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When selecting drive wheel motors for mobile Table 1: Rolling Resistance for Rubber Wheels

vehicles, a number of factors must be taken into

account to determine the maximum torque required. Contact Surface Crr

The following example presents one method of Concrete (good / fair / poor) .010 / .015 /.020

computing this torque. Asphalt (good / fair / poor) .012 / .017 / .022

Wood (dry/dusty/wet) .010 / .005 / .001

Snow (2 inch / 4 inch) .025 / .037

Example vehicle design criteria:

Dirt (smooth / sandy) .025 / .037

Mud (firm / medium / soft) .037 / .090 / .150

Gross vehicle weight (GVW): 35 lb

Weight on each drive wheel (WW): 10 lb Grass (firm / soft) .055 / .075

Radius of wheel/tire (Rw): 4 in Sand (firm / soft / dune) .060 / .150 / .300

Desired top speed (Vmax): 1.5 ft/sec

Desired acceleration time (ta): 1 sec

Maximum incline angle (): 2 degree

Step Two: Determine Grade Resistance

Worst working surface: concrete (good)

Grade Resistance (GR) is the amount of force

necessary to move a vehicle up a slope or grade.

To choose motors capable of producing enough This calculation must be made using the maximum

torque to propel the example vehicle, it is necessary angle or grade the vehicle will be expected to climb in

to determine the total tractive effort (TTE) normal operation.

requirement for the vehicle:

To convert incline angle, , to grade resistance:

TTE [lb] = RR [lb] + GR [lb] + FA [lb]

GR [lb] = GVW [lb] x sin()

Where:

TTE = total tractive effort [lb] where:

RR = force necessary to overcome rolling resistance [lb] GR = grade resistance [lb]

GR = force required to climb a grade [lb] GVW = gross vehicle weight [lb]

FA = force required to accelerate to final velocity [lb] = maximum incline angle [degrees]

in the following steps.

GR = 35 lb x sin(2) = 1.2 lb

Step One: Determine Rolling Resistance Step Three: Determine Acceleration Force

Rolling Resistance (RR) is the force necessary to Acceleration Force (FA) is the force necessary to

propel a vehicle over a particular surface. The worst accelerate from a stop to maximum speed in a

possible surface type to be encountered by the desired time.

vehicle should be factored into the equation.

FA [lb] = GVW [lb] x Vmax [ft/s] / (32.2 [ft/s ] x ta [s])

2

where:

where: FA = acceleration force [lb]

RR = rolling resistance [lb] GVW = gross vehicle weight [lb]

GVW = gross vehicle weight [lb] Vmax = maximum speed [ft/s]

Crr = surface friction (value from Table 1) ta = time required to achieve maximum speed [s]

Example: Example:

2

EML2322L MAE Design and Manufacturing Laboratory

The Total Tractive Effort (TTE) is the sum of the Total Tractive Effort is the net horizontal force applied

forces calculated in steps 1, 2, and 3. (On higher by the drive wheels to the ground. If the design has two

speed vehicles friction in drive components may drive wheels, the force applied per drive wheel (for

warrant the addition of 10%-15% to the total tractive straight travel) is half of the calculated TTE.

effort to ensure acceptable vehicle performance.)

The Wheel Torque calculated in Step Five is the total

TTE [lb] = RR [lb] + GR [lb] + FA [lb] wheel torque. This quantity does not change with the

number of drive wheels. The sum of the individual drive

Example: motor torques (see Motor Specifications) must be

greater than or equal to the computed Wheel Torque.

TTE = 0.35 lb + 1.2 lb + 1.6 lb = 3.2 lb

The Maximum Tractive Torque represents the

Step Five: Determine Wheel Motor Torque maximum amount of torque that can be applied

To verify the vehicle will perform as designed in before slipping occurs for each drive wheel. The total

regards to tractive effort and acceleration, it is wheel torque calculated in Step Five must be less

necessary to calculate the required wheel torque (Tw) than the sum of the Maximum Tractive Torques

based on the tractive effort. for all drive wheels or slipping will occur.

Estimating Parameters

where:

Tw = wheel torque [lb-in] For these calculations to be meaningful, appropriate

TTE = total tractive effort [lb] parameters should be chosen. Typical ranges for

Rw = radius of the wheel/tire [in] robot designs are provided below. Note an

RF = resistance factor [-] appropriate acceleration time must be chosen such

that the required Tw < MTT number of drive wheels.

The resistance factor accounts for the frictional

losses between the caster wheels and their axles and

the drag on the motor bearings. Typical values range Typical EML2322L vehicle design criteria:

between 1.1 and 1.15 (or 10 to 15%).

Gross vehicle weight (GVW): 20 40 lb

Weight on each drive wheel (WW): 5 15 lb

Example: Radius of wheel/tire (Rw): 2 6.8 in

Desired top speed (Vmax): Speed Calcs

Tw = 3.2 lb x 4 in x 1.1 = 14 lb-in Desired acceleration time (ta): 0.3 2 sec

Max incline angle (): 3 5 degree

Step Six: Reality Check Worst working surface: concrete (good)

Number of drive wheels: 2

The final step is to verify the vehicle can transmit the

required torque from the drive wheel(s) to the ground.

The maximum tractive torque (MTT) a wheel can

transmit is equal to the normal load times the friction

coefficient between the wheel and the ground times

the radius of the drive wheel.

where:

W w = weight (normal load) on drive wheel [lb]

= friction coefficient between the wheel and the

ground (~0.4 for plastic on concrete) [-]

Rw = radius of drive wheel/tire [in]

Example:

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