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A Literature Survey Report On Smart Grid Technologies

Jyothilal Nayak Bharothu, PhD Student, Dr. M Sridhar, Member, IEEE, and Dr R Srinivasa Rao,
Member, IEEE

distribution, and consumption, and approve the related


Abstract-- The Smart Grid can be known as an electric strategies.
system that uses information, two-way, cyber-secure In a complex smart grid system, through wide deployment
communication technologies, and computational of new smart grid components and the convergence of existing
intelligence in an integrated fashion across electricity information and control technologies applied in the legacy
generation, transmission, substations, distribution and power grid, it can offer sustainable operations to both utilities
consumption to achieve a system that is clean, safe, secure, and customers . It can also enhance the efficiency of legacy
reliable, resilient, efficient, and sustainable. In this paper, power generation, transmission and distribution systems and
providing a literature survey report on concerned and penetrate the usage of clean renewable energy by introducing
facilitating technologies for the Smart Grid. It presenting modern communication systems into smart grids.
here with two major systems, namely the smart In Section II; discussed about smart infrastructure
infrastructure system and the smart management system. As smart grid technology and its adoption are expanding
This paper also proposes possible future guidelines in each throughout the world, realization in smart grid protection is
system. important. Protection plays an important role to ensure
realization of power grid reliability, security, and efficiency in
Index Terms-- Smart Grid, smart management, smart generation, transmission, distribution and control network. It
networking, distributed generation, smart protection systems is a subsystem of Smart Grid which provides advance grid
etc reliability and security analysis in physical protection and
information protection services. In view of the enhanced
I. INTRODUCTION capability of Smart Grid with its smart infrastructure and
management, the role of Smart Grid in a protection system
THIS paper provides information about future grid.
Reliable and affordable electrical power is essential to the
modern society. The modern electrical power systems cater
which supports the failure protection mechanisms effectively
and efficiently. In Section III, the smart management
techniques are discussed. Finally, Section IV makes the
the demands in wide range of areas which include the major conclusion.
components such as generators, transformers, transmission
lines, motors and switch gear systems etc. The availability of
II. SMART INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEM
new advanced technologies has made a smarter, more efficient
and sustainable grid to ensure a higher reliability of electrical The smart infrastructure system is the energy, information,
power supplied to mankind. Regarded as the next generation and communication infrastructure underlying the Smart Grid.
power grid, smart grid has transformed the interconnected It ropes two-way run of electricity and information. Note that
network between electricity consumers and electricity it is clear-cut to understand the concept of two-way flow of
suppliers. The smart grid system involves transmission, information. Two-way flow of electricity implies that the
distribution and generation of electricity. In a smart grid, the electric energy release is not unidirectional anymore. For
operation of power systems infrastructure has evolved into a example, in the conventional power grid, the electricity is
dynamic design instead of a static design. generated by the generation plant, then motivated by the
A smart grid, also called smart electrical/power grid, transmission grid, the distribution grid, and finally delivered to
Intelligent grid, intelligrid, future grid, intergrid, or intragrid, users. In a Smart Grid [3], electricity can also be place back
is an enrichment of the 20th century power grid. The into the grid by users. For example, users may be able to
conventional power grids are generally used to carry power generate electricity using solar panels at homes and place it
from a few central generators to a large number of users or back into the grid, or electric vehicles may give power to help
customers. In compare, the Smart grid uses two-way flows of balance loads by peak shaving (transfer power back to the
electricity and information to create an automated and grid when demand is high). This backward flow is important.
distributed advanced energy delivery network. For example, it can be very supportive in a microgrid [10],
By utilizing present information technologies [15], the Smart that has been islanded due to power failures. The microgrid
grid is competent of delivering power in more efficient ways can function, even though at a reduced level, with the help of
and responding to wide ranging conditions and events. the energy fed back by the customers. In this survey, further
Generally stated, the smart grid could react to events that arise segregate this smart infrastructure into three subsystems: the
anywhere in the grid, such as power generation, transmission, smart energy subsystem, the smart information subsystem, and
the smart communication subsystem. Before entering into
978-1-4799-4103-2/14/$31.002014 IEEE these let us have an overview on smart grid.
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A. Smart Grid overview


A typical smart grid structure is illustrated in Figure 1. It
contains four subsections which are generation, transmission,
distribution and control network. Each network interconnected
from various locations, information exchange and
communicates through smart communication subsystem such
as an access point with wired or wireless communication
infrastructure. Raw information [7], on the network
healthiness or performance is obtained from smart information
subsystem such as a smart meter, sensor and phasor
measurement unit. Real time network monitoring,
management and control are performed at the control network
such as the electric utility control center. Besides that, a
distribution network can be an individual when dispersed
generation (renewable energy resources) is embedded, that
allowing electricity supply from both Distributed Generation
and utility. The anticipated benefits and requirements of Smart
Grid are the following:
Getting better power reliability and quality;
Optimizing capability utilization and prevention Figure.1. Typical smart grid structures
construction of back-up (peak load) power plants; The conventional power grid is unidirectional in natural
Enhancing capability and efficiency of live electric history. Electricity is frequently generated at a few central
power networks; power plants by electromechanical generators, mainly driven
Getting better resilience to interruption; by the force of flowing water or heat engines fuelled by
Enabling analytical maintenance and self-healing chemical combustion or nuclear power. In order to take
responses to system turbulence; benefit of the economies of size, the generating plants are
generally quite large and situated away from heavily
Facilitating extended use of renewable energy sources;
populated areas. The generated electric power is stepped up to
Cooperative distributed power sources;
a higher voltage for transmission on the transmission grid.
Automating safeguarding and operation; The transmission grid moves the power more than long
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by enriching distances to substations. Upon coming at a substation, the
electric vehicles and new power sources; power will be stepped down from the transmission level
Reducing oil expenditure by reducing the need for voltage to a distribution level voltage. As the power exits the
wasteful generation during peak usage periods; substation, it enters the distribution grid. Lastly [13], ahead
Presenting opportunities to improve grid security; arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again
Enabling change to plug-in electric vehicles and new from the distribution voltage to the essential service
energy storage options; voltage(s). Figure. 2 shows an example of the conventional
Rising consumer choice; power grid.
Enabling fresh products, services, and markets. In compare with the conventional power grid, the electric
energy generation and the run pattern in a Smart Grid are
suppler. For example [6], the distribution grid may too be
B. Smart Energy Subsystem
competent of generating electricity by using solar panels or
Two-way flows of electricity and information place the
wind turbines.
infrastructure base for the Smart Grid. The smart infrastructure
In this survey, still split the energy subsystem into
can be subdivided into the smart energy subsystem, the smart
Power generation, transmission grid, and distribution grid.
information subsystem, and the smart communication
subsystem, correspondingly. In this section, explore existing
works on the smart energy subsystem and summarize some
future research guidelines and challenges.

Figure. 2. An Example of the Traditional Power Grid


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generators, the major deployment of DG will also alter the


conventional power grid design tactic, in which the generators
C. Power Generation
are coupled to the transmission grid.
Electricity generation is the practice of generating electricity The growth and deployment of DG further leads to a idea,
from other forms of energy, such as natural gas, coal, nuclear namely Virtual Power Plant (VPP), which manages a large
power, the sun, and wind. During the 1820s and early 1830s, group of distributed generators with a total capacity similar to
British scientist Michael Faraday discovered the fundamental that of a usual power plant.
principles of electricity generation: electricity can be This group of distributed generators is jointly run by a central
generated by the motion of a loop of wire or a disc of copper controller. The rigorous operational mode delivers extra profit
between the poles of a magnet [1], a principle still being used such as the capability to deliver crest load electricity or load-
nowadays. There are lots of energy sources used to generate aware power generation at little notice. Such a VPP can put
electric power. As fossil fuels get exhausted and usually get back a usual power plant while providing higher efficiency
more costly, it is likely that renewable energy will play a more and additional flexibility. Note that more flexibility allows the
significant role in the future power generation. system to respond better to fluctuations. However, a VPP is
In compare to the power generation in the conventional power also a composite system requiring a complicated optimization,
grid, smarter power generation becomes likely as the two way control, and secure communication tactic.
flows of electricity and information are supported. A solution
power generation paradigm enabled by Smart Grid will be the D. Transmission Grid
distributed generation (DG). DG takes benefit of distributed On the power transmission side, factors such as infrastructure
energy resource (DER) systems (e.g. solar panels and small challenges (increasing load demands and rapidly aging
wind turbines), which are often small-scale power generators components) and novel technologies (new materials, advanced
(typically in the range of 3 kW to 10,000 kW), in order to get power electronics [2], and communication technologies) drive
better the power quality and reliability. For example, a the growth of smart transmission grids. The smart
microgrid, which is a localized assemblage of electricity transmission grid can be regarded as an included system that
generators and loads, can cut off from the macrogrid so that functionally consists of three interactive components: smart
distributed generators carry on to power the users in this control centers, smart power transmission networks, and
microgrid without obtaining power from outer. Thus, the smart substations.
trouble in the macrogrid can be isolated and the electric power Based on the offered control centers, the future smart control
supply quality is enhanced. A study from the global Energy centers allow many new features, such as systematic
Agency pointed out that a power system based on a large capabilities for analysis, monitoring, and idea. The smart
number of reliable little DGs can operate with the same power transmission networks are abstractly built on the
reliability and a lower capacity margin than a system of offered electric transmission infrastructure. However, the
likewise reliable large generators. surfacing of new technologies (e.g new materials, electronics,
A review of diverse distributed energy technologies such sensing, communication, computing, and signal processing)
as micro turbines, photovoltaic, fuel cells, and wind power can help get better the power utilization, power quality, and
turbines can be found. However, implementing DG(s) in system security and reliability, thus drive the growth of a new
practice is not an easy plan due to a number of reasons. First, structure architecture for transmission networks.
DG involves bulky scale deployments for generation from The dream of the smart substation is built on the offered
renewable resources, such as solar and wind, whose yield is, complete automation technologies of substations. Although
though, subject to wide fluctuations. In general, the generation the essential configurations of high-voltage substations have
patterns ensuing from these renewable and the electricity not altered much over the years, the monitoring, measurement,
demand patterns are distant from being equal. Therefore, and control equipment have undergone a sea change in current
efficient utilization of the DG in a way that is aware of the years. Major characteristics of a smart substation shall take in
variability of the yield from renewable sources is significant. digitalization, atomization, coordination, and self-healing. By
In view of the DGs potential benefits on power quality, a supporting these features, a smart substation is able to respond
methodical research on how to balance the high capital costs quickly and provide improved operator safety.
and the reliable power supplies bring by DG is essential. Even In short, with a common digitalized platform, in the smart
though it can only see a limited saturation of DG in todays transmission grid it is likely to enable more flexibility in
power system, the future SG is expected to approve a large control and operation, let for embedded intelligence, and
number of distributed generators to form a much more promote the resilience and sustainability of the grid.
decentralized power system. It may develop from the present
E. Distribution Grid
system in three stages:
Accepting DGs in the present power system; For the distribution grid, the most significant problem is how
Introducing a decentralized system of DGs cooperating to bring power to serve the end users better. Still, as many
with the centralized generation system; distributed generators will be included into the smart
Supplying largely power by DGs and a partial amount distributed grid, this, on one hand, will boost the system
by central generation. flexibility for power generation, and on the additional hand,
Note that as DG enables the users to deploy their own also makes the power run control a lot more complicated, in
turn, necessitating the study of smarter power distribution and
delivery mechanisms.
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The primary one is a circuit switching system based on


alternating current (AC) power distribution, and the other is a
direct current (DC) power dispatching system via power
packets. Note that the packetization of energy is an interesting
but tough task since it requires high power switching devices.
More purposely, complete electricity from energy sources is
separated into several units of payload. A header and subtitle
are attached to the unit to form an electric energy packet.
When the router receives packets, they are sorted according to
the addresses in the headers and then sent to the parallel loads.
Using energy packet, as long as power is easily synchronized
by controlling the number of sent packets. In adding, many in-
home electric devices are driven by DC power and have built-
in power change circuits to commutate AC input voltage. Thus
[11], DC based power distribution is possible. These systems
will make in-home power distribution systems more
competent and easier to control energy run. Figure 3. Microgrid connection

F. Microgrid G. Smart Information Subsystem


Distributed generation promotes the growth of a new grid The development of Smart Grid relies on not only the progress
model, called microgrid [2], which is seen as one of the of power equipment technology, but also the upgrading of
cornerstones of the future Smart Grid. The natural complicated computer monitoring, analysis, optimization, and
development of the SG is expected to come through the plug- control from fully central utility locations to the distribution
and-play mixing of microgrids. A microgrid is a contained and transmission grids. A lot of of the concerns of distributed
grouping of electricity generations, energy storages, and loads. automation should be addressed from an information
In the usual operation, it is connected to a conventional power technology perspective, such as interoperability of statistics
grid (macrogrid). The users in a microgrid can produce low exchanges and integration with existing and future devices,
voltage electricity using distributed generation, such as solar systems, and applications. So, a smart information subsystem
panels, wind turbines, and fuel cells. The single point of is used to hold information generation, modelling, integration,
common coupling with the macrogrid can be disconnected, study, and optimization in the context of the Smart Grid.
with the microgrid performance autonomously. This operation In this section, focus on the smart information subsystem. First
will result in an islanded microgrid, in which distributed explore the information metering and measurement, which
generators carry on to power the users in this microgrid generates information from end entities (e.g. smarter meters,
without obtaining power from the electric utility situated in the sensors, and phasor measurement units) in a Smart Grid. This
macrogrid. Figure. 3 shows an case of the microgrid. Thus, the information is frequently used for billing, grid status
many distributed generators and the capability to isolate the monitoring, and user appliance control. Then look at the
microgrid from a larger network in disturbance will give information management, including data modelling,
highly consistent electricity supply. This planned islanding of information analysis, integration, and optimization. Finally
generations and loads has the potential to give a higher local outline some future research directions and challenges.
reliability than that provided by the power system as a whole. H. Information Metering and Measurement
Note that even though these users do not obtain the power
Study in information metering and measurement can be
from outside in the islanding mode, they may still exchange
classified into smart metering, and smart monitoring and
some information with the macrogrid. For example, they may
measurement. In the following, explain this classification in
want to know the position of the macrogrid and decide
point.
whether they should reconnect to the macrogrid and obtain
a) Smart Metering: Smart metering is the mainly important
power from the electric service. This includes improved
mechanism used in the Smart Grid for obtaining information
reliability, high access of renewable sources, self-healing,
from end users devices and appliances, while also controlling
active load control, and better efficiencies. For case, in order
the performance of the devices. Automatic metering
to understand self-healing during outages, microgrids can
infrastructure (AMI) systems, which are themselves built
switch to the islanding mode and as a result the users in
upon automatic meter reading (AMR) systems, are broadly
microgrids will not be precious by outages.
regarded as a sound strategy to realize Smart Grid. AMR is the
technology of routinely collecting analytical, expenditure, and
status data from energy metering devices and transferring that
data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and
analyzing. AMI differs from traditional AMR in that it enables
two-way communications with the meter. So almost all of this
information is available in real time and on demand, allowing
for better system operations and customer power demand
organization.
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b) Smart meters, which carry two-way communications amid


the meter and the central system, are like in many aspects to
AMI meters, or occasionally are regarded as part of the AMI.
A smart meter is typically an electrical meter that records use
in intervals of an hour or less and sends that information at
least every day back to the utility for monitoring and billing
purposes. Also [12], a smart meter has the capability to
disconnect-reconnect slightly and organize the user appliances
and devices to manage loads and demands within the future
smart-buildings. Figure. 4 show a typical usage state for
smart meters.
From a consumers outlook, smart metering offers a figure of
potential profit. For example, end users are able to estimate
bills and thus direct their energy consumptions to decrease Figure 4. Smart metering system
bills. From a utilitys viewpoint, they can use smart meters to a) Data Modeling: The goal of SG information technology
understand real-time pricing, which tries to encourage users to data modeling is to provide a guide to creating constant,
reduce their demands in peak load periods, or to optimize displayable, compatible, transferable, and editable data symbol
power flows according to the information sent from demand for use inside the emerging Smart Grid. In other words, the
sides. aim is to make it as interoperable as probable using relevant
c) Smart Monitoring and Measurement: An important function standards. That is specifically addressing the data that
in the dream of Smart Grid is monitoring and measurement of represent state information about the grid and entity items in
grid status. It review the following two main monitoring and it. This would include nearly all connected items from
measurement approaches, i.e. sensors and phasor generation down to entity consuming devices. They all have
measurement units. state information that may need to be read, stored, transmitted,
Sensors: Sensors or sensor networks have previously been etc. Why is data modeling key? Let us look at the following
used as a monitoring and measurement approach for dissimilar two reasons. First, the information exchange between two
purposes. In order to notice mechanical failures in power grids application elements is significant only when both of them can
such as conductor failures, tower collapses, hot spots, and use the information exchanged to perform their individual
extreme mechanical conditions [18], That sensor networks tasks. Therefore, the structure and meaning of the exchanged
should be fixed into the power grid and help to evaluate the information must be implicit by both application elements.
real-time mechanical and electrical situation of transmission b) Information Analysis, Integration, and Optimization:
lines, obtain a complete physical and electrical image of the Information analysis is needed to support the giving out,
power system in real time, analyze coming up as well as explanation, and correlation of the overflow of new grid
permanent faults, and determine appropriate control measures observations, since the widely deployed metering and
that could be mechanically taken and/or suggested to the monitoring systems in Smart Grid will generate a big amount
system operators once an extreme mechanical condition of data for the utility. One part of the analytics would be
appears in a transmission line. Wireless sensor networks performed by accessible applications, and another part of the
(WSNs) in exacting, given their low cost, can provide a analytics dimension is with new applications and the ability of
feasible and cost-effective sensing and communication stage engineers to use a workbench to create their modified
for remote system monitoring and diagnosis. Reviewed the analytics dashboard in a self-service model.
application of WSNs for electric power systems along with Information integration aims at the merging of information
their opportunities and challenges and accessible a complete from different sources with differing theoretical, contextual,
trial study in different electric power system environments. and typographical representations. In Smart Grid, a large
They finished that with the help of WSN, a single system amount of information has to be integrated. First, the data
incident in the power grid could be detected and isolated generated by new components enabled in Smart Grid may be
before it causes cascading property and leads to more tragic included into the existing applications, and metadata stored in
system-wide breakdowns. birthright systems may also be used by new applications in
I. Information Management Smart Grid to provide new interpretations. Second, at present
most value companies have limited installed capability for
In Smart Grid, a large quantity of data and information will be
integration across the applications linked with system
generated from metering, sensing, monitoring, etc. Smart grid
planning, power release, and customer operations. In most
must support sophisticated information management. The task
cases, this information in each department is not easily nearby
of the information management is information modeling,
by applications and users in other departments or
information analysis, integration, and optimization.
organizations. These islands of information communicate to
islands of independent business activities. So, the emerging
Smart Grid calls for enterprise level integration of these
islands to develop and optimize information utilization all
through the organization.
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III. SMART MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The second topic of energy efficiency and demand profile is
In Smart Grid two-way flows of electricity and information minimizing energy loss. However, using distributed energy
are supported, which lay the base for realizing a variety of generation in Smart Grid makes this problem more
functions and management objectives, such as energy complicated. In order to minimize the system energy loss,
efficiency development, operation cost reduction, demand and proposed to determine the optimal accommodation of
supply balance, emission control, and utility maximization. A distributed renewable energy generation for minimizing
common surface understanding about Smart Grid is that only energy loss by using an optimal multi-period alternating
the energy, information and communication infrastructure current power flow.
underlying the Smart Grid is smart. This is not true. The more B. Management Methods and Tools
accurate assessment is: With the development of new
management applications and services that can leverage the In order to resolve management objectives, researchers have
technology and capability upgrades enabled by this advanced adopted various methods and tools. Thus far, researchers
infrastructure the grid will keep becoming smarter. mainly use optimization, machine learning, game theory, and
For example, let us consider demand response [20], one of the auction as tools to solve various management problems. For
most important concepts supported by Smart Grid. optimization approaches [19], the commonly used
Traditionally, the electric utilities try to match the supply to mathematical tools are convex programming and dynamic
the demand for energy. Though, this may be not only programming. Since the renewable energy supply is often a
expensive but also impractical, maybe impossible in the longer time-varying process, other optimization techniques such as
run. This is because the total amount of power demand by the stochastic programming and robust programming are also
users can have an extremely extensive probability distribution, widely used. In addition, since the particle swarm optimization
which requires spare generating plants in standby mode to can solve complex constrained optimization problems quickly,
respond to the rapidly changing power usage. The last 10% of with accuracy and without any dimensional limitation and
generating capacity may be required in as little as 1% of the physical computer memory limit, it is also a widely used
time. The attempts to meet the demand could fail, resulting in optimization tool. Machine learning focuses on the design and
brownouts (i.e. a drop in voltage), blackouts (i.e. electrical development of algorithms that allow control systems to
power outage), and even cascading failures. In Smart Grid, evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor
demand response manages the customer consumption of or Phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. used online learning
electricity in response to supply conditions. More specifically, application to implicitly estimate the impact of future energy
by using demand response, Smart Grid does not need to match prices and consumer decisions on long term costs, and thus
the supply to the demand, but in contrast, to match the demand schedule residential device usage. Used online machine
to the obtainable supply by using control technology or learning to examine the renewable energy resource use
convincing the consumers (such as through variable pricing) strategy in islanded microgrids. More specifically, a customer
thus achieving better capacity utilization. In this section, tries to decide among multiple renewable energy sources
explore smart management in Smart Grid. First classify smart which should be used to maximize profit. Although the power
management techniques according to their management pattern of the renewable energy source is not known in
objectives and then according to their management methods advance, they proved that when the time horizon is
and tackle. sufficiently large [14], on average the upper bound on the gap
between the expected profit obtained at each time slot by
A. Management Objectives using the optimal renewable energy source and that by
Within the framework of Smart Grid, many management
following their strategies is arbitrarily small. Allowing for that
goals, which are difficult and possibly infeasible to realize in
a large number of smart meters, sensors, and PMUs will be
conventional power grids, become possible and easy. So far,
deployed, believe that machine learning will play an important
the works for smart management mainly focus on the
following three objectives: role in analysis and processing of user data and grid states.
Game theory is also a strong analysis tool for SG
Energy competence and demand profile development;
management. One reason is that it cannot always suppose and
Effectiveness and cost optimization, and price
require all the users to be cooperative. Game theory can help
stabilization;
us design effective schemes to cope with this case.
Emission organizes.
The research on energy efficiency and demand profile mostly
IV. CONCLUSION
focuses on two topics. The first one can be categorized as
demand profile shaping. It can help match the demand to the
In this article, the literature review of current state-of-art in
available supply. The usual way to form demand profile is
Smart infrastructure & smart management techniques is
shifting, scheduling, or dipping demand in order to reshape a
presented. These includes
demand profile full of peaks to a nicely smoothed demand
Energy subsystem, more specially,
profile, or reduce the peak-to-average ratio or peak demand of
the total energy demand. As discussed before, since electrical Power generation, transmission, and distribution.
generation and transmission systems are generally sized to This as well described new grid paradigms: microgrid
correspond to peak demand, lowering peak demand and Smart information subsystem, especially information
smoothing demand outline reduces generally plant and capital metering, measurement, and management in Smart
cost requirements, and also increases the system reliability. Grid.
Next , briefly describe these research works.
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V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT [16] J. Tate and T. Overbye. Line outage detection using
phasor angle measurements. IEEE Trans. Power Syst.,
I would like to express my sincere thanks to my Ph. D work
23(4):16441652, 2008.
supervisor Dr M Sridhar & co supervisor Dr R Srinivasa Rao
[17] J. Tate and T. Overbye. Double line outage detection
for their extensive guidance.
using phasor angle measurements. IEEE Power & Energy
I thank to our Institute Executive directors Mr. T Sai kumar
Society General Meeting09, pages 15, 2009.
& Mr. D Baba for providing creative environment for this
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VII. BIOGRAPHIES

Jyothilal Nayak Bharothu


received the B.E(Electrical
&Electronics Engg.) from S.R.K.R
Engg. College Bhimavaram
(Andhra University) in 2006,
M.Tech.( High Voltage Engg) from
JNTU Kakinada University in2009.
And pursuing PhD from JNTUK,
Kakinada. He has five years of
teaching experiences in the field of Electrical Engg. In India,
his field of interest is power systems operation and control.
Presently, he is Associate professor of EEE Dept at Sri
Vasavi Institute of Engineering and Technology Nandamuru
(A.P.), INDIA.

Dr. M Sridhar received B. E. from Madras University, M.


Tech from J N T U Kakinada and PhD from Andhra
University. He is having 15 years teaching experience in the
field of Electrical engineering. He is the member of IEEE, at
present he is working as Professor and HOD of EEE at GIET,
Rajahmundry, (A.P.) INDIA. His area of
interest is power systems and High voltage
Engineering.

Dr.R.Srinivasa Rao, Received M E from IISc Bangalore and


PhD from JNTU, Hyderabad. He is having 16 years of
experience in teaching in the area of Electrical Engineering.
He has received best Teacher in the department adjudged by
B.Tech student consequently 7 times from 2005 to 2011. He is
member of IEEE, at present is an Associate Professor in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Jawaharlal