $WACC= dollar cost of capital = WACC
(incremental) capital
OffBalance Sheet Leverage from Operating CF = (S C D) (1 T) + D or Capital (after Year 1) = investment =
Leases CF = (S C) (1 T) + TD Initial Investment depreciation
U.
4m
;9
;P09
14. Adj. Fin Lev =
U.R
R
7. Terminal year aftertax nonoperating cash 14. MVA
or
NPV = \1 (1)
U.
4m
;9
;P09 flow = TNOCF = Sal T + NWCInv T 15. Total value of Co. = original investment +
15. Adj. DtoE ratio =
U.R (Sal T B T) NPV
16. Adj. icoverage Ratio = 8. (1 + Nominal rate) = (1 + Real rate) (1 +
RU+
OV0
RO 16. Residual income (RI) = NI Equity
Z
O99
Z
O
40
;99 Inf rate) Charge
RI t = NI t (re B t1)
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
Payout Policies: Reading 26: Mergers & Acquisitions Unlevered NI = EBIT (1 tax rate)
7. Stable Div. Policy NOPLAT = Unlevered NI + in
Expected in Div. = in Earnings 1. Statutory Merger = Co. X + Co. Y= Co. X deferred taxes
Target payout ratio Adj. factor 2. Subsidiary Merger = Co. X +Co. Y=(Co.
Adj. factor = 1/no. of yrs. over which X + Co. Y) 11. FCF = NOPLAT + NCC in Net WC
adj. in div. will take place Capex
Expected Div = Last div. + (Expected 3. Consolidation = Co. X + Co. Y = Co. Z
in earnings Target payout ratio 12. FCF = NI + net interest aftertax + in
Adj. factor) 4. New shares issued by Acquirer = deferred taxes + net noncash charges in
T
3;
4m
U;< NWC Capex
943T
<y3
4m
3y<<
8. Residual Div. Policy
Div. = Earnings (Capital budget Terminal Value:
5. Postmerger no. of shares outstanding =
Equity % in capital structure) or Acquirers premerger total shares
13. Using constant growth formula
Div. = Zero, whichever is greater. outstanding + new shares issued by (1)
Terminal
ValueU =
9. Div. Payout Ratio =
y5. Acquirer ( +)
6. PostMerger EPS = 14. Using Market Multiple
10. Div. Coverage Ratio = 3y<< 9
<
<<
R;<0y09U;< 9
<
<<
R;<0y09
y5. Terminal
ValueU = FCFU
49
<<
0<
4m
9;<9
49;0y0
FCFE = CFO FCInv + Net Borrowings 16. Takeover Premium = takeover (deal price)
8. No. of acquirer shares received by each per share (of target Co.) current stock
shareholder (in target Co.) = No. of target
+
S
Reading 24: Corporate Performance, price of target Co. =
shares he/she owns X ratio c
Governance & Business Ethics
= (Estimated stock price of Target VP: True Mispricing {(V0 P0)/P0} = estimate of return
based on Comparables) (1 + VEV: Valuation Error from convergence over period
Takeover premium in %) where,VE = estimated value
P = market price 7. IRR:
18. Target Shareholders gain = Premium = P T V = intrinsic value Intrinsic value= D1 / (kg)
VT If asset (fairly priced), market price =
where, 2. Residual Income Model = NI (cost of intrinsic value: k = (D1 / P0) + g
P T = price paid for target company equity Beg value Equity)
V T = premerger value of target 8. Req ROE = Rf + ERP
company Reading 28: Return Concepts
9. GGM Intrinsic value = D1/ (kg)
19. Acquirers gain = Synergies Premium = 1. Dividend yield or investment income =
S (P T V T) (DH/P0) Macroeconomic Model Estimates (Supply side
models):
20. Postmerger value of the combined 2. Price appreciation R = (PHP0)/P0
company = V A* = V A + V T + S C 10. ERP = [{(1+EINFL) (1+EGREPS)
where, 3. HPR = r = {(DH + PH) / P0} 1 OR r = (1+EGPE)1} +EINC]Expected Rf R
V A = premerger value of the acquirer {(P1 P0+CF1) / P0 where EINFL= expected inf.(
C = cash paid to target SH i.e. cash paid = forecasted as) {(1+YTM of 20yr T
cash price paid per share of target co. no. 4. Expected Alpha = Exp. R Req. R bonds) / (1+YTM of 20yr TIPS)}
of shares outstanding of target co. 1.
5. Realized Alpha (Expost alpha) = (Actual EGREPS = expected growth rate in
21. In Stock offer = P T = (N P AT) HPR) (Contemporaneous Req. R) real EPS.
where, Real GDP growth rate = labor
P T = price paid for target co. 6. Expected HPR: productivity growth + labor supply
N = No. of new shares target receives growth rate
When an assets intrinsic value
P AT = price per share of combined firm
market price, the investor expects to
after merger announcement Labor supply growth rate = population
earn = RR + return from the
convergence of price to value growth rate + increase in labor force
Reading 27: Equity Valuation: Applications & When an assets intrinsic value = participation rate
Processes price, the investor expects to earn RR EGPE = expected growth rate in P/E
only. ratio. (For efficient markets 1+EGPE
1. Mispricing = VE P = (V P) + (VE E (RT) rT + {(V0 P0) / P0} = 1+0 = 1.
V) where,rT = periodic required RoR,
VEP: Mispricing
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
EINC = expected income component HML (high minus low) = Avg. R on 2 Reading 29: Industry & Company Analysis
(includes dividend yield & high Booktomarket portfolios avg.
reinvestment R) R on 2 low booktomarket portfolios. 1. % of sales (specific geographic region) =
Sales of a particular region / Total sales of
11. CAPM: Required Return on share i = 16. PastorStambaugh Model (PSM): ri = Rf + a co.
Current expected Rf R + Bi (ERP) BimarketRMRF + Bisize SMB + Bivalue
where ERP = Expected R on mkt HML+ BiLiq LIQ 2. Co.s projected Rev. growth = Projected
portfolio RF R mkt. share Projected sales of a given
Beta = Cov of returns with mkt R /mkt 17. 5factor BIRR Model: ri = Tbill rate + product mkt.
portfolio var. (sensitivity to confidence risk confidence
RP)(sensitivity to time horizon time 3. Forecasted variable costs = % of rev. Or =
12. Adjusted Beta = (2/3) (Unadjusted beta) + horizon RP) (sensitivity to inf. risk inf. Unit volume Unit variable costs
(1/3) (1.0) RP) + (sensitivity to business cycle risk
business cycle RP) + (sensitivity to mkt. 4. COGS =Raw materials + Direct labor +
13. Beta Estimation for Thinly Traded Stocks timing risk mkt. timing RP) Overhead (in producing the goods)
and Nonpublic Companies
Bu [1/ {1+ (D/E)}] Be 18. BuildUp Approaches for Private Business 5. Finance costs = (Fixed i rate on debt
Be [1+ (D/E)] Bu Valuation: ri = rf + ERP + Size premi Gross debt at beg. of period) (i income
+Specific Co. premi rate cash position at beg of period)
14. Multifactor Models = r = Rf+ (RP)1 +
(RP)2 + + (RP)k 19. Bond yield Plus RP (BYPRP) cost of 6. Gross debt = LT financial debt + ST
RPi = (Factor sensitivity)i (Factor equity = YTM on the co.s LT debt + RP financial debt + Accrued interest
RP)i.
Country Spread Model 7. Net debt = Gross debt Cash and cash
15. The FamaFrench Model (FFM): ri =Rf + 20. ERP estimate = ERP for a developed mkt equivalents
Bimarket RMRF + Bisize SMB + Bivalue + Country prem. 8. Effective i rate = i exp / Avg gross debt
HML Country Prem. = yield on emerging
mkt bonds (denominated in currency 9. i rate on avg cash position =i income / Avg
RMRF = RM Rf of developed market) yield on cash position
SMB(small minus big) = Avg. R on 3 developed mkt. govt. bonds
smallcap portfolios avg. R on 3 10. i rate on avg. net debt = Net i exp / Avg.
largecap portfolios. 21. Cost of Capital = WACC = {D/(D+E)}rd net debt
(1Tax rate) + {E / (D+E)}rE
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
11. Deferred tax asset/liability = Profit and 18. Post cannibalization revenue =Pre 22. Forecasted CF Statement
loss (reported) tax amount Cash tax cannibalization revenue Estimated CF from operating activities:
amount impact on rev. from cannibalization NI (profit after taxes)
Adj. to determine CF:
12. Projected A/C receivable = Forecasted 19. Overall organic rev. growth = [(1 + Add:
annual sales (assuming all credit sales) volume growth) (1 + % of price/mix dep.
(Assumed DSO/ 365) contribution to rev. growth)] 1
in a/c receivable
in inventory
13. Projected inventory = Assumed COGS / 20. Construction of Pro Forma I.S: in a/c payable
Assumed Inventory TO ratio Sales Total adjustments
Less: COGS Net CF from operating activities
14. ROIC= NOPLAT / Invested Capital = EBI = Gross profit CF from investing activities:
/ (Operating assets Operating liab.) Less: Admin. exp. : in plant and equipment
Less: Distrib. Exp. Net CF from investing activities
15. ROCE = Op. profit / Capital employed (i.e. Add: Other income from operation CF from financing activities:
debt and equity capital) = EBIT in notes payable
Add (Less): Other operating income in LTD
16. Rev. loss for co. due to cannibalization of (exp.) Less: Dividends paid
demand = Projected no. of units of product Less: Finance costs & other financial Net CF from financing activities
cannibalized by the new substitute product exp. Forecasted in cash
Estimated ASP = Profit before tax
Where, Less: Income Tax 23. Forecasted B.S
Average selling price (ASP) = Add: Income from associates PP&E
4;0P 9
9y;
;5.
<5. = Profit from continuing Add: Investment in associates
4;0P 9
9y;
9y09
4m
<43
operations Add: Other financial assets
No of units of a product cannibalized Add (Less): Profit (loss) from Add: Deferred tax assets
by the new substitute product = discontinued operations = Total noncurrent assets
Expected no. of product shipments = Net profit for the year Inventories
% representation of each category Less: Noncontrolling interests Add: Trade and other receivables
(e.g. consumer & nonconsumer) = Owners of the co. Add: Cash & cash equivalents
Cannibalization factor for the category
Add: Other current assets
21. EBITDA = EBIT + Dep. & amort. exp. =Total current assets
17. Post cannibalization shipments =Pre
Total assets = Total noncurrent +
cannibalization shipments Expected
Total current assets
cannibalization Share capital
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
Add: Share premium Reading 30: Discounted Dividend Valuation 6. GGM for Preferred stock (fixed rate
Less: Treasury shares
perpetual preferred stock) = Vu =
<
Add: Consolidated reserves+Net profit 1. Assets value is PV of its expected future
to co. owners 0
CFs i.e. Vu = \1 1< 7. GGM ERP = 1yr. forecasted div. yield on
Plus: Translation reserve
market index + consensus LT earnings
+/: Profit or loss recorded in equity
2. RI = NI (cost of equity Beg. BV of growth rate LT govt. bond yield
= Equity attributable to
shareholders common equity)
8. Actual value of a companys share = Vu =
Plus: Noncontrolling interest R/
= Equity 3. In RI Model: Value of stock = BVPS at t = + PVGO
<
LT financial debt 0 + PV of expected future residual where,
Add: Provision for employee benefits earnings PVGO =Sum of PV of expected
Add: LT provisions for liabilities and where, BVPS = common SHs equity / profitable opportunities of reinvesting
charges no. of common shares outstanding the earnings.
Add: Deferred tax liabilities RI model (assumes Clean Surplus E1/r = nogrowth value per share
Accounting holds) i.e. BV t = BVt1 + R/
= Total noncurrent liabilities When P0 = V0 then. PVGO = Pu
<
ST financial debt and accrued interest NIt Divt # #
Can be restated as
or
or
=
Add: Trade and other payables R/ R/ R
4. DDM 1
Add: Income tax payable +
< R/
Add: ST provisions for liabilities and With Single HP = Value of Stock =
where, 1/r = value of P/E for no
charges PV of expected Div. + PV of expected
growth company.
Add: derivative financial instruments Selling Price at the end of year one =
/ / PVGO/E1 = component of P/E value
Add: Liabilities held for sale Vu = +
(1<)/ (1<)/ that represents growth opportunities.
= Current liabilities
Value of stock for 2 years HP = Vu =
/ ? ? /
24. FCFF: + + # R/ 1+
(1<)/ (1<)? (1<)? 9. Leading ratio = = =
R R/ <+ <+
Normalized operating profit 0 
For nHPs = Vu = \1 1< +
1< 
Less: Taxes # (1)
When HP is extended into indefinite # R#
= Normalized operating 10. Trailing
P/E
ratio =
= =
R# (<+)
profit after tax future: Vu = \1 (1<) (1+)(1)
Add: Dep. & amort. (<+)
in WC 5. Gordon Growth Model (GGM) = Vu =
Less: Capital expenditures # 1 / 11. GGM can be used to derive required RoR
or =
= FCFF <+ <+ # (1) /
=r= +g= +g
# #
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
FCFF = EBITDA (1 Tax rate) + Dep Required rate of return (real) [in %] Reading 32: Market based Valuation: Price &
(Tax rate) FCInv WCInv Enterprise Value Multiples
FCFE = FCFF Int (1 Tax rate) + 15. SingleStage FCFF and FCFE Model for
Net borrowing + issuance of preferred International Valuation: 1. Trailing P/E or Current P/E =
stocks redemption of preferred stock FCFFu (1 + g <; ) <<0
T
<y3
<
9;<
Value
of
firm = Vu = 49
<30
)
*;<<9 RS
10. Forecasted FCFF = Forecasted [EBIT (1 WACC<; g <;
Tax rate) FCInv WCInv] FCFF1
= 2. Forward P/E or Leading P/E or Prospective
WACC<; g <;
<<0
;<T
<y3
<
9;<
11. Incremental fixed capital expenditures as a P/E =
O
,;< 9
RO3
R;<0y09
proportion of sales increases = Value
of
Stock = Vu
;y;
O+
O FCFEu (1 + g <; )
03<;9
y0
9;9 = 3. Basic EPS =
r<; g <; U4;
R;<0y09
FCFE1
5
04.4m
9;<9
;3;P
4/9
<y0
<y4
12. Incremental working capital expenditures =
r<; g <;
as a proportion of sales increases = 4. Diluted EPS =
03<;9
y0
U4;
R;<0y09
03<;9
y0
9;9 16. Twostage FCFF valuation model equation
4.4m
9;<9
4/9
0
4<9
4m
is: O3<3y9
y<
4y409
4
4;y0
3440
943T
13. FCFE = NI (FCInv Dep) WCInv + 0
Firm
Value = \1 (1) +
/
Net borrowing / 1 / 1+
where, 5. Justified Forward P/E = P0/E1 = =
(+) (1) <+ <+
Net borrowing = DR(FCInv Dep) +
DR(WCInv) Or # (1)/R#
Twostage FCFE valuation model 6. Justified Trailing P/E = P0/E0 =
<+
FCFE = NI (FCInv Dep) WCInv equation = Equity
Value = 1+ (1)
+ (DR) (FCInv Dep) + (DR) 0 R R/ 1 = where
+ <+
\1 (1<) (<+) (1<)
(WCInv) Or P = price; E = earnings; D = dividends; r =
FCFE = NI  (1DR) (FCInv Dep) required rate of return; and g = dividend
(1 DR) (WCInv) 17. Excess Cash = Total
Cash
Available growth rate
Total
Assets
of
Firm
14. Modified BuildUp method to estimate real y;0
5
4
m
09<P
3;9 S43T 9
/R
7. PEG ratio =
discount rate: y;0
5
4m
09<P
U4;
99 RO3
R;<0y09
<4
V;
y0
%
CEY = current earnings yield on the mkt. * It includes preferred stock and div.
index i.e. E/P. in arrears on preferred stock. y5
<
9;<
19. Dividend Yield = =
<y3
<
9;<
CBY = current Moodys Investors Service BVPS for whole company =
Trailing Div Yield =
Arated corporate bond yield. 4;
;999
4;
y;yyy9
y5y0
V;
LTEG = consensus 5year earnings growth 0<
4m
9;<9
49;0y0
<<0
T
<y3
<
9;<
rate forecast for the mkt index. Leading Div Yield =
VR+
b = coefficient (measures weight, the mkt 13. Justified P/B = P0/B0 = 4<3;9
y5
<
9;<
45<
0O
P<
<+
gives to 5year earnings projections). <<0
T.
<y3
<
9;<
1
By taking inverse: = 14. Justified P/B based on RI model = P0/B0 =
R ,+
+UR 20. Div Yield (by using GGM) = Justified Div
4m
O3
m<
<9y;
;<0y09
9. Own Historical P/E: Justified price = 1+ u <+
u Yield = =
Benchmark value of own historical P/Es u 1
10. Terminal Value (T.V) based on where Net Sales = Total Sales preferred stock* + MV of debt Cash &
Fundamentals: returns customer discounts Shortterm Investments
T.V in yr n = (justified trailing P/E)
(forecasted earnings in year n) 16. P/S ( in terms of Gordon Growth Model = MV of Common equity = No. of
#
T.V in year n = (justified leading P/E) # &#
1+ (1) shares o/s Price per share
Justified P/S = =
S# (<+) Cash & Investments = cash, cash
(forecasted earnings in year n+1)
where, E0/S0 = Businesss profit equivalents, short term investments
11. Terminal Value based on Comparables: margin etc.
T.V in yr n = (Benchmark trailing *If minority interest exists and it is not
P/E) (forecasted earnings in year n) 17. g = Retention rate (b) ROE included elsewhere, then it should be
S;9
T.V in yr n = (Benchmark leading g = b PM0 added back.
U4;
999
P/E) (forecasted earnings in year U4;
999
S;<4<9 RyP <;y0
<4my
;m<
;O
n+1) 22. ROIC =
where, PM0 = Profit Margin at t = 0 U4;
y059
;y;
8. Swap Spread = Fixedrate of an interest Reading 37: Valuation & Analysis: Bonds with 12. Conversion Ratio (CR) = No. of shares of
rate swap Interest rate on ontherun Embedded Options C.stock from exercising call option
Govt. security
()
+
1 1. Value of callable bond = Value of straight 13. Conversion Price (or stated conversion
\1 1 1 =1
bond Value of issuer call option price) = Par value of convertible bond
CR
2. Value of issuer call option = Value of
straight bond Value of callable bond 14. Conversion Value (or Parity) = Market
9. TED spread = LIBOR  Tbill rate of price of C.stock CR
matching maturity
3. Value of putable bond = Value of straight
bond + Value of investor put option 15. Straight Value or Investment Value =
10. LiborOIS spread = Libor  Overnight Market value of a security without
indexed swap (OIS) rate
4. Value of investor put option = Value of conversion option
putable bond Value of straight bond
1
11. Local expectations theory = = 16. Min. Value of a Convertible Security is
(,)
5. The rate in the up state = Ru = Rd e2 (greater of conversion value or straight
1 + 1 1 + 1,1 1 + 2,1 1+
where, Rd = Rate in the down state value)
3,1 [1 + 1,1 ]
= Interest rate volatility
t = Time in years between time slices 17. Market Conversion Price or Conversion
12. CoxIngersollRoss (CIR) Model = dr = a
Parity Price =
(b r) dt +
k +
6. Duration =
;<T
<y3
4m
405<y
S3<yP
># , V
13. Vasicek Model = dr = a(b r)dt + dz
k + >#
7. Convexity =
18. Market Conversion Premium per share =
>
# , ?
14. HoLee model = drt = tdt + dzt
k +
Market Conversion Price Current Market
8. Effective Duration =
Price
> <5 E
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
Parameters estimation:
Reading 39: Credit Default Swaps Upfront premium = PV of credit
dt N spread PV of fixed coupon Or =
i
ln = + bi X t Where 1. Upfront premium = Credit spread (Credit spread Fixed coupon) D of
1 dt i =1
the CDS
Standard rate
dt = {1 if default, 0 if no default} PV of credit spread = Upfront prem. +
To estimate the loss given default: PV of fixed coupon
2. Expected Credit Loss (%) = Payout ratio =
N
1 Recovery rate (%) Credit spread (Upfront prem./D) +
t(Xt) = c 0 + ci X i t
Fixed coupon
i =1
Where {ci for i = 1, , N} are 3. Expected Credit Loss Amount or Payout Upfront premium in % = 100 Price
constants. amount = Payout ratio Notional amount of CDS in currency per 100 par
Price of CDS in currency per 100 par
11. Price of the coupon bond (assuming no 4. Loss Given Default: = 100 Upfront premium %
arbitrage and frictionless markets) Expected loss = Full amount owed
T 1 Expected recovery 10. Profit for the buyer of protection in
BG (t) = CP(t , i) + (C + F ) P(t, T ) Expected loss = Loss given default spread in bps D NP
i =1 Probability of default
Prob. of default (at some point during 11. % change in CDS price = in spread in
12. Credit spread (t) = Avg. yields on risky T years) = 1 Prob. of no default bps D
zerocoupon bond Avg. yields on riskless during T years
zerocoupon bond 12. Basis = CDS spread (prem.) Bonds
Or 5. Value of protection leg = Expected payoff credit spread*
= [Average yields on the risky zerocoupon of bond/loan with credit risk  Expected *Bonds Credit spread = Yield on bond 
bond Average yields on riskless zero payoff of bond/loan with no credit risks Investors cost of funding
coupon bond] + Liquidity premium Bond yield = Rf rate + Funding spread +
or 6. Value of premium leg = PV of pmts. made Credit spread
= Expected % loss per year on the risky by the protection buyer to the protection where, Rf + Funding spread = LIBOR
zerocoupon bond + Liquidity Premium seller
13. Synthetic CDO = Portfolio of defaultfree
13. PV of expected loss = PV of CF of riskless 7. Upfront pmt = PV of protection leg PV securities + CDS holdings
debt PV of CF of risky debt = [P (t,T) of premium leg
D (t,T)] XT
Where, XT = Promised CF at T of a risky 8. Credit spread Prob. of default Loss
Co. given default (%)
30. Equilibrium Fixed Swap rate = where probability of an up move 23. E(c2) = 2c++ + 2(1 )c+ + (1 )2c
1+Fu,[,8(1) = [FV(1) d]/(u d)
rFIX,b=
F#,~J,X (1)
24. E(p2) = 2p++ + 2(1 )p+ + (1 )2p
Expected terminal option payoffs
31. Va=NAa,0(rFIX,a,0 [
Z\1 ,Z, + 11. E(c1) = c+ + (1 )c BSM Model
,[, )StNAb,0(rFIX,b,0 [
Z\1 ,Z,8 + ) 25. c = SN(d1) erTXN(d2)
12. E(p1) = p+ + (1 )p
32. Vt = FBt(C0) (St/St)NAE PV(Par 26. p = erTXN(d2) SN(d1)
NAE) 13. Put Call Parity = S + p = PV(X) + c
where
Reading 41: Valuation of Contingent Claims Two Period Binomial Model: d1 =
[(c/I)(C>/>)
C
d2=d1
1. Call Value = cT = Max(0,ST X) For calls:
14. c++ = Max(0,S++ X) = Max(0,u2S X)
27. Replicating strategy cost = nSS + nBB
2. Put Value pT = Max(0,X ST)
15. c+ = Max(0,S+ X) = Max(0,udS X)
28. nS = N(d1) > 0 for calls
One Period Binomial Model:
c 2
3. Up factor = u= 16. c = Max(0,S X) = Max(0,d S X)
29. nS = N(d1) < 0 for puts
c+ For puts:
4. Down factor = d= 30. nB = N(d2) < 0 for calls
17. p++ = Max(0,X S++) = Max(0,X u2S)
41. p= () (\1) 47. Call Deltac = eTN(d1) 1. Rent of Net Lease = Gross rent Op. exp.
[RXN(d2)FRA(0,tj1,tm)N(d1)]
48. Put Deltap = eTN(d1) 2. Lease Rent = Min. rent + % of sales rev
where, above a certain level
[[dP(u,\1,)/dI](C>/>)\1 49. Optimal # of Hedging Units = NH
d1= In case of natural breakpoint, Lease
Z
C \1 = Rent = % of sales rev. above a certain
Q^
level Tenants sales
d2=d1 1
Change in option Price based on Delta
Approximation: 3. Implied land value = Value after
Swaptions construction Cost to construct a building
50. c Deltac(S)for calls
PV of annuity matching Forward Swap 4. Appraised value of a property
payment: 51. p Deltap(S)for puts =
;y;y;y40
<;
42. PVA= [\\1 u,\ (1)
where,
52. =c+Deltac(S) NOI = Net operating income for the
Payer Swaption:
subject property
43. PAYSWN = (AP)PVA[RFIXN(d1) RXN(d2)]
Gamma: Gross potential income = Rental
ka income at full occupancy + Other
Receiver swaption: 53. Gammac = Gammap = n(d1)
SC
income
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
Principal payments=Part of the loan Reading 44: Publicly Traded Real Estate
23. Valuation in an international context when payment that amortizes the loan over Securities
land and building are valued separately:
the loan term.
Income to the building = NOI Max.debt service based on DSCR = 1. Rent paid by Tenants = Net rent +
assumed land lease payment NOI/DSCR
Proportionate share of the common area
PV for building = Income to the When the loan is interestonly, costs of the mall (based on space leased)
building / Cap rate or discount rate Max.loan amount based on DSCR=
Total value = PV for Building + Value Max. debt service based on DSCR / 2. NAVPS = (MV of R.E Co.s assets MV
of the land (from sales comparison Debt interest rate
of R.E Co.s liab.) / # of shares outstanding
approach)
26. Equity dividend rate or Equity yield rate = 3. Appraised value = NOI / Cap rate
24. The NCREIF Property Index (NPI):
Cash flow / Equity
Total
Return
of
individual
Property
= where, Cash flow = NOI Debt 4. Estimating NAVPS:
+;O(R0y0
+.) Service Pro forma cash NOI = NOI Non
.
Equity = Price Mortgage cash rents* + Adj. for full impact of
Income return = Cap rate = NOI /
acquisitions
beginning value 27. Calculating Leveraged IRR: *Noncash rent = Avg. contractual
Amount of cash flows available each CF received by the equity investor from rent over the leases terms Cash rent
quarter = NOI Capex the sale = Sale price Mortgage balance actually paid.
Capital
return
= PV = Initial investment
R0y0
;<T
5;+y00y0
;<T
5; +;O
Estimated future expected cash NOI =
PMT = Cash flow
y00y0
;<T
5;
Pro forma cash NOI + Expected
Total Index Return = ValueWeighted n = Holding period growth in NOI
average return for individual FV = Cash flow received from sale Estimated value of operating real
properties CPT I/Y Leveraged IRR. estate =Estimated future expected cash
25. Private market real estate debt
NOI / Cap rate
Loantovalue = Loan / value of the 28. Calculating Unleveraged IRR: Estimated gross asset value =
property
Cash flow received by the equity investor Estimated value of operating real
Max. loan amount based on LTV ratio from the sale = Sale price + NOI in the 1st estate + BV of Cash & equivalents +
= LTV ratio (in %) Appraisal value year BV of Land held for future
of property (in $)
PV = Initial investment development + BV of a/c receivables
Debt serve coverage ratio = NOI/Debt PMT = NOI in the 1st year + BV of Prepaid/other assets
service
n = Holding period Net asset value = Estimated gross
Debt service=Interest + Principal FV = Sale price asset value Total debt Other liab.
payments on the mortgage.
CPT I/Y Unleveraged IRR. (but not deferred taxes)
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
NAVPS = Net asset value / # of shares PIC = Cumulative capital (CC) called 11. General Case: NPV Method
outstanding down Step 1: POST = V / (1 + r) t
PIC Multiple = PIC / CC Step 2: PRE = POST I
5. P/FFO = Current stock prices / Yrahead Step 3: F = I / POST
estimated FFO
2. DPI = Sum of distb. / CC called down (or Step 4: y = x [F / (1 F)]
FFO = Net earnings + Dep. Exp. on PIC)
Step 5: p1 = I / y
R.E + Deferred tax charges g/l from
sales of property and debt 3. RVPI = NAV after distb. / CC called down 12. Alternative Method using IRR:
restructuring + Losses on sales of (or PIC)
Step 1: W = I (1 + r) t
property and debt restructuring OR
Step 2: F = W / V
FFO = EBITDA Interest Expense 4. TVPI = DPI + RVPI
Step 3: y = x [F / (1 F)]
Step 4: p1 = I / y
6. P/AFFO = Current stock prices / Yrahead 5. Mgmt. fees = % fee PIC
Step 5: POST = I / F or p1 (x + y)
estimated AFFO
Step 6: PRE = POST I or PRE = p1
AFFO = FFO Non cash rent* 6. Carried interest= % (NAV before distb. x
Recurring Maintenance type Capital CC) in year when NAV before distb. Is 13. NPV Method with multiple (two) rounds
expenditures Leasing costs (i.e. first > CC
of financing:
leasing agents commissions Thereafter,
Carried
interest
=
%
NAV
Tenants improvement allowances) Step 1: Compound interest between dates:
before
distb.
*Noncash rent = Straightline rent  T1 and T2 = (1 + R1)
Cash rent paid during the period T2 and T3= = (1 + R2).
7. NAV before distb.t = NAV after distbt1 +
Step 2: POST2 = V / (1 + R2)
called down capitalt mgmt feest+
7. Estimated Value of a REIT Co. in yr N Step 3: PRE2 = POST2I2
operating resultst
= (P/FFO of overall REIT group for Step 4: POST1 = PRE2 / (1 + R1)
8. NAV after distbt = NAV before distb.t
yr N) REIT co.s expected FFO in yr Step 5: PRE1 = POST1 I1
carried interestt distb.t
N or Step 6: F2 = I2 / POST 2
= (P/AFFO of overall REIT group for Step 7: F1 = I1 / POST 1
9. CF for Gross IRRt= Capital called down
yr N) REIT co.s expected AFFO in Step 8: y1 = x1[F1/ (1 F1)]
at the beg of periodt+1 + Op. resultt1
yr N Step 9: p1 = I1/ y1
Step 10: x2 = x1 + y1
10. CF for Net IRRt = Capital called down at
Reading 45: Private Equity Valuation Step 11: y2 = x2[F2/ (1 F2)]
the beg of periodt+1 + Op. resultt1 mgmt..
Step 12: p2 = I2/ y2
feest carried interestt
1. PIC:
14. Accounting for Risk in Venture Capital
Venture Capital Method:
FinQuiz Formula Sheet Level II 2017
[
By adjusting Discount Rate = r = 3. Carhart Four Factor Model = E (Rp) = RF+ 13. Active specific risk = Z\1 Z > }>J
1
1
p1RMRF + + p2SMB + + p3HML ++
1+e
p4WML..+ P Where
15. By adjusting terminal value using Scenario
Z = ith assets active weight
analysis
=
Adj. TV = (% prob. scenario 1
RMRF = Portfolios sensitivity to Mkt. }>J is ith assets residual risk
expected E expected P/E multiple) + (% Index
prob. scenario 2 expected E expected SMB = small minus big
P/E multiple) + + (% prob. scenario n Reading 49: Measuring & Managing Market
HML = high minus low
expected E expected P/E multiple)
Risk
WML = winners minus losers
d+n
Reading 46: Commodities & Commodity 4. Macroeconomic Factor Model = Ri =ai + b 1. Std. Normal Dist. (zdist.)=
C
Derivatives: An Introduction i1 F1 + bi2 F2+ ..+ biKFK+ i 2. To obtain a 5% VaR = d
1.65 (1) Portfolio Value
1. Theory of Storage states: Future Prices = F
w
Z +P7g
7
w
5. biK = 3. Equity Exposure Measure = E(Ri) = RF +
C
(
7
w )
Spot Price of the physical commodity + i[E(RM) RF]
Direct Storage costs Convenience Yiled 4. Fixed Income Exposure Measure using
6. Actual Inf. = Predicted Inf. + Surprise Inf.
2. Price Return = (Current Price Previous h :
Duration = =
Price)/Previous Price h 1:
7. Active R = h 5. Fixed Income Exposure Measure using
3. Total Return = Price Return + Roll Return
h :
+ Collateral Return Duration & Convexity = = +
h 1:
8. Active R (decomposition)=
1 1 : ?
w
Reading 47: The Portfolio Management > 1: ?
2. Price of defaultfree bond certain to pay d6 +dR 14. Fundamental Law: E(RA) =
4. Sharpe Ratio SR =
c.Q
d6
off one unit of real consumption at time s = (TC)(IC) P
P,9 = E 1m,9 = E m,9 d6 +du dv
5. Information Ratio IR = = xd
c.Q
d6 c.Q
d6
15. P = h
1+,/ cdu
3. One
period
Rf
interest
rate
l,1 = =
,/
6. > = h> + >
1
1 16. > = h> + >
>
R ,/
xd
7. S.D(RA) = . h
cdu Ex Ante Measurement of Skill
Risk premium on risky assets:
17. P = xG db
8. Active Security R as residual R in
4. Relation b/w expected value and Cov. = xG
=
+ , 18. (P ) =
Single factor statistical model =PZ = CT} P
Z h
5. Alternate way to view the pricing relation O
Multi factor statistical model = PZ = 19. Breadth BR =
1(O+1)~
e~ ~/,tk/
= , =
1~,/
+ 1,+1 , ,1 Z w\\1 \,Z , \
Reading 52: Algorithmic Trading & High
6. Expected Holding period return = , = 9. Meanvar optimal security wghts for Frequency Trading
e~ ~/,tk/ +~,t uncorrelated active R subject to limit on
~,t active portfolio risk =
Z P
Z = >
7. Pricing for real default free i rate =Z = Z O nJ
?
J Z\1 C ?
O G~t J
\1 t
1~,t
10. Grinold Rule = Z = Z Z
Reading 51: Analysis of Active Portfolio
nJ Cv
Management 11. Z =
CJ? xG hd
O
1. Benchmark Portfolio = h = Z\1 h,Z Z 12. Anticipated value added for Active
portfolio = E(RA) = IC P
O
2. Portfolio Return = = Z\1 ,Z Z
13. Transfer Coefficient TC=
3. Value added return = RPRB Cor(Z Z , Z Z )
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