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Topology: Handwritten Notes

by
Tahir Mehmood

Partial Contents
These are the handwritten notes. These notes are lecture delivered by Mr. Tahir Mehmood.

1. Metric space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 29. Lindelof theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


2. Minkowskis inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 30. Relative topology, subspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3. Open set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 31. Separation axioms; T0 -space . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4. Closed ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 32. T1 -space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5. Closed set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 33. Subbase; Generation of topologies . . . . . . 92
6. Bounded set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 34. T2 -space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
7. Limit point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 35. Continuous function (with respect to topolo-
gies) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
8. Closure of a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
36. Product topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9. Convergence in metric space and complete
metric space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 37. Convergence of sequence in topological
spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10. Cauchy sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
38. Regular space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
11. Bounded sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
39. Completely regular space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
12. Nested interval property or Cantors inter-
40. Compactness in topological spaces . . . . . 125
section theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
41. Homeomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
13. Continuous function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
42. Countably compact space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
14. Topological spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
43. Bolzano Weierstrass property . . . . . . . . . . 145
15. Metric topology, cofinite topology . . . . . . 39
44. Lebesgue number; Big set; Lebesgue covery
16. Open set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
17. Closed set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
45. net; Totally bounded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
18. Closure of a set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 46. Connected spaces; Disconnected . . . . . . . 157
19. Neighbourhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 47. Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
20. Interior point, exterior point . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 48. Totally disconnected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
21. Boundary point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 49. Separated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
22. Limit point (with respect to topology) . . 52 50. Normed spaced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
23. Isolated point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 51. Uniformly continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
24. Dense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 52. Closed unit ball; Convex set . . . . . . . . . . . 190
25. Separable set; Countable set . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 53. Vector space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
26. Base of topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 54. Linear combination; Spanning set; Linearly
27. Neighbourhood base or local base or base at independent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
a point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 55. Linearly dependent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
28. Open cover; Lindelof space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 56. Linearly independent lemma . . . . . . . . . . 194

1
57. Finite dimensional; Subspace . . . . . . . . . . 197 67. Direct sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
58. Equivalent norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 68. Orthogonal set; Orthonormal set . . . . . . 242
59. Banach space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 69. Bessels inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
60. Reiz Lemma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 70. Total orthonormal sets (definition); Parse-
vels equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
61. Hilbert spaces; Inner product spaces . . . 224
71. Linear Operator; The Kernel or Null space
62. Polarization identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
of a linear operator; Continuous linear oper-
63. Cauchy Schewarz inequality . . . . . . . . . . . 229 ator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
64. Appalonius identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 72. Bounded linear operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
65. Hilbert space; Pythagorian theorem . . . 233 73. Norm of a bounded lienar operator . . . . 252
66. Minimizing vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 74. Linear functionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

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