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2 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

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Nociveglia. Stefanst. forest ecosystem and tree species Grandmont. Marilyn Peddle. Giallopolenta. benet2006. Edinburgh. Norlando Pobre. Josh Starlinger. Maher27777. Institute for the Geo-referenced Database of Genetic Diversity (GD)2 . IKB. Thomas printing process and to Matteo Cassanelli for providing support and Resources. Miltos Gikas. Italy Germany (Dr. Leonid Mamchenkov. Vicente Selvas. Jevgenij Voronov. Guillermo Fernandez Centeno. the JRC is grateful for the support and commitment offered Manfred Gut. Civil and Building This publication is the culmination of a fruitful collaboration Trentanovi. Paul Schulze. Joint Research Centre. for which we would be pleased to rectify Xemenendura. Ragnar Jonsson. p. Lisbon. Jan Oldenburger) Pieter Beck. Peter Smith. University of Sarajevo. Stein Tomter) Salvatore Pasta. Portugal Zharkikh. Italy Forest Genetic Resources (EUFORGEN). Horla Maria C. Nova. National Research Council. Yuri Timofeyev. In addition. referees. Research Centre. Adrian Lanz) Biosceinces and Bioresources. Ettore Balocchi. Michael Simoncini.schoenmakers. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Willy Tinner. Franco Rossi. Göranssons Åkeri AB i Färila. Italy Agnieszka Kwiecień (Nova). Ian Rosenzweig. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Ján Sokoly. of Geobotany and Botanical Garden.eufgis. Dezidor. Romania (Mr. Legnaro (PD). Department of Agronomy. Ispra (VA). Italy H. László Szalai. Italy Davide Fumagalli. Jan Homann. Dan Nordal.L. Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg. European Commission. School of Agriculture. Claudio Claude Vidal. Ispra (VA). Spain. Klemens Schadauer) Centre. Ispra (VA). Jo Simon. Anne Ghisla. Insubric Ecosystem Research Group. Agrarian Tommaso Sitzia. Alessio Sbarbaro (Yoggysot). Sergio Piccolo. Son of Groucho. F. Taxelson. Giulia Corradini. Jean-Pol Sofia Cerasoli. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Pieter Beck. Maja Dumat. Forest knowledge on environment. Jiricek72. Italy Szmigiel. Kenraiz. Hauke Musicaloris. Department of Natural Systems and Resources. School. Pavel Buršík. Department of Natural Systems Takeshi Kuboki. Andrew. No-author. Joint Research Centre. Hungary (Mr. Christa Regina. Agro-Food and Forest Systems. Henson. Tanaka Juuyoh. Ispra (VA). for the assistance of William Adnams and in particular. Alan Semper. Joint Research Ragnar Jonsson. liz west. Rosendahl. Department of Natural Systems and Resources. European Commission. Joint Research Francesca Giannetti. Italy Institute for Environment and Sustainability. for their ability to spot errors and inconsistencies through the Patrice. Romania Mario Pividori. Joint Research Centre. ECOGESFOR Research Group. Dave Hamster. tree-species. Carl Mueller. Umberto Salvagnin. John Tann. Italy eu (see also the Chapter “The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: Santiago Saura. unintentional omission.evoltree. Giovanni Caudullo. Ispra (VA). Sarah Mubareka. Alpes de Haute Provence. ioa8320. European Commission. Forestales y del Medio Natural. University of Lisbon. Ispra (VA). University of Florence. Jeremy Atkinson. Sergey Urzhumskov. European Commission. Ieva Licite. Bucharest. Lisbon. Toms Zālītis) Dalibor Ballian. Angela Benito. Joint Research Centre. US Forest Service. Stewart Juan Ignacio García-Viñas. Marion Arne Cierjacks. Bern. Forestales y del Medio Natural. Sven Scheuermeier. Brian Gratwicke. Ispra (VA). Lisbon. Aanjhan Ranganathan. Estormiz. Flavio Da Ronch. Hans Fransen. Joint Research Centre. NASA. European Commission. Iciar Alberdi Asensio. UK Edward Eaton. Roberto Verzo. Richard Sikkema. to Grainne Mulhern and the army of other proof-readers Noel Feans. Emma Silviana Mauri. Spain Enrico Romani. Jevgēnijs Šlihto. Marinella Zepigi. Italy Bragança. Joint Research Centre. Spain France (Claude Vidal. Delventhal. Bosnia Herzegovina Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Mahlum. Azevedo. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Snow and Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Legnaro standardisation of the atlas. Javi MF. Rob Hille. jez. Tomás Royo. Gráinne Mulhern. and Michael Frankis was crucial for adding new Egan-Wyer (je_wyer). Joint Research Centre. Department of Land. Giancarlo Pasquali. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Conservación. ISeneca. European Commission. Mati Valgepea) Giovanni Caudullo. Barredo. Caroline Sada. Tonelli. Alpo Roikola.R. Roland Tanglao. Lukasz insights on the preparation of the Atlas chapters. Graziano Propetto. Hamburg. Free Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Alan Gregg. Arnaud 25. Mihai Enescu. ECOGESFOR contributors and trace all copyright holders. Willow. Soldatnytt. Steven Gill. William Warby. European Commission. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 3 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Phil Sellens. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Cesare Ravazzi. Engineering. Italy Agriculture. Institute of Plant Sciences and Bellinzona. Laszlo Kolozs) Patrik Krebs. Jean-Marc Frémont) Tracy Houston Durrant. University of Tuscia. Veiko Adermann. Joint Research Centre. Italy The Netherlands (Mr. Ronnie Nijboer. Rainer Food. Miquel Llop. Technical University of Madrid. University of Padova. Madrid. Faculty of Forestry. Nicolas Raymond. Forestales y del Medio Natural. data and information on forest tree species”. J. Institute of Environment. Heino Polley) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. University of Hamburg. Switzerland Technology. Ispra (VA). Jonas Fridman) Geosciences. Technical University of Madrid. Madrid. The exhaustive Selz. Franz Josef. Research Group. The completion of this Atlas would Kazanskaya. Anna Barbati. 40) Erik Welk. in future editions or online versions of the atlas. Korhonen) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Frank Vassen. Portugal Forestry Specialization. Tracy Houston Durrant. Chris De Biological. Verollanos93. The Editors wish to extend their gratitude to the anonymous Nicholas A. Barbara Zecchin. Giovanni Claudio Bosco. Mr. Madrid. João C. Ola Sallnäs. Italy Switzerland (Mr. Roberto Vallejo Bombín) João S. Enrico Pompei) Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research. David Nicholls. Vasile Madrid. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Ispra (VA). Vince Aitor Gastón González. University of Edinburgh. Richter. Italy Czech Republic (Mr. School of Bergen. Department of Soil Sciences. Harald Deischinger. Richard Sikkema. Aldo De Bastiani. Halle (Saale). Ashley Giovanni Strona. Biology Department. Springfield Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Loughborough. lifar. Farnham. Benediktv. Italy Alberti. Santiago Saura Martínez de Toda. Juan Ignacio García Viñas. Norway (Mr. Forest Research Centre. Eran Finkle. Velella. José I. We apologise for any Smith. Mr. Drury University. University of Padova. Polytechnic Institute of Bragança. Botaurus stellaris. S. Annemarie Bastrup-Birke) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Molekuel. Agnieska Ovaskainen. Crusier. Andrey Environment. Hannu. Ptelea. Patrizia Gasparini. Roberto Boca. Cesare Ravazzi. John B. Entomart. Jean-Baptiste Bellet. Stefano Zerauschek. Sten Porse. Switzerland Diego Magni. Margherita Di Leo. Shankar S. Stuart Caie. Drahkrub. University of Bern. Wendy Cutler. Mr. Gaston Aitor. Franz Jongleur100. European Commission. Wojciech Przybylski. Territorial Planning. Forest Research Centre. Joint Research Centre. Nacho. Alexander Cahlenstein. Ispra (VA). Lamiot. Christinamari. Pancrazio Campagna. Zseeee. United Kingdom F. Willy Tinner. Sergey Norin. Ana Paula Dias) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Ispra (VA). Sarah Millar. Wolfgang Staudt. A. Italy Marcelo Javier López. Centre Economics. Society and Biosecurity. Michael Wunderli. Albertas Kasperavicius) Sarajevo. Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. In particular. Gianluca Nicolella. Gherardo numerous forest and vegetation experts from institutions and Hans Braxmeier. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. Landscape Research WSL. echoe69. Centre. Frauke Feind. Joint Research Centre. through the publication process. Ispra (VA). Alexej Potupin. Georgi Kunev. Richard Allaway. United Kingdom between the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre and Graham Calow. Pereira. Steven Munson. Birks. understanding Santos Cirujano Bracamonte. Italy Minna Räty. Germany provided the necessary data for the preparation of the Atlas. Sean and high professional standards have significantly added to the MacEntee. Fundación Global Nature. Svíčková. Victor M. Italy Kirchoff. Domenico Lara Vilar. Institute of Salvagnin. Ruben Holthuijsen. United Kingdom Spain (Mr. Department of Land. Independent researcher Latvia (Ms. Italy Achille Mauri. Centre for Slovak Republic (Ms. Bruce Institute for Environment and Sustainability.. Forest Research.L. cafepampas. System on Forest Genetic Resources (EUFGIS) . Photo Credits Raul Abad Viñas. Neil McIntosh. Pablo. Madrid. Forestry Commission. Food and Forestry Systems. Italy Aleksasfi. Department Research Group. MrT HK. EU Publications Office for her assistance in coordinating the Black. Ispra (VA). Ninara. MajaDumat. Jannik School of Agriculture. USA Francesca Rinaldi. Valentin Sabau. Nuno Lavrador. Elin. Biocenter Klein Flottbek. Fredi Bach. Animals and Environment. Ispra (VA). Patrik Krebs. Kelley. Tom Brandt. Atlas. Varlan. Guilhem Vellut. Ferreira Maria Conceição. Javier Martin. Viterbo. Martin Pospíšil) Daniele de Rigo. National Research Council. the authors are grateful Lippert. Authors Data contributors Jesús San-Miguel-Ayanz. Loughborough University. Switzerland Italy (Mrs. Firenze. University of Padova. Basil. United Kingdom (Mr Mark Lawrence) University of Lisbon. Gary Houston. European Commission. Chris M. Forestry Commission. Tomasz Proszek. claude05alleva. Paolo da Reggio. David Wright.. Núria Guerrero Hue. University of Florence. Food and Forestry Systems.www. John Redmond) Landscape Research WSL. Sallyofmayflower. Jennifer Slot. European Commission. Stanislav quality of this publication. ETSI Montes. Jonson22. Rae. Forestry Commission. European Commission. Institute of Geography and Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change. Günther Seufert. Thomas Quine. Robert Anders. This led to an improved scientific soundness. Alfonso San Miguel. Suzanne E. Donald Hobern. Joint Research Centre. Ispra (VA). Forest Research. Danielgrad. Palermo. Agriculture and Forestry. European Information Missouri. European Commission. Axel Kristinsson. David Friel. Magnus Manske. Franco Caldararo. Anssi Koskinen. Achille Mauri. mornarsamotarsky. University of Bergen. Geography and Demography. Estudios Europeos de Medioambiente Estonia (Mr. Italy Acknowledgements Photos.www. Italy Ireland (Mr. Tara2. Miguel Vieira. University of Agronomic Sciences and Mr. MarioM. Germany ETSI Montes.atkinson. Technical University of Madrid. weisserstier. Roberta (PD). MemoryCatcher. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Portugal Cristian Mihai Enescu. Arnstein Rønning. European Ioana Popescu. Natural resources. Bri Weldon. European Commission. Ian Andrews. Pinho. European Commission. Francesco Ciabatti. Joint Research Centre. Spain. Somepics. Department for Innovation in Bj. davidgsteadman. Joint Research Centre. Giuseppe Milo. Department of Biodiversity of Useful Plants. readability and Peter Trimming. Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. NH53. University of Lisbon. Morris. Finally. Forest Focus/Monitoring dataset. Alfie Ianni. the Editorial Board has put every effort to credit all Cotovanu. Portugal of Claude Vidal. Karl Brodowsky. European Commission. BioSoil dataset. Vivian Kvist Johannsen. for Ecosystem. Irina universities across Europe. Lithuania (M. miluz. Bernt Rostad. Dewsbery at Lovell Johns Ltd (UK) whose patience. Thanks also to Arlette Goergen of the Doronenko. Jose Luis Cernadas Iglesias. Spain. Bosco. Spanish National Research Council. Caldeira. Murray B. S. Daniele de Rigo. Gian-Reto Tarnutzer. University of Lisbon. Niki. Samuel Killworth. Department of Austria (Dr. Gheorghe Marin) Paula Nieto Quintano. Franco Giordana. Vito Buono. Department of Agriculture. European Commission. Norway Sweden (Dr. Madrid. Mattivirtala. Italy Natalia Guerrero Maldonado. Vassil. Firenze. ETSI Montes. Pedro Dias. Jiří Berkovec. Huskarl. Jim Ferguson. Benham. Superior National Forest. Wouter Hagens. by the forestry administrations in the member states that Schneider & Christoph Aistleitner (Mediocrity). Milano. ECOGESFOR modelling. Stan. Insubric Ecosystem Research Group. Marco Conedera. Kimberly Vardeman. Andreas Rockstein (AnRo0002). Inga Vitola. Italy Wit. Andrew_Writer. School of Agriculture. Doc Searls. Francisco Antunes. Spain Finland (Kari T. Legnaro (PD). Zuzana Kmetova) Sandra Oliveira. NTNU Faculty of Natural Sciences and Bellinzona. J. Portugal have not been possible without their contribution. A Michael Kranewitter. Joint Research Centre. European Commission. Joint Research Centre. gravitat-OFF. Portugal (Ms. Ispra (VA). NatureServe. European Commission. Joint Research Centre. Schwabe90. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. Jean Latour. Ispra (VA).indd 3 08/04/2016 11:05 . Agriculture and Forestry. Vlad Butsky. Italy Silvano Radivo. Dalibor Ballian. Snow and list of contributors is shown below. Allie Caulfield. Jorge Franganillo. Forest & Kim Starr. Italy Dynamics of Environmental Processes. Independent researcher Francesco Gasparetti. Italy Dave Durrant. Department of Biology. Sarang. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Independent researcher Denmark (Ms. Atif Rafik. Ispra (VA). ilovebutter. Farnham. Marina Torres.

Circum-Mediterranean firs 50 Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce 118 Acer campestre Field maple 52 Pinus cembra Arolla pine 120 Acer platanoides Norway maple 54 Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia Aleppo pine and Turkish pine 122 Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore or sycamore maple 56 Pinus mugo Dwarf mountain pine 124 Aesculus hippocastanum European horse-chestnut 60 Pinus nigra Black pine 126 Ailanthus altissima Tree of heaven 61 Pinus pinaster Maritime pine 128 Alnus cordata Italian alder 62 Pinus pinea Stone pine 130 Alnus glutinosa Common or black alder 64 Pinus sylvestris Scots pine 132 Alnus incana Grey alder 66 Populus alba White poplar 134 Alnus viridis Green alder 68 Populus nigra Black poplar 136 Betula sp. Contents Preambles 2 Publication details 2 Contributors 2 Introduction 5 Preface on the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 6 The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe 7 Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. data and information on forest tree species 40 How to read the Atlas 46 Abies alba Silver fir 48 Picea omorika Serbian spruce 117 Abies spp.indd 4 08/04/2016 11:05 . Elms 186 4 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Birches 70 Populus tremula Eurasian aspen 138 Carpinus betulus Common hornbeam 74 Prunus avium Wild cherry 140 Carpinus orientalis Oriental hornbeam 76 Prunus cerasifera Cherry plum 142 Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut 78 Prunus mahaleb Mahaleb cherry 143 Celtis australis Nettle tree 80 Prunus padus Bird cherry 144 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lawson cypress 81 Prunus spinosa Blackthorn 145 Cornus mas Cornelian cherry 82 Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir 146 Cornus sanguinea Common or red dogwood 84 Quercus cerris Turkey oak 148 Corylus avellana Common or European hazel 86 Quercus frainetto Hungarian oak 150 Cupressus sempervirens Mediterranean cypress 88 Quercus ilex Holm or evergreen oak 152 Eucalyptus globulus Tasmanian blue gum 90 Quercus palustris Pin oak 154 Euonymus europaeus Spindle tree 92 Quercus pubescens Downy or pubescent oak 156 Fagus sylvatica European beech 94 Quercus pyrenaica Pyrenean oak 158 Frangula alnus Alder buckthorn 96 Quercus robur and Quercus petraea Pedunculate oak and sessile oak 160 Fraxinus angustifolia Narrow-leaved ash 97 Quercus suber Cork oak 164 Fraxinus excelsior Common ash 98 Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 166 Fraxinus ornus Manna ash 100 Salix alba White willow 168 Ilex aquifolium European holly 102 Salix caprea Goat willow 170 Juglans regia Common walnut 103 Sambucus nigra Black elderberry 172 Juniperus communis Common juniper 104 Sorbus aria Common whitebeam 174 Juniperus oxycedrus Prickly juniper 105 Sorbus aucuparia Rowan or Mountain ash 176 Juniperus phoenicea Phoenician juniper 106 Sorbus domestica Service tree 178 Juniperus thurifera Spanish juniper 107 Sorbus torminalis Wild service tree 180 Larix decidua European larch 108 Tamarix spp. Limes (Linden) 184 Picea abies Norway spruce 114 Ulmus spp. Tamarisks 182 Olea europaea Olive 111 Taxus baccata European or English yew 183 Ostrya carpinifolia European hop-hornbeam 112 Tilia spp. disturbances and threats 8 Forest bio-based economy in Europe 20 European forests: an ecological overview 24 European forest classifications 32 European Forest Types: tree species matrix 34 Past forests of Europe 36 Tree species 40 The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling.

(Copyright CC0) Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 5 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Glossary 190 Appendices 194 The European Commission 194 Information on copyright. citation and disclaimer 196 Spring foliage of Norway maple (Acer platanoides). pixabay.indd 5 08/04/2016 11:05 .

citizens and policy makers. forests are under pressure. involving collaborations with national forest services. Today. Maritime Education. Happy reading! Rainbow over Sierra Morena (southern Spain).indd 6 08/04/2016 11:05 . (Copyright Ian Andrews. fires and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more intensely as a result of climate They are remarkable ecosystems. the selection of species for afforestation and the measures for adapting to climate change. Storms. the botanical sciences. This European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first report to compile and make this essential information available to forest managers. Knowing how forest tree species are distributed across the EU is vital for making decisions about forest management. the protection of areas of high nature value.www. provide habitats for plants and animals. I believe that this European Atlas of Forest Tree Species will soon become an important reference text for this rich European resource. forests and other wooded lands cover some 40% of the European Union’s landmass. Unsustainable management practices have resulted in habitat and biodiversity loss. protect us from floods and landslides. UK). And continued high nitrogen depositions are a concern. it is crucial that our forests are managed sustainably – and this requires improving our knowledge. An enormous amount of work has gone into creating this Atlas. a precious natural resource and a source of income and wealth. Europe's forests have been in a period of recovery after centuries of deforestation and degradation. Introduction Preface Dear readers. we can truly appreciate their critical role in our environment.geograph. prevent soil erosion. our economies and our lives. soils. Over the past 200 years. and support leisure and recreation – as well as providing timber and other forest products. However. universities and international institutions dealing with the many different aspects of forest life. environmental and social benefits. (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) Karmenu Vella Tibor Navracsics European Commissioner for European Commissioner for the Environment. but also to protect them and keep them in good condition. AP) 6 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Forests capture and store carbon. biodiversity. researchers. research organisations. vegetation and pests for example. In order to continue providing European citizens with their wide range of economic. Affairs and Fisheries Youth and Sport Field maple (Acer campestre) in a rapeseed (Brassica napus) cultivation near Dorchester (Dorset. By learning more about our trees and forests.

and to ensure the sustainable forest information. However. The information from these projects was incorporated and is available in the Forest Focus database of the Joint Research Centre. J. but instead develop definitions and methods [2] Council of the European Union. A second four. A. research Spruce forest surrounding the Atorno Lake (Belluno. the JRC set up a four-year Framework Contract in 2009 EFDAC. was given to the JRC. and datasets on forest basal areas. etc. their impacts need to be definition of forests.foresteurope. Union. which were held in Strasbourg (1993). the latest of which was published in 2015.. 2005. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. (Copyright Domenico Salvagnin. 2 that may allow for the derivation of these datasets. [11] J. (Eds. Italy). the European Union. it is necessary to harmonise national the targets established in the cross-sectorial policies that affect information at the European scale so as to derive pan-European forests and forest resources. (1986). the COST Actions do References not in themselves produce harmonised European datasets (which [1] Ministerial Conference on the Protection of [8] R. vol. Tiefenbacher. Additionally. This QR code points to the full online version. T..Assessing Hazards.indd 7 08/04/2016 11:05 . A. Suarez Meyer. The largest of these was the Biosoil project8. San-Miguel-Ayanz. Oslo (2011) and Madrid forests and soils. the EU Biodiversity Strategy & Natura 2000. However. Flies. Warsaw (2007). In: San-Miguel- (Copyright Hans Braxmeier. EFFIS and the Forest Focus database. pp. San-Miguel-Ayanz. (InTech. Both regulations were substituted by the Forest Focus regulation4 during the period 2003-2006. While NFIs are very different in most countries.jrc. European countries are currently under no obligation to report information on forest resources to European forest information systems. for Official Publications of the European transmission impeded the successful establishment of a common Communities. Publ. as part of which a soil survey was conducted in 22 EU countries. [9] T. Houston Durrant. Forest focus [10] D. they collect ground data and forest parameters that can be processed to obtain harmonised European forest information. Schulte.. 2012). A commitment to SFM forms the basis of services and the European Environment Agency led to the European Commission in 2013 opened a new opportunity for the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe creation of 10 environmental data centres.Scientific and Journal of the European Union 1. et al. system. distribution of forest tree species have been compiled. Mauri. the (2003). chap. For this reason. 2007). CC-BY) initiatives on the harmonisation of reporting activities from NFIs were launched in the form of Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Actions. 774 (2009). 6) and for forest fires (the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS)7). San-Miguel-Ayanz. San-Miguel-Ayanz Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) is a key objective of In 2005. E.growing Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration would be necessary to assess the state of forest resources at life (2016). Luxembourg. T. FISE is currently under development. job creation. The every four years.Soil Data Analysis. Schmuck. COMMUNICATION Emergencies and Disaster Impacts. G. and a national information on a series of forest criteria and indicators ESDAC (European Soil Data Centre). The responsibility for the establishment of a common European forest information (Forest Europe1). The most common systems are the National Forest Inventories (NFIs). FROM THE COMMISSION pp. 1–17 (2013). 3 the European level were launched through the EFICS regulation (1992). Although a common EU [6] T. Houston Durrant. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. Hiederer. 669–673. However.Scientific and Technical Research the European level).eu. a series of regulations were established over the years to collect information on forests and to ensure their sustainable management. which facilitated the establishment of common European forest information systems for air pollution (the Forest Focus database5. or regional forest information systems. forest biomass and the for fossil-fuel-based materials and energy) climate change or regional scales. Although essential for the process of harmonising forest information from NFIs.).. and biodiversity data were collected in standardised plots in 19 countries. The establishment of FISE is at the core of the EU provide a reliable pan-European assessment of the state of the Forest Strategy as the instrument to assess progress towards forests. 9 . the European Commission and the (1998). This information is used to assess the sustainable the collection of harmonised information on forest resources in development of FISE builds on existing European systems such as management of forests in the different regions of Europe and to Europe. G. J.Validation Spatial Data Infrastructures Research 2. Please. carbon stocks. 2011). CC0) Ayanz. cite as: Autumnal foliage of the horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).ec. Approaches to 2005). vol. Evaluation Journal of the European Union 35. 1 Technical Research (Publications Office of Information and Communication Platform (EFICP)10 . As part of the Forest Europe process. little progress was made in [7] J. Vienna (2003).. related information systems were still ongoing11 . Official module. 24777 of EUR . Sixteenth International Workshop on (IEEE. Forest Europe . with the expiration of the Forest Focus regulation in 2006. lack of standardised forest information systems across countries [5] R. et al. Energy Framework. a compilation of national datasets does not modelled. e012228+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 7 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. including forest area. D. pixabay. Hiederer. et al. Seoane. vol. J. San-Miguel-Ayanz. The latter mitigation. www.. de Rigo. J. Official E. Proceedings. Project . 2016. 5. Houston Durrant. Caudullo. International Journal of monitoring database system . setting up a comprehensive common European forest information Managing Disaster . most countries in Europe have their own systems in place to collect information about their forests. Although there is no comprehensive common European forest information system to which countries report. Schulte. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. This is an extended summary of the chapter.Analysis of biodiversity (1989)10 and followed by the setting up of a European Forest [4] Council of the European Union. Within the European Union. [12] European Commission. those dealing with system. Different EU policies affect the forest-based sector It is difficult to produce detailed harmonised information on dataset is one of the core datasets used for the production of the (and therefore European forests). forest protection indicators in mountain regions. Within this strategy. R. including the Climate and forests at European level.europa. 2011). Chronologically. the focal point for information on forest resources in Europe. an agreement between several Commission The adoption of the new EU Forest Strategy12 by the all European countries. it does the European Commission has been collaborating with European growing bioeconomy in terms of value-added. The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe J. In this context. EU. Micheli. for the provision of data and services to EFDAC. Houston Durrant. E. and often their own To ensure coherence among policies. and aims to become elaborate the series of reports on the State of Europe’s Forests. These environmental data EU Member States are establishing a Forest Information System (2015). EUR 23020 EN (Office 112 (2007). The forest-based sector plays a crucial role within a contained within this series of reports is very valuable. Off. and not lend itself to a more detailed assessment of environmental NFI services to produce harmonised forest datasets at European (through the sequestration of carbon and providing a substitute processes as the reports are made at national rather than local level. Database and Expert forest information system in Europe. While the information year Framework Contract was established in 2012. of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest biodiversity .. initiatives to bring together European forest. Initiatives to support this harmonisation process were first financed through the Forest Focus regulation. Lisbon the establishment of two of these centres. Official (Publications Office of the European Journal of the European Union 29. Forest Strategy had existed since 1998. The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe. management of forest resources in Europe. Environmental Monitoring 11. Forests in Europe. In order to further support prototype is already available at http://fise. Regulation EEC No 3528/862 and Regulation EEC No 2157/923 helped establish information systems for the monitoring of air pollution in forests and for forest fire prevention. Several projects were financed for the harmonisation of different forest parameters. Hiederer. 24729 of EUR . and the difficulties faced in establishing common protocols for data methodology. Journal of Systems Applications. I. As countries have their own national European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. countries report centres were named EFDAC (European Forest Data Centre) and for Europe (FISE). Attempts to establish common information systems at [3] Council of the European Union.

Forests protect soil resources by significantly have been estimated to affect 0. evidence suggests that old forests may better understand the complex issues around social. For example. water resources and biodiversity1 .indd 8 08/04/2016 19:12 . and cultural ecosystem services linked to recreation are generally Forest resources should not be considered as a monolithic more favourable in uneven-aged and old even-aged forests than entity. They may range from the local scale (e. Wood-based biofuels also help Unfortunately. the potential impact infrastructures1 .) with 28.3 billion Euro1 .5 million ha forests while storm. This service of forest resources amounts in Europe to an average (from 2005 to 2015) annual carbon sequestration of 719 million tonnes. climate This kind of plantation is here exploited for the final stage of purification of change and ecosystem services21. 150 million ha are of art. R. G. C. Forests in Europe (FOREST EUROPE)¹.8 million ha of forest resources of some of these types of plantations (see also Figures 1 and 3) reducing soil erosion.5 %. on biodiversity or soil acidification is debated27-30 . branches. 2: Qualitative illustration of some ecosystem functions. regional scale (e. 1: Short rotation forestry (SRF) of willows. etc. 3: Another example of short rotation forestry. services. not all types of forest can provide the same level of support. disturbances and threats D. Strona. Bosco. . and on construction sites as building material2 (see also chapter global changes . information systems and models in a modular way. several forests in boreal and lands. Recent research results suggest how the density of 36 million ha. the distribution of tree ages patterns and relationships among forests and other wooded suggests that. Other wooded lands cover an additional area of decreased)1 . Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. and anthropic systems requires some underpinning concept to be compared to the living above ground biomass (leaves. soil.g. In particular. (Adapted from an image authored by Harald Deischinger. which is about 9 % of the net greenhouse gas emission in the region (414 million tonnes in the EU-28)1 . However. 22 . whole forest value-chain”21 . J. 33 % of the total land area (215 million ha) by at least two tree species (during the last 15 years. with complex in young even-aged forests1 . or land management9 . However. they affect soil resources. frequently due several European countries as energy crops23-26 . with a positive trend of increase for the of forests composed by a single tree species has continuously forested areas. 3 tree species composition and management practices may affect (Fig 4 top). An estimate of 103 million euro (0. sustainable water from nitrates and phosphates.25 million cultural sites are located in European forests. Furthermore. 10. http://archive. wildfires. Coppice short rotation of willows. For example. Lamiot. The coppice is then used to produce In this chapter. the bio-economy (see the next chapter). soil protection.9 million ha damaged by insects and trees are used which are able to reach their economically optimum A significant share of European forests (more than 110 diseases). holistic view of forest animals than young forests6 while the age of forest stands shows management. million Euro. the value of which reverberates far outside the forest sector (see Box 1). bioclimatic and anthropogenic aspects.g. 11 . ecosystem and of 0. wood products which replace more energy-demanding materials or industrial processes/sectors1 . Forestry and forest- based industries in Europe allow almost 3 million people to earn their living (estimates for 2010)1 . considered in an integrated way. Barredo.1 %). T.highlighting the key role of the scientific state (Adapted from an image authored by Alexej Potupin. to biotic causal factors (1. 30 million hectares of European forests have been protected with the main objective to support biodiversity or landscape conservation.g. they play a multifaceted role. and addresses the to functional groups (e. In the recent Forest Strategy of the European Union functions.I. wind and snow damage (SRF) include carbon sequestration. primary feedstocks for wood-based a multiplicity of ecosystem functions and services6.. Fast-growing decrease greenhouse gas emissions1 . its progress and open problems on wide-scale integrated considered available for wood supply1 . wood can be used as material for furniture production mitigation strategies for forest resources in view of climate and Fig. Wood is a primary source of renewable energy in Europe2. their usage and their interaction with other natural and temperate ecological zones have been disturbed by natural causes anthropic systems. (e. fire causes the damage size in 8-20 years.g. Instead. years old and 18 % are over 80 years old. M. pests. As an example. At the same time. Boca In Europea . https://archive. Dormagen. This could be achieved by integrating and saprophytic beetles appears higher in undisturbed old-growth diverse data. at least 1. global aspects of climate regulation). processes and services associated to forest resources. Germany. They also interact (see on page 7 the chapter "European Union Forest Strategy with other natural resources. thus contributing to areas in Europe are affected by forest damage. catchment scale (e. forest)7. This brief overview of facts and statistics aims to provide the soil-protection services offered by European forests a descriptive picture of the multifaceted aspects of forests in reverberate also as climate change mitigation. CC-BY. 40 % of the forests are between 20 and 80 considering forests in relation with natural disturbances like Fig. carbon is also stored in long-lasting structures (e. Positive services of short rotation forestry million ha) is designated for protecting water. irrigated by water from a purification plant in northern France. biodiversity and sustainability. monetary value alone does not provide a complete picture of the real impact of forest resources in Europe (see the next section of this chapter).is/AxELA) as provided in foresteurope. For offs may emerge between competing usages and adaptation/ example. it is assumed the definition of Europe and its Country Groups forest management practices are recommended in a broader (Adapted from an image authored by F. soil formation. ectomycorrhizal fungi.g. and a large majority of European countries (more than 90 %) have specific objectives in relation to biodiversity1 (see Box 1). covers the multiple benefits of forests. water quality and quantity”21 . while the overall value of marketed non-wood goods related to forest resources reached 2. They may also offer more suitable habitats for some strategy which “promotes a coherent. etc. composition and age structure may research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to be relevant. In Europe. Di Leo. Ultimately. trunks. intrinsic complexity context so as to “maintain and enhance forest cover to ensure In 2010.8 % of the European GDP) constitutes the gross value added by the forest sector1 . European forest biomass adsorbs a remarkable amount of atmospheric CO2. PD) “Forest bio-based economy in Europe”). considering only the protective functions of forests..) with 7. problems (data and modelling uncertainties. cultural wooden buildings) and another “carbon sink” is constituted by heritage) and beyond (e. when referring to statistics from the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of a wood chips. the value of marketed roundwood reached 11 500 due to transdisciplinary modelling and knowledge integration)12-20 . a deeper understanding of the structure and may be appreciated by considering that the larger proportion of functional relationships among forest resources and other natural overall forest carbon pools is constituted by forest soils (54. in order to provide policy-making with a robust science-based However. J.) to the In addition. San-Miguel-Ayanz. the area is covered by forests. 5 .g. Caudullo. while 70 % are dominated fires and pests. almost 3. richness of lichens. CC-BY. and the Forest Information System for Europe").7 million ha of the overall forested Similar forestry practices are exploited or investigated in to reduce the necessity to use fossil fuels. economic provide higher water storage from storm rainfall and local flooding and environmental changes related to forests” within a general mitigation4. Trade- biofuels frequently compete for a variety of non-energy uses.0 % and the living below This may be essential even at the science-policy interface ground biomass (roots. However. 8 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. above-ground biomass carbon of mature forests may increase as 113 million ha are covered by coniferous forests.g. Although data are incomplete. wood. aesthetic. the litter with 9. Cultural services are part of the rich set of ecosystem services provided by forests. integrates peculiar relationships with species richness which appear specific internal and external forest-policy issues. Houston Durrant. of which around three-quarters classified as ‘Cultural heritage’1 . biodiversity ha by broadleaved ones and 48 million ha by mixed forests1 . over the past century. mountainous areas and areas with extreme climates. four strategic orientations explicitly recommends “advanced details on the forest ecology. Recreational and tourism aspects play an important role. 90 % of forest and other wooded land has been reported as available for recreational purposes1 . water regulation and purification). More in general. this Europe. This role is especially relevant in (estimation based on reports covering 73 % of the forested area)1 . 90 million forests age from 80 to 400 years8 . one of the some of which are introduced in the next section. However.1 % of the total1 . Among the abiotic factors. de Rigo. Forests can offer a key contribution to mitigate the effects of climate change.. weather). In this respect.

(Copyright Jose Luis Cernadas Iglesias. However. the original floodplain area in Europe has been converted to other population densities and intense landscape diversity47. heathlands and peatlands. Kittilä. For example. While 40 % of the forest lands are within a 100 m underlined by the Forest Strategy of the European Union. approximately 95 % of “European forests: an ecological overview”). Finland. 5: Some of the forest birds monitored in the common bird index (see Figure 4.. http://archive. (Source: Eurostat33) Setting the complexity of European forests in a broader context: integrated natural resources modelling and management The reductionist classification of forests as a domain. Lake district. the index associated with common forest birds shows a recovery with a positive trend between 2000 and 2013. This also calls is highly variable. disappeared from their potential range34 . habitat morphology and connectivity39-41 . The European continent has high C: Dryocopus Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 9 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. this holistic multifunctional role is patterns. The complexity and heterogeneity of the landscape. continent characterise the local peculiarities of the forest sclerophyllous vegetation. United Kingdom (Copyright David Friel. CC-BY. decline of several European farmland birds as a trade-off linked defined boundaries of its scientific/technical domain. nature of forest systems as a highly connected hub interacting The anthropogenic impact on the connectivity and with a large network of other natural and anthropic systems fragmentation of European forests shows a variety of diverse (see Figure 6).. CC-BY. Finland. edge E: Regulus ignicapilla in Galicia. (Copyright Noel Feans. As mentioned. and a meaningful assessment of forest patterns may diverse information systems [. CC0. and distance from other lands and 70 % of the European territory the specificities of the European continent easily confirm the shows landscapes with poorly connected woodlands. Spain. http://archive. from 1990 to 2013. Top: The role of wood and other solid biofuel among the renewable sources for the primary production of energy. resources in Europe. 4. although f seamlessly “embedded” in a more general economic frame) has some multiple-use agroforestry practices may effectively been challenged by the growing evidence of the transdisciplinary support biodiversity and ecosystem services provision35-38 .is/7ubCv) B: Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Luopioinen. http://archive. Another example may specific sector ideally segmented in parallel with others (and refer to the landscape-wide losses of biodiversity concerning the as such. climate. although an A: Accipiter nisus in Galicia. Considering the level of invasion by alien plants. CC0. Spain. CC-BY. bottom)31-33 . then to agricultural intensification (see also Figure anthropogenic factors. Data for the EU-28. along with high (Copyright Estormiz. some European landscapes. CC-BY. orography and anthropic patterns in the European average lower impact is reported for most European woodlands. Overall. the index declined between 1990 and 2013. (Copyright Estormiz. biotic and uneven patterns are evident42 . the regional interdependence of sound forest information and management share of “physically connected” sites (complex forest subnets) with the management of other natural resources. uses and 88 % of alluvial forests in 45 European countries have F: Turdus viscivorus. ranging from 5 % to 40 % depending on the for a cooperative information approach towards “integrating country. (Source: Eurostat2) e Bottom: An indicator of biodiversity such as the common bird index is a composite multispecies statistic and is considered by Eurostat as a headline indicator on the status of natural resources in the European Union31-33 . that combines data and models”21 . suitable to be investigated and managed within well. bottom). a b c d Fig. nevertheless (Copyright Alpo Roikola.indd 9 08/04/2016 11:05 . Fig. The anthropic component may dominate geographic43 and climatic heterogeneity44-46 (see also the chapter D: Pyrrhula pyrrhula. Finland. while the common farmland bird index experiences a noticeable decrease (which has mainly been associated with agricultural changes33). http://archive.] into a dynamic modular system require the integrated analysis of the local landscape composition. which highly depend upon abiotic. http://archive.

for more details.). 84 . moderate Fig. 72. and the threats to which they may be exposed. landslides). Impressive examples are constituted by the badlands. Fig. 115 whose management is increasingly altering the sediment transport in water resources and the relationship between precipitation and run-off. 7: Steep hills and slopes may be particularly vulnerable to erosion. an increasing frequency of seasonal floods may prevent water reservoirs to exploit their full storage capacity. navigational. While land cover directly protection (i. 102 . hydro-power and other key usages of water (e.wikimedia. France. with wildfires111 and to impact on ecosystem services112 and the Ecological and biotic/abiotic stressors influence the health. drinking water and vegetation cover) influences water sediment transport (see retention of water in forest sites145. The land cover of river catchments influences the precipitation-runoff relationship. the snow/ice melt and accumulation. 137).org/mtv/Mastrave/img/INRMM114. energy. for example the spread of pests and pathogens may potentially affect the regional/continental scale. Left: Canossa. 146 . 129. industrial. 104 . (e. 41. Impacts of similar disasters may potentially persist or intensify under future projected scenarios of economy. 115). dynamics and trends of forests.jpg ). albedo. rain or wind storms (see Box 3) or large landslides sometimes connected to the impact of intense runoff on the geological peculiarities of a given catchment or region74.g. 10 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. hydro-power and other water usages. Adapted from an image authored by Alpes de Haute Provence.g.e. A water management designed to be efficient under the assumption that upstream and riparian forests are relatively stable may be impaired by the consequences of altered land-cover and thus run-off dynamics125-128 .org/mtv/Mastrave/img/INRMM-simpl. the extent of preservation of forest core areas and genetic diversity as well as by the management practices to which the forest is subject3. 96-100 .g.wikimedia. Biological invasions such as emerging plant pests and diseases have the potential to further interact e. due to industry. the frequency complicated due to the need to reliably model the climate change and intensity of floods and droughts and. and ultimately fire risk and erosion patterns. these phenomena might persistently alter the landscape due to the complete affects soil erosion either positively (i. 10. society and climate change103. 131-135 . 67-71 . for example concerning carbon sequestration. etc. Forest composition and management may display complex transdisciplinary interactions and trade-offs not yet completely understood. soil erosion (with its connection with the and water resources are further connected in some recent dynamics.indd 10 08/04/2016 11:05 . 20. forest cover and good removal of soil and exposure of the underlying parental material. This is because dams and other water reservoirs (e. 124. changes and directly varying precipitation intensity and duration. implying severe consequences for both ecological and economic aspects. 48-52 and projected perturbations under climate change53-59 appear as highly differentiated and interconnected by complex patterns which require integration of advanced modelling and management approaches25. 117-120 . Furthermore. cloudiness and global warming. http://w3id. systems”116 and due to huge economic and social impacts of their vegetation and other land cover may influence the global climatic system. Forests At the same time. regional changing patterns of forests. sometimes more remote but essential in order to understand the status. 74. 25. 85-95 . also depending on their suitability to the local environmental conditions of the ecosystem they affect72-83 . cover and bad agricultural practices136. large-scale floods in Central Europe109 . As previously mentioned. energy and wood production. Some factors act at the local scale economy with substantial uncertainties113 . https://commons. conversely. CC-BY. agricultural practices) or negatively (wildfire. In absence of a sustainable vegetation cover and of a developed root system floods and soil erosion5. and recreational)122-124 .g. At the same time. as a consequence. These regional patterns may locally reverberate at the catchment scale. the possibility to integrate risk assessment and multipurpose use optimisation of different resources: a challenge which is change affect soil erosion both indirectly by driving land cover This may induce water-managers to alter established water progressing on different fronts25. AP. Europe has experienced a series of particularly severe disasters101. This network of interactions is the transdisciplinary subject of management policies. pest outbreaks. Examples are wildfires (see Box 2). However. the share. pathogenic agents injurious to plants such as An increasing frequency of seasonal droughts may require the stored water not to be exploited when otherwise more valuable. whose mitigation impose severe constraints to the effectiveness of seasonal water allocation. precipitation interception. The particular composition and health of a forest is influenced by the suitability of its plant species to the local climate. Regional and local scale along with the “feedbacks between the social and biophysical changes are also driven by global scale climate changes and by general economy/technology drivers which may modify local land use and other anthropic influences on ecosystems (e. water resources quality and water storage loss138-140 . Another family of forest disturbances is linked to abiotic factors and may also display catastrophic effects on forests73. They range from flash floods105-107 and severe storms in Western Europe with an expected trend of increasing intensity108 . environmental. agriculture. Ultimately. for them to be ready to accumulate more upstream water during flooding events and thus better contribute to their mitigation122. because of unfavourable land use or climate change). the impact of these biotic disturbances may occasionally be destructive. https://commons. Changes in the regional patterns of precipitation and temperature may potentially affect the local soil water dynamics. 60-66 . 22. distribution and sustainability of forest resources play a decisive role in exacerbating or mitigating droughts. disturbances and management of upstream forests approaches to reduce tree drought stress by increasing the Water resources directly affect'Escure_badlands. domestic. Figure 6). their related services6. surface waters and ground water reserves18. see also http://w3id. plant pests and diseases (see Box 4) show multifaceted patterns of spread. this general goal is critical for ensuring the sustainable provision of economic assets and ecosystem services by forests. climate and climate Right: Adret de l’Escure. 110 .g. The elements directly affecting forest resources are tightly connected with other factors. locally networks (Figure 6)114. 130 . Recently. In particular. natural resources and ecosystems. 59.or pest-degraded (Copyright: Paolo da Reggio.e. 128. fires. regulated lakes) can store/release water when more appropriate for maximising the combined multi- purpose efficiency of agriculture irrigation. deadwood and fuel Natural resources are intrinsically entangled in complex causal accumulation. given the spatial permeability among connected areas. From a broader perspective. 60. 127. canopy cover. 6: A simplified overview of some key interactions among forest resources and other natural and anthropic systems (adapted from de Rigo121 .jpg). resources management at the river-basin scale142-144 . and energy supply while also determining flood and drought risks. Italy. composition and sustainability of forests. and large forest fires in the Mediterranean countries88-90. CC-BY. These policies could greatly benefit from the integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM)114 . with consequences for plant health.

middle. with possible repercussions on the local micro-climate147. Riparian forest buffers also provide remarkable services and require flooding-tolerant tree species38. 9: Source: Daniele de Rigo. pasture. bottom: qualitative visualisation of the typical local topography of a valley side. Different trees are better suited to cope with different intensity of soil moisture. The opposite feedback also holds: forest resources may help to control even advanced stages of land degradation such as desertification153 (see Figure 13). Left: the side of a secondary valley (Italy. Within forested areas. this also depends on the flooding tolerance of the rooting system.2204755 (doi: 10. Right top. Fig. 8: The ability of forest tree species to tolerate periodic flooding and soil-water saturation varies from taxon to taxon.g. flooding and waterlogging.doi.6084/m9.figshare. a sustainable. 148 if not. the wider-scale climate (determining a complex land-use/forest/water/climate feedback which might be simply invisible to single sectoral approaches)149. There.) may alter the natural stratification of taxa with respect to the frequency of waterlogging154-156 . Within forested mountain valleys of hills. occasionally. Forest fires and deforestation in semi-arid Mediterranean areas may contribute to severe land degradation151. Right: qualitative visualisation of the typical dendritic network along which flow accumulation due to run-off is more intense (gullies). http://archive. Vallorcine Valley towards Mont Blanc. erosion rates and thus forest soil carbon losses may be concentrated in relatively few critical areas. The partial coverage by debris and sediments with high permeability (due to periodic intense runoff and sediment transport) may sometimes require these strategic tree species also to be drought tolerant20. (Adapted from an image authored by F.figshare.indd 11 08/04/2016 11:06 . gullies and small secondary valleys are a consequence of the geomorphological processes. 160 . healthy forest cover requires the presence of suitable tree species. some areas may be subject to more intense run-off (gullies. CC-BY. 150 . shallow secondary drainages or valleys). http://dx.2204755).is/TNMT8) Fig.6084/m9. 152 . http://archive. 158 . influenced by the local climate and also by the local patterns of vegetation. Among other factors. Correspondingly. Alps. The presence of flooding- tolerant vegetation may mitigate erosive phenomena and protect the carbon accumulated in the forest Trentino Alto Adige) clearly shows the stratification of coniferous trees (upper part) and more flooding- tolerant broadleaved trees/shrubs (lower part). .. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 11 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 157. management of forests or water bodies. The water cycle is linked with land use and with water and forest resources management.. CC-BY. Delventhal. Top right image: a typical valley in the temperate mountain system. 159. while anthropic factors (e. Adapted from an image authored by Richard Allaway. CC-BY. .

159.figshare. 131. 165 .6084/m9. 162 .. This box qualitatively illustrates the network of valleys. A healthy. European mountainous areas are among the one more susceptible to potential soil erosion by water163 . At the same time. The extent of this protection is also related to particular species composition of forests166 . et al.2247472).doi. 12 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.1 %)1 . the boreal. a b c Fig. gullies and riparian areas where higher rates of potential erosion coexist with higher frequency of waterlogging or flooding. http://dx. 167. In particular. 164. hollows. In Europe. Continent-wide. sustainable forest cover in these critical areas is able to display a multifunctional mitigation and protection. the larger proportion of forest carbon pools is constituted by forest soils (54.2247472 (doi: 10.indd 12 08/04/2016 11:06 .figshare. rockfall. 10: Source: Daniele de Rigo. shallow landslides117.6084/m9. Forests and other vegetation may provide a very effective protection to mitigate soil and carbon loss and can support the provision of some key ecosystem services concerning mass stabilisation and buffering/attenuation of mass flow such as 155. temperate and subtropical mountain systems host a variety of forest ecosystems44. 161. some forested areas in hills and mountains may be subject to a multiplicity of disturbances. with a limited number of tree species suitable to thrive under the combined effect of these stressors154. 160.

which are not monolithic systems but instead a composition of uneven subsystems. 12: Austria. Bavarian Forest National Park. deeply incised gullies with their more intense runoff and flow accumulation as the major impacts of forest plant species biodiversity and its (which may generate ephemeral streams) may become suitable for flooding-tolerant Forested sand dunes in Fårö. A further complication lies in the intrinsic complexity of forest ecosystems. CC-BY. 11: Some feedbacks between Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 13 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. United Kingdom. https://archive. https://archive. https://archive. whose establishment may help to counteract a pattern of losses may become evident at wider than local spatial further erosion. Germany.e. overall increase the risk of wind damage to European forests74. land use and and higher resistance to invaders73 .is/EwMjv) e f Fig. Copyright MrT HK. Bavarian Forest National Park. https://archive. is/sgHwD and http://archive. C: Red deer (Cervus elaphus). while higher temperatures in in hills and mountains may be subject. A: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus). However. (Castor fiber). positive feedbacks may partly counteract negative ones. 108. water resources – along with Considering some forest threats. on the many disturbances and stressors to which forested areas penetration into mainland Europe. Salix and other shrubs and trees tolerant to scales176. Furthermore. B: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). More diverse forest ecosystems appear to be more stable and species mixtures may have lower levels of pest damage Fig. 170 and other and management)114 .is/zrInn (Adapted from an original image authored by Bernt Rostad. CC-BY. Fig. Bottom: in the beginning of 2014. CC-BY. knowledge on these key aspects soils wetter than the surrounding landscape occupy a small valley between eroded crops in a hill close to the Apennines in Central Italy. on February disturbances108. 171 also influence the connectivity of habitats The important case of forests in mountainous areas may help 2014. Even vegetation and forest management may affect different taxa in substantially different ways depending on their habitat (for example. Some evidences composition of forests and of agriculture areas) or qualitatively uneven subsystems. However. Agriculture practices over tree species richness has been correlated with higher levels of hills may expose bare soil to erosion and contribute to generating rills provision for a multiplicity of ecosystem services175 . Copyright MrT HK. Although it is impossible to summarise even a simplistic overview of these animals in a picture. plant pest outbreaks also land use management (integrated natural resources modelling intensely affect land cover168 . Gotland. monitoring these effects may require an integrated perspective. The Figures 9 and 10 provide an overview suggest that storm intensity is increasing with a potentially deeper (e. taller forest vegetation appears to mitigate the effect of even severe summer heatwaves and droughts (for ) D: European beaver. 177. a flood meadow. which include birds (see Figures 4-bottom and 5) and a b Fig. In Europe.g. subtropical dry forest). local patterns of increased precipitation and subsequently more saturated soils. which in turn may intensify erosion . (Adapted from images authored by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Areas subject to frequent intense run-off and even occasional waterlogging tend to host flooding-tolerant tree c d species and other resistant vegetation. the extreme event of the 2003 drought) compared with shorter vegetation174 . In the picture. disturbances. deep gullies (background) and slope instability. CC-BY. a few well known mammals are here illustrated in their forest environment. CC-BY. Copyright NTNU. CC-BY. management may intensify degradation phenomena. either quantitatively (the plant species to exemplify some of the aforementioned interactions among winds exceeding 160 kilometres per hour. by means of shallow landslides93 . 13: Forest tree species may serve to mitigate and control desertification. along with other key vertebrates and invertebrates. Copyright NH53.g. Germany. Evidence suggests that vegetation in European areas characterised by a high summer temperature is more sensitive to drought- stress and that droughts have more influence on grasslands than forests173 . dead wood and infrequently disturbed areas may be more sensitive to some management practices)172 . Copyright Dave Hamster. (Vulpes vulpes).is/CIbc5 E: Red fox. and wildfires169. As already mentioned. United Kingdom. at the boundary is still subject to substantial uncertainties which may lead to between two subtropical ecological zones (subtropical mountain system and quantification of impacts ranging over orders of magnitude178 . flooding and and the overall landscape. a series of storms affected northern and central Europe. The storm was associated with intense precipitation. http://archive. and the corresponding rich Fennoscandia may expose unfrozen soils for longer periods – which may set of ecosystem functions and services they may provide. (Adapted from an image authored by Claudio Bosco: CC-BY) This array of relationships suggests the importance of improving and integrating the modelling and management of these natural resources – forest. 14: Biodiversity of forest ecosystems may also be appreciated for the rich variety of animals living in European forests and woodlands. Sweden. The overall impact of the aforementioned threats may be challengingly difficult to assess within the complex chain of interactions among taxa in forest ecosystems. CC-BY. (Adapted from an image authored by Stanislav Doronenko.indd 13 08/04/2016 11:06 . https://archive. Faculty of Natural Sciences and F: Wolverine (Gulo gulo). (picture foreground).is/4abQB Fig. https://archive. Copyright Neil McIntosh. https://archive. CC-BY. However. soil. sudden pest-induced disruption of forests). CC-BY. http://archive. 15: Top: an extratropical cyclone over the United Kingdom. 179 .

182 . which are the benefits that people obtain A large number of forest services have been identified at European level specific functions and services on biodiversity175. The classification is based on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES)185 . which is a subset of the interactions between affects people’s performance.3047380). forest habitats and whole ecosystems. Box 1: Forest ecosystem services and Biodiversity Forest is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in Europe and is home to much The multiplicity and complexity of services provided by forest ecosystems Forest biodiversity refers “to all life forms found within forested areas and the of the continent’s biodiversity. intellectual or spiritual state of people. 16: Relationship between biodiversity. ecosystem process. Specifically they include forest production of temporal stability of total biomass at higher levels of diversity175. greater concepts. simultaneously maintaining and improving forest health. classification of those services. hierarchy of four levels. toxics and potable water) Maintenance other nuisances Materials (biomass. In addition. ecosystems and socio- economic systems in the conceptual framework for supporting ecosystem assessments in the European Union.indd 14 08/04/2016 11:06 . the contribution of non-market in the physical. To this end at EU level the CICES gaps on how biodiversity supports and interacts with forest ecosystem energy. timber. and cultural services (Figure 17). ecosystem services are as the regulation of the physico-chemical and biological environment. Spiritual. and fluxes of nutrients and energy. For instance. 182. target 2 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy183 aims to maintain and enhance ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructure and restoring at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems. filtration and Physical and intellectual chemical conditions of freshwaters).figshare. surface / ground water. They can involve ensure the delivery of multiple market and non-market services in a forest services to society is sometimes neglected because their full value individual species. non-potable water supply) liquid.g. cultural services include the non-material outputs of forest ecosystems. 51. Action 5 improves the knowledge base on ecosystems and ecosystem services. forests provide a multitude of necessitates a comprehensive framework and a systematic extensible ecological roles they perform”186 . 182 . forest disturbances are foreseen to increase (forest fires. such as timber. 187. sustainable forest the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems51. fibre. clean air. Forest ecosystem Simplified overview of the main services forest ecosystem services. Evidence in this respect supports. and on MAES (Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services) approach50. Fig. The second is from forest ecosystems mediation or moderation of the environment that In line with the guiding principles of the Forest Strategy and the Biodiversity ecosystem function. In addition. CC-BY. Simplified overview of the main ecosystem services provided by forest and other woodland ecosystems. Forest services that meets societal demands. sustainable forest management and multifunctional forests. thus maintaining the provision of The provision of forest ecosystem services includes three interlinked Provisioning services include all nutritional. a simplified visualisation is proposed. The schema is based on the categori- sations proposed by the Common International Classification of Cultural section: it covers all the Ecosystem Services (CICES) and the non-material. Regulating and maintenance services are derived nutrient cycling. the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services (MAES) initiative is a key action for the advancement of biodiversity objectives. Here. and normally non-con. there ecosystems to human well-being181 . interactions influencing the provision of forest services requires the underlying factors and relations of these three concepts integrating the biophysical and socio-economic domain to be addressed. and Action 7 launches an initiative to ensure no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. liquids and gases. and all these processes are having an effect on the provision of ecosystem services from forests.6084/m9. They include the degradation of wastes and Strategy. hydrological cycle / water flow. Specifically.6084/ m9.doi. mechanical energy) chemical. The first. 14 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. These actions are in synergy with the provisions of the EU Forest Strategy regarding enhancing forest biodiversity and forest multifunctionality184 . They are the direct and indirect contributions of categorised into three main types: provisioning. 17: Source: Daniele de Rigo. is growing consensus that increasing levels of biodiversity increases the stability of forest ecosystem functions. material and energetic it covers all the ways in which living outputs from living forest systems. material and energetic outputs multiple services.figshare. from Maes et al. Nutrition (biomass and Provisioning Regulation and Mediation of waste. the mediation of flows in solids. balanced way. Action 6 sets priorities to restore ecosystems and promote the use of green infrastructure. 187. Three concrete actions are proposed in the Biodiversity Strategy to achieve target 2. Non-material interactions with Some aspects of ecosystem services ecosystems and land-/ may reverberate in multiple catego- seascapes (coastal forests): ries with complex feedbacks (e. for instance. These benefits are classification185 was adopted as a reference typology of ecosystem services. The framework links human societies and their well-being with the biophysical environment. and also to inform the development and implementation of related policies on forest among others. biodiversity and ecosystem processes that underpin toxic substances. 188 . The two They are the physical settings. the concept of multifunctional forest relies on the need to biophysical structures. a changing climate is producing increased droughts in the Mediterranean. water supply. erosion control and many others. Decreased levels of from ecosystems180 . physical conditions Provisioning section: it covers all Regulating and maintenance section: occurs within forest ecosystems.182 . locations or situations that produce benefits concepts. water and energy. gaseous / air flows) Energy (biomass-based and Maintenance of biological. management plays a fundamental role in multifunctional forest. production. as well maintain forest productivity while increasing the provision of non-market the capacity to provide ecosystem services. European forest ecosystems face multiple natural and anthropogenic threats. there is evidence suggesting the dependency of defined as ecosystem services. regulating/maintenance biodiversity affect ecosystem functions and service delivery. functions and services. The tems that affect physical and mental complete classification defines a states of people. The MAES analytical framework of Figures 16 and 17 ensures consistent approaches are used throughout the EU regarding mapping and assessment of ecosystem50. Understanding the complex vitality and biodiversity. These include decomposition. At this juncture. invasive pests) and competing socio-economic demands for forest services can result in multiple drivers of forest change. Finally. biomass. symbolic and other interactions Cultural Fig. In the EU. outputs of forest ecosys. Unlike forest market services. is any change or reaction which from forest ecosystems. tems and their Services (MAES). Mapping and Assessment of Ecosys- sumptive. Despite the existence of some knowledge benefits to humans in terms of climate regulation. is often not accounted in economic terms. Likewise.3047380 (doi: 10. Mediation of flows (mass. organisms in forest ecosystems can mediate or moderate the ambient environment that affects human performance. https://dx.

physical and chemical larger trees potentially producing more litter. as a consequence of wildfires or pest spreads) have a providing critical ecosystem functions and services. exposed on a track. 36 and 26 million ha affected)241 . especially in the European areas with high erosion rates such estimated from 1950 to 2040. in forest soils has been found to significantly vary with site factors. On the other hand.indd 15 08/04/2016 11:06 . a degraded vegetation land cover Beside carbon stock. Considering the current anthropogenic emissions of CO2 in Spain are almost equivalent to trends of land-use change and the corresponding vegetation- the carbon stored in Spanish forest soils238 . forest soils resources (e. which might eventually vegetation cover. suspended by all types of forests and tree species associations. although in Europe the soil carbon threats. Fig. a figure to A healthy vegetation cover and good agroforestry practices compare with the total carbon stock of forest trees (whole tree) positively influence soil erosion while heavily perturbed forest estimated to be about 7. 20: Within forests. It may be observed that beech trees are absent where the intensity of run-off causes high soil moisture or even occasional waterlogging. with a subsequent unsustainable imbalance between soil formation and soil erosion rates. (Adapted from an image authored by J. resources. interaction between soil and forest However. a reduced productivity of forest resources. suggests a noticeable increment as the European mountain systems163. more cattle crossing. the erosion of forest soil might progress in the gullies with a weakened protective effect by vegetation. This is areas can be less subject to erosion degradation. Italy. in the last 29 years the droughts with intense rainstorm events. for a scenario with a global temperature increase of 3. Kelley. 19: Rills and incipient gullies of erosion within a forest of broadleaved trees. http://archive. water resources and the land use and such as local climatic zones44. biotic and abiotic factors soil degradation is mainly caused by erosion by water (93 million It is not rare for European forests to have experienced for ha affected by at least moderate or higher degradation) followed decades an increment of tree biomass. To compare. management are intrinsically linked.g. composition and health. Similar circumstances may reduce the provision of soil protection ecosystem services by a forested area. Irrespective of these also Figures 8-11). agroforestry and agriculture. the total soil organic carbon supporting European or negatively influence the precipitation-runoff relationship. may occasionally be subject of carbon stock of the soils235 . with more numerous and by wind erosion (39 million ha affected). Forest management may influence all these aspects. Carbon stock solid and nutrient fluxes due to management practices20 .g. In Europe. CC-BY. erosion may be unnoticed by non-experts due to the leaf litter and the geological irregularities of the terrain in mountainous areas (although litter dams may ease the identification of erosive phenomena). In turn. forest soil also has the capacity to retain and release the loss of forest soil.9 billion tonnes240. Carbon stock in the forest floor and mineral soil also appears to be highly dependent on the local tree species. Top: minor gullies converging in a beech forest (Fagus sylvatica). forests is estimated in the order of 12 billion tonnes. several four times the amount of carbon estimated to be stored in the Mediterranean areas experience an alternation of long-lasting biomass of Spanish forests. soils of forests. In these cases. Therefore. 235 . 249. CC-BY. either can be a cause or an effect of the other93. CC-BY. Soil erosion is also closely related with run-off. forests. Evidences suggest that in temperate and boreal forests it could be increased by 200.g. longer droughts may seriously affect the future forest cover and composition151. Along with this risk. Morris. compared with the period 1961-1990)104. leading to more frequent and intense torrential rains in autumn with associated flash floods over the coasts and nearby mountain slopes and increased erosion150 . filtration and soil the enhanced susceptibility for a given landscape to generate mass movements. Vegetation cover. More changes in the climatic conditions can directly or indirectly affect generally. This trend highlights the worrying impact of additional forest soil losses in this region. soil. Occasionally. 18: In mountainous area. forest soil is an essential resource (e. agricultural practices exposing in Europe are the main component of forest-related carbon stock. no flooding-tolerant species appears to occupy the niche left empty by beech. crops.500 million tons of carbon. where the understorey has been removed close to a (Adapted from an image authored by Nociveglia. 243 . The vegetation cover is able to positively considerations. in the period 2071-2100. tree roots influence water enhanced flood risk244-248 . It supports negative impact on the soil erosion process. 241 . contributing to flood mitigation and water purification and it takes a fundamental part in biogeochemical cycles. In this particular example. an intensification of both phenomena may be possible in the Mediterranean region. http://archive.g.) and soil erosion (see the local composition of tree species239 .is/lCSsD) Bottom: removal of trees within forest gullies may intensify erosion and slope instability. retaining and delivering nutrients to vegetation. Fig. (Adapted from an image authored by Francesco Ciabatti. http://archive. Forests above. negatively affecting or even preventing the establishment of a new forest cover. soils. the ongoing plant growth. A typical example is the relationship between vegetation 500 % in forest floors and by 40-50 % in top mineral soil by changing cover (e. soil resources in Europe may often be fragile. bare-soil or. http://archive. The carbon budget degradation (respectively. etc. (Adapted from an image authored by Chris M. 242 .5 °C. the overall amount of forest soil carbon deserves a European forested areas might be affected by less obvious potential specific focus. in particular considering that Mediterranean soils are often already very thin and that the Mediterranean forest disturbances are predicted to increase due to climate change (e. CC-BY. Paired This remarkable service of forest soils is not uniformly provided catchment studies identified some alterations in runoff. Forests of soils and trees in the forests of several European countries. The loss of forest soil as a result of erosion processes leads to a decline in organic matter and carbon cycling. intense precipitation and subsequent run- off/waterlogging may remove as sediments the forest topsoil. However. after a clear-cut).is/rhon5) Middle: Example of deep Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 15 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. grasslands. Mediterranean areas generally show a less rainy climate - in Spain alone. CC-BY. a Fig. to intense degradation where forest disturbances damage the Aside from this potential increment. shrublands and grasslands are often semi-arid or arid. other saturate236 . apparently induced or intensified by human alteration of the forest topsoil. In particular. This factor means that forest soils in these estimated to store about 2. Weakened protection is offered during wintertime. forest systems are characterised by a complex breakdown of soil structure and to other processes such as an array of functions and feedbacks. For example. 250 . climate feedback. the area burned by forest fires could more than double in Southern Europe.and below-ground: the water. (Adapted from an image authored by NH53. http://archive. concentration appears to decrease with decreasing latitude237.

Box 2: Wildfires and adaptation strategies of forest tree species
Natural and human-caused fires associated with agriculture and grazing The same strategy is also adopted by some rock roses of the genus Cistus,
have historically defined the Mediterranean landscape203, 204 . Wildfires are which have seeds protected by thick teguments214, 215 . On the other hand,
not only destructive factors, but they can, if moderate and not frequent, the passive pyrophytes are plants adapted to avoid or limit fire damage.
increase the biodiversity and complexity of the Mediterranean vegetation These species can have thick or suberized barks which protect the cambium
communities205 . Mediterranean woody and scrub vegetation has been from heat damage, such as stone pine (Pinus pinea) or cork oak (Quercus
exposed to recurring fires for long periods206 , and has developed different suber). Some limit the exposure of the crown to fire thanks to rapid height
adaptation strategies to survive. Fire-adapted plants are defined as growth during the juvenile period or to a strong self-pruning habit which
pyrophytes (fire loving plants), in some cases requiring wildfire for their increases the height of the lowest part of the crown, adopted by various
reproduction. They can be divided into passive and active types in relation species of the genre Pinus. Others have leaves with low flammability
to the feed-back responses to fire205, 207. due to high water or ash content, or lower amounts of resins; e.g cypress
(Cupressus sempervirens) or many broadleaves216-218 .
The active pyrophytes are able to regenerate after a fire even if damaged.
Two main strategies are identified. One is vegetative regeneration through In Mediterranean climes, terpenoids play an important role in wildfires
re-sprouting from roots. These plants in fact store their nutrient reserves and vegetation dynamics. They are present in conifers and in several
underground where they are protected from fires, and are heliophilous, sclerophyllous plants rich in essential oils, increasing their flammability
so that the light of burnt areas stimulates their growth. Most of these rate. When in high concentration in litter, terpenoids also inhibit seed
trees and shrubs belong to the sclerophyllous vegetation group, such germination. Wildfires, by destroying these substances accumulated on the
as oaks (Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Quercus calliprinos, Quercus ground, promote the colonisation of new species, including the germination
pyrenaica), but also carob (Ceratonia siliqua), heath plants (Erica arborea, of seeds from the same plant that originally produced the terpenoids,
Erica australis), myrtle (Myrtus communis), mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), which needs fire for its regeneration219-221 .
Mediterranean buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus), etc.206, 208-211 . The other
active strategy is seed protection and the requirement for the stimulation The top right map enlargement shows clearly the damage caused by a single
fire of over 12 000 ha that occurred in Sweden in 2014, the largest fire of the
of fire to germinate. This is the case for some of the Mediterranean year and among the largest recorded anywhere in Europe in recent years88 .
conifers, such as Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Turkish pine (Pinus brutia)
and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), which are unable to re-sprout, but
develop cones which protect the seeds and which are opened by the heat
of fires (serotinous cones)206, 212, 213 .

Fig. 21: The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) was established jointly by the European
Commission (EC) services (DG ENV and JRC) and the relevant fire services in the EU Member States and the
Forest and Civil Protection services other countries222 as the EC focal point of information on forest fires.
The Rapid Damage Assessment module of EFFIS was set up to provide reliable and harmonised estimates
of the areas affected by forest fires during the fire season. The methodology and the spatial resolution of
the satellite sensor data used for this purpose can map all fires of about 40 hectares or larger. Although
fires smaller this are not mapped, the analysis of historical fire data has determined that the area burned
by wildfires of at least 40 ha accounts for about 75 % of the total area burnt every year in the Southern EU.

The figure shows the total cumulated burnt areas mapped by EFFIS from 2000 to 2015 across the entire
region covered. As expected, the regions with the most fires are in a band across southern Europe, and
the five most affected countries (Portugal, Spain, Mediterranean part of France, Italy and Greece) account
for around 85 % of the total burnt area each year222 . However, almost all countries have been affected,
at least in some years, by large fires of more than 40 ha. The northern regions such as UK, Ireland and
Scandinavia are not usually as affected the southern regions, but in dry years, especially in the early parts
of the season before the new green vegetation has started to sprout, large wildfires can occur.

This enlargement shows some the large fires that have
occurred in the last 15 years in Ireland and Scotland. Some
of these fires occur on peatland, and can be very difficult to
extinguish if the fire penetrates the surface and becomes a
smouldering fire.

The northern half of Portugal and parts of northern Spain are historically the The other most affected parts of Europe are concentrated around the Mediterranean region.
most affected regions with a significant proportion of the annual total burnt Particularly affected are the large islands (Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily), Greece and Croatia. Like
area recorded here. In these regions, the main fire season occurs in summer. the other most affected countries, the main fire season for these countries is in summer.

16 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 16 08/04/2016 11:06

Fig. 23: Forest fire in Degaña, Asturias, Spain in August 2009.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

Fig. 22: Serotinous cone opening after a fire.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

Box 3: Forest disturbances by wind and storms
Wind is a natural disturbance agent in forests189 . Although windstorms at
small scale constitute part of the forest ecosystem dynamics, catastrophic
windstorms or wind throws are possibly the most intense and economic
damaging abiotic agent in European forests. They are responsible for
more than 50 % of the primary damage to forest stocks in Europe179 .
Although information gathering on windstorm frequency and damage is not
comprehensive, since there is no European system in place for this purpose,
it is estimated that about 0.12 % of the standing volume of Europe is
damaged annually (1950-2010)190 . Over 275 wind storms were recorded in
Europe in the last 112 years, which means that, on average, nearly 2.5 wind
storms take place every year22, 191 .
Windstorm damage to forests is not only produced at the time of the storm,
when trees are broken or blown over by the wind speed and intensity, but
through subsequent agents that may affect the damaged area, which can be
biotic, such as pests and diseases that originate in the fallen trees (such as
bark beetle attacks), or fires, which may happen due to the large availability
of woody material (fuel) on the ground. Interaction between windstorms and
bark beetles has occurred historically192 .
The potential damage caused by windstorms to forests depends on a variety
of factors, including meteorological conditions, especially wind speed, soil
type and condition, tree species composition193 and forest management
practices. Trees with shallow roots are the most vulnerable; this vulnerability
increases if trees grow on sandy soils or very wet soils, and also with the
height of trees. In general, conifer species seem to be more vulnerable than
broadleaves, although vulnerability is also affected by forest management
and site conditions194 .
Windstorms often affect species composition and may accelerate tree
succession; they alter stand structure, diameter distribution and canopy gap
size within a forest195-197. However, the natural effects of windstorms are
often non-lasting. In intensively managed forests, often felled trees and the
affected areas replanted soon after the event, have a strong influence in
tree regeneration in the affected area198, 199 .
Despite the limitations in the way that climate change effects have been
modelled, predictions of future climate scenarios indicate a trend to an
increase in the number and intensity of wind storms in Europe200 and in
Fig. 24. Top left: Pine damaged by wind snap after a storm in Germany in 2013.
other world areas where they are already happening201 . However, forest (Copyright AnRo0002, CC0,
management and adaptation strategies can help in mitigating potential
Bottom left: Wind throw of pine after a storm in Germany in 2013
future wind storm damage202 . (Copyright AnRo0002, CC0,

Top right: Significant wind throw damage after a storm in Loch Bharcasaig, Scotland.
(Copyright Andrew, CC-BY,

Bottom right: Storm Gudrun struck Denmark and Sweden in January 2005. The
damage resulted in the creation of the world’s largest wood stockpile.
(Copyright Göranssons Åkeri AB i FÄRILA: AP)

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 17

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 17 08/04/2016 11:06

Box 4: Biotic disturbances: forest tree pests and diseases
Trees can be infected by a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, in counteracting their spread highlight how vectors can play a fundamental,
bacteria, fungi and insects. The European and Mediterranean Plant and largely unpredictable, role in promoting large scale epidemics (both X.
Protection Organization (EPPO) identified more than 150 quarantine fastidiosa and the PWN are transported from a host to another by flying
pests as locally present in the European and Mediterranean region. Most insects). For X. fastidiosa, this aspect is particularly compelling, since the
of the research on tree pests focuses on species having direct economical large number (some tens) of insect species capable of carrying the pathogen,
relevance. Yet, severe epidemics often involve species that, despite not combined with its very large host range (more than 300 plant species)
commercially valuable, occupy key positions in ecosystems. These events makes any intervention measure aiming at the eradication of the pathogen
may have profound negative effects on the ‘value’ of forests in a broad extremely difficult. A possible strategy would be that of selecting resistant
sense, weakening or hampering the ability of a forest to store carbon, hosts, as has been suggested for the common ash dieback, a lethal fungal
to reduce risk of floods and to purify water112 . In addition, there is an disease that represents a serious threat for European forests, due to the key
increasing recognition of an invisible network of species interactions that role played in ecosystems by the common ash232 .
is fundamental for ecosystem functioning223 . From this perspective, the
These paradigmatic cases also emphasize several problems in
detrimental effect pests may have on a few species could set in motion
communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere
a cascade of consequences eventually leading to a general reduction of
of society, and possible philosophical obstacles related to the common
species diversity.
negative public perception towards managing natural forests233 . In general,
A particular case much relevant to pest risk assessment is that of planted the management and prevention of epidemic spreads require coordinated
forests, which represent about 10 % of European forests in terms of actions that should go beyond the national scale, especially because one
area224 . Planted forests usually consist of one or few species, and are of the leading causes of epidemics is represented by the involuntary
increasingly threatened by both typical and newly emerging pathogens225 . transport of pathogens through international trade. Nevertheless, climate
Epidemics may have greater effects in planted forests than in natural ones, change clearly plays a fundamental role in promoting the spread and
due to the absence of the dilution effect typical of diverse ecosystems, increasing the virulence of alien pathogens, and so do human induced
which acts as a natural barrier for the spread of host-specific pathogens habitat alterations. Consequently, future conservation actions should
by lowering the probability of a pest individual to find a suitable host226 . necessarily target multiple threat drivers simultaneously234 .
Molecular techniques offer important new tools to tackle the problem Within this Atlas, each chapter focusing on specific tree species provides
of forest pests from new perspectives. In particular, they could help a section with a summary of main threats and diseases (see also chapter
to get a better grasp on pathogen virulence, host specificity and host How to read the Atlas). For further details (e.g. for host-pest and pest-host
susceptibility, making it possible to identify sensitive pests that could lists of the tree taxa which are susceptible hosts for a given mentioned
be harmful if moved to other regions, or under future climatic and/or pest or disease) and for a more detailed overview of main pests and
ecological scenarios227, 228 . diseases of European forest tree species, an extensive selection of
periodically updated literature is available in de Rigo et al78 .
Clearly, monitoring all possible pests is not feasible, so that a priority is
identifying potential pathways of introduction in order to prevent possible
future situations such as, for example, those caused by Xylella fastidiosa
in Italy229, 230 and by the pine wood nematode (PWN) in Portugal231 . These
two diseases are now creating great concern, and are both presumably
consequences of single involuntary introductions230, 231 . The strong difficulties

Fig. 25: Clockwise from top:

Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (Ash dieback disease) in Kocherwald, Germany.
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Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 19

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 19 08/04/2016 11:06

.indd 20 08/04/2016 11:06 . employing more than 22 functional criteria as opposed to prescriptive criteria. and job creation. some 101 million m3 of sawnwood were produced in the EU-28 in 2013. https://archive. 20 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. production paradigms that rely on biological processes and. Rinaldi. wood-frame is common in the single-family housing million people2 . 1: Platforms may be based on pole frame structures (1a) or on panel elements (1b). Thus. series of breakthroughs in technology and cost effectiveness. or made a breakthrough in the UK as a result of environmental policies. CC-BY. energy (see box on “Forest-based energy”) and bio-based products (see box on “Forest resources in bio- based products”). WMC diffusion is dependent on regulatory framework and industry structure7.4 billion Euro for 2012. which include the production of energy Timber Bridge Construction in Arbon.”1 . particularly so in the Nordic countries. use natural inputs. 2012 data). R. Overall. individual country targets. which represents approximately 7 % of EU manufacturing GDP and nearly 3. D. The transition towards a more sustainable primary production at least consideration. However. Switzerland. R. The forest industry includes products such as buildings (see box on “Wood in modern urban construction”). and the and resource efficiency will certainly benefit the environment but materials such as steel and concrete6 . (Copyright Jeremy Atkinson. Gallen. due to the negative perceptions arising from historic city share of wood-frame in all construction increased from 1 % in 1990 The bioeconomy in Europe already exists. Ireland and the Alpine increasing in the 2000s. yet the regulations and attitudes plan aims at further shifting the European economy towards a larger number of storeys with a wooden frame is being allowed towards wood use vary from one province to another. However. Forest bio-based economy in Europe S. driven by the small. packages. with a 40 % market share. wood-framed buildings with more than two the building practice has been changing from on-site construction to building new and competitive industries through the emergence storeys were prohibited by building regulations in most European wood-frame off-site construction. However. throughout Europe7. sector. The remaining 42 % is exploited for energy and accounts for about 5 % of the total energy consumption in EU4 . magazines and newsprint. from renewable sources in the EU. Austria (8. has raised questions about ) Fig. Sweden (16. the market share of wood-frame in residential construction amounts of energy and do not produce waste as all materials to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and are adopting legislative methods increased from 8 % in 1998 to 25 % in 2008. furniture. including several final elements such as doors and windows. such as not sustain corresponding buildings made of concrete. as development. while the overall market of new sectors such as biomaterials and green chemistry.. In Sweden wood-frame multistorey construction (WMC) share of WMC could increase from 2 % to 10 % towards 20307. rise. and on average a greater and more sustainable use of renewable resources. UK. lightness of wood making it possible to utilise building sites that could also induce a number of significant economic benefits. Jonsson.0 %)5 .is/sdVn7) the sustainability of mobilising biomass for these purposes and the forest economy-environment-energy nexus. or heating. The important role of forests in reaching the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive targets. Finland (10. and also in Finland WMC is approaching a ten per cent market share7. https://archive. close to two thirds of which came from the five largest producing EU Member States. Canton of Traditional timber frame building in the Burgenstraße (Castle Road). 2: In the post-and-beam technique. Pine logs. F.5 million jobs.1 %). trade balance. 58 % of harvested EU wood biomass is processed by EU forest-based industries.2 CC-BY) (Copyright Thomas Quine. national building regulations are being revised towards to 30 % in food (see box on “The importance of non-wood forest products in Europe”). already has a market share of around 10 %6 . textiles. but there are as yet no discarded by one process are inputs for another process and are to ensure that buildings and materials satisfy the requirements implicit in data on the WMC segment specifically. the use of wood for construction has been well as the pure availability of biomass2 . encouraged by EU policies. Also in Ireland. there are regional differences in the attitudes towards WMC. expend minimum Many countries across Europe. The volume of roundwood produced is strongly linked to the value added to the raw material (see Figure 3). 3: Modular elements are instead directly manufactured at the factory.3 %). www. the UK. the share of wood-frame in multistorey construction is on the In Southern Germany. Likewise. and has been fires. Bodensee in Steinach. CC-BY. Different WMC techniques imply different industrial workflows. books. J. The Commission’s bioeconomy strategy and action Construction Products Directive adopted in the EU in 1988. and it has been suggested that the market region of Europe7. Sikkema A bio-based economy may be defined as one using “. have set targets In the UK.8 %) and France (8. In Austria. of wood as an alternative to conventional construction the rising interest towards WMC among the developers. as Box 1: Wood in modern urban construction with natural ecosystems. in Germany and however the transition towards a true bioeconomy relies on a As a result of the adoption of functional building regulations and technological Italy. the market share of WMC has remained low. Modified from Hurmekoski. the market share in the WMC segment is still rather estimated at 2. de Rigo. stimulating the economy through encouraging innovation and Until the late 1980s. et al. Mubareka. massive supporting columns are exploited. The values of sales for these products total to more than 200 billion Euro3 . As an example. countries. namely Germany (21. 1: Three different wood-frame multi-storey construction (WMC) techniques and corresponding key wood elements7. Forests and Europe’s economy electricity appliances. Azevedo. (Copyright Norlando Pobre. In many cases this has led to an increased use. southern Germany. residential WMC has reused in the ecosystem. Cannock Chase.7 The forest-based sector plays an important role within the (Copyright Elias Hurmekoski: AP) European Union (EU) in terms of value added.

https://archive. the Nordic common rights allow access for picking berries.e. Chestnut diseases such as “ink disease” and “chestnut (NWFPs) such as mushrooms. honey and truffles are of extreme importance to the Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 21 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. processing and marketing of natural products. productivity and the economic potential of mushrooms as a forest resource13. chestnuts. Sales tax and income tax exemptions on selling berries and mushrooms picked by an individual continue to be key incentives for commercial picking. and seasons. Almost all the mushrooms picked locally have international markets as final destination including Spain. the first studies on mushrooms in the region were conducted with the purpose of assessing diversity. i. as well as low berry (Copyright Ragnar Jonsson. of NWFPs to provide additional income vary widely between products. Italy. This free access. non-wood forest products such as mushrooms. in the Northeast of Portugal. Non-Wood Forest Products mushrooms and other non-wood forest products (NWFP). Population in cities have recently developed an interest in wild mushrooms which has led to the organisation of courses. berries sales have decreased as a result of urbanisation and aging of the rural population. In the Mediterranean region. Among these. https://archive. CC-BY. Top: Chestnut bur. in Finland 55 000 commercial mushroom pickers have been trained since the early 1970s. For example. Formal education in mushrooms has been offered in the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança since 199116 . https://archive. regions to minimise the effects of these agents. mushrooms are estimated to contribute 5 to 10 million Euro to the local economy every year. Top: Blueberry This process is favoured by the movement of people from the countryside Variety of mushrooms found in the forests of Priekuļi. Despite this. cork. Localised research (for example17) and view. Latvia. CC-BY. picking. In several European countries. Opportunities in the sale and processing forest extension promoted by forest associations has. the European average production of chestnuts has been access to the wilderness. Bottom: Chestnuts. pine nuts. mushrooms have traditionally been picked for self-consumption. This activity is still mainly undertaken by (Copyright Maja Dumat. The high market price of chestnuts and the low 130 000 tonnes per year. In recent years. to cities in the region and abroad and by the abandonment of traditional services throughout Europe. commercial berry picking has. (Copyright Yuri Timofeyev. The FAO has classified NWFPs into two broad categories: animal and rural areas of the Nordic countries. Bottom: Understorey of Vaccinium myrtillus in a coniferous forest. (Copyright Maja Dumat. chestnuts. and within the limits of the village where they reside or the neighbouring village15 . (Copyright Michela Simoncini. agriculture and environment associations. and Italy. however. 14 . https://archive. As a result. Italian white (Copyright Inga Vitola. This activity has provided significant income for families and individuals on an annual basis. Truffle hunter with his dog. CC-BY. As an example. CC-BY. CC-BY) expansion of chestnut agro-forestry systems in some Mediterranean regions. CC-BY. contributed plant products. individually or in groups of two. Germany. Box 2: The importance of non-wood forest products in Europe Forests systems are responsible for a diversity of very valuable ecosystem In northern Europe. France. Raspberries. Thanks to this strong tradition and a rich stock of mushrooms. resin. CC-BY. facilitated by a dense network of forest roads. https://archive. non-wood forest products such as berries. This region is one of the few in the country where there is a strong local knowledge concerning wild (and even cultivated) mushrooms. honey truffles and forests. commercial picking has become a very important economic activity in the region since the 1980s. including workers from neighbouring countries and from as far as SE Asia11 . blight” and the newly arrived “chestnut gall wasp” (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) berries are among the most important from economic and social points of makes berry and mushroom picking an essential part of the way of life in are serious threats to this ) truffles are highly sought after and have high value. At the same time.indd 21 08/04/2016 11:06 . usually self-employed or retired elderly woman. during the past decade. more than 10 % of the global production18 . About one-third of berries and some one tenth of mushrooms picked in the Nordic countries enter the market. Earlier interventions to promote NWFP utilisation have included training in identification. cork. relied largely on migrant pickers. the Nordic common rights (right of public Chestnuts are a very important non-wood forest product of forests in In 1993-2013. workshops and other training initiatives by forest. pine nuts. or freedom to roam) grant access for picking Mediterranean countries. level of inputs required in the chestnut systems have led to the recent (Copyright William Warby. there is a general lack of regulation of the cultivation of these non-forest wood products12 . even from private agriculture systems. Although no official statistics are available for the production and trade in the region. https://archive.

France. 4: Integrated forest resources management within the context of a bio-based economy. 2: Qualitative evolution from the pre-industrial society to two subsequent transitions. For Hungary and Malta. adding 15 billion euros to the Gross Domestic Product of the European Union. toward a bio-based economy. paper is the most recycled product in Europe. Two extreme frameworks optimise policy / management options towards classic economic optimum (forestry marked economics and other provisioning services of forest resources) or instead towards pure forest ecosystem conservation / restoration (maximising non- monetary forest ecosystem services).indd 22 08/04/2016 11:07 . data refer to 2007. Indeed. The industry is going through structural (Copyright sonja_paetow. For Italy. For Spain. CCO. CC0. Lithuania and the Netherlands. Portugal and Norway data are provisional. Then. (Source: Eurostat5) Fig. Latvia and Luxembourg. The short-term patterns of the actual evolution may be complex since they are subject to several sources of local fluctuations. with a recycling rate that increased from 40% in 1991 to 72% by 2014. data refer to 2009. Intermediate efficient options to support policy and society decisions may emerge with a multi-criteria framework for integrated forest resources modelling and management.5 million jobs in the value chain. For Greece. 3: Roundwood production in 2012 and gross value added of forestry and logging. the available data refer to 2006. this industry provides 1. Recovered paper make up 54% of the raw material used in the paper industry34 . Qualitative trade-off between monetary and non-monetary benefits. https://archive. Corrugated cardboard. the transition to the industrial society and economy. Fig. (Copyright Fig. consumption of paper for sanitary and packaging purposes is rising. while the consumption trend for graphic paper is a decreasing one. (Author: Daniele de Rigo) Box 3: Pulp and Paper Industry The pulp & paper industry is an important industry within the forest-based bioeconomy of Europe. Waste paper for recycling. Using some 150 million cubic meters of wood per annum. (Author: Daniele de Rigo) 22 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. The trade-off emerges considering different optimisation frameworks. Recycling plays an important role within this industry. First. Thus. The qualitative future trend will also depend on the cumulative feedback effect due to different potential technology and policy scenarios. https://archive. data refer to 2011.

The EU-28 is the largest global producer of wood pellets. de Rigo. [12] G. Azevedo. Forest soil [13] J. 250 (2011). Slowly. Vizzarri. Running Pure: The importance of forest protected areas to the risk of both erosion and slope instability32 . Poesen. Carvalheira. [26] D. 744 two concepts. Prospects for timber frame in 29. 177 pp. pp. 225 (2015). Highland. Germany. T. D. J. Landslides are (2014). Kirchhoff. Växjö.-F. J. Sawatdeenarunat. Master’s thesis. drink [6] R. P. Azevedo. Poesen. (2012).indd 23 08/04/2016 11:07 . D. Part of the remaining water supplies relies on rivers. 2009). The purpose of this both monetary and non-monetary aspects. J.. work for people and nature. Tech. M. Sassa. the Council. C.). Van Turnhout. Products are considered “bio-based” if they are either wholly or partially 2 Summary of position papers received in gestão de recursos florestais na Escola response to the European Commission’s energy and bio-based assets. et al.. Azevedo. Vranken.2 million tonnes in 2013. resources. Methods such as fermentation and biological catalysts [2] N. sub-canopy or midstorey. in food. Dudley. 275 (1999). R. The EU-28 is a net importer of wood pellets: the level of imports from non-EU Member States rose to 6. CC-BY. Den Eeckhaut. (Copyright Richard Sikkema. 3 (2015). 181 (2015).. Ensino em resources considering the wide variety of industry products. where the most contribute to integrated modelling and management of forest updated content may be freely accessed. FAOSTAT (Food and processing products and ultimately resulting in reduced resource-use Agriculture Organization of the United some crucial aspects linked to sustainability and to minimising [3] L. Development services provides a non-monetary benefit which requires France. L.. A. Baveye. Bio-based materials should Public on-line Consultation (Publications Superior Agrária do Instituto Politécnico de Bragança. biorefineries may replace our main source of energy and materials: and Sweden. N. Hetemäki. Europe. J. Sikkema. 2015). Forest products can be used in the Council and the European Parliament. to agricultural and forest Technological Forecasting and Social Change 99. J. from the commission to the European [20] R. Vida Rural pp. et al. the United Nations. [24] K. IEEE Earthzine 7. no. C. C. M. Environment. Left: Forest-based production of wood pellets. P. In a wider Economic and Social Committee and the [21] T. together along with the ecosystem services which forests can of forest residues in bio-refineries8 . Annals of reducing the potential erosion caused by rainfall30. Journal of Economic provide to the society. 2013). rep. also associated with considerable costs27. Natural Hazards and Earth in a typical forest (canopy. society decisions. [15] M. 2016. A few examples of this low-value. de Rigo. 40–41 (2013). et al. S. Dewitte. Making boreal forests [31] C. Revision 253698 of ch. Science of The Total Environment 447. Shrestha. framework to be properly assessed22-24 . Caudullo. Gowdy. Khanal. Y. IFIP Advances S. M. https://archive.g. pp. Sweden. Cortez. In countries such as Germany. Right: wood pellets.g. M. cite as: (Copyright Agnieska Ovaskainen: CC-BY) Mubareka. Panagos. Nita. 2015). Several of the main European cities either obtain a significant proportion of their drinking water from protected forest areas. Hurmekoski. 465–480 [29] C. Gerasimov. 661–667. 2015). According to the European Commission. C. water dams and reservoirs. Depending on the society and policy needs. Nord. 2011).. If achieved. and energy crops10 . R. the amount of wood used for energy purposes in the EU would be equivalent to today’s total wood harvest4 . Monforti- [17] E. providing a science-based support to critical policy and Please. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. V. These range [7] E. vol. accounting for around half of the total renewable energy consumption. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. 29576+. Bosco. Allard. Tavone. This depends on the efficient conversion of feedstocks. Ireland. [5] Eurostat. L. composed of materials of biological origins. M. [8] RoK-FOR Project. Marchetti. capacity regarding most of the chemical components of Master’s thesis. the monetary Large quantities of different types of base or platform chemicals can Committee of the Regions . shrub of (2012). In Europe. 2003). last category are summarised below. 2014). However. These few examples among many underline the tight relationship between environmental economics and conservation/ Timber stack. Van University. F. Yin.. recreational activities and the tourism “Forestry statistics”. is due to soil erosion by rainfall and runoff and [9] Y. A. Terhorst. Canuti. “Forestry statistics in detail”. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. Meneses. et al. the European and Biorefining 5. ThinkForest (European Forest Institute.. M. In Sweden and Denmark. O. Environmental [18] Food and Agriculture Organization of As discussed. Aside from the monetary value associated with forest State of play and future potential . Damm. Scarlat. [28] M. The multiple layers of vegetation [11] Y. C. F. 1195+. Mauri. restoration efforts focusing on key functional aspects of healthy (Copyright David Wright. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. the Netherlands and Sustainability 8. León. EU. Sikkema. e01a52d+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 23 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. There is a partial overlap between these biopolymers. Garcia. C. biomass used for heating. F.. Inventário de cogumelos for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Moreover. 910137+ (2014). S. 119 (2006). its output reaching an estimated 13. Directorate- General for Research and Innovation .Part [16] J. pp. macrofungos em povoamentos de and topsoil are also able to reduce the surface runoff mitigating castanea sativa em Trás-os-Montes. Sander. energy consumption and waste material production. forests provide important non. applications. One of the major sources of damage to soil resources in residues. 2012). e. Nebe. pp. Portugal (Universidad de León. Box 4: Forest-based energy Forest-based woody biomass is currently the most important source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Vandekerckhove. Research innovation summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related on both forest bioeconomy and ecosystem services may thus main topics.. Geomorphology plates and utensils by mixing natural fibres and plastics. forest strategy: for forests and the forest- benefits associated with the bioeconomy may be considered be isolated or produced from wood. J. production in the EU-28 rose by 97. drinking water (World Bank / WWF Alliance [14] forest ecosystems. Use. wood pellets are exclusively used in heat production for the residential sector while the industrial use for power generation prevails in the United Kingdom. [19] Eurostat. ) Relationship between bioeconomy and non. from municipal and industrial organic wastes. into high-value biofuels and bio-based products. (Eds. Furthermore. Lasserre. in Information and Communication both erosion and slope instability hazards may occur together Industrial Biotechnology 11. Austria and Italy. D. Chan. Anais da Associação Micológica A Pantorra S. [30] D. with even greater effects29 . Houston Durrant. a forest bio-based economy already considers replace traditional chemical approaches. Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. System Science 15. K. as phenol substitutes through liquefaction or pyrolysis of 2013). be able to replace fossil fuels on a large scale for chemicals and materials Office of the European Union. Vila Real (1990). 43 (2012). Biofuels. [23] J. 26 . The targets for renewable energy have resulted in a surge in the use of wood pellets within the EU. (Communication from the Commission to Ecological Economics 95. de Rigo. This is an extended summary of the chapter. lakes. many European forest authorities explicitly mention watershed functions within their plans33 . L. C. 310 (2011). COM(2013) 659 final [22] P. cooling and electricity would supply about two-fifths of the 20 % renewable energy target for 2020. for cups. unfortunately leading to surprisingly high direct and (2015). Vila Real (1989). a significant part of forest ecosystem and cosmetic industries (tree sap). 231 (2013). et al. Surendra. C. monetary services to the economy and society (see previous Luxembourg. United Kindgom. Jonsson. 141 (2006). 28 and the impact of [10] K. [33] N. our dependence on fossil fuels. Ferrario. bio-based products and biofuels represent approximately EUR 57 billion [4] European Commission. Sung. J. de Rigo. B. Bio-based products B. S. 103 (2015). often Technology and Design Reports (Växjö [27] L. Technology 359. as injection moulding for musical instruments. 323 (2013).. Azevedo. 31 . This QR code points to the full online version. Bio-based economy in Europe: 6. Communication discarded by one process become inputs for another process. thus increasing efficiency in Development 15. R. (Copyright Andrew_Writer. (Springer International Publishing. the soil layers of forests have a high filtering em soutos e castinçais de Trás-os-Montes. whose water quality critically depends on land use within the catchments33 . Forest bio-based economy in Europe.. Materials and Bioenergy pp. [25] G. J. and toxic waste production. Jonsson. CC-BY). Inventário de Silvicultural Research 38 (2014). pulping liquors and different types based sector. Luxembourg. E3146 (2012). chapter). Publ. T. Sallustio. or so that they can be reused in the ecosystem.. Klose. detail. eds. J.. Verstraeten. Dallemand. both sectors are well established20. G. [32] M. 65 % of public water supplies come from groundwater. https://archive. ecosystem services (e. Yan. Zhao. Rinaldi. The full version of these efforts may require an integrated perspective focusing on this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Bioproducts in annual revenue and involve 300 000 jobs. the Netherlands and Belgium. Box 5: Forest resources in References monetary aspects of forest ecosystem services bio-based products [1] European Commission. Barrow Haven. [34] CEPI Key statistics 2014: European Pulp and Paper Industry pollutants32 . Baveye. or explicitly manage forests for watershed protection33 . P. industry/sector). Hausman. Journal of Biobased 2014). highlighted by the clear monetary value of some forest biomass9. anaerobic digestion-based multi-storey house building in England. Statistics Division. its monetary and non-monetary impacts25. ThinkForest seminar “Forests Nations. Revision 225852 of emphasising the role of chaining processes so that materials ch. Perspectives 26. State of Mediterranean understorey and ground-layers) make a significant contribution to forests 2013 (FAO. CC-BY. which was an overall increase of a staggering 267. B. Bosco. A.. A shift towards bio-based products can lower and the bioeconomy: future steps”.6 % overall between 2009 and 2013. G. According to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans. Proceedings of the National perspective on the overall role of forest resources. Jonsson. J. indirect costs. Poesen. Bosco. Parliament.6 % compared with 200919. BioScience 62. Off. C. K.A new EU Academy of Sciences 109. 52 of School of a sometimes quite challenging21 multi-criteria economic petroleum. Gouveia.4 million tonnes by 2013.

Temperate Steppe and Temperate Mountain global and continental scale by the ecological zone where Systems. a given forest or woodland grows10-17. Polar Temperate mountain system Subtropical mountain system Subtropical Mountain systems can be found in the southern Boreal tundra woodland Temperate steppe Subtropical steppe mountain regions of Europe and the Middle East. 24 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. At the second level.being a factor e. above 0 °C and there is adequate rainfall in all seasons.I. of northeastern France and western Germany. north-eastern Spain and parts of central south-east Italy. Subtropical Steppe and Subtropical Mountain Systems. the distribution of environmental and windward side of the continent and has the mildest climate of the ecological zones may contribute to the understanding of four temperate zones. Subtropical. Evaporation exceeds precipitation. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. 2. J. They share several characteristics of the boreal (Copyright Jean Latour. Four of these domains can be found in Europe zone and are snow covered for large parts of the year. they may contribute to mitigate the temperature range inducing a with Köppen-Trewartha climatic types. based on temperature: Tropical. In Western Europe a typical example is beech. Subtropical domain The subtropical domain is generally characterised by having on average at least 8 months above 10 °C. Typical Bottom: Temperate oceanic ecological zone. http://archive.indd 24 08/04/2016 11:07 . (Copyright Wolfgang Staudt. Temperate. but some may be found on the northern coast of Turkey. which are based on 400 mm per year). G. de Rigo. such as lakes or rivers. Boreal mountain system Temperate continental forest Subtropical dry forest Boreal coniferous forest Temperate oceanic forest Subtropical humid forest Note: Only the main ecological components are represented. Boreal Pyrenees in Europe. 17. which are based on temperature and rainfall27. France. There is a larger annual range ecozone components which may coexist in a given of temperatures than in the Oceanic zone. Houston Durrant. The annual rainfall may vary quite significantly from 400-800 mm in lowlands For its Global Forest Resources Assessment. exploited by a rich variety of applications11-13. Winters are colder. The FAO Ecological Zones Temperate Steppe is found in the deep interior of the continent Fig. "Mountain systems" are classified as a separate Ecological Zone in each domain and are characterized by a high variation in both vegetation formations and climatic conditions1. Even at the regional Temperate Oceanic Forest is typically found on the western or and country scale. The Saar river influences part (Tropical is absent). for example maquis dominated by Quercus ilex. vegetation is pine forest. Subtropical Dry Forest. variety of effects on the surrounding microclima. 2. The FAO zoning is forest. Caudullo. 27. Beside providing additional humidity. of which 12 can be found across the European continent. CC-BY. Rainfall generally European area as subordinate constituents of the local decreases with distance from the ocean and also at the higher forest ecosystems. Boreal and Polar. evergreen coniferous forest and deciduous forest. is dominated by grass and low shrubs. Relatively few regions of Europe can be classified as Subtropical Humid Forest. The vegetation stabler pattern. In the Subtropical Steppe zone. The average monthly temperature is always core differences in local forest ecosystems18-22 . deciduous broadleaved forest or mixed forest: a typical example in Europe is oak-hornbeam in Central Europe. precipitation is also used to subdivide the domains into a total of 20 subclasses. exposure and humidity. precipitation is also used to subdivide the domains into a total of 20 subclasses. Four of these domains can be found in Europe (Tropical is absent). may exercise a Boundaries of the Ecological Zones approximately coincide and is characterised by cold winters and relatively low rainfall (200. typical vegetation is sclerophyllous evergreen forest. An Ecological The temperate domain lies in a region where average Zone may be defined as an area with broad yet relatively temperatures above 10 °C can be found from 4 to 8 months of the homogeneous natural vegetation formations that are year. Subtropical Dry Forest is the typical Mediterranean climate with dry. The vegetation may be quite varied depending on the altitude. in shaping the slope of mountain and hill sides. mild winters with an annual rainfall of 400-900 mm. and influence the local geomorphology . Europe and is subdivided into Temperate Oceanic Forest. 2: FAO ecological zones for forest reporting (2010). Similar to the Oceanic zone the main vegetation cover is by means of a robust fuzzy analysis of climatic similarity26 .is/2XBaO) At the second level. Temperate. T. Temperate Several key aspects of forest resources are influenced at the Continental Forest. Subtropical. 27. It occurs throughout the southern regions of Europe and is divided into Subtropical Humid Forest. “Mountain systems” are classified as a separate Ecological Zone in each domain and are characterised by a high variation in both vegetation formations and climatic conditions1. Temperate Continental Forest may be found in the interior and eastern areas of the continent. 2 .g. woodland and shrub. the Food and up to 2 000-3 000 mm on windward lower coastal mountain slopes. Vegetation may comprise evergreen broadleaved forest. 28 . of which 12 can be found across the European continent. the classification of FAO is summarised and a shorter frost-free season and at least one month having complemented by a qualitative analysis of the secondary average temperatures below 0 °C. hot summers and humid. European forests: an ecological overview and Polar. http://archive. temperature and rainfall27. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) produced The main vegetation type in these areas is deciduous broadleaved a global ecological zoning classification1. The temperate domain covers a large area across mainland similar. Introduction Boundaries of the Ecological Zones approximately coincide with Köppen-Trewartha climatic types. Found throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Barredo Ecosystems may be classified into a variety of groups or Temperate domain zones according to their homogeneity1-9 . The Subtropical Humid Forest zone has high humidity every month with annual rainfall usually over 1  000 mm distributed throughout the year. evaporation generally exceeds precipitation. These components have been derived latitudes. Water resources. 28 . 1: A key factor in the local variability of ecosystems is the influence of water bodies. At the first level a total of five domains are distinguished based on temperature: Tropical. At the first level a total of five domains are distinguished Temperate Mountain Systems are found in the Alps and the Top: Subtropical dry ecological zone. These regions are found at the southern Fig. 23-25 . with In this chapter. although not necessarily identical. parts of the Mediterranean Basin and vegetation is dominated by shrubs adapted to arid environments. CC-BY.

Vegetation comprises open woodlands and scrub. See also Figure 5. There are no sub-divisions in this domain as it is generally only very sparsely vegetated. The name taiga has been given to the subarctic lands of Eurasia with their extensive coniferous forests. See also Figure 6. Species are similar to those found in the Boreal Coniferous Forest zone. pine shrubland (right side of the two small valleys. In Europe there is a small Polar region in the very northern tip of Scandinavia. https://archive. where it meets the Polar domain. a dominant ecological component of boreal tundra woodland is visible.indd 25 08/04/2016 11:07 . This domain is found across the northern regions of Eurasia and is subdivided into Boreal Tundra woodland. average availability of core undisturbed patches40-43). In the foreground. the water body on the right and the partial wind protection offered by the corresponding valley allow a boreal coniferous forest component to survive. but the vegetation cover is more open. (Adapted from an image authored by Vasile Cotovanu. their left bank) and grassland (left side of the picture) is clearly connected with the aspect of the banks. CC-BY. Boreal Tundra occurs at the northern limit of the Boreal zone. or subarctic. aspect and the presence of surrounding peaks influencing the local solar radiation and rain shadow effects are among the factors able to alter vegetation at very local scales by affecting the local pattern of disturbances and the availability of resources. with one to four months with average temperatures above 10 °C and generally low levels of rainfall. Forest areas and grassland alternating along the peaks of a mountain ridge. Boreal domain The boreal. and is typified by dense coniferous forests. the impact of differential solar radiation. Geographically this zone covers the northern part of Eurasia. and larch in central and eastern Siberia. https://archive. https://archive. Switzerland. i. Boreal Coniferous Forest and Boreal Mountain systems. domain is characterised by a large annual range of temperatures. slope. 3: Local-scale pattern of ecological components. (Adapted from an image authored by Alexander Cahlenstein. However.e. Temperatures are extremely cold and there is continuous permafrost. dominated by spruce and fir in northern Europe and western Siberia. Wider scale ecosystem characteristics may be influenced by these details (for example. shadow side of the peaks) and grassland/sparse vegetation (sunny side and saddle landforms). Climatic conditions are similar to the Boreal Coniferous Forest zone but are colder and more extreme with very low winter temperatures and permafrost. Orography. CC-BY. usually below 500 mm. Winters are long and cold. average connectivity and fragmentation of forest/shrub Bottom: Retezat Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 25 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Romania. Along the mountain ridge. (Adapted from an image authored by Horia Varlan. Polar domain In the Polar domain there are months with average temperatures below 10 °C throughout the year. Fig. Top: canton of Bern. In Boreal Coniferous Forests the summers are short with at most 3 months having temperatures above 10 ° Middle: Northern Sweden subarctic landscape. dominant winds and peak-induced rain shadow effects may contribute to the regularity of the pattern of forests (in the picture. Boreal mountain systems may be found in parts of Norway and the eastern part of the Russian Federation. Human influence is evident in the complex patchiness of pastures/grassland fragmenting the forests in the lower part of the valley. prevailing wind direction and intensity. CC-BY. At very local scale. the transition between sparse trees (right of the picture).

indd 26 08/04/2016 11:07 . Polar Boreal Tundra Boreal Mountain 26 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.

indd 27 08/04/2016 11:07 . Boreal Coniferous Temperate Mountain Temperate Steppe Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 27 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.

Temperate Continental Temperate Oceanic Subtropical Mountain 28 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 28 08/04/2016 11:07 .

Subtropical Steppe

Subtropical Dry Forest

Subtropical Humid Forest

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 29

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 29 08/04/2016 11:07

Fig. 5: The transition between different bioclimatic conditions and ecosystems
(even within the same ecological zone) may occasionally happen along sharp
boundaries. Slovakia, Western Carpathians. The sides of this mountain ridge
show a sudden transition between a dense coniferous forest and a grassland
with sparse trees. Different solar radiation, dominant winds and induced rain
shadow effects may contribute to this kind of transition along mountain ridges
(see also Figure 3). Anthropogenic factors such as delimited pastures may also
induce or reinforce these sudden transitions. The different ecosystems may
even influence the local micro-climate: for example, coniferous forests may
have a lower albedo than areas with predominant grassland - with subsequent
differential radiation/warming feedbacks10, 29, 30 .
(Adapted from an image authored by Ján Sokoly, CC-BY,

FIg. 4: The transition between ecological zones sometimes happens within
relatively low distances.

Top: Italy, geographic sudden transition between the Alps (temperate
mountain system) and the Po valley (whose sparse forests are
predominantly characterised by a temperate oceanic climate). Although this
transition may be smoother in other areas of the Alps, in the picture the
urban/agricultural landscape (foreground, Schio, Italy) lies at an elevation
of less than 300 m above sea level while the mountain peaks (background,
at a distance of few kilometres) are more than 1000 m higher. Ecological
zones classified according to the Global Forest Resources Assessment of
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO FRA) 1, 2.
(Adapted from an image authored by Doc Searls, CC-BY,

Middle: France, Massif Central, Puy de Sancy (foreground) and the contiguous
plain with low elevation hills (background). Even in this case, the sudden
transition is between temperate mountain ecosystems to temperate oceanic
forests. The transition is smoother in other areas of the Massif Central.
(Adapted from an image authored by Patrice, CC-BY,
Fig. 6: Norway, Femundsmarka National Park at the transition between the ecological zone of the boreal
Bottom: Wider scale view of the Alpine transition between the temperate mountain system and that of the boreal coniferous forests.
mountain system and the surrounding plains hosting fragmented temperate
oceanic forests. Top: Compared to the sometimes sudden transitions highlighted in Fig. 4, in this region the component of
(Adapted from an image authored by Francisco Antunes, CC-BY, boreal coniferous forests may show a smoother shift towards the boreal mountain component.
(Adapted from an image authored by Mahlum, PD,

Bottom: Detail of a typical forest ecosystem in the region.
(Adapted from an image authored by Robert Anders, CC-BY,

30 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 30 08/04/2016 11:07

Pages 26-29: Temperate continental zone: mixed broadleaved forest on Veľká homoľa mountain near
Polar zone: polar shrub vegetation in Sør-Varanger (Finnmark, Norway). Modra (Bratislava, Slovakia).
(Copyright Soldatnytt, CC-BY, (Copyright Ján Sokoly, CC-BY,

Boreal tundra zone: shrub tundra vegetation in northern Kola Peninsula (Murmansk, Temperate oceanic zone: mixed broadleaved forest along Ystwyth river (Ceredigion,
Russia). Wales).
(Copyright Ninara, CC-BY, (Copyright Ruben Holthuijsen, CC-BY,

Boreal mountain zone: boreal forests on the side of the cliff over the Aurlandsfjorden Subtropical mountain zone: mediterranean mixed forest on mountain area of the
(Sogn, Norway). Pollino National Park (south Italy).
(Copyright Stan, CC-BY, (Copyright Brian Gratwicke, CC-BY,

Boreal coniferous zone: coniferous forest by Hundtjärnen lake near Floda (Dalarna, Subtropical steppe zone: steppe dry grassland on Djurdjura Massif of the Tell Atlas
central Sweden). chain (Kabylie, Algeria).
(Copyright Taxelson, CC0, (Copyright Atif Rafik, CC-BY,

Temperate mountain zone: mixed broadleaved and coniferous stands in the Black Subtropical dry forest zone: sclerophyllous evergreen vegetation on the coasts of the
Forest (Freiburg, Germany). Fethiye Gulf (Muğla, south-western Turkey)
(Copyright ilovebutter, CC-BY, (Copyright Jorge Franganillo, CC-BY,
Fig. 8: Romania, Transsylvania, Fanatele Oroiului. A meadow-steppe
grasslands in the temperate continental ecological zone. This landscape
Temperate steppe zone: steppe grasslands near Poltava (Poltava Oblast, Ukraine). Subtropical humid forest zone: mixed broadleaved and coniferous forest on the side of shows components of temperate steppe and the beginning of some
(Copyright Vlad Butsky, CC-BY, Pontic Mountains near Trabzon (Trebisonda, Turkey). characteristics from the temperate mountain system.
(Copyright Aleksasfi, PD,
(Copyright Alexandru Badarau, AP, )

Local ecology characterisation by means of This implies the existence of forest areas where the main
ecozone component (e.g. a forest whose natural vegetation References
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tropical desert scrub woodland forest forest forest forest forest

super- perarid arid semi- sub- humid per- super- This is an extended summary of the chapter. The full version of
arid arid humid humid humid this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at The purpose of this
summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related
humidity provinces main topics.
This QR code points to the full online version, where the most
Fig. 7: Holdridge Life Zones updated content may be freely accessed.
Please, cite as:
de Rigo, D., Houston Durrant, T., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., 2016.
European forests: an ecological overview. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz,
J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.),
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg,
pp. e01e873+

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 31

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 31 08/04/2016 11:07

European forest classifications
G. Caudullo, S. Pasta, F. Giannetti, A. Barbati, G. Chirici

Phytosociology The sector of phytosociology which deals with vegetation system (EUNIS), available at
dynamics and aims at detecting successional series is known This database provides information about European habitat
Phytosociology is a rather young discipline which started
as symphytosociology. The vegetation series (or sigmetum) classification, data sheets on species, habitats and designed
in Europe in the early decades of the last century with the
is a group of spatially and/or temporally interconnected protected sites compiled in the framework of Natura 20008 ,
Swiss botanist and ecologist Josias Braun-Blanquet1 . This
vegetation units that may co-occur in different succession and species mentioned in relevant international conventions
discipline is focused on describing plant communities through
stages or steps within the same place. Progressive succession and in the IUCN Red Lists. The EUNIS habitat classification
a multi-purpose approach, taking into consideration different
is the natural dynamic process from pioneer to mature and is a hierarchical classification of the terrestrial, freshwater
parameters such as species composition, frequency, cover,
stable communities (the so-called ‘climax’ or head series), and marine habitats for the whole of Europe9 . Up to now this
structure (tree, shrub, herb, moss layers), spatial distribution
while regressive succession is a disruptive process from classification provides a pan-European reference set of units
(the so-called sociability; i.e. causal, clumped, etc.). The aim
more complex communities to open and less developed plant for meeting requirements in policy objectives and in supporting
of phytosociology is to provide effective synthetic information
assemblages; the latter mostly issues from intense and/or applications that relate to biodiversity monitoring and reporting.
about plant communities in order to assign them to different
frequent anthropogenic disturbance. A crosswalk from the EUNIS habitats at level 3 to the European
and recognisable units called syntaxa. Syntaxa are then
In the last century a very large body of phytosociological phytosociological syntaxa and vice-versa is also available10 .
grouped hierarchically within a classification system which
literature has been published, and a variety of schools with
is ruled by the ICPN (International Code of Phytosociological European Forest Types
different approaches formed, especially in southern and eastern
Nomenclature)2 . Phytosociologists usually collect data through
Europe, while this approach found no or little consensus in the The European Forest Types (EFTs) scheme has been
vegetation relevés recording the species occurrences within
United Kingdom and in north European countries. Recently the developed by an international consortium of experts with the aim
selected plot areas using a semi-quantitative cover-abundance
European Vegetation Survey, a working group established in to create a user-friendly classification system. It is, in fact, able
scale. Collected data are then analysed looking for similarities
1992, joined European phytosociologists in order to develop to facilitate understanding, interpretation and communication of
and dissimilarities in order to detect distinct vegetation types.
common standards, organize scientific meetings and survey data on indicators describing the status and trends of forests,
More recently several numerical models have been developed,
programmes, and to produce shared protocols and publications5, and forest management in Europe. The EFTs is a hierarchical
which help to identify dominant and diagnostic species, to 6
( In the first overview of vegetation units, classification consisting of 14 categories, including 78 forest
evaluate species-richness and species-evenness, and which can
80 classes, 233 orders and 928 alliances have been detected types11-13 . The 14 categories represent groups of ecologically
lead to a more objective classification of vegetation units3 .
all over Europe7. distinct forest communities dominated by specific assemblages
The hierarchical classification foresees, as the botanical
of trees, including introduced tree species, while the types
one, different ranks. The association is the basic vegetation EUNIS Habitat Classification correspond to a finer level of division of the category in terms
unit: it represents a plant community defined by a particular
The European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (ETC/BC), an of tree species composition. The EFTs is, therefore, a flexible
and uniform floristic composition and habitat structure, where
international consortium working with the European Environment system to compare forest information on ecologically similar
a relative constancy or abundance of characteristic species is
Agency (EEA), developed the European nature information forests, unlike other classification systems that present an
recognisable (called also diagnostic or dominant), which can
describe the community and its ecology. The upper units are
a group of lower ones, which share one or more diagnostic RANK SUFFIX EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
and dominant species4 . Each unit is assigned a scientific name Class -etea Quercetea ilicis All the evergreen woody plant communities of the Mediterranean basin.
and is defined with compound names formed by one or two
Order -etalia Quercetalia ilicis All the Mediterranean forests dominated by evergreen broadleaved trees.
scientific names of the dominant and diagnostic plant species
with a different suffix for each rank2 . Alliance -ion Quercion ilicis All the Mediterranean forests dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex).
Association -etum Aceri campestris- Mixed wood dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex) and several deciduous
Quercetum ilicis broadleaved species typical of the North-Western Sicilian calcareous
mountains in the meso- and supra-Mediterranean bioclimatic belts.

Table 1: Example of the hierarchical classification of a forest dominated by
holm oak according to the nomenclature used in phytosociology.

Subalpine larch-arolla pine forest near Morgex (Valle d’Aosta, North-West Italy).
(Copyright Giovanni Caudullo: CC-BY)

32 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

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 Braun-Blanquet. www. Pflanzensoziologie: habitat classification and related data Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde sets. K. Official Technical Research (Publications Office of Journal of the European Union 35. P. Faber-Langendoen. Barbati. O. Mucina. Nature biodiversity . while the European phytosociological communities. Schulte.An International Journal (2000). L. (Copyright Miguel Vieira. [6] M. Schaminée. Hill. Moravec. phytosociological alliances and their E. eds. [4] M.. EU. E. de Rigo. Wageningen. Theurillat. North Spain). O. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. (Eds. second CC-BY) Spruce-birch boreal forest in Norra Kvill National Park (Kalmar County. Chirici. Corona. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. van der Maarel. 81. Fluvial forest in Záhorie Protected Landscape Area along the Morava River (West Slovakia). P. (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) European forest classifications. the EFTs have been applied in several EU level forest monitoring initiatives as a reference framework to report data on biodiversity14. 41–97. 1 (1989). Science 19. Paris (2004). Rodwell. commons. Chytrý. Vegetatio 141. Moss. European forest types: Categories and Loucks. G. M. Biodiversity Assessments. J. Tech.. the EUNIS classification at level 39 counts more than 700 forest units. vol. M. The diversity of Management 321. G. E. M. 12 . 267 (2009).com: CC-BY) References [1] J. module.. G.An overview of [14] T. [11] A. R. Lazaroa 30. South Sweden). [15] R. et al. Caudullo. [10] J.. Marchetti. 7 the European Union. Caudullo. A.. Jennings. (Copyright Marilyn Peddle. 145 (2014). McRoberts. D. (Copyright Stanislav Doronenko. Davies.. 20 of Managing Biodiversity. 2016. pp. 739 Biosystems .wikimedia.Analysis of biodiversity and Fisheries. San-Miguel-Ayanz. Barbati. count 110 alliances and do not cover plantations and anthropogenic forests. Houston Durrant. cite as: Dwarf pine forest in Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (Pyrenees of Huesca. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Forest Ecosystems. Alterra. So far. (Hampshire. European vegetation . H. Copenhagen. 24777 of EUR . (Springer Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Netherlands. J. J.indd 33 08/04/2016 11:07 .. Marchetti. 2011). The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. [2] H. NL (Springer-Verlag.. Development of vegetation syntaxa crosswalks to EUNIS This is an extended summary of the chapter. Luxembourg. Roberts. This QR code points to the full online version. Evaluation relationships to EUNIS habitats (National of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest Reference Centre for Agriculture. Weber. vol.. Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology [3] L. National Forest [9] C. Plant Journal of Vegetation Science 11. Berlin. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz.. (2014). Please. Ecological types for sustainable forest management Monographs 79. et al. Pasta. 15 and sustainable forest management indicators for Forest Europe (Ministerial Atlantic lowland beech forest in the New Forest National Park Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe: MCPFE)11. pp.Scientific and [8] Council of the European Union. A. 2007). F. defined by Rodwell and colleagues7. Chirici. E..g. 2002). Barbati. European Environment Agency. R. 2011)..wikimedia. G. Corona. Barbati. E. D. P. [12] A. A. 1964). Applied Vegetation [13] A. Corona. Marchetti. Giannetti. South England). et al. S. D. G. (Copyright Tracy Houston Durrant: CC-BY) impractical number of classes: e. European S. Houston Durrant. reporting and policy (European Environment Agency. rep. Tech. commons. e01e1b6+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 33 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 173 (2015). P. Winter. CC-BY) Evergreen sclerophyllous scrub forest near Faro (Algarve. (1992).revised. Wageningen. EUNIS Inventories: Contributions to Forest habitat classification .)... Off. T. et al. [5] L. S. rep. Peet. J. Suarez Meyer. J.. 173 (2009). Mauri. Mucina.. McRoberts. M. Forest Ecology and [7] J. 93 (2007).flickr. et al. Publ. South Portugal). Chirici.

2 Pine 1.1. riverine Non riverine alder.1 Thermophilous Thermophilous ash forest ash forest 8.9 10.7 Crimean mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.3.3 Subatlantic 6.2 and Pinepine-birch and pine-birch borealboreal forestforest 2.5 Carpathian 6. Anatolian Anatolian 8.6 Valonia 8.1 Hemiboreal 2. Broadleaved 9.210. Thermophilous 8.8.7 Chestnut 8.2.3 8.1 Mediterranean Mediterranean BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 10.4 Mountainous 3. birch. Beech 6. separated into three main groups: conifers.1 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .1 Spruce and spruce-birch and spruce-birch borealboreal forestforest 1.1 12.1 Subalpine 3.8.1 South western western European European mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.4 Nemoral BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 2. Barbati. Pividori.8.1 South 7.3 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest .7 Crimean 7.6 Valonia oak forest oak forest 8.8 10.9 Other 5.2 Oak-birch 4.4 Macaronesian laurisilva laurisilva 9.4 Macaronesian 9.6 Maple-lime forestforest 5.6 Illyrian 6.7 8. A.) forest spp.2 Nemoral 2.4 Illyrian 7.210.Pinus pineapinea 10.8 Nemoral silversilver fir fir 3.5 11.8. Juniperus sp.3 Palm groves groves 9. Chirici CONIFERS CONIFERS BROADLEAVES BROADLEAVES Pinus peucesempervirens sempervirens CATEGORY CATEGORY FOREST FOREST TYPE TYPE communis communis Abies nordmanniana nordmanniana Juniperus phoenicea phoenicea articulata articulata Juniperus oxycedrus oxycedrus Juniperus thurifera thurifera Populus canescens canescens Carpinus orientalis orientalis Ostrya carpinifolia Ostrya carpinifolia Castaneacoccifera coccifera Juglanspubescens Betula pubescens Pinus canariensis canariensis Cedrus brevifolia brevifolia atrocinerea atrocinerea Abies borisii-regi borisii-regi betulus betulus Pinus halepensis halepensis avellana avellana Populus tremula Populus tremula Pinus heldreichii Pinus heldreichii Fagus moesiaca Fagus moesiaca sativa sativa orientalis Fagus orientalis Pinus sylvestris sylvestris Fagus sylvatica sylvatica Alnus orientalis Alnus orientalis Alnus glutinosa glutinosa pendula pendula Salix eleagnos Salix eleagnos Quercus suber Taxus baccata baccata pinaster Pinus pinaster Picea omorika omorika Alnus cordata cordata nigra nigra Pinus cembra cembra regia regia Larix decidua Larix decidua Juniperus sp.3 Subatlantic submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.8 Ravine 5.5 Thermophilous Thermophilous maplemaple (Acer (Acer spp.2 8. Acidophilous oak and oakoak-birch and oak-birch4.5 Mixed 2.4 Nemoral 2.Pinus .1110. Coniferous forests forests of theof the 10.4 AspenAspen forestforest 14.5 Lime-oak 5.4 Birch Birch swamp swamp forestforest 11.4 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .6 11.8.2 Turkey oak.2 Ashwood Ashwood and oak-ash and oak-ash forestforest uplands uplands 5.1 Acidophilous 4. Hungarian oak and oakSessile and Sessile oak forest oak forest 8.1 Spruce 1. the species presence in the EFT is either secondary presented as proposed and revised by Barbati and colleagues1-3.3.2 Fraxinus Fraxinus ornusornus and Ostrya and Ostrya carpinifolia carpinifolia forestforest 8.2 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest . F.2 Sessile 5.8 Oriental 7.3 Canarian Canarian pine forest pine forest 10.7 Lime 5.1 11.1.1 5.2 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest . Coniferous 10.2 12.1 Alder Alder forestforest aspenaspen forestforest 13.8.4 Maple-oak forestforest 5.3 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest . the presence in the EFT is both dominant of which are divided into sub-types.2 Atlantic and subatlantic and subatlantic lowland lowland beechbeech forestforest 6.2 Subalpine 3.western .1.310. European Forest Types: tree species matrix M.8.3 10.3.western 8.1 Mediterranean 9. Beech forestforest 6.indd 34 08/04/2016 11:08 .8 Ravine and slope and slope forestforest 5. Acidophilous 4.5 Other 9.1.2 FluvialFluvial forestforest 12.8.2 Nemoral ScotsScots pine forest pine forest coniferous coniferous forestforest 2.2 5.2 Subalpine and mountainous and mountainous sprucespruce and mountainous and mountainous mixedmixed spruce-silver spruce-silver fir forest fir forest 3.Pinus . has been evaluated. Introduced 14.1.1 13. The species presence in the EFTs is conditions of the EFT.3 Pyrenean oak forest oak forest 8.Pinus halepensis halepensis Macaronesian Macaronesian regions regions 10.3 Alder Alder swamp swamp forestforest 11.2 ItalianItalian alder alder forestforest 13.6 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Anatolian and Anatolian fir forest fir forest 10.1010.1 Spruce Spruce mire forest mire forest 11. G.) forest spp. Floodplain forestforest 12.4 13.2 13.1 Lowland beechbeech forestforest of southern of southern Scandinavia Scandinavia and north and north central central Europe Europe 6.6 Maple-lime 5. Broadleaved evergreen evergreen forestforest 9.3.4 Central European European submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.) forest 8. It has to be taken into account that 34 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.steppe 8.5 Lime-oak forestforest 5.1.3 8.8.8. Mesophytic deciduous deciduous forestforest 5.3 Birch Birch forestforest 13.alder.6 10.6 AspenAspen swampswamp forestforest 12.8. Giannetti.7 Juniper Juniper forestforest 10.6 Mixed 2. or predominant but in peculiar and not characteristic ecological counting 14 broad categories which include 78 forest types.5 Carpathian 7.6 Moesian 7.7 CeltisCeltis australis australis forestforest 8.9 CedarCedar forestforest 10.Italian 8.2 8.3 Apennine-Corsican 7.4 Central Moesian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.5 Other sclerophlyllous sclerophlyllous forests forests 10. Anatolian Anatolian and and 10.2 Olive-carob forestforest 9.7 Chestnut forestforest 8.4 8. some broadleaved and alien trees.7 Atlantic 2.3 Nemoral sprucespruce forestforest 2.8.6 Mediterranean Mediterranean lime (Tilia lime (Tilia spp.3 Alpine 3.6 8.4 11. Boreal 1.7 Moesian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.8 8.2 Atlantic 6. Cedrus libani libani alba alba Alnus incana incana Salix cinerea Salix cinerea Abies others others Taxusfragilis Salix fragilis Quercus ilex ilex Salix caprea caprea Betulaviridis viridis peuce Populusfaya Juglansfaya Pinus mugo mugo Pinus pinea pinea Abies abies abies nigra nigra Abies alba alba Cupressus Cupressus Tetraclinis Tetraclinis alba alba Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Castanea Carpinus Carpinus Carpinus Quercus Quercus Quercus Populus Populus Populus Populus Corylus Corylus Cedrus Cedrus Myrica Myrica Betula Betula Fagus Fagus Alnus Alnus Alnus Alnus Alnus Abies Abies Abies Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Picea Picea Picea Salix Salix Salix Salix Salix Salix 1.8 HorseHorse chestnut chestnut and walnut and walnut mixedmixed woodswoods 9. Mountainous 7.11 Mediterranean Mediterranean yew stands yew stands 11.7 Moesian 6.birch.4 8.3 Nemoral 2.9 Other mesophytic mesophytic deciduous deciduous forests forests 6.1 Lowland 6.8.1 Mediterranean evergreen evergreen oak forest oak forest 9.1 Riparian Riparian forestforest 12.1 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest .2 Pine mire Pine forest mire forest 11.5 Macedonian oak forest oak forest 8.2 Anatolian Anatolian BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 10.3 13.steppe .6 Illyrian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6. Mediterranean.2.5 10.8.1 Pedunculate oak–hornbeam oak–hornbeam forestforest 5. Alpine coniferous coniferous forestforest 3.8.8 Oriental beechbeech and hornbeam-oriental and hornbeam-oriental beechbeech forestforest 8.4 Maple-oak 5. Thermophilous deciduous deciduous forestforest 8.1.10 Tetraclinis Tetraclinis articulata articulata standsstands 10.Pinus . Alpine 3.2 Oak-birch forestforest 5.1 Hemiboreal forestforest coniferous coniferous and mixed and mixed broadleaved- broadleaved- 2.2 Olive-carob 9.3 Alpine ScotsScots pine and pineBlack and Black pine forest pine forest 3.5 Carpathian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.5 Carpathian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.4 Illyrian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.2 Central European European mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7. Hemiboreal forestforest and nemoral and nemoral2.3 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Macaronesian and Macaronesian riparian riparian forestforest 13. . Mire 11.5 Mixed ScotsScots pine-birch pine-birch forestforest 2.4 Portuguese oak and oakMirbeck’s and Mirbeck’s oak Iberian oak Iberian forestforest 8. For every EFT the presence categorized in three classes: the species is abundant and dominant and secondary in some cases.Greek.3 Pyrenean 8.110. Mesophytic 5.5 Pedunculate Pedunculate oak swamp oak swamp forestforest 11.110.Pinus pinaster pinaster Mediterranean. Non 13. Hungarian oak.8 Nemoral 2. Boreal forestforest 1.Greek.1. or or 13.1.3 Palm 9. Hemiboreal 2.2.4 Oriental Oriental hornbeam hornbeam (Carpinus (Carpinus orientalis) orientalis) forestforest 8.2.5 Macedonian 8.2 Turkey 8.7 Atlantic maritime maritime pine forest pine forest 2.7 10.5 Alti-Mediterranean Alti-Mediterranean pine forest pine forest 10.4 Mountainous birch birch forestforest 4.1 8.3 Lime forestforest 5.1.5 8.1 Acidophilous oakwood oakwood forestforest 4.2 11.1 8.1.4 Portuguese 8.Italian . Mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.4 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Anatolian and Anatolian ScotsScots pine forest pine forest 10. Introduced tree species tree species forestforest In this table the European Forest Types (EFTs) scheme is of the main tree and shrub species of forest interest in Europe in the EFT.3 12.2 Central 7.1 Pedunculate 5.2 Sessile oak–hornbeam oak–hornbeam forestforest 5.8 Cypress Cypress forestforest 10.4 10. Floodplain 12.3 Apennine-Corsican mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.1 Ashwood Ashwood and oak-ash and oak-ash forestforest lowlands lowlands 5. and Mireswamp and swamp forestforest 11.3 Hop-hornbeam Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia) carpinifolia) forestforest 8.1 Subalpine larch-arolla larch-arolla pine and pinedwarf and dwarf pine forest pine forest 3.) forest 8.6 Mixed ScotsScots pine-pedunculate pine-pedunculate oak forest oak forest 2.

 Barbati. A. Off. Picea sitchensis Pinus contorta Larix kaempferi Pinus Pinus strobus contorta This QR code points to the full online version.). M. G. Marchetti. [3] A. second edn. Pinus radiata In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. where the most updated content may be freely Pinus Pinus radiata strobus This is an extended summary of the chapter. The purpose of Quercus Quercus palustris rubra Robinia Quercuspseudoacacia palustris Ailanthus Robinia altissima pseudoacacia Eucalyptus sp. F. M. J. 2007). Prunus serotina Eucalyptus sp. Corona. Marchetti. Fagus Corylussylvatica avellana moesiaca Fagus sylvatica Fagus Fagus Fagus orientalis moesiaca Castanea sativa Fagus orientalis Quercus Castaneacoccifera sativa Quercus Quercus ilex coccifera Quercus Quercus suber ilex Quercus Quercus trojana suber Quercus Quercus cerris trojana cerroides Quercus cerris Quercus Quercus Quercus petraea cerroides robur Quercus petraea Quercus Quercus Quercus frainetto robur pyrenaica Quercus frainetto Quercus JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Houston Durrant. European Atlas Quercus rubra Populus hyb.. reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. D. M. Rhamnus alaternus References Buxus sempervirens frangula Rhamnus alaternus Rhamnus Tilia tomentosa Rhamnus frangula Tilia Tilia cordata tomentosa Tilia Tilia platyphyllos cordata Tamarix sp. T. Ailanthus altissima P. Chirici. e01f162+ Phillyrea latifolia Pseudotsuga Sambucus nigra menziesii [2] A. Luxembourg. G. dominant or secondary in some cases. European Forest Types: tree species matrix. mas Cornus sanguinea Cornus Erica Cornusarborea mas scoparia Erica arborea Erica Arbutus unedo Erica scoparia ornus Fraxinusunedo Arbutus Fraxinus Fraxinus excelsior ornus Fraxinus Fraxinus angustifolia excelsior Olea europaea Fraxinus angustifolia Phillyrea latifolia Olea europaea Sambucus nigra of Forest Tree Species. P. 145 (2014).indd 35 Quercus Quercus pubescens pyrenaica Quercus Quercus faginea pubescens Quercus Quercus ithaburensis faginea Quercus Quercus macrolepis ithaburensis Ulmus Quercusminor macrolepis grabra Ulmus minor Ulmus Ulmus Ulmus laevis grabra Celtis australis Ulmus laevis Species is present but not dominant Species is present in either category Aesculus ippocastanus Celtis australis Species is dominant in that forest type Laurus nobilis Aesculus ippocastanus Platanus orientalis Laurus nobilis Pyrus pyraster Platanus orientalis Pyrus Pyrus communis pyraster Malus sylvestris Pyrus communis Malus Malus domestica sylvestris domestica Sorbusdomestica Malus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia domestica torminalis Sorbus aucuparia Sorbus Sorbus some species can be both.. Mauri.An International Journal Tilia platyphyllos accessed. cite as: [1] A.... M. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Pseudotsuga menziesii European forest types: Categories and Tsuga heterophylla Agency. G. Sorbus aria torminalis more local ecological conditions. Barbati. Corona. Barbati.. EU. Forest Ecology and Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species Management 321. For this reason the presence of variability in their species composition and structure according to in many cases the EFTs are wide forest communities having inner Crataegus Sorbus arialaevigata Crataegus Crataegus monogyna laevigata Prunus cerasifera Crataegus monogyna Prunus Prunus spinosa cerasifera Prunus Prunus avium spinosa Prunus Prunus mahaleb avium Prunus Prunus padus mahaleb Prunus Prunus lusitanica padus Cercis siliquastrum Prunus lusitanica Ceratonia siliqua Cercis siliquastrum Pistacia terebinthus Ceratonia siliqua Acer platanoides Pistacia terebinthus Acer Acer campestre platanoides Acer Acer tataricum campestre Acer Acer sempervirens tataricum Acer Acer pseudoplatanus sempervirens Acer Acer opalus pseudoplatanus Acer Acer monspessulanum opalus Ilex aquifolium Acer monspessulanum Euonymus europaeus Ilex aquifolium Buxus sempervirens Euonymus europaeus 141. Plant Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology Cornus Tamarixsanguinea Copenhagen. de Rigo. 2016. Pividori.. Chirici. Biosystems . Acer negundo Prunus serotina 35 Acer negundo 08/04/2016 11:08 . P. Marchetti. pp. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana types for sustainable forest management ALIENS reporting and policy (European Environment Picea Tsugasitchensis heterophylla ALIENS Larix kaempferi this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. Giannetti. Corona. Publ. Please. (Eds. Caudullo. 93 (2007).. Barbati. A. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer- Populus hyb.

2. Alternatively when interest is centred on the directions and rates of tree spreading. and taxa associated with human activity and the Homo sapiens phase of the Holocene are shown in red. 5 000. especially the last 15 000 years of the late-Quaternary. 150 000. J. southern Scandinavia by 6 000 BP and the subsequent contraction at 2 000 BP in Norway.g. wood. 1: Summary pollen diagram from Loch Cill an Aonghais (Argyll). When the value of a particular pollen type exceeds a certain threshold value it can be interpreted as reflecting the first expansion of that taxon at different sites (Fig.g. Protocratic trees are coloured blue. European forests have also undergone very major changes due to the alternating glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary (last 2. and other sediments where organic material can be preserved2 . in terms of quantitative estimates of past plant abundances is less 6 000.invented in 1916 by the Swedish geologist Lennart von Post . bog. to answer these questions we need to reconstruct past forests indirectly using the fossil record. leaves. 1. Von Post had the idea of expressing fossil pollen assemblages as percentages of the sum of pollen grains counted.5 million. dispersal. and charred particles (microfossils) preserved in lake. The small arrows by the Betula (birch). and hence representation of different pollen types. The vertical axis is radiocarbon (14C) years before present (BP) based on eight radiocarbon dates. and extent over the last 5 million years or more in response to global climate changes. 2. Cryocratic taxa are coloured red and stippled. When many sequences have been studied.was and still is the dominant technique in the Quaternary period. Tinner European forests have varied in their composition.indd 36 08/04/2016 11:08 . 15 000. 8 000. Contemporary ecologists and foresters can learn from ‘lessons from the past’ about forest responses and resilience to environmental changes in the past. alluvial. The first arrival of a taxon is more difficult to assess. 5 000 years ago) to produce so-called ‘isopollen’ maps for particular pollen types where the contours represent different pollen values (e. Quercus (oak). 5 %. Note the progressive northward spread into straightforward because of the differential production. and of presenting these percentages as stratigraphical pollen diagrams with pollen assemblages plotted against their stratigraphical position through the sediment sequence (Fig. The horizontal lines represent partitions of the pollen stratigraphy into pollen- assemblage zones. All the pollen and spore percentages are expressed as percentages of the total number of terrestrial pollen and spores counted (generally 500-600 per sample). Peglar. showing how the percentages of different pollen types vary with depth.5 million. fruits. He was thus able to provide the dimension of time (vegetation’s fourth dimension) to the study of past vegetation and forests2. cells (e. because the absence of pollen or macrofossils may not mean a true absence of the taxon in the landscape. and 5 million years ago similar in species composition. W.g. Approaches for (Modified from Huntley and Birks4) quantitative interpretation are currently an area of active research within Europe and elsewhere (e. 6.6 million years). Alnus (alder). Past forests of Europe H. and striking differences between different areas. The percentage contours are percentages of total tree and shrub pollen. B. 3)5 . 36 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 2)4 . He showed strong similarities in pollen diagrams from a small area. Pollen analyses by Sylvia M. Introduction Were European forests 500. oligocratic and telocratic taxa are orange. mesocratic trees are green. and 2 000 radiocarbon years before present (BP). 7 000 years ago). European forests have greatly changed in their extent and structure in the last 5 000 years due to human activities (the Homo sapiens phase) in the current Holocene interglacial in which we live.g. Quantitative interpretation of such data Fig. 10 %) (Fig. 4 000. 2: ‘Isopollen’ maps of Quercus (oak) pollen percentages across Europe for 12 000. This involves the study of seeds. and hence age. and extent to the forests of Europe today? As we cannot directly observe the forests of the past. Birks. spores. so-called ‘isochrone’ maps can be constructed where the contours represent ages established by radiocarbon dating (e. and charcoal (macrofossils)1 and of microscopic pollen grains. in the sedimentary sequence (Fig. Fig. The results of a pollen analysis are most commonly presented as a pollen diagram. their pollen data can be mapped for a particular time interval (e. 1). Pollen analysis There are ten basic principles of pollen analysis1 (see Box 1). 5 000. structure. a small lake in south-west Scotland covering the last 12 000 radiocarbon years. 1). 6 000. These taxa become abundant again in the open conditions of the Homo sapiens phase where they are shown in plain red. Interpretation of pollen-stratigraphical data in a qualitative manner in terms of major past vegetational changes is relatively straightforward2 . 10 000.5 %. 7). structure. and Corylus/Myrica (hazel/bog myrtle) indicate when these trees or shrubs are inferred to have first expanded near this site. 3 . stomata). Pollen analysis as a tool for vegetation reconstruction .g.

decline. This geoflora was first defined by development from the end of a glacial stage through the ensuing J. combined with the west-east chains of assemblages of pioneer. Pinus pine.g. and ruderal herbs glaciated mountains (e. and open barriers. (e. Nyssa blackgum. and Asia. Abies). The cryocratic within the late Pliocene epoch and the subsequent Pleistocene phase represents the cold and dry.3 an obvious question12 is how did European forest trees survive within an area of similar vegetation and landform Neogene these repeated long glacial-stage conditions and where did they Miocene 23 v The proportion of each pollen type depends on the number of grow in the glacial stages? parent plants and their pollen productivity and dispersal. Time is shown in million years with vegetation too dry for tree growth and high-elevation tundra-like taxonomic levels (e. During the glacial stages. Yunnan) and North herbs.3. the present day12 .6 million years) witnessed very except that as the climate cools towards the end of the interglacial. 1) Liquidambar sweetgum.g. Salix sediment sequence. Ettinghausen in 1869.indd 37 08/04/2016 11:08 . Europe. ravines). represented by the sedimentary record (Fig. Carya hickory.6 of 280 ppm in interglacial stages. 500-800m) in the mountains of vegetation. Tsuga hemlock.6 million years ago.6 million years. around the sun. and herbs expand on the newly exposed mineral soils. and bog at the beginning of the Quaternary (e. Quercus oak. Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations were as Holocene 0. steppe. vegetation.) occur in the final telocratic phase and. Abies fir) as well as genera willow. family) youngest epoch at the top going down to older epochs at the bottom. Caucasus growing on skeletal mineral soils. and stages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Partial geological time scale. remains in central. southward retreat of many of the Arcto-Tertiary geoflora resulting At the onset of an interglacial. Rocky Mountains) run north-west to juniper. ericaceous heaths. while others survived longer rich podsols and peats. Stewartia). Picea. Liquidambar. vegetation growing on infertile (low available phosphorus18) humus- Pseudolarix false larch. and the ocean floor where pollen is preserved Quaternary low as 180 ppm during glacial stages.g. 18 . Pinus.g. eastern. plants about 2. and Larix larch may have grown locally ix If pollen assemblages are obtained from several levels through a modern European forests (e. Liriodendron. There is increasing evidence from macrofossils and charcoal and local vegetation surrounding the sampled site at a point of west Europe9 . Hedera) decline. the Californian Sierra Nevada. Clethra several sites. Pyrenees. etc. A sample of the pollen rain is thus an indirect record of the regional vegetation at that point in space and time Palaeocene 66 southern Europe (including the Caucasus) and possibly in parts of western Asia13 .or mid-Quaternary9. Base-demanding shade-intolerant chains and valleys of south-eastern Asia (e. there are such strong areas of the globe (eastern Asia and eastern North America) is ecological similarities that the Danish pollen analyst Johannes explained by the hypothesis explicitly presented in the 1850s Iversen recognised in 195816 an interglacial cycle consisting of by the American botanist Asa Gray (1810-88). species. except in specialised refugia. Populus aspen. resulting in multiple (at are not synchronous between sites because the onset of a phase such least 50) glacial-interglacial cycles driven by secular variations in as the oligocratic phase may depend on local site features such as insolation as a result of periodic fluctuations in the Earth’s orbit bedrock geology. Sequoia redwood. Much of the region north of 40° N was function of transferring the male gamete to the female ovary: the covered by large terrestrial ice-sheets and widespread permafrost vast majority fall to the ground with temperatures possibly 10-25 ° C lower than present. Eocene. warmth-demanding and or frost-sensitive trees and shrubs (e. the Pamir. but see 14 for a contrasting view).g. along with Betula birch. Aesculus chestnut)9.75 million years ago. Sequoia. Meliosma. The mesocratic cold stages and to spread northward during temperate intervals. and land-use. fertile soils rich in nitrogen and to spread southward along unglaciated areas or valley corridors in phosphorus and with a low humus content (Fig. 1). 300-1 000 grains per 1 for an outline of the relevant geological time scales) is very Trees may also have occurred scattered in locally moist sites sample). Europe’s forests during Quaternary x If two or more series of pollen assemblage are obtained from Taxodium cypress. and possibly Alnus alder. 2 and 3) Neogene existed widely in the Northern Hemisphere across North western and central Europe15 there is strikingly similar vegetation America.g. and the Tien Shan in Kazakhstan12 . rising to pre-industrial levels Pleistocene 2. These trees interglacial stages assemblages and hence in the regional and local vegetation belong to the so-called Arcto-Tertiary geoflora that in the Pollen analysis and macrofossil studies reveal that in north- through both time and space (Figs. Tsuga. Magnolia. or i Pollen grains and spores are produced in great abundance by ice-sheets and intervening temperate interglacial stages began slightly warmer than. Sorbus aucuparia rowan) immigrate into formerly glaciated south-east or north to south reaching low latitudes without sea areas and expand to form a mosaic of grassland.6 million years ago) contained many genera characteristic of trees such as Pinus. the oligocratic phase. Tajikistan.9 The evidence we have suggests that many European trees the pollen rain is a complex function of the composition of the survived the last glacial maximum (LGM) in relatively narrow Palaeogene Eocene 56 refugial elevational belts (ca. arctic-alpine. Juniperus America (e. Phellodendron reduced moisture. Appalachians. phase is characterised by the development of temperate deciduous As a result of the west-east barriers and the many relatively cold forests of Quercus. These were largely replaced by trees of the temperate fauna19. Trees are absent. and north-eastern Europe that conifer time in the past 2. The successive loss of interglacial (about 10 000-15 000 years duration) and into the next these taxa during the Pliocene epoch and the early Pleistocene of glacial stage.6 million years ago. Although the species and their relative abundances the Quaternary and their restriction today to two almost opposite may vary from one interglacial to another. in such microrefugia during the LGM. The its progressive rate and/or expansion from the south-west at 9 500 radiocarbon years before present (BP) through England and southern and Europe’s forests in the Quaternary period telocratic forest vegetation is very similar to the oligocratic phase central Ireland to 8 500 BP and its declining rate as it spreads north into The Quaternary period (last 2.g. 4)17. and in parts mud sample of known age (dated by annual layers or radiocarbon million years ago) when plants (e. Pterocarya wing-nut. which results in a more or less uniform pollen rain Pliocene 5. frost action and cryoturbation destroy the leached infertile Fig 3: ‘Isochrone’ map for Quercus (oak) in Britain and Ireland showing acid soils. Salix. Glacial-stage conditions account for 80 % of Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 37 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. the pollen assemblage is an indirect record of the regional tropical lowlands of the Indo-Malaya region occurred in north. 1). see Table of the Sino-Himalayan region. and Miocene epochs (66-5. Such mid-elevation belts of trees can be seen today in the Andes. grazing mega- China11 . or permanent snow or ice. at the onset of the next glacial cryocratic phase as forests course of the early. Carpinus hornbeam.g. Given these extreme conditions iv Before reaching the ground. Following the tropical and sub-tropical Europe during the LGM as they do today on the Tibetan Plateau in viii If a sample of the pollen rain is examined from a peat or lake- Palaeocene. Magnolia magnolia. Uzbekistan. of the regional and local vegetation and their development growing today in eastern Asia and/or eastern North American as far north as the north-eastern edge of the great Fennoscandian near the sampled site at various times through the time interval (e. wind-throw. (Modified from Birks ) 5 marked and widespread climatic and environmental changes12 . record. Large terrestrial ice-sheets started to form in the Northern Ilex. often glacial. most cork tree. comprises open conifer- ‘mixed mesophytic forest’. These belts lay between lowland xeric steppe-like vi Different pollen grains and spores can be identified to various Table 1. Scotland between 8 000 and 6 000 BP. pollen is well mixed by atmospheric in the glacial stages that cover 80 % of the last 2. Shade-intolerant herbs and many trees or their close relatives that today are found in the shrubs are rare as a result of competition and habitat loss. and.01 as in bogs. too cold for tree growth. climate. What were European forests like environmental conditions were very different from the present prior to the Quaternary? interglacial (Holocene or post-glacial plus the recent Anthropocene) ii A very small fraction of these fulfil their natural reproductive in which we live today. temperature and moisture rise in their progressive extinction in Europe. (standard pollen counts are usually ca. Many taxa had already disappeared dominated woods (Pinus. parts sediment permit efficient analyses and statistically robust results Neogene (‘Tertiary’) periods (66-2. ice-sheet in Russia at 60° N (12 . such low-latitude areas. stage with sparse continental glaciations. Corylus hazel. Nipa palm) found today in the of south-east Turkey. thereby permitting temperate and warm temperate trees woodland growing on unleached. lakes. These ecological phases within an interglacial Hemisphere about 2. unless the processes aridity and temperature 2-5 ° C lower than today were features of of biological decomposition are inhibited by a lack of oxygen. Oligocene.g. and trees (e. admittedly an indirect Fagus beech. High Period Epoch Age (Million years) iii Pollen and spores decay more or less rapidly. Populus. Liriodendron tulip-tree. Gardner and C.g. Picea. vii In vegetated areas pollen is ubiquitous in lake and bog sediments. and Kazakhstan12 . the European tree flora of the Pliocene epoch (5. Picea spruce. The next phase. Ulmus. so-called ‘cryptic’ or ‘micro’ refugia in sequences in Europe8 . possibly. Tilia. frequently disturbed by ground- mountains) and the Mediterranean Sea provided barriers to the ice activities. Fraxinus ash. topography. 10 . Hence Oligocene 33. scrub. Climatic deterioration (temperature decreases. Europe lost Alnus on fertile brown-earth soils (Fig. the mountain and the protocratic phase begins. they provide a record. Carpathians.g. it is possible to study changes in past pollen pepper-bush. Alps. Betula. The cool phases four or five ecological phases (Box 2 and Fig. dating). genus. in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Engelhardia. shrubs. Very high concentrations (usually around 100 000 cm-3) in the Knowledge of the flora and vegetation of the Palaeogene and American Rockies. Taxodium. turbulence. and Ulmus elm. except warm-temperate-subtropical ‘evergreen forest’ of south-eastern in openings caused by fire. fragmentary due to the shortage of fossiliferous sedimentary (water seepages. In contrast. Tilia lime.3 Sichuan and Qinghai.S. Carya) to vanish finally from Europe during the especially. Box 1: Principles of pollen analysis Europe’s forests prior to the Quaternary ice-ages the Quaternary whereas the remaining 20 % consists of shorter The Quaternary period with its multiple glacial stages with interglacial stages during which conditions were similar to. 11 .

steppe. areas there was a rapid change from Tilia. 20. or while boreal and steppe vegetation declines (e. All vegetation models were initialised with the same present-day Italian Peninsula. or a combination of these factors32 . and Abies pure Fraxinus excelsior European ash. warming) and years) there is often great variation between interglacials. ectomycorrhiza with a phosphorus-mining strategy. 33. Mesocratic: Mesocratic Oligocratic fertility. Pistacia pistachio). forest cover declines and steppe-like environments expand during the climatic deterioration at the transition from the interglacial to the next glacial (temperature decreases. Whatever its rising moisture availability. 22 . it is possible that the rapid spread of Fagus across Basso. willow) xim as Within these three broad groups of protocratic. 1). oligocratic. warm- followed by the abandonment of cleared and cultivated areas. high rates.. These changes commonly occurred after an The westward. rates of spreading. medium-low rates of population oi l Protocratic: es ass De increase. high rates of population increase. genotypic variation. There is an apparent order within interglacial forest patterns when viewed at Simulation of future vegetation dynamics at Lago di Massaciuccoli. temperate taxa (e. dispersal. or climate change. 23 . In the to Fagus-dominance17. Simulations of today’s vegetation under low disturbance shows In some areas of central and north-west Europe. Other types of secondary woodland developed in areas beyond causes. • range of soil types.g. ing Ma • unleached fertile soils Incr and oligocratic and telocratic plants. ericaceous heaths. corresponding to the protocratic phase in central and • forest clearance. reduced Box 3: Palaeo-model comparison: past. Taxus baccata composition and structure and in soil conditions.indd 38 08/04/2016 11:08 . forest clearance and prehistoric shifting cultivation and livestock f b) Map of Italy and Switzerland with Lago di Massaciuccoli denoted by a black farming (Fig. English yew. red star shows position of Gorgo Basso in southern Sicily (Fig 4). yet • open conifer (spruce.g. and establishment may Oligocratic & Telocratic: all have contributed to the observed differences in interglacial • late interglacial stage bio forest patterns17.. large clearings within Tilia. low reproductive rates. At the onset of an • mid-late Holocene (6 000 years ago-present) interglacial. P limitation e fe rtile s olis. in the steppe. with a dynamic vegetation model years. established on particular soil types following abandonment of changes in the natural fire regime within the boreal forest15.g. and • early interglacial stage til biom m r u cre ‘cold-stress tolerant’ and ‘adversity’ traits17. As with Ulmus in England. late-Holocene the ability of pollen stratigraphy to differentiate between many of sedimentary pollen record of Lago di Massaciuccoli is used to validate the different interglacials17. The glacial-interglacial cycle showing the broad changes in biomass. Betula.or Quercus-dominance reduction in fire frequency17. Alnus. simulations show the disappearance of Carpinus betulus European hornbeam4 . Quercus spp. In some areas (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) 38 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. disturbance by fire and by browsing25. Similarly. humus-rich podsols and peats sin a with substantial differences in comparison to central and north- tur g ss ur western Europe10. Chenopodiaceae goosefoot)11. While the establishment of this vegetation type under current climate with moderate land use. predation. 21 . Massaciuccoli. Unique to the Holocene ls like environments of the glacial stages. This new phase. soil leaching. This corresponds to the Base. England24 . or Quercus-dominated forests on well-drained soils. arbuscular phosphorus-scavenging • glacial stage mycorrhiza. unique to the Holocene is called star.g. Ostrya hop-hornbeam. This 6 000-7 000 years4. agriculture G la cial north-western Europe. The phases of the interglacial (protocratic. relaxation in grazing pressure. With low land use. the invasion of Picea into northern and central Fennoscandia corresponding to the oligocratic phase in north-western and central the natural geographical range of Fagus. competition.52 from the Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean lowlands of the e). The mid. European tree & N L ow bio m a e P e species persisted locally. soil. probably a result of an interaction c) Future (2071-2100 AD) mean monthly temperature and precipitation between prehistoric human activities and a tree pathogen. and telocratic) are shown along with the display ‘pioneer’ and ‘exploitation’ traits17. and podsolisation and while broad-leaved deciduous trees remain important11. 31 may be a contemporaneous response to subtle temperate and Mediterranean conifers (e. mixed Fagus-Ilex holly-Quercus forests developed whereas in other cleared or cultivated areas. pine. northward. mesocratic. 26 . years ago-today) a) Present-day (1950-2000 AD) mean monthly temperature (±1 The mesocratic phase in the Holocene interglacial stage was standard deviation) and average total monthly precipitation at Lago di greatly modified about 5 000-6 000 years ago by the onset of Massaciuccoli close to Pisa (Tuscany). and and associated interglacial stage. pine). 22. corresponding to the extensive phase of human activity involving clearance and grazing of Picea abies through Finland. probably in response to over-exploitation of environmental resources30 . Quercus ilex holm oak. Abies. or Ilex aquifolium common holly became accumulation of mor humus. Abies collapses were rapid. shrubs. 22. 1). 23 . ‘competitive’. 5 000-6 000 years ago Abies disappeared a dynamic vegetation model with d) present climate and future climate Figure from Henne et al. with widespread gradually replace Mediterranean evergreen broad-leaved trees. climate change. e s oi Homo sapiens: ric h in fertil cryocratic phase in central and northern Europe. in a cryptic Mediterranean stand in lowland Tuscany. with projected by a regional climate model (SMHI) for Lago di Massaciuccoli. Mesocratic trees have dominant soil features. southern Sicily (Fig 5).g. Factors such as location of refugia • mid interglacial stage asing temp • temperate deciduous forests In cre a sin g in the cryocratic phase. This vegetation type disappeared during the late colonisation and expansion of new immigrants such as Fagus Holocene most likely in response to excessive anthropogenic burning sylvatica European beech. and Norway over the last mesocratic phase in central and north-western Europe. corresponding to the telocratic phase. the actual floristic and soil M or Decre Dec forest composition varies from interglacial to interglacial in north. In agreement. often fertilised (Modified from Birks and Birks18) Ulmus. medium-low Cryocratic: Interglacial rates of population increase. Spontaneous regeneration of Abies alba and Quercus ilex maquis (low biomass) will expand. a delayed migration unrelated to simple into the broad-leaved deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen collapse following. distances over which g biomass spread occurred. with pollen values of Abies halving f) Holocene pollen percentages of upland trees and shrubs at Lago di within 13 and 22 years at sites in Italy27 and Italian Switzerland28 . the model. for colonisation. mesocratic. Fagus sylvatica during Mesolithic times followed climate change Future climate and vegetation conditions at Lago di Massaciuccoli are (cooling and a moisture increase) in southern and southern-central comparable to present climate and vegetation conditions at Gorgo Europe29. evergreen oak forest central Europe in the last 4 000-5 000 years4 may have only been will prevail16 . Similar cycles occurred in southern Europe. Juniperus. There was a steep fall in Ulmus pollen values (Fig. Pinus) expand abandonment may have occurred as a result of local population step-wise climate change. moisture-loving taxa such as Fagus. high competitive tolerances. in particular LANDCLIM is able to simulate extinct vegetation d e types which were growing in the past at the site before anthropogenic Europe’s forests in the Holocene (11 700 disturbance became excessive. and possibly and land use25 . bogs Cryocratic ea e m r rat s as • infertile. Carpinus) form open forests together with evergreen broad-leaved trees (e. probably in response to excessive Neolithic climate scenario and moderate disturbance before 2010. Fe • rich assemblages of herbs. whereas within each phase of an interglacial (ca. forest clearance Abies alba co-dominance with Quercus ilex (see right image) in the and subsequent dereliction of clearings may have facilitated local Mediterranean forest. Sweden. 5 000 (LANDCLIM) for different climatic conditions (today vs. and ‘saturation’ • sparse assemblages of pioneer. The characteristic trees of the interglacial phases differ in their reproductive and population biology and ecological and competitive Box 2: Glacial-interglacial phases in north-west Europe tolerances17. the Homo sapiens phase (see Box 2)17. 11. Towards the end of the interglacials. and temperature that take place during a glacial (cryocratic) stage low competitive tolerances. moderate). and trees (birch. respectively. Picea abies Norway spruce. Olea europaea olive) and mediterranean shrubs (e. Oligocratic and telocratic trees have medium reproductive N&P • skeletal mineral soils s. high competitive tolerances. in cr e a sin g te m p e reasin western and central Europe17. and southward spread and expansion following phase during the mid-interglacial. deciduous Quercus. arctic-alpine. while under moderate land use forests will be reduced and facilitated by the creation of abundant. elm pollen values halving within 5 years at a site in southern d) and e) Vegetation simulated at Lago di Massaciuccoli with LANDCLIM. Protocratic trees have high reproduction rates. for example. a a b c the broad-scale of an entire interglacial cycle of 10 000-15 000 coastal lake in Tuscany (central Italy). although strongly reduced. and • fertile brown-earth soils Protocratic Telocratic chance as it affects survival. and ‘late-successional’. Betula spp. and ruderal plants traits 17. hence levels of disturbance (low vs. present and future Mediterranean vegetation moisture). Due to warmer conditions. for example woods of over the last 6 000-7 000 years resulted in major changes in forest Europe. a response to forest disturbance creating gaps forests and arboreal cover increases. Artemisia wormwood. Finally.

Quercus.. 199 (2014). Thus apparently similar systems [9] K. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. et al. Birks. F. 48 . second edn. Continued forest clearances systems arose at approximately the same time in different K. antecedents in different places. G. C. B. Holocene) the realised environmental niches of species been significantly [25] W. Elias. 495 (2004). presumably in response to regional. C. 25. Henne. but more importantly.g. indicate the specific environmental changes that led to the development of the system References [1] H. Reu. Most systems disappear. 1521 (2009). structure. Mai. 17. Birks.. and settlements (Figs. 292 (2012). Viking.. et al. Iron Age. similar forest ecosystems. W. EU. 25 (2015). H. W. Jones. 1995). and ecological surprises are certainly possible42-46 . Tinner. Birks. (‘analogues’)45. C. H. Birks. with all its climatic shifts10. [37] W. There is very much still to be learnt about Fig. McElwain. [41] J. pt. H. environmental change40 . eds. pastoral and arable farming37. C. [44] J. Miguel-Ayanz. (Yale Univ. 551 from the palaeoecological record. D. 6 (Uppsala [45] S. Jackson. W. forest pathogens. W. Ruosch. [52] P. Ammann. 56 . J. Ongoing rapid major disturbances (e. J. Hubschmid. R. L. vol. R. 17. B. Ostrya. (Eds. Giesecke. Bennett. Annals of the New and the development of extensive pastures of ‘commons’. J.. vol. 23 of Advances in Global Change Research. Palaeogene. (Elsevier. A. Review of [39] R. 41 . [54] S. G. 46 . M. Palaeoecological studies have Please. Jackson. 37). this record is a long-term ecological observatory where of environmental variation that these systems have experienced ecological responses to past climate change and the ecological in the past and by reconstructing the environmental conditions legacies of societal activities can be deciphered.27. 4: Xeric maquis and cultivated land north of Gorgo Basso. 15. American Journal of Botany 100. Almost all extensive and naturally forested areas surviving today ecologists look to the future. Fig. n/a (2015). disturbance-resistant taxa such as Quercus. Birks. These forests may change gradually revealed major human imprints on many. Birks. 567 (2009). Jackson. A. B. Forests develop when certain plant species last 5 000 years raises critical questions about appropriate targets updated content may be freely accessed. 2 (Cambridge in scandinavia. H. J. systems are thus inevitably uncertain and historically contingent. 1 26. Jackson. K. Restoration efforts should aim to conserve or restore developing only within the last few centuries38-40 . Huntley. can thus help to identify critical Palaeoecology (Edward Arnold. vegetation burning. 1498 (2009). C. pp. vol. Jackson. forest ecosystems of today [14] P. [18] H. [42] S. J. pp. 1523 (2004). Quaternary Science Zagwijn. 1960) [50] J. Longer time periods (e. T. several different [10] T. 4. and past European forests using the vast amount of palaeoecological 2 700-2 000 years ago with Greek and Roman colonisation involving regular this underestimates the risk of major disruption of the system by data available in Europe4. Bradshaw. Marchetto. Sandel. W. W. [46] J. Marquer. 484 1261 (2006). This and Present Pollen Maps for Europe. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23. increased human interference including regular burning36 forest systems existed in the past that have no modern counterparts [15] G. thousands. dynamic eco-physiological models with palaeoecological evidence called Homo sapiens phase (see Box 2)17. Conedera. environmental changes may almost certainly ensure that many Few major terrestrial forest systems have existed for more historical restoration targets will be unsustainable in the coming than 10 000 years and most are considerably younger. As Karl Flessa and Steve Jackson55 the face of future global change is aided by considering the range discuss. maquis and day observations47. What emerges from to produce palaeo-validated scenarios of future vegetation This is an extended summary of the chapter. Frontiers in Ecology and We see that European forests have been changing since the and climate representative of tree and ecosystem-climate [22] P. changes in diverse regions40. In: San- environmental conditions40 . 153 (1993). But the present Denmark. Journal of The palaeoecological record for European forests provides [4] B. Palynology 79. [27] D. 133–143.g. H. [32] T. 39 . Tinner. 2008). et al. B. this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Ph. 26 . disturbance-sensitive taxa such as Tilia. [56] B. United Kingdom. Publ. Global Change Biology and wood.g. 1995) P. S. 18. However. tree combinations in the different interglacial stages13. T. Peglar. to 10 000-15 000 due to major changes in the Earth’s climate system due to orbital forcing9 . J. [31] T. 30. and extent of forests in Europe? glacial stage. Handbook of holocene Palaeoecologists look to the past whereas global-change palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. A. to human-induced creation of maquis vegetation (Fig. Conedera. 356 (2015). Giesecke. K. 38 ) and can. B. Past forests of Europe. Mitchell. et al. B. Colombaroli. Kaltenrieder. 755 (2007). modern ecologists? and use “the present is the key to the future”. W. J. Global Change M.g. M. U. Archaeobotany 22. impact with forest clearance and agriculture (Fig. Lotter. W. H. fields. similar systems had different 106 (Gustav Fischer Verlag. van der Hammen. no. 419 (2013). interspersed by periods of abandonment and places. Lindbladh. J. Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. The development of Denmark’s [51] S. Evolution of Plants (Oxford. T. ed. Iversen. Tinner. S. Tinner. G. 5. Academies Press.. Di Pasquale. 281 (2015). Betula.. J. Huntley. heaths. properties40 . ed. Iversen. 1980). K. 2005). Caudullo. [30] R. Luxembourg. 29. A and used as a key to “understanding the biotic effects of future narrow time window (e. [35] C. and Picea (non. Quaternary Science [34] W. Willis. 2016. equilibrium with environmental factors such as climate50 or have [24] S. Veloz. thesis. Journal of Ecology 99. under which these systems were initiated and developed40 . G. Lang. Fagus (re-sprouters). 1971). Mountain Regions.and scrub-pasture and hazel coppice expanded. and recent times. Jørgensen.-C. Hobbs. 5: Dense evergreen oak forest (Quercus ilex) south of Gorgo Basso.. Birks. survived on rocky calcareous slopes less suited for agriculture. 593-612. 36. Roman. as a basis for past reconstructions or future predictions. H. plant-functional traits. Willis. 17. Methoden und Ergebnisse. Birks. structure. Combourieu-Nebout. T. Forests initially became more open. The palaeoecological record can pinpoint the time of origination of particular forest systems (e. et al. woodland management) This pattern is not. Seddon. Ammann. many novel future responses. and expansion of more permanent land-use practices (e. M. Blois. Tinner. H. where the most hundreds of years. Encyclopedia of Ecology. Science 325. [12] Birks. This process was interglacial epochs on the formation and Europe4. Management 8. 200-300 years) underestimates the environmental change”55 . 391-424. Birks. Geology 29. 26. A critical question is thus are today’s ecosystems (Koebenhavn. all existing forest systems have a finite time limit to growing University (2004). 395 (2011). H. vol. Reasoner. Trondman. B. Human project future ecosystem conditions solely on the basis of present. Flessa. Huber. Lotter. 50 . D. Science. Forest vegetation First. et al. Willis. and the range of environmental variation under which the system Science. Tzedakis. J. become abundant and dominant at specific areas under particular (‘baselines’) for restoration efforts. the earth system may be accompanied by widespread ecosystem Journal of Biogeography 18. Problems of the Early Post-Glacial Forest Development in [49] A. A. 49. K. The holocene spread of spruce vegetation type is representative of natural conditions in coastal Sicily prior several additional insights and important lessons from the past40 . [47] K. 676 (2015). Journal of Vegetation husbandry. Davis. 1679 (1999) systems can no longer be sustained47. J. Journal of maintained itself in the past40 . 17 and the importance of Abies alba in southern Europe in extinction of plant taxa. crop cultivation. C. et al. W. Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte [43] B. The Geological are so characteristic of the Quaternary (Pleistocene.. Birks. human activity)17. e010c45+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 39 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. the so. van Andel. Examples include the former abundance of 106 (Gustav Fischer. if not all. J. [2] H. [5] H. J. Second. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28. cite as: Birks. quantified. fire. [48] Birks. 10 . 549 (2006). 32. 0-13. Tinner. W. Fourth. [33] M. 35 . T. forming monospecific forests25. This sclerophyllous vegetation type expanded range of variation within which a forest system is sustainable. Hewitt. Journal of Biogeography 16. 273 (1999). Journal of Ecology 93. Restor Ecol 21. Bradshaw. B. D. [36] W. D. [38] H.. T. Willis. eds. Fraxinus. 523 (2013). 29 Corylus avellana in the early Holocene across much of north-west [16] J. Bugmann. Vegetation History Pleistocene9. Journal of during glacial stages and rapid spread and expansion and unique These palaeoecological questions suggest that it is inadequate to vegetation science 25. 2623-2634.. This QR code points to the full online version. J. R. [13] K. S.indd 39 08/04/2016 11:08 . Wehrli. et al. Journal of Ecology 99. and Hedera ivy declined while their dominant species have developed in different places and [8] D. Fifth. Williams. occurred as the result of the development in atmospheric circulation involving climatic shifts that led to Palaeobotany and Palynology 218. 1973). Abies.. T. Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future have resulted in a continuous dynamic of tree survival in refugia Environmental Change (The National [26] G. 147 (2008). 696 have no long history even in the time span of the Holocene and (2013). Shuman. B. Rey. 15. F. 194 (2015). and of European forests in the time-span of the Holocene or even the main topics. favoured by humans for their valuable acorns or timber. Turekian. 13. J. Fagus.g. and agriculture. 1266 (2013). J.. vol. Ohlson. 1958). 2013). changing composition. 664 (2011). Future forest historical systems if possible.. as defined by Biology 21. An Atlas of Past Biogeography 31. vol. P. pp. Tinner.. animal widespread synchronous transformations of ecosystems40. 2005).. at different times17. B.. Mauri. P. Corylus. Quaternary [53] M. Journal of Ecology 103. B. de Rigo. Medieval. 1 (Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse. J. Ecological Monographs Record of Ecological Dynamics: altered by climate-change or millennial-long land-use activities51? 83. Encyclopedia of Quaternary [28] W. Tzedakis. Allen. K. The Holocene 15. Tinner.g. Ecosystem Services & 168 (2005). Review of Palaeobotany and pp. a small lake in southern coastal Sicily. The Holocene 25. H. B. 194 (2000). palatable) expanded34 . J. Ecology 87. usually in response to extrinsic environmental change41 or moving at centennial to millennial time-scales9. S. Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences the mid-Holocene (See Box 3)25. E. Birks. 127 Edwards. universal but rapid regime-shifts in 1. [19] F. 521 (2013). The purpose of this analysis but increasingly strengthened by macrofossil studies) The dynamic nature and the often non-analogue character summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related is continual change at time scales of millions. J. 2042 (2007).D. A. 53 . D. composition. et al. by inference in some cases. 1 000-2 000 (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) years) inevitably increase the inherent range of natural variation Acknowledgements in the earth system40 . et al. M. S. and manage emerging novel ecosystems to ensure high biodiversity Given the richness of forest-tree responses during the Quaternary and a supply of ecosystem goods and services in the future54. is a rich and largely untapped record of ecological dynamics over Assessing whether current forest systems are sustainable in a wide range of time-scales. (Springer Netherlands. Reviews 28. Science 305. and ecosystem [7] A. Off. Hannon. M. In general. Ulmus. J. 61 (1993). Ammann. Wijmstra. 87. secondary regeneration. 1983). International Journal of Biodiversity centuries38. H. Science 314.or global-scale shifts [11] N.. vol. A promising novel approach is to combine Fig. What ‘lessons from the past’ can be learnt from the ever. where Universiteit Årsskrift. H. N. 17 that and Archaeobotany 2. Uppsala University Press. Global Change and Reviews 90. et al. Annual particularly intense in the lowlands of Mediterranean Europe. et al. Press. H. [17] H. Acer maple. T. The bearing of glacial and (2013). Birks. Ecology S. Quaternary Science Reviews the Environment 13.). The full version of the many palaeoecological studies (mainly based on pollen dynamics under global-change conditions52. maquis. some decades  34. with progressive extinction from Europe of trees of relationships under past or future climate change? Are they robust [23] J. F. The palaeoecological record of European tree and forest history outcomes. M. Such information. Quercus ilex forest) are unique to the Holocene. Colombaroli.000 Years Ago. to design. Methoden und Ergebnisse. only obtainable (Elsevier. by ecosystems (not necessarily forest systems) that differ in [6] L. 54. B. Houston Durrant. but both rely solely on their 3 (1986).. have been extensively managed by selective silviculture over many understanding of modern ecosystems and ecological processes (2004). Vegetation History and Journal of Ecology 95. the so-called Arcto-Tertiary geoflora in the Pliocene and early to climate conditions beyond modern states? Are species ranges in Science Reviews 28. 1299 (2014). J. Tzedakis. Willis.. W. 156 (2014). Bennett. or abruptly when the dominant trees are replaced by other 34 and have shown that secular climate change has kept many targets trees. E. Science 17. Emerson. 17. 4 and 5). The Holocene 25. 4). Mock. Overpeck. Plant Ecology & Diversity [40] S. 1698 (2012). ultimately legacy effects of different antecedents40 . 103 (1991). and Picea were also may have different properties owing to different histories and to second edn. Williams. [55] K. Iversen. is only one time-slice in the last 11 700 years since the last [21] J. M. Williams. et al. environmental thresholds beyond which specific modern forest [3] H. create. Svenning. A. however. H. Quaternary [29] W. led ultimately to the widespread deforestation of much of Europe Europas. C. pp. Palaeoecologists apply the concept that “the present is the key to Why is European forest history important to the past” whereas global-change ecologists project this forward [20] J. The repeated glacial-interglacial cycles15. 1214 (2005). Schwörer. systems in Europe17. J. 2014). Paleobiology nature since the last glacial. Alnus. as shown by We are very grateful to Cathy Jenks for preparing this text and the palaeoecological record. (2001). when the time window extends figures in a very short time and for her meticulous editing. Salix. K. Macias-Fauria. B. B. B. practically no unplanted forest environments survive (e. during the late Neolithic. The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages. A.. 40 . J. (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) in the places where they occur and all have been preceded 503 (1989). Bronze Age. Third. ploughing. Tinner. Global Change Biology p. (2015). D. York Academy of Sciences 1297. B.

San-Miguel-Ayanz The European Commission has recently published a Forest Strategy for the European Union (see chapter “The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe”). 2: A qualitative visual overview for some of the dimensions of complexity and heterogeneity in the European continent. Forest management may changes species. As a consequence. 14 (see Figure 2). From European Commission and the World Bank14 . Bottom left: The peculiar administrative heterogeneity of Europe (28 member states in the European Union with 24 official languages and several states which are either federations. CC-BY. for example because without wide uncertainties on the real detailed composition and disturbances and threats”). management practices might prevent or mitigate the natural local distribution of tree species (see Figure 1). This shows the varying levels of human influence. the anthropogenic pressure on subtropical. 40 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. CC-BY. with intense landscape diversity highly variable bio-climatic conditions influence local forest and relatively few undisturbed areas of high wilderness and ecosystems and their composition17. explicitly calling for “advanced research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to better understand the complex issues around social. Top left: A view of the European continent at night shows clearly the large centres of population. it might be that the available field “European forests: an ecological overview” and “Forest resources significantly alter the local composition of forests compared observations are not dense enough to offer a statistical sampling in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. Earth Observatory40 . The values in the map represent the cost required to travel across them (hence this is often termed a friction-surface).i. (Adapted from an image authored by Sergey Norin. http://archive. and resulting solar and rain shadow. The similarity with the top left view is evident. In both cases. Houston Durrant. The global change in its environmental (climate change). J. However. at the landscape scale this results in Heterogeneity of forests and forest data at a high heterogeneity. with different spatial density of the European scale Europe is densely populated. temperate. de Rigo. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling. economic and environmental changes related to forests”1 . Bottom right: orographic complexity. a much denser network of field observations would have been required to reliably reconstruct at the km2 resolution the local distribution of forest tree species (not only including the ones that occupy Fig. Europe spans These characteristics of the continent contribute to define interspecific competition by other tree taxa. economic and social the continental scale. For example. Potential impacts include changes in the suitability of whole regions for certain forest taxa and types. temperate and boreal mountain systems.indd 40 08/04/2016 11:08 . From NASA. accuracy and uneven definitions of measured/estimated quantities for different taxa. The park is characterised by very high A key piece of information to allow some of these impacts biodiversity.e. see Figure 6) is uneven with extensive areas of the continent very poorly covered. experiencing highly a wide range of climate patterns17-19 . social and economic dimensions is expected to impact on European forest systems in complex ways (see chapter “Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. information gaps between multiple administrative units and institutions may potentially lead to classify regional field observations on a given species (missing from the local inventory) as false negatives. This is because the many regional datasets are often autonomously collected and organised. Even the uniformity of tree species within managed forest stands may be subject to border effects with increased diversity of species. with a large array of possible environmental. Stratification over the years of forest and land situation5-11 . transdisciplinary robust assessment is required to identify and address emerging immediate risks for forest ecosystems. Krka National Park. where anthropogenic influences might be greatest. About one third of the continent is covered by mountain systems (according to a recent revised classification based on the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre approach20) and in most massifs the forest cover is a key component up to the timberline. Beside future potential threats. Caudullo. http://archive. where forest ecosystems is elevated. and threats to be reliably estimated is the availability of updated (Adapted from an image authored by gravitat-OFF. 16 . mountains characterise more than one third of the exceptional challenge with a harmonisation effort to integrate managed forests may exhibit very diverse patterns with sudden European land (see Figure 2) with peculiarities associated to the the different sources of forest-based field observations. with the potential natural vegetation15. Grazing and managed forest stands generate patches of locally uniform vegetation. Several hundred thousand harmonised field observations have been collected and integrated to cover several millions of square kilometres. Therefore. and resulting variations in the spatial distribution of forest tree species in Europe. Therefore. boreal up to the polar climate its overall high heterogeneity. This Atlas is based on possibly the richest set of information harmonised at the European scale and focusing on recorded occurrences of forest tree species. 3 . As an example. Mountain forests are exposed to heterogeneous bio-climatic conditions: temperature. G. and usually measured in units of time. while over the subtropical. data and information on forest tree species D. slope. CC-BY. Continental-scale modelling of tree undisturbed areas may display a rich variety of species adapted to domain. displays an impressive set of challenges for it to be addressed at (Adapted from an image authored by Hans Fransen. 20-22 (see also the chapters low accessibility13. field observations of forest tree species in these areas may be associated with information limited to very local conditions. the local density of available field observations (plot density. solar irradiation. areas with predominantly For example. with more than 800 identified species and subspecies of plants. risk assessment on emerging risks due to exotic forest pests and diseases often has to be performed coping with a broad set of uncertainties4 . disturbances and threats”). In the mountainous areas or where land use and landscape diversity is tree species distribution and habitat suitability for the current Bottom left: France. also considering how to better take advantage from the already available land cover mapping. precipitation patterns may vary greatly depending on the local elevation. Fig. federacies or in any case providing large autonomy to internal administrative units) further increases the complexity and intrinsic uncertainty of continental-scale environmental modelling. aspect.more prevalent in the far north of the continent and along mountain ranges. estimated using a cost-distance algorithm which computes the “cost” of travelling between two locations. darker areas . less accessible ones . with about 3  % of world land hosting almost 7 % of the world population (estimates for 2014)12 . T. http://archive. However. 1: Top left: Croatia. even this apparently simpler objective management. species distribution and habitat suitability needs to adapt to this coexist in the same mature ecosystem. Top right: Accessibility may be defined as the travel time to a location of interest using land or water based travel. Top right: Romania. However.

is/hUFIj) categories . From the human-editable format.such as broadleaved and coniferous trees . This European Atlas of Forest Tree Species provides for (Adapted from an image authored by Benediktv. 46 . to derive HTML. which may serve for further readings. CC-BY. Fig. Marche region. the detailed composition and proportion of forest tree species may locally vary. contributions and modifications by means of an internal version control system. annotated by the co-authors by using common word-processing formats (DOC. under a clearly defined taxonomy of roles42 geospatial layers (at 1 km2 spatial resolution) to be processed. Other sources provide coarse-resolution Left: Forest patchiness and variability: hills with a mixed land cover where forests show limited core undisturbed areas and extensive forest borders estimates on the chorology of vascular plants covering the whole of Europe (FISE)1. 45 under the semantic array programming paradigm43. the continental-scale modelling exercise here described can be exploited by users for a more consistent pan-European overview of forest tree species. maps. disturbances and threats”)43. In addition. If accepted. the definitions and methods underpinning the impressive amount of collected information are not yet uniform among the different inventories²⁴. to ease the collaboration and with the systematic internal recording of all considering other ancillary layers. which correspond to over 1 600 unique references. Although fragmented. revising. Although easy to edit with images. Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 41 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 3: of specific purposes25-29. All authors. and habitat suitability at the continental scale. improved data and modelling. (Adapted from an image authored by Francesco Gasparetti. a cycle of internal review – with the support of external reviewers – and subsequent content revision has been iterated up to finalise the extended summary for each chapter (see Figure 4).g. as well as to different patterns Europe or at least a substantial part of the continent30-35. That said. advisors and reviewers. The content-processing chain is implemented on a GNU/ Linux computing environment44. for which the information is sometime more incomplete). based on the most effects. CC-BY. Additional sources of information are available by supra-national initiatives that collect forest-based field observations for a number Fig. At a finer scale. most countries collect information about forest resources by means of National Forest Inventories (NFIs)24 . http://mfkp. diagrams. here forests are more homogeneous with weaker evidences of border of specific forest tree species36-39 . 46 . notes that “harmonized information on forests and forest resources at EU level is still limited. https://archive. To obtain the printed version of this Atlas. models. data and information on forest tree species. chorology areas may integrate several These few statistics refer to this printed version of the Atlas. For each of them. insights and comments for the is the result of an ensemble of hundreds of intermediate maps generated European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is similar to that applied to the printed chapters of the Atlas.instead the first time a systematic coverage of forest tree taxa distribution Right: Italy. providing additional information. the extended summaries with their cycles of review and revision required the support of novel computational tools. has been complemented by open contributions from international scale” in this chapter). The manual harmonisation of the bibliography was based on the records stored in the Meta-information Database on Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM-MiD. Here. the overstorey canopy layer but also the ones in the midstorey and understorey. the making of the printed version of the Atlas required the processing and generation of more than 18 000 files (considering only the textual information content) organised in more than 2 400 units of content. notwithstanding important research efforts in this field”23 .indd 41 08/04/2016 11:08 . https://archive. the content-processing chain of D-TMs starts from text and references. For a given chapter version. the INRMM-MiD catalogue covers about 5 000 indexed publications. as harmonised scale (see section “Heterogeneity of forests and forest data at the European extended literature. The review model for the Online reviewing. each updated manuscript will undergo a more extensive on its content-processing chain is summarised. machine-readable semantic structure. and the Forest Information System for Europe”) to integrate diverse of slope. Another mixed land cover. Furthermore. The Commission staff working document accompanying the Forest Strategy for the European Union. this required about 20 000 core intermediate iconography. the D-TM chain for each chapter version generates intermediate information with semantic enhancements. with the design and implementation of a dedicated chain of data-transformation modules (D-TM)43. a brief overview on the Atlas review model and via statistical resampling to ensure that the final estimate is more robust edition. aspect and subsequent solar irradiation. Unfortunately. about INRMM see also the chapter “Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. As highlighted years of work for the editorial board and intense exchange with more than sources within a single coarse-resolution overview. LaTeX. without previous peer-reviewed versions of an updated chapter will remain accessible. local richer information (although not yet harmonised with the information available elsewhere) may be able to provide locally more accurate estimates. Overall. 41(see chapter “The European Union Forest Strategy are exposed to the anthropic . The main goal of this Atlas is to offer a robust integrated synopsis harmonising information-rich areas with information-poor ones. Periodic updates might be possible for e. these formats are unsuitable for an automated semantic enhancement of their content. Each distribution (relative by Figure 4. an INRMM-MiD public record is available with integrated metadata and meta-information on the cited publication. Canton of Lucerne. The Atlas provides an overall bibliography with more than 2 400 cited references to scientific and technical publications. this information by providing high-resolution estimates of forest models. integrating recent or The collected and harmonised within the Forest Information System for The modelling strategy here summarised is designed to be inclusive Box 1: The review model and content-processing chain of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species The making of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species required several Concerning the modelled maps. The available European-wide data and information have been comprehensively integrated set of available data and information. tables and other supporting information. Existing land cover mapping exercises may complement database and information systems within a modular array of Switzerland. 4: The review model of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. In Europe. bibliography and text). DOCX). and able to tolerate a larger amount of outlier data or data affected by peer review. probability of presence) and suitability (maximum habitat suitability) map corresponding updated online full version. the extended summaries of this book are associated with their 50 international experts who devoted their efforts in co-authoring. Overall. extended statistics and within FISE. As a consequence. After the initial design and implementation of core materials and methods (data. See also Figure 2 and Box 2 for an overview on the underpinning uncertainty at different spatial scales. a chapter will be persistently published in the FISE high uncertainties – a feature which is essential at the considered spatial portal. with the potential contribution of additional co-authors. of which more than 2 400 are on forest resources. PDF and RTF documents with a harmonised.

aerial photographs and ground surveys. All datasets used have been harmonized to an INSPIRE information sources is provided. tree populations are modular system that combines data and models into applications”1) observations24-29 . and society domains. “Coniferous forest” and “Mixed forest”. Therefore. It includes the classes “Broadleaved Forest” and This project was one of a number of demonstration studies “Coniferous Forest”. 46 . Furthermore. In this section. single trees) that are traditionally analysed in This dataset derived from National Forest Inventory data genetic surveys conducted in natural populations. 42 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. specifically Pine. and enhance the biological diversity of forests. The online version of the Harmonising presence and presence/absence genetic resources. in order for FISE to offer a continuous FISE is putting an intensive effort toward harmonising the org) of the national focal points for 98 target tree species in 31 delivery of advanced forest research and products (as a “dynamic heterogeneous sources of information on forest-based field European countries. Based on earth observation satellite images. Genetic Diversity (GD). (Adapted from an image authored by Fredi Bach. (e. aims to produce large-scale maps of national territories recorded for more than 3 300 sample points in 19 European Countries. all considered as not available information.g. trees in non- forest areas may be supported by scarcer field observations. The data managing the data JRC implemented a Forest Focus Monitoring sources used are listed below. resolution of 1 km²/pixel. Input refers to the online taxonomy of array-based semantic constraints (EUFORGEN) program. 28 . The database geospatial application47 of the semantic array programming and provides information on the presence/absence of forest tree is part of the EVOLTREE project (Evolution of Trees). Genetics. Linear formations contribute to support connectivity among Fig. (LAEA) for the datasets used: European Forest Inventories (EF). diagrams and statistics available in the printed semantic constraints43. highly uncertain or missing data (::nanless::). Among other constraints. Some among the simpler of them are (EUFGIS) version of this FISE Atlas will be further improved with additional exemplified hereinafter with the notation ::constraint::. from which the data used in this project27. at the boundary between the subtropical mountain system and the subtropical dry is designed to publish (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forest in Europe. The complete Forest Focus dataset covers 30 European Countries Pan European Forest Type Map 2006 (FTM) with more than 8 600 sample points. launched by the Commission of the European species from both the tree layer and the ground vegetation layer was Communities. CC-BY. CLC map covers 36 European countries with a pixel size of 1 hectare. BioSoil (BS). the array-based semantics of (Adapted from an image authored by Fredi Bach. https://archive. species in approximately 375 000 sample points with a spatial excellence addressing four major disciplines: Ecology. Genomics and Evolution (www. The EUFGIS maintains an online portal (www. effects in European forest ecosystems. Under this scheme the monitoring is carried out Harmonising forest cover datasets by participating countries on the basis of a systematic network Available maps of land cover in Europe have been harmonised of observation points (Level I) and a network of observation within FISE as complementary information on forest categories plots for intensive and continuous monitoring (Level II). The datasets considered in this Atlas are able either within the natural environment to which they are adapted for supporting a multifaceted ecosystem of uses and customers in to provide records on presence/absence or at least presence only (in situ). contains geographic information of a limited number of tree based. and example of landscape with a scattered woodland component. EUFGIS dataset contains geo-referenced Europe (see also Box 2). 38 . https://archive. and keeping up-to-date inventories and maps of land cover. even approximate information able to systematically cover these European areas may be essential. However. 6: Plot density. forest patches. 2152/200350 . In these forest sites. comprehensive and long-term monitoring of air pollution species. after the removal of outliers. The map initiated in response to the “Forest Focus” Regulation (EC) No. (Adapted from an image authored by Schwabe90. CC-BY. through sustainable forest management” Atlas (https://w3id. Oak. 5: Examples of sparsely forested areas with mixed land cover. some tree formations may not fulfil the definition of forest and thus may be classified differently in the available land cover maps. SPOT4/5 and MODIS satellite imagery and Corine Land BioSoil dataset Cover 2006 data. data and modelling Bottom: France. For (proportion of broadleaved and coniferous trees)36-39 . EUFGIS (EG). policy-making. conserve. Geo-referenced Database of Genetic Diversity (GD)2 The semantics underpinning the array of different data The (GD)2 is a dataset of sample points localising genetic European National Forestry Inventories database sources has been systematically harmonised by exploiting the units (populations. restore and data from experts in local/regional distribution of specific tree which implements the paradigm (see Figure 8)48 . Beech and Ash. The aim of the BioSoil project was on a Neural Network clustering algorithm36 . CC-BY. Top: Germany. updated enriched information and maps with an increasing level of datasets 200752). This notation This project is part of European Forest Genetic Resources modelling modules and data currently under harmonisation. a more detailed summary of the data and localization. computed with a spatial grid of 50 km2. Fig. The dataset CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) used in this project came from the Biodiversity module. It comprised two modules: Soil Module51 and Biodiversity Module25. the latest version of the map 2006 has been implemented by The European Environmental Agency)37. Baden-Wurttemberg. was produced with an automatic classification technique based 2152/200350 mentioned above. broad. covering 21 European countries8 . https://archive. This map is a 25 m spatial resolution raster derived from LISS III. useful for the species chorology) for the main tree species in elsewhere (ex situ). including their species will be precious (see Figure 4).evoltree. covering 38 European countries. It was launched in April 2006 and financially supported by the European Union Forest Focus/Monitoring dataset within the 6th Framework Programme. The modelling methodology for compliant 1 km² grid (LAEA EPSG CODE 3035)49 .is/9jRGz) each harmonised dataset expects the corresponding geospatial records to have nonnegative values (::nonnegative::). in which plant CORINE project. The (GD)2 database This project is a Community scheme for harmonised. providing data of Materials and methods with information about the growing tree species and geographical the main tree species presence. normed by EC Regulation No. to provide harmonised soil and forest biodiversity data. or artificial.eufgis. Although the presence of tree species characterises these examples. each typology of species specific map is also described. a network of (SemAP) paradigm43. but dynamically evolving populations the scientific. Database System.indd 42 08/04/2016 11:08 . remarkable biotic disturbances (such as some forest pests) may spread also over landscapes with sparse but susceptible trees. This has been achieved by means of SemAP array-based European Information System on Forest Genetic Resources The modelled maps. They are collections of forest field surveys information on around 2 500 forest samples. and able to assimilate further forest information not yet exploited. from which was extracted the forest cover from the classes “Broadleaved forest”. Forest Focus (FF). since the main effort of systematic data collections such as national forest inventories is more focused on forest Middle: Turkey. 48 . which aims to “maintain.

lower values To ease the visual interpretation of some patterns. three pairs of bioclimatic factors: basis for generating the modelled maps and diagrams which Each map is modelled with an innovative methodology • annual average temperature vs. the precipitation of the driest integrate conditions are very similar to those of at least some of the field MHS model. distribution and suitability maps.g. 55 as cover classes defined with the United Nations Land Cover Classification harmonised within FISE1. from the single element of a given spatial cell (pixel value) up to sparse collection of them. cover maps (CLC.e.indd 43 08/04/2016 11:08 . the array-based semantics of each The GlobCover project in 2010 produced a global land cover map harmonised forest density expects the corresponding geospatial raster layers Autoecology diagrams derived by an automatic and regionally-tuned classification of a time to provide the proportion of forest cover (::proportion::). For example. precipitation patterns must be composed of ::nonnegative:: values. C-SMFA also supports suitable for the taxon to survive (denoted in the legend as trees to be analysed in their distribution patterns within a statistical resampling and Monte Carlo analysis as enhancement for high survivability areas). resolution chorology and frequency maps. autoecology diagrams. a consistent semantics) within the heterogeneous array of data and information which is necessary for the diversity of the European continent to be covered.g. As for the distribution maps based on the C-SMFA model. Source: Daniele de Rigo. The number of measured plots per each spatial pixel. This is the basis for the RDS- more advanced modules . 54 . In some cases the chorology maps have been derived from the species distribution maps available on the EUFORGEN website34 . based on the datasets of field observations8. 8: Examples of the array-based semantic constraints. range. Conversely. autoecology diagrams (also known as series of global Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument climate-space diagrams) have been derived for the described Fine Resolution mosaics for the year 2009. precipitation. the integration of continental-scale arrays of geospatial filed observations. coarse. This is due to the semantic role as a statistic constraint of the within FISE1. the detailed list of relevant Fig. based on temperature. forest cover classes. The field observations are the System and a spatial resolution of 10 degree seconds39. This array of factors allows the observed forest cover classes within the C-SMFA model.e. The sampling points are derived from the same datasets which have been used to model the species distribution and the maximum habitat suitability. presence/absence data constitute a ::binary:: information. . Furthermore. Each map is modelled with a spatial frequency analysis of the available field observations. elevation temperature of the coldest month. This is not as easily obtained with classical approaches Further details on the modelling aspects can be accessed in distribution maps at the taxon level (1 km2 pixel size). for each class estimates the maximum habitat suitability (MHS) of the taxon observed are obtained by means of high-resolution bioclimatic the maximum tree cover percentage was adopted as the potential based on the datasets of field observations as harmonised and geographic factors (e. 41 . the geospatial semantic array programming probability of presence is a ::proportion:: between 0 and 100 %. In most chapters. annual precipitation. The frequency analysis considers multiple spatial scales to account for the different local density of data. • potential solar irradiation in spring-summer vs.g. 41 . For producing the chorology maps. along with their underpinning uncertainty matrix layers and list of matrices. In these areas. In particular. multiple presence/absence raster maps. the distribution of observed trees is visualised against The data and information harmonised in FISE has been the where the taxon is found. This refers to areas with a Modelling methodology dimensional slices of the bioclimatic space are displayed. two- highlight poor survivability conditions. Each map based instead on the average habitat suitability. 8. 17. areas with bioclimatic and driest month. value. or climatic information on e. bioclimatic information constituted a challenging big- data problem. C-SMFA)8 . high-resolution tree species based on high-resolution bioclimatic and geographic factors (e. ESA GlobCover 2009 (EGC) Map 2006 (FTM). The elements composing the array may be accessed and denoted Together. similarly addressed with the GeoSemAP approach. 46. 8. the local bioclimatic multidimensional bioclimatic space. RDS-MHS estimates the maximum spatial extent • and the seasonal variation of the monthly precipitation (i. EGC). the average distribution (relative probability of presence) and suitability based on temperature. Among other constraints. 53 .object of ongoing research . values in [0 1].g. Permissible values may vary depending on specific requirements of the particular algorithm and complex semantics constituted a challenging big-data which is expected to operate on the arrays. 54 .e. precipitation. 7: Broadleaved and coniferous forest density.. In the EGC map the forest classes are suitability maps at the taxon level (1 km2 pixel size). Each map The local bioclimatic conditions where a given taxon is described through percentage ranges of tree cover. are associated to each tree species/taxon chapter (see chapter following the relative distance similarity approach (RDS-MHS) How to read the Atlas). 41 . CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) and ESA GlobCover 2009 (EGC). solar irradiation. estimates the relative probability of presence (RPP) of the taxon based on the datasets of field observations as harmonised within the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE)1. i. 8. observations where the taxon occurs. http://w3id. Left: an array of raster layers (e. Chorology and frequency This category of maps summarises two basic pieces of information concerning the species: 1. 2. The species chorology: this is the broad range and qualitative spatial distribution of the tree species derived from one or more bibliographic sources. The map also the difference between the total precipitation of the wettest highlights unsuitable areas in Europe: i. The analysis is performed with an innovative modelling methodology designed to preserve a consistent logics and quantitative meaning (i. 17. as exploited in the modelling methodology to generate tree species accuracy of the estimation36-39 . AP. The species frequency over a 50 km square grid (represented by means of dots with variable size): this shows the percentage of species presence related to the amount of sampling points inside the grid. High values represent areas which are highly solar irradiation)8. it is constrained to have a consistent semantics with an additional array of geospatial information. a heterogeneous collection of references has been gathered and consulted. 25-28. the full online version of this Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 43 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. It is classified as “Native” (green area) when the species is thought to occur naturally and “Introduced” (orange area) when the species has been historically introduced and is nowadays naturalised. 31 . or bioclimatic input layers to estimate the tree species maximum habitat suitability). In particular. paradigm (GeoSemAP) has been exploited43. In all the tree species chapters where chorology maps are available. For this.e. information on the spatial probability of finding a broadleaved (or coniferous) tree species has been used as C-SMFA statistic constraint to improve the Fig. Hultén and Fries33 and on the Atlas Florae Europaeae30. This map counts 22 land taxon. (maximum habitat suitability). This model supports the generation of high resolution taxon. entire data and information. Most of maps are principally based on historical works about the vascular plant chorology by Meusel and Jäger32 .. normalised by the precipitation of the Spatial distribution: the C-SMFA model conditions very dissimilar from all the ones observed for the wettest month) vs. Right: Another semantic dimension associated with the aforementioned arrays is defined by the numerical values of each array element. in order to improve the overall map quality (constrained spatial multi-scale frequency analysis. where the taxon currently lives or could live. combining the continental-scale arrays of geospatial with different levels of granularity. 47. Maximum habitat suitability: the RDS-MHS model same as those exploited to estimate the coarse-resolution forest The forest cover classes have been extracted from land This model supports the generation of high resolution plot frequency maps. In bioclimatic pattern very dissimilar from all the observed patterns particular. computed with a spatial grid of 50 km2.)8. while the estimated problem. (LAEA) for the datasets used: Pan European Forest Type references is provided.

g.6084/ since the overall area of those plots can be considered as negligible with respect to the 1 km2 area of the pixel. 44 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. whose cumulated uncertainty depends even on the initial uncertainty of the input data. 78) and the resulting increased software complexity. software and data. Software engineering techniques and good computational science practices may help to mitigate the rise of software uncertainty. This may reverberate in higher final data uncertainty. The harmonisation process and some of its intrinsic challenges8 may be exemplified considering the dataset derived from NFI data. 10: Qualitative visualisation of the potential cumulated effect due to the combined uncertainty in modelling. even the complexity of the underpinning software code increases. Coarser spatial resolution of input data may be associated with an intrinsic partial loss of information (e.doi. a trade-off exists between increased complexity of models (assuming that this increase is associated with a better approximation of the reality. which for some categories of models may be structurally impossible77. CC-BY.figshare On the semantics and interpretation of European-wide available presence/absence records In the section “Harmonising presence and presence/absence datasets” of this chapter. even this qualitative trade-off has been taken into account for adapting the modelling complexity of the discussed maps and diagrams. possibly with a supporting statistical analysis so as to more easily detect outliers.doi. statistical resampling and robust statistics) which may also contribute to mitigate software uncertainty79-84 . the NFI-derived presence/absence information at pixel level needs to be properly processed to model more advanced statistics than the mere probability to find at least one tree of the given species in the 1 km2. finer-resolution details within highly heterogeneous areas such as mountain systems and high-diversity landscapes). Box 2: Modelling. https://dx. https://dx. the underlying information to assign the presence/absence value for a given pixel and a given tree species refers to measures within plot areas belonging to that pixel (i. Source: Daniele de Rigo. The uncertainty of each data-transformation is propagated up to the final combined output. CC-BY.e.6084/m9. A qualitative ranking is proposed to simplistically illustrate the different complexity associated to the modelling approaches discussed in this chapter. with growing modelling complexity. accurate datasets may be available with detailed annotation on survey methodology. 11: Qualitative visualisation of varying trade-offs for different available spatial resolution of input data and information. regional or national scale. 9: Overly simplistic models may be affected by high modelling uncertainty because too many non-negligible components of the real system are not taken into account by the model. the areas where field observations have been recorded). Source: Daniele de Rigo. At local.g. More complex models might be associated with a higher sensitivity of their estimates to outliers and input https://dx.indd 44 08/04/2016 11:08 . The information on the presence at the plot-scale of a given tree species may be useful for assessing the species chorology and the maximum extent of its distribution. sampling strategy and stratification. Source: Daniele de Rigo. an overview of available field-observation datasets has been summarised. Among other aforementioned concepts and criteria.6084/m9.g. between different National Forest Invetories. software and data uncertainties: a qualitative integrated overview of trade-offs for estimating pan-European forest tree taxa information Fig. which typically differ from inventory to inventory (e. This assessment may be performed without additional data-transformations. CC-BY. Integrated modelling frequently exploits multiple heterogeneous data sources by combining specific data-processing and intermediate derived data as generated from specialised software modules.doi. NFIs24).figshare 78 .figshare Fig. In particular. This increase of the combined data uncertainty may be mitigated with robust modelling techniques (e. However. However. Since they cannot completely prevent software uncertainty. The data used refer to the presence/absence of a given forest tree species with a spatial resolution of 1 km2/pixel brought up into line with an INSPIRE compliant 1 km2 raster grid. sometime with higher prediction errors for new data77.

The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling. A. Resources Programme . [82] C. Official Journal of the (2014). Rodriguez-Aseretto.. Rooksby. pp. Remote Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration (2012). et al. de Rigo. 41 of Frontiers in Electronic Testing. B.0. 242 (1982). pp. 775 (2010). Meusel. Busetto. Fries. [48] D. Malek. 1 [68] H.. (2014). Schaerer. Instead. Journal of the European Union 1. IEEE Journal this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at [27] R. 3773+ Inventories .. D. E. H. https://w3id. Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) Model Prediction Error (2012). H. the integrated It is worth recalling how this quantity is conceptually different from the approach to model the spatial distribution of forest tree species has been uncertainty43. Tech. for Bash version 2. Ergonomics. Global ecological Zones [80] A. Stucki. Houston Durrant. European Forest Genetic Working Paper (FAO.Establishment of a Earth at night (2012). J. Forestry [37] M. forest-based sector. Management Science. EFSA Supporting [67] H. I. et al. D. Maucha. 40. Houston Durrant. known as software In the section “Modelling methodology” of this chapter. Fortmann-Roe. EUFGIS . et al. Hiederer.. pp. Roberts. 3rd Conference of [7] J. H.Scientific and Technical Research M.. Rep. et al. CORINE land cover technical guide . Fortmann-Roe. Y. Houston Durrant. [47] D. Evaluation . this advanced modelling approach of the tree species which are respectively broadleaved or coniferous and it requires a far more complex chain of data-processing steps. Siegel. In this pixel is e. Sutter. of Forest Resources Assessment Working 49. Houston Durrant. Baker. Week (2000). San-Miguel-Ayanz.Distribution maps pp. (2012). Statistics Explained (Eurostat. COM(2013) 659 final Fennica Vanamo. Martino. A. [66] D. GotW #20 in Guru of the in Information and Communication Paper (Food and Agriculture Organization Week (1997). Bontemps. Luxembourg. the measured records of presence/absence at the plot scale: ideally. (Koeltz scientific books. H. Geophysical Research Abstracts EN-C (Publications Office of the European [26] EUFGIS. pp. Jalas. Within a 1 km2 pixel. pp. J. [39] S. Nature 467. et al. Huang. E. Italy (2015).A new EU forest strategy: for forests and the (2013). C. 1–4.. Brand. summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related methodology. unknown average probability of finding the given tree species within a plot by a given species or category of species. Moreover. Italy... 53. Hultén. Busetto. et al. Model Prediction Error (2012). Jäger. 1976). no. M. C. G. L. e01aa69+ Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 45 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. E. Caretta. Geoscience mastrave. R. Global Ecological [36] P. Interaktive CD-ROM zur Altman. T. presence/absence data are included in the harmonised datasets. 61pp. M. Kasanko. thesis.indd 45 08/04/2016 11:08 . 2013). other sources of uncertainty should be of the categories broadleaved forest. [79] W. However. [29] EVOLTREE . 2000). D.. Baker. USA. Fox.. United Nations. vol. Helsinki. no. Analogously. [4] European Food Safety Authority. J. Caudullo.Analysis of biodiversity Louvain (UCL) and European Space Agency Conference On The Protection Of Forests module. [25] T. 16 of Efsa Scientific Mountain Areas in Europe: Analysis of 2012 International Congress on of Computer Programming (2014). A. G. http://www. e1001745+ [5] J. L. J. Science global change. A. et al. Information Technology and vol. Iverson. [75] B. SECSE ’09. Boolean operators. Banker. A. [81] D. Diversified landscape structure in [40] M. In particular. Impacts of climate [59] Z.). 179 of Forest Resources Assessment [35] EUFORGEN. R. Bossard.05b (Network For Distributed Processing: An Object- previously defined . ed. Proceedings of the National of ch. Reporting ( the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Ph. data and Vegetation of Europe. If we consider each of them as approximating a negligible area. eds. de Rigo. Revision 266853 E. Milano.statistics on of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest report. This QR code points to the full online version. 25 (2002). pp. rep. et al. Schaerer. 144pp (2013). Watkins. (2015). 303+ 2014).. 4977 (2011). Forestry Department. J. The potential impact of border effects between different illustrate some key categories of uncertainty. other maps of land cover may be exploited reference context. Otahel. [61] N. KS-SF-11-021. http://www. EFSA Journal 12. Caudullo. 13245+ (2013). Technical Research (Publications Office of on (IEEE. M. J. Shaw. 877975+ [14] A. Georeferenced database of Variance Tradeoff (2012).products description and validation [52] Ministerial Conference on the Protection [84] R. Baxter. genetic diversity . [42] L. http://www. This independent statistic is homogeneous resampling exploited by the C-SMFA model and by its integrated use of pan- European-wide harmonisation challenge on forest tree species information. 2009. 1973). Out of the ministerial\_conferences/warsaw2007. 321 (2013). New York. et al.Final Report. [77] S. Nevertheless. J.. Datar. B. Alberdi Asensio. European information system on forest www. pp. 2016. This binary quantity is a random to further improve the C-SMFA application at pan-European scale. is subject to a complex pattern of subtle errors. eds. The purpose of this [15] U. R. Figs. ed. 444 (1980). [62] F. 41896+. A. A disciplined. the average of a high number of measures (assigning 0 to an absence and 1 to On the difference between species frequency within On software uncertainty a presence) all taken within the same 1 km2 pixel. where the most Communities. Fortmann-Roe. 2010). de Rigo. P. 98pp (2013). Kwakkel. 312 (2014). W. Schulte. Fennica Vanario. Kemerer. COM Documents Directorate-General for Agriculture and plants in Europe Vol. 1998). A. was systematically utilised as constraint in the first set of maps based on species refers to the whole pixel content. [28] T. [57] S. et al. 271 to Ephedraceae) (Committee for Mapping datasets’ multivariate transformations. The full version of global map of accessibility (2008). and The those whose available field observations do not enable a more detailed Array programming allows the code size and its structural complexity Pan-European Forest Type Map 2006 (FTM)36 may serve to better exemplify spatial analysis to be performed). IEEE Transactions on 20. H. .. [72] S. Karte der natürlichen monitoring database system . Off. [41] J. code bifurcations and exceptional execution paths. A. Resources Programme (2016). Special issue: “Environmental [9] R. Commission Staff [19] M. J. O. SECSE ’09 (IEEE. Micheli. et al. Hannay. Wasowski. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14. with Mastrave . Malhotra. vascular plants (North of the Tropic of Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: [63] G. EGC and other 1 km2 pixels whose forested areas have the same frequency of occurrence A more meaningful interpretation of the NFI-derived presence/absence potentially useful additional layers of information on forest types is ongoing for a given tree species. Software Engineering 21... Liu. A. pp. Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants repository of semantic metadata and Hosseini. A. Derrick.Soil Data Analysis. Study of a collaborative [58] G. Database and Expert [55] D. Nelson. In the section “Harmonising forest cover (and thus susceptible to be estimated for a broader set of taxa. Union. [64] J. Caudullo. [60] I. the relative probability of presence (RPP) of the same 1 km2 pixel. [69] G. M. Kempeneers. Merali. of the United Nations. Accurately Measuring updated content may be freely accessed. J. Sixth Biennial Meeting. Reorda. 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EFSA Journal 10. EFSA Journal 9. Caudullo. 19 (1995). vol. (2014). Jongman. 253–285. Atlas Florae [44] C. E. The coarser resolution is associated with to be significantly reduced72. L. 13292+ (2013).webcitation. European Union. J.Pathways for Common Scientific Cooperation. Scientific vol. Liskov. Lindner. Semantic Array Programming [65] L. 2014). 2553+ [38] G. Best practices and specific open issues have been percentage of area in 1 km2 pixel covered by the given tree species (see in summarised.Validation of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Vegetation Europas. acceding and other European countries. International Environmental Science. pp. vol. pp. Seebach. Hlava. [32] H. [50] Council of the European Union. blue and into the black .. J. 2007). J. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems II. 214–238. Vergleichende Manuals. et al.136 (2004). Suominen. M. 1–8. G. J. Soft Errors in Modern Electronic Systems. This is the case of several European areas with mixed land cover. demographic changes”. European Union 50. 7309 (2002). I-III. This quantity differs from estimation of the corresponding forest tree species cover. F. 2011). 2005. 2186+ addendum 2000. Proceedings.16. 68) are highly correlated with the overall amount of software species) within a given pixel can be linked with available and independent maps lies in their spatial resolution. reducing as much as possible the number of modelling approach might help to mitigate the impact of software land cover information. D. ECCE ’12 (ACM. Parliament. Seppelt. G. San-Miguel-Ayanz. de Rigo. [33] E. C. Keyal. Hiederer. Barredo. S.Band I. (2014). Sommerville. 46–57. Lecture Notes in Computer the commission to the European Parliament. eds. Working Document 2013. M. Lempert. Balanophoraceae (Committee for Mapping Theory Limited. [22] H. GNU Coding Standards [18] M. the European Union. Assessment 2000 . information”. Soergel. 56-62 . 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(Landwirtschaftsverlag. including datasets”. 1 600 25×25 m sub-pixels estimates are data-processing are reduced to a minimum degree – at the price of lower modelling strategies adaptive to the trade-offs typical of multiple available. Hatton. M. Brussels (2008). Publ. C. two the C-SMFA model. be further modelled by estimating its values for all the tree species whose species frequency within forested areas. Giese. II. In particular. (2014). M. J. Rosenblum. L. The harmonisation between FTM. et al. The frequently nested and sometime implicitly introduced in apparently simpler probability of finding some tree species (irrespective of which particular A first evident difference between the information conveyed by the two code67. estimations of forest cover. Suominen. 7475 of Lecture Notes in Computer 549 (2005). Dijkstra. R. 2011). quantity estimated in the C-SMFA based maps. Kosztra. Lange. D. vol. References [1] European Commission. Vols. Dominici. (1999). (2011). However. 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We denote this presence” of single tree species can be properly combined together is the woodlands close to the treeline in the mountain systems. Bohn. Université catholique de of Forests in Europe. Strobl. completely covered by forests while the second one is sparsely variable having its own probability distribution which is a function of the context. Fu. Walker. IEEE Transactions on [49] E. San-Miguel-Ayanz. cite as: Karte der natürlichen Vegetation Europas Environmental Monitoring 11. IFIP Advances San-Miguel-Ayanz. J. EUR 23020 EN (Office 2005). “People in the EU . [74] R. euforgen. 2011). III (Gustav Fischer Verlag. Proceedings of the 30th Science 2675. Gass. Accurately Measuring colloquium on emerging risks in plant . [8] D. the CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) areas. Jena. ACM 55. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. Software Oriented Approach. not the pixel one).. Communication from [17] D. J. D. Advances in Engineering and Technology Research Academy of Sciences 99. EUR . I. 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The species chorology: this is the broad range and and knot-free. which is aimed to be written in an easily accessible style but at the same time Fagus sylvatica scientifically grounded. With around 250 known usages. it does not thrive on among sites that are regularly flooded or which have stagnant water. Therefore. and the amount of potash in its leaves. 16 .. and its optimal growth is in humid soils situated on calcareous ’red he growing season of at least 140 days. G. Beech is maps and diagrams concerning: 1) Frequency and Chorology. The species frequency over a 50 km square grid (blue where it is not found as a native tree. and is normally present at altitudes of more than 1 000 m. relatively mature age. and can even be the side of a hill than at the bottom of a clayey basin. 3 . However. but could expand year). such as the Po valley and extremes of its range where it is likely to become less competitive in or compacted soils1. habitat. or European CC-BY) 2) Modelled Distribution. habitat and ecology. naturalised. suitability (Map 3). 14 . dark and shiny > 75% Chorology Native A key contribution of this Atlas is the inclusion of innovative green. Uncertain.50% wear-resistance. Beech furthers soil conservation due to its production of a large quantity of litter (around 900 g/m2 per dots): this shows the percentage of plots inside the grid the Hungarian plain. Field d Annual precipitation (mm) Technical terms Technical words are presented in this font and are listed in the glossary on page 190 at the end of the Atlas. prefers moderately fertile ground. Beech trees conserve the productive those oppos the species to continue with paragraphs concerning the species capacity of the soil better than many other species. these are coloured pale grey. It them very s tolerates rigorous winter cold. (Copyright AnRo0002. D. data at that location. although it cannot tolerate the most acidic and gn reported by the National Forest Inventories. and birds including squirrels. sylvatica is derived after Meusel and Jäger. Fine grained 2. woodpeckers and jays. It needs a found at elevations of up to 2 000 m1. from furniture to musical instruments. Most chapters deal with a single tree that commonly reaches 30-40 m and is capable of attaining Frequency the va heights up to 50 m in some locations1 . It deer is Beech is widespread across Europe: it can be found from Sicily range for F. On the contrary. hot summers of the previous year. commons. although in a few cases the information is presented at < 25% 25% . sensitive11 and grows on a wide variety of soils with a pH range protec Distribution Frequency of Fagus sylvatica occurrences within the field observations as from 3. The leaves are typically 10 × 7 cm. beech requires a humid atmosphere with precipitation well distributed throughout the year and a well-drained soil. Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Fagus sylvatica. since trees in southern Europe are able to cope better with species distribution (Map 2) and the maximum habitat drought than those in the north1 . panels. and EUFORGEN27. (Diptera Cecidomyiidae). It is classified Medium presence 30% . The bitter edible nuts are sharply so that natural regeneration is possible in silvicultural systems with continuous crown coverage as the seedlings are able to individual trees or more detailed images concerning the bark. as well as for pulp and firewood. It is not particularly soil- and failing to retrieve all of them1 . circum-Mediterranean firs). The predominance of beech means a reduction of light level in the leaves. High summer temperatures. Dark For more details on the data set and modelling green colour means the species is very likely to be found techniques used. particularly at the 1. The beech nuts are an important source of food for several animals survive and grow below the canopy of established trees. The sampling points to drought when compared to coniferous stands15 . while the pale brown colour signifies a and information on forest tree species” on page 40. on local soil conditions17.indd 46 08/04/2016 11:08 . under unfavourable local conditions a relatively shallow root system may make well as a list of the bibliographic sources used to construct the the tree vulnerable to wind-throw1 . and reproduces very late (40-50 years old). 4) branches. Climate change since it needs good drainage and will not tolerate waterlogged Mountains in the east. Though not demanding of soil type. Sicily) it is only Frequency and Chorology small scattered populations left after the last glaciation.5 to 8. although there are some areas in Europe may have impacts on its future distribution. and excellent bending capabilities as “Native” (green area) when the species is thought to Mid-high presence 50% . How to read the Atlas General information This section provides a brief overview on how to understand the information provided in the species chapters present in this Atlas. They have an oval to elliptic shape. Its seed production is characterised by irregular (it is the most shade-tolerant broadleaved tree in its range10). data and information on forest tree species” on page 40. For some regions there were 46 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. It is a Fagus and fully peer-reviewed) will be published in the online version of large deciduous tree that can maintain its high growth rate until late maturity.) is a large deciduous of the two18 . furniture. As the climate becomes more continental in the south and east (primarily because of drought). it is able to maintain a high rate of growth until a 50% . plywood. the Atlas at http://w3id. In cases where it is not possible to distinguish between the natural and introduced range.30% and good workability16 . It has a typical life span of around 150-300 years. 18 . the wood is hard and has a pale cream colour Low presence 5% . it is one of the most diversely used tree species in Europe. 8. In each chapter there is an extended summary of the current state of knowledge about that species.90% cooking utensils such as bowls. there appears to be some genetic variability across different climatic are derived from the same datasets used to model the zones. 8 . flooring. dataset of forest field observations made from a The map has been modelled with an innovative number of different surveys and available within the methodology designed to take into account the different Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). the species: the Cantabrian Mountains in the west to the Carpathians and Balkan with limiting its spread in north-western regions4 . Caudullo Fag throughout the Atlas. tri-angled and are borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks. low probability of presence. platters and wooden spoons. Fruiting normally occurs Habitat and Ecology Beech is a hardy species. monoecious: the male and female flowers are borne on the same (Copyright Ettore Balocchi. The tree is usually single-stemmed with silver-grey mast years (when a very heavy crop is produced). see the Atlas chapter “modelling.75% taxon level (e. but is sensitive to spring frost. finally threats and diseases. they have been harmonized to Fagus sylvatica in Europe: distribution.wikimedia. fruits and flowers. musical instruments (piano pinblocks). The root system tends to be shallow. and for this reason cannot drought and moisture availability are limiting factors for the This map summarises two basic pieces of information concerning survive too far north in Scandinavia7.g. each chapter has been through a revision by scientific experts and includes a comprehensive list of scientific references.5. An analysis of pollen also sensitive to late frosts13. The maps local densities of the underlying data sets. Shiny dark green leaves with red galls caused by the fly Mikiola fagi Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. understorey vegetation level and in that case beech seeds survive they also play a major part in seed dispersal by hiding the seeds better than those of other tree species. calcified or lightly acidic and is frosts in the south to Bergen in southern Norway4-6 . no-data Importance and Usage Marginal/no presence < 5% Beech is an important European forestry tree. with wavy margins and Large beech in a mountain pasture in Piani di Praglia (Genova. veneering and occur naturally and “Introduced” (orange area) when the High presence 70% . every 5 to 8 years. woodpigeons. see the chapter “modelling. stairs. Its wood is strong and wears well making it ideal for a wide range the Ca of uses. It is species has been historically introduced and is nowadays Very-high presence > 90% also used for pulp and can be coppiced for fire wood and charcoal due to its relatively high energetic potential1. but continentality is also associated or volcanic parent rocks. The thin bark provides little chorology. for all those species for which sufficient data exist. making it susceptible the eastern parts of Europe it is replaced by oriental beech (Fagus its range into Scandinavia and the Baltic9. It grows well on soft soils in which the root system can easily penetrate woolly Ganod currently probably at its maximum post-glacial spread7. The chorology of the native spatial that contain the species of interest. short teeth at the end of the parallel veins on each side2. “Actual” range Threats and Diseases The root system architecture of beech may vary depending is shown. usage and threats obtain species information that is as homogeneous as possible T. therefore it is found more often on same records indicate that the species has spread across Europe from orientalis). At the southern part of its range (Spain. are presented at a high-spatial resolution of 1 km. is one of the most important and widespread broadleaved trees in Europe. importance and usage and The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. The full version of each chapter (expanded Fagus sylvatica L. Houston Durrant. North Italy).org: CC0) 94 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species Modelled spatial distribution of the species This map represents the relative probability of not enough data available to make any predictions about presence of the species derived from a harmonised the probability of presence. 28 . from Spain in the west to northwest Turkey in the east. usually following High quality images are also included relative to forest habitat. Beech shows a moderate soil-acidifying ability12 . www. Longitudinally its range is from distribution of beech in Europe.10% qualitative spatial distribution of the tree species derived Mid-low presence 10% . In contrast to many other becau species. Its natural range extends from southern Some Scandinavia to Sicily. Its from one or more bibliographic sources. as resistance to rockfall and wind-throw17.70% make it ideal for boatbuilding. distribution. It tolerates very shady situations Autoecology. strength. 3) Maximum Habitat Suitability. Owing to the capacity of its root system for assisting in Each chapter starts with a summary and description of the circulation of air throughout the soil.50% tree species. de Rigo. While generally showing a noticeable For more details on the datasets and methodology used. Although the chapters have been written by a number of different authors.

J. Stanković. water. Grimm. thus illustrating the described species. Knežević. online version of each CC-BY) can be found in the chapter “modelling. The local In the online version of the Atlas other combinations of adapted to different conditions. Its (Collins. Atkinson. F. Young beech trees are susceptible to grows woolly aphid. Kaya. Graf Pannatier. [3] O. (Fagus sylvatica) (2008). E. Grey patches on this page may same as those used to estimate the coarse-resolution precipitation vs. and extended set of references will be available in the full (Forestry Commission. [19] J. Zieliński. D. 2003). distribution of vascular plants in Europe Vol. P. Ranger. acidic and gnawing by squirrels and other mammals. Detailed information on the data and techniques used survive ly soil- (Copyright Drahkrub. Suominen. eds. E. be coloured blue in others where different species are forest plot distribution presented in Map 1. or oriental beech. N. the specific climate niche of that species. It deer is a limiting factor because they eat young stands. this is Mid-high survivability because the European beech is more susceptible to late frosts12 . Seasonal variation of monthly more climatic conditions. G. For more details on the data and modelling aspects. The Images m2 per large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is harmful for beech and eptible r. fully peer-reviewed version of the chapter having the possibility to download maps. Sum of precipitation of the driest month. 22 . Di Iorio. M. The online version will be hosted within the newly established Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). A [1] J. 1 (Polish Scientific Publishers. Modelled maximum habitat suitability This map represents the Maximum Habitat Suitability of the species. Netherlands. [15] A. make [9] K. T. More. Vols. based on the datasets of field temperature vs Annual precipitation.. Jäger. [27] H. E. diagrams and text. Plant Systematics and Evolution 162. P. Its range overlaps with that Mid-low survivability of the European beech and there is frequently hybridisation between the survivability conditions. 2186+ (2015). EFSA Journal 9. cite as: ola fagi T. Praciak. Lechowicz. Rothe. Trees . Distribution map of beech Field data in Europe (including absences) Observed presences in Europe field observations from forest plots. Fagus orientalis Dark blue areas represent areas that are highly suitable for the Fagus orientalis. is closely related to Fagus sylvatica. Augusto. Forest Ecology and Management ns. autoecology diagrams (also known possible combinations of variables is very large and for spot (one for every plot). 94 (2013). F. Denk. Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil) musical [5] R. QR chapter code and citation information This is an extended summary of the chapter. Horgan.. data and information on bioclimatic and geographic variables. vol. e012b90+. Forest Genetics 2. Nicoll. the local bioclimatic conditions are very very similar. It is modelled based on a harmonised and very dense dataset of forest plots available for most of Europe (see Map 1. A. 108 pp. Barredo. P. This code points to the full online version of the species chapter. Fries. Fagus sylvatica namely the areas where the species could potentially occur if climatic conditions and ecological conditions are met. Dorren. Rome. Annals of Forest Science 59. Achim. 17 (2011). 1976). Johnson. This refers to areas with a bioclimatic Medium survivability two18 . It is harcoal [6] E. S. G. 1995). Hultén. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143. Forest Ecology and Management 259. Simonetti. A revised [26] T. C. no-data species to survive (denoted in the legend as high survivability them to be two separate species1 . J. Helsinki. The map is modelled with an innovative methodology taking ystems into account the different spatial distributions of the underlying able to es. 2006). Granier. from or preferential planting of other species).g. Jalas. © Crown Copyright) forest trees (CABI. Stokes. E.. others consider Uncertain. habitat. due to which may become a more serious problem in the future5 . Kandemir. mature trees can suffer internal rot by the fungus netrate Ganoderma applanatum. M. Invasive Species Compendium. [12] L. 183 (2005). Paule. Thomas. understanding of species. Images have been carefully selected to help identification/ limatic and Otiorhynchus scaber) is another threat to beech21.. Fang. Nonić. adjacent regions. 2213 (2010). E. Walthert. The datasets as well as a number of bioclimatic and geographic in the Foliage and fruits of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis). G. through the text and listed at the end of the chapter. C. [25] M. Sunesen. [18] L. The ecology and silviculture of beech: from 369 (2013). darker and less glossy than those of European beech. M. 233 (2002). Warszawa. et al. J. These observations are the the coldest month. es little Mature beech forest with autumn colour foliage in Delamere forest. oriental beech tends to favour pattern very dissimilar from all the observed patterns where the valleys while European beech is found further up the slopes.. Slope Stability and complete list of contributors is at the beginning of the atlas. The presence of ty12 . Houston Durrant. I. Contributii to-date scientific literature. www. Old trees (100-1200 years) may suffer areous ’red heart’ which reduces stability and timber value8 . D. commons. Beech is rive on among the susceptible hosts to Phytophthora ramorum and Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability. 123 (2007). solar irradiation and elevation range. while those plots containing as climate-space diagrams) have been derived for this Atlas we have focussed on three: 1. Some authorities consider them to be sub-species. M. Annual average temperature (°C) Potential spring-summer solar irradiation (kWh m-2) Seasonal variation of monthly precipitation (dimensionless) usage and threats. [30] K. 273 (2015). bioclimatic conditions where a given species is observed variables may also be found. The number of observations on every species is represented by a grey forest tree species” on page 40.g. le Hir. E. Atlas of North European vascular plants (North of the Tropic of Cancer).. orange areas highlight low the Caucasus. Löf. 1982). A. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Alberi d’Europa (A. Packham. A. Journal of Ecology [17] J. Rydberg. which has been revised by three iceable Research and Development (COFORD).wikimedia. it Management 215.forestry. 1557 (2012). Autoecology Diagrams In most chapters. Berger. Forest Ecology and References 1986).gov. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. Isacsson. Meier. [29] J. (National Council for Forest (Bioversity International. 2008). [22] M. Botanice 46. 1804 (2006). EU. Journal of Biogeography 35. UK. [10] A. 2013). Key Fact In some chapters there is a supplementary box focusing on some particular aspects of the species or taxon considered (e. 100. Herbivory by short-snouted weevils (Strophosoma melanogrammum Forst. In practice.Structure and Salicaceae to Balanophoraceae (Committee Function 21. Meusel. there markedly coexists with part of its natural niche19-22 . In the online version it will additionally be possible to navigate Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 95 through the expanded. B. Oriental beech can be found in the Balkans. Magri. EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) Each chapter has been fully referenced with the most up- [8] T. [24] A. scientific experts. All the references are sequentially included ourable R. Binkley. D. D. Goia. 1974). This QR code points to the full online version. 213 (2002). [28] EUFORGEN. 167–210. 134. Plant Systematics and Evolution 232. Fagus here (in the online version. Šijačić Nikolić. Stögerer. 3. Low survivability the species occurs. temperature and precipitation). [7] D. Browicks. Management 190.indd 47 08/04/2016 11:08 . UK. 3 Average temperature of the coldest month (°C) Sum of precipitation of the driest month (mm) [14] A. Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised Forest Ecology and Management 297.. Atlas Florae Europaeae: [13] L. EPPO Bulletin 45. [11] L. The leaves are slightly longer. 1 (2007). 2009). E. A guide to forest tree ending species selection and silviculture in Ireland. Average temperature of how a given species might be constrained by one or System for Europe (FISE). A. Publ. A field guide to the trees of colour Britain and northern Europe (Collins. K. Caudullo. Baker. Oprea. J. I-III. High survivability the species is found. Degen. M. Hemleben. [20] CABI. et al. In these areas. Mermin. J. competition th Italy). R. In: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. 450 (2008). [23] G. The Online European Atlas of Forest Tree Species will be part of the FISE Communications (FISE-Comm): http://w3id. D. de Rigo. Conversely. Collins tree guide ope. and tend to have more vein-pairs (9-14 as Negligible survivability similar to those of at least some of the field observations where opposed to 5-9)3 . Cheshire. Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 47 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Oxfordshire. pp. A. Frequency) in combination with high-resolution bioclimatic parameters (e. uations nge10). northern Iran and Crimea18 . However. Captions also identify the individuals er with References who have provided the image and the relative copyrights. Tardif. The correct way to cite this extended summary is also shown Please. A. et al. Geßler. Italy. and showing observations as harmonised within the Forest Information summer solar irradiation vs. Norris. T. a given species may not be found in all the areas marked “high survivability” for other reasons (e. Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions. Goldstein. Forest Ecology and ges. I. J. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. ng and (2011). Anatolia. Welander. K. logged large regions across Europe have climatic suitability to this pest. Darter. where the most up-to-date content can be found. Genetika 45. Norris. Milovanović. for Mapping the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Fennica Vanario. Mondadori. Mitchell. Annual average the species of interest are coloured blue. Dahlstrom. et al. Spring and is frosts often damage young trees or flowers appearing at the ften on same time as leaves. 111 (2000). (Springer grained [2] A. factors. G. [21] M. 281 (2004). gene to landscape. abilities [4] J. notes on the taxonomy of the species or information about a related species). cold desert areas). Potential spring. et al. 2016. C. 161 (1995). et al. Sîrbu. 2. in those areas marked “negligible survivability” the species is unlikely to grow. (Koeltz scientific books. et al. www. D. see are obtained by means of a number of high-resolution The overall climate space occupied by each of the field the Atlas chapter “modelling. Journal of Biogeography 33. J. 315 (1989). cite the full chapter). The maps are presented at a high-spatial resolution of 1 km. In appearance they are generally Tundra. M. The CABI encyclopedia of V. and can also be damaged through stripping on forest tree species” on page 40. readers will find the correct way to sylvatica and other beeches in Europe: distribution.euforgen. C..g. Löf. Poznań. et al. even if deliberately planted there. Where both species are present. Chorology of Annual precipitation (mm) trees and shrubs in south-west Asia and [16] M. data and information H range protection from fire. Off.

Abies alba Abies alba in Europe: distribution. silver fir is decreasing as a result of nutrient content and alkalinity conditions except compact and hybridises with the Greek fir (Abies cephalonica) forming stable animal browsing and replacement by Norway spruce (Picea hydromorphic soils. silver fir is also used for paper production. Silver fir is often distributed on relatively high elevated areas Frequency of Abies alba occurrences within the field observations as reported (500-2000 m a. Flowers only appear after 30 to 40 years. It is one of the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe. 20 . 4. with mean yearly precipitation between 700 and 1800 mm9 . It often Medium presence 30% . Mid-high presence 50% . although it has lately been replaced by the cheaper Norway spruce1 . Insect pests such as mistletoe and bark beetles have already been responsible for a reduction of silver fir in the Mediterranean. and Mediterranean Abies species. and Heterobasidion annosum are responsible for butt rot and windthrow. D. conditions.50% straight-stemmed with a silver-grey trunk1 . and the buds are red-brown and non-resinous. de Rigo. Distribution Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Abies alba.30% under the canopy of older dominant trees for decades. This tree is considered an important ecological and functional balancer of European forests and a fundamental species for maintaining high biodiversity in forested ecosystems. G. usage and threats A. This tree is also the most heavily browsed of the commercially important tree species in montane forests of central and southeastern Europe8 . its wood was used to produce ships’ masts. Southern Alps of Northern southern Italy. It is very shade tolerant and can remain as a “seedling bank” Mid-low presence 10% . Silver fir tolerates a wide variety of soil types with different Rodopi mountains in Bulgaria and Greece. and then rapid as the tree matures. favouring diseases and plant pests. fungi and industrial emissions. The needles are dark green and glossy on their upper side while the lower side has two silver- green waxy bands of 6-8 rows of stomata. habitat. with contrasting climate-response forecasts. Italy and Ticino and the Eastern Alps. 14 . Deep and moist but not too wet soils are populations of intermediate forms described as Bulgarian firs abies). Mauri. which is in agreement with results obtained using biochemical (Copyright Crusier. Caudullo Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in Switzerland. In the next decades the climate Annual precipitation (mm) of central and southern Europe is predicted to become warmer and somewhat drier22 . It requires relatively high moisture conditions by the National Forest Inventories. which makes it a good material for carpentry and furniture.) is a large conifer that can be found in central Europe and some parts of Southern and Eastern Europe. Silver fir shows a (Abies x borisii-regis)2 . while others suggest stable conditions or expansions15. while new seedlings are extremely sensitive to frost damage.indd 48 08/04/2016 11:08 . During the seventeenth century. The wood is non-resinous. where it naturally However.70% Importance and Usage High presence 70% . no-data (Picea abies) or Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) at the upper tree Marginal/no presence < 5% limit1. Plantations of silver fir are rare outside its distribution of Silver Fir is subject of a debate. but is also Frequency present in Southern and Eastern Europe. The fungi Armillaria mellea agg. With particularly cool and moist habitats this tree can live up to 500- 600 years3.) is a large evergreen coniferous tree mainly distributed in montane areas in Central Europe. 48 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. being the first conifer species to appear among them4 . The main limiting factors are a lack of summer heat and adequate moisture during the growing season. and can live for up to six or eight years.10% sylvatica).). Threats and Diseases Silver fir is particularly susceptible to frost desiccation due to late spring frosts. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in particular to sulphur dioxide SO2 exposure during winter19 . This tree is mostly found mixed with Norway spruce Uncertain. the Balkans. throughout the year. Unlike the other European natural range. The uppermost part > 75% Chorology of young trees has a conical shape gradually changing to become a Native rounded dome as the tree grows older2 . Other insects Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. a more economically valuable species12 . Its future distribution is subject of a debate between palaeoecologists and modellers. central and conspicuous numbers in the Pyrenees. The essential oils obtained from the leaves were also used in the past to heal bruises as well as for treating coughs and colds1 . Stands of silver fir are present was positively responding to climate warming in Central Europe Habitat and Ecology in the Dinaric Alps and are continuously connected towards the and adjacent areas.50% invades deciduous forests due to its easy natural regeneration.75% early years. and in the Apennines. the Carpathians and Albania. The future preferred with a pH from acid to neutral. especially in those areas where drought stress is more frequent21 . possibly because of increased potential for insect suggest a reduction in response to future expected warming13. as documented in many tree ring series11 . 4 and reach heights above 60 m4-7 making it among the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe. favouring summer temperatures ranging from approximately 14 °C to 19 °C9 . generally in April or May. alba is derived after several sources29-31 . it prefers cooler and moister damage in monocultures1 .l. 18 .90% Silver fir is considered an important ecological and functional Very-high presence > 90% balancer of European forests and can serve as a keystone species for maintaining high biodiversity in forested ecosystems9 . commons.s. on the Massif and molecular markers10 . The chorology of the native spatial range for A. 16 . Its main distribution is concentrated in Central Europe. There are different ice-age refugia of silver fir in northern. < 25% 25% . At lower altitudes it competes with beech (Fagus Low presence 5% . It is a distinctive tree. Young tree near Zwardoń village (South Poland). insects. During the 19th century it was popular as a Christmas tree. Some studies noticeable soil-acidifying ability15 . During the past decades silver fir Central. The fully developed seeds are mainly dispersed by wind. Along with Norway spruce (Picea abies). It is also very sensitive to CC-BY) It is also found more sporadically in Eastern France. Growth is very slow in 50% . Phytophagous insects such as Mindarus abietinus and Dreyfusia normannianae are often the cause of infections to needles and bark. on the Suisse plateau and in South and Eastern Concerning its past distribution palaeo evidence suggests Germany as well as in the Czech Republic and Austria. the Pyrenees and potentially France. light and fine-grained and also easy to work.wikimedia.

Band I. [11] U. 6905 (2014). Kirschner. Bugmann. Ellenberg. Ranger. D. Off. Begerow. Annals of Forest [8] J. (OCCR. 659 (2014). F. Cheddadi. MeteoSwiss. fourth edn. Nicolotti. J. pp. Barros. www. C2SM. Archaeobotany 23. Mauri. Farjon. (Copyright Vassil. vol. Distribution map of silver fir 179 (2014). 2013). 27. Binkley. 25. [13] L. et al. Luxembourg. Biogeography 22. et al. 18 (2014). n/a (2015). Publ. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. and Vulnerability. [19] W. Jäger. Martìnez. Pignatti. (2000). Lauber. Praciak. 435 (2006). et al. K. vol. 113 (2014). Caudullo. M. 2001). Atlas Florae Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised eds. Bologna.. (Abies alba) (2011).. This QR code points to the full online version.. Silver fir is vulnerable to Ips typographus which is also associated to potentially harmful fungal assemblages24-26 . de Rigo.. Pathology 18. FOEN. Scholz. Davi. to Ephedraceae) (Committee for Mapping [17] L.-M. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. Contribution of Silviculture. European Journal of Forest [5] K. 2016. Caudullo. Vegetation Ecology of Archaeobotany 15. Wagner. Jürimaa. [22] V. G. UK. 419 (2013). 2009). W. eds. G. H. Forest Ecology and Management 328. It is also a susceptible host to Dothistroma septosporum and vulnerable to Gremmeniella abietina and Dothistroma septosporum 8. (Copyright IKB. Meusel. Oxfordshire. Adaptation. A. cold desert Negligible survivability Low survivability Mid-low survivability Medium survivability Mid-high survivability High survivability Branches with dark-green needles: leaves have an elliptical insertion but are positioned to avoid shading. Hanel. Forest Ecology and Management [2] A. C. A handbook of the world’s [18] E. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. R. III (Gustav Fischer Verlag. Ruosch. Forest Ecology and Science 71. 2014). [27] R. Boivin. Tinner. B. H. 2010).org/mtv/FISE-Comm/v01/e01493b. T. 1998). The CABI encyclopedia of 319. J. Leuschner. Ecology. Suominen. Global Change Biology [30] H. Scientific Topics Focus 2. Abies alba Uncertain. Trees and Forests: A Colour Impacts. in Switzerland. Fennica Vanamo. [12] R. [26] L. EU. 565 [3] S. Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants Field data in Europe (including absences) Observed presences in Europe field observations from forest plots. Annual average temperature (°C) Potential spring-summer solar irradiation (kWh m-2) Seasonal variation of monthly precipitation (dimensionless) European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Leiden. Cailleret. habitat. I. A. e01493b+ Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 49 PD) such as Cinaria pectinatae and Epinotia nigricana are affecting bark and buds2 . Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University [7] H. T. Tinner. Central Europe (Cambridge University [21] J. Climate Change 2014: [6] B. M. [24] CC-BY) [16] H. Ecological Monographs Mycological Research 105. Wagner. Gell-Mann. Average temperature of the coldest month (°C) Sum of precipitation of the driest month (mm) Annual precipitation (mm) This is an extended summary of the chapter. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. 1403 (2001).. M. C.. Vegetation Press. de Rigo. Vegetation History and [4] H. X. Houston Durrant. Gonthier. Bern. (2014). Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora remain and disintegrate on the tree. 250 [14] M. M. [9] W. et al. D. de Andrés. 44 (1988). Drenkhan. [31] J. Thurner. J. forest trees (CABI. 233 (2002).indd 49 08/04/2016 11:09 . Rothe. Cailleret. 28 .flickr. Adamson. Flora Helvetica. 302 (2013). (2013). de Rigo. Garbelotto. K.. Qian. Surgery. H. 100 (2014). Risks of Exotic Forest Pests Proceedings of the National Academy of and Their Impact on Trade (The American Sciences 111. References [1] A. 108 (2008).wikimedia. Giordano. Mycological Progress 12.. Propagation. G. Suter.. H. S. Heurich. 127 the Environment 12. et al. G. usage and threats.. Management 181. et al. I. (Eds. Hanso. Vergleichende Erect maturing seed cones on a branch. F.. Bugmann.. M.. www. Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Conservation. Augusto.. Büntgen. Flora d’Italia (Edagricole. commons. G. et al. E. Maiorano. 79–88. [15] M. [23] M. Please. II. Switzerland. Durand-Gillmann. The Holocene 10. cite as: Mauri. conifers (Brill. Biomes. Bowes. Larsen. J. p. A. Coll. [25] D. Jalas. in Europe Vol. Forest Pathology 44. no-data Tundra. Oberwinkler.. et al. 2 Gymnospermae (Pinaceae 2014). et al. Frontiers in Ecology and P. J. Abies alba in Europe: distribution.euforgen. Appenzeller. A.. Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen (Verlag Eugen Ulmer. 1973). [29] EUFORGEN. 83. Toward Quantitative . 1982). (Copyright Crusier. G. Camarero. [20] L.. L.. D.).wikimedia. Nageleisen. D. M. Old cones do not fall but Dark-grey bark of a mature tree with fissured plates. Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Annals of Forest Science 59.. Wick. Möhl. commons. Pathology. Guide: Biology. L. Global Ecology and [28] R. et al. Phytopathological Society. Vegetation History and mri10a15+ (2016).com: AP) Scenarios of Climate Change Impacts Jena. Agroscope and ProClim. 151 (2003). pp. Press. Part B: Regional Aspects. 25 (2010). Senn. Ellenberg.. et al. [10] R. 2010). Helsinki.

(Spanish fir). rounded or more or less notched at the apex. They develop in different parental materials. tan. A. A. bornmuelleriana. Circum-Mediterranean firs are evergreen conifers from medium (25 m in height for Abies numidica) to large size (up to 1 Abies pinsapo var. Actually. For example. marocana19 . A. it has been alba. & utilized locally for many purposes. nebrodensis. pinsapo has never been extensively felled. period. A. A. so that it is not habitat range. with two white bands of stomata 9 beneath. A. nebrodensis more threatened by tourism development10. brown-reddish. from 5 to 20 mm long. Abies pinsapo var. Disjunct fir populations of the subspecies equi- some firs have been used for selecting hybrids and cultivars with trojani in North-West Turkey. A. alba. usage and threats G. pinsapo var. botanic. In Turkey they are still exploited to their genetic characters. Southern fir populations deserve special disturbance adapted species or converted into rural areas. (Copyright MPF. firs expanded and contracted Mediterranean firs commonly form pure stands in their optimal following the glacial cycles. Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana) is one of the tallest European trees. Nowadays with the exception of silver fir and Caucasian fir attention under global warming conditions. The needles 6 Abies x borisii-regis are spirally arranged. which junipers (Juniperus spp. 25-28 . but is best below a level of cover which limits the easy to distinguish between them5 . cedars (Cedrus spp. Tinner interest and due to the threats. pines (Pinus spp. 29 . When well Circum-Mediterranean firs have been historically classified on the base established. Cones are ovoid to cylindrical. nordmanniana) or 10 Abies cilicica pectinate in two lateral sets (Abies alba).indd 50 08/04/2016 11:09 . Similarly. pinsapo. Thanks to their aptitude to inter-species breeding. They are from 1 to 4 cm long. Even alba Mill. radially perpendicular and brush-like 7 Abies cephalonica 8 Abies nordmanniana subsp. A. such as beech (Fagus spp. Some authors consider this latter as a separate species Abies particularly appreciated for its potential large sized and regular equi-trojani or as a hybrid Abies x equi-trojani between Abies cephalonica timbers10. livestock grazing and genetic drift represent actually their main threats. urban pressure with ongoing cutting in marginal rural areas for provinces of Malaga and Granada. nordmanniana. 31). A. Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map. However. pinsapo var. while A.) and have evolved.) Mattei (Sicilian fir). They all are genetically closely related and can have been elaborated. The Abies section comprises fir Fir wood is appreciated because it is easy to work with and species distributed in the Centre-North of the Mediterranean Basin: Abies aesthetically pleasant.) Cebalos & Bolaño sometimes planted in hedges as it takes trimming well10. nordmanniana is (Turkish fir). and Abies nordmanniana. reddish or dark brown at maturity. Wood is soft. sometimes considered as separated species Abies pinsapo is particularly appreciated for their brush-shape twigs. Wild fires. commons. which may be relevant for future for timber wood. Kotschy Carriére (Syrian fir). A. A. cephalonica. (silver fir). northern Greece. cilicica still suffer from barriers. flattened. A. cephalonica. In fact these firs are closely related genetically Natural regeneration is normally abundant and easy inside their and they can easily hybridise naturally and artificially. of which two include Importance and Usage the circum-Mediterranean fir species. Diverse genetic conservation strategies with fragmented and limited distributions. for nordmanniana (Caucasian fir) and Abies nordmanniana subsp. cephalonica has a widespread distribution. most of the circum-Mediterranean firs have no wide commercial growing over 60 m tall. numidica occupies an area on Mounts Babor and Talahor in the forms only a small population located in the Madonie Mountains A. globular or conic. marocana the Republic of Macedonia. sometimes is a major challenge. They are located in humid or even very humid climates with an annual precipitation over 700-800 mm. mature trees can tolerate long drought periods.). 15. which show minor morphological differences. alba. from a common Tertiary ancestor. the genus Abies is classified in 10 sections. (Bulgarian fir). deforestation due to logging and forest clearance Distribution Sea. separated by geographical Sterea Ellas and the Ionian Islands. habitat. pinsapo). with the creation of protected reserves and conservation programmes. A. up to 2 400 m for A. The stem is straight. A. W. fir species with a limited distribution area32 . where abundant. endemism and geographically scattered distribution. 24 . Caudullo. equi-trojani (Abies nebrodensis. circum-Mediterranean firs do not have a wide commercial interest. marocana with columnar trunk and conical crown. except for silver fir (Abies alba). A. which is a hybrid of Abies cephalonica and Abies woods. numidica. Albania and Serbia. due to its soft and light structure. Abies x borisii- if its quality is mediocre compared with other more valuable regis CC-BY) 50 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. probably due to Kabylia region of Algeria. their preservation as genetic resources Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region. cilicica) or reddish purplish (A. Great importance is given to their preservation. A. 7. subspecies. numidica is Boiss. 8 A. nordmanniana subsp. pinsapo). veneer and plywood. and Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach. nordmanniana. Abies cilicica Ant. Pollen 5 cones are clustered along the undersides of the current year’s twigs. with little difference between sapwood and heartwood 8-10 . paleo- suffer spring frosts. The Piceaster section comprises fir species distributed in A. pinsapo occurs in South Spain in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula in Bulgaria. Circum-Mediterranean firs occur stands (national or local parks and reserve) with the conservation principally in mountain areas with medium to high precipitations rates which are mostly concentrated during the winter of genetic resources outside their natural habitats (plantations. Peloponnesus. In these protected areas habitats at altitudes of above 400 m. which can be found also at sea are regulated by conservation laws and protected in natural level. overlapping the fuel wood. are still exploited for which two subspecies are recognised: Abies nordmanniana subsp. linear. Since (Moroccan fir) and Abies numidica de Lannoy ex Carrière (Algerian fir)8-10 . The species are able to tolerate long droughts in summer and tend to form pure stands when in optimal habitats. and Jalas and Suominen17. subsp. CC-BY) A. which often becomes 3 Abies numidica 4 Abies nebrodensis flattened or rounded in old trees. equi-trojani stands are grows in the western Rif Mountains in northern Morocco. complementing the protection of natural easily hybridise.wikimedia.)12-16. generally the circum-Mediterranean firs occur in mountain reserves. A. marocana (Trab. A. have led to the emergence of many species. Chorology of the native spatial range for the Circum-Mediterranean firs. cephalonica. in many countries the most endangered fir forests along the Black Sea. deciduous and evergreen of the geological and climatic history of the Mediterranean region where firs oaks (Quercus spp. The speciation probably occurred risk of late frost damage and water transpiration losses. Abies nebrodensis (Lojac. cilicica occurs in North Syria. pinsapo young plants keep their needles longer and A. 31 .). cilicica) or protruding bracts (A. This is largely the result species. pines and cedars. A. 18. 13.). their classification1-4 . and varieties6. distribution areas of A. A. white to light Derived after Alizoti et al. Lebanon in the north-central part of Sicily9. 2 Abies pinsapo var. which limit human activities. habit and dimensions. having fostered differentiations and local adaptations. x borisii-regis. especially for those Today most of these fir species are segregated in small areas occurs in the Regions of Espiros. www. with rounded scales 2 3 which present hidden (A. Today A. In Lebanon and Syria as relict and endemic populations. Abies pinsapo. 23. Reddish pollen cones of Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo var. genetic and micro-morphometric studies have recently modified but grow best on deeper acid soils with high water reserves. adaptation processes of firs30 . 6 A. nordmanniana upward (Abies cephalonica. nordmanniana. x borisii-regis grows in the fragmented and degraded forests of A. equi-trojani forms Except for A. 1 4 7 10 resinous. cilicica and A. pinsapo over 60 m in height for Abies alba and Abies nordmanniana). Around the Mediterranean basin firs now habitat. Abies Abies – Circum-Mediterranean firs in Europe: distribution. the difficulty of access and the unsuitability for farming of lands and South Turkey. alba and A. Seeds are held in a membranous winged cup. twisted to point 9 Abies nordmanniana subsp. while other firs have an ornamental use in gardening. 11-18. and the wood is widely utilized in the building sector. nordmanniana subsp. Threats and Diseases pure stands on mountains in western Anatolia near to the Aegean In the past. Abies cephalonica Loudon (Greek fir). Unlike others. Abies cilicica. especially to those populations which have very limited areas and specimens. Macedonia. yellow-grey (A. nordmanniana has a wider range and is occupied by those firs34 . 19. nebrodensis). particular foliage colours. 33 . numidica. like spruce (Picea abies). Later. but of macro-morphological and anatomical differences. and are widely have led some authors to recognise the subspecies Abies nordmanniana planted as ornamental trees in garden and parks. Taxonomic notes concentrated principally during the winter period20-22 . pinsapo var. A. nordmanniana is a popular Christmas tree because indoors the South-West of the Mediterranean basin: Abies pinsapo var. composed 5 Abies alba of short and horizontal branches regularly spaced. particularly in regard (Abies nordmanniana). nordmanniana. numidica). perhaps as a consequence of late speciation during the late Quaternary. orchards and conservation of genetic material in vitro and with In the past firs have been extensively logged for construction and fire wood and their stands were replaced by other more cryopreservation30. native to West Caucasus and the mountains of North-East Turkey Habitat and Ecology Actually. it for agricultural purposes was the main threat. while at the borders they can be mixed with other tree occupy fragmented and sometimes limited areas. (Copyright weisserstier. equi-trojani furniture manufacture.

4 of Sustainable may represent another important factor weakening populations occur influenced by a change toward a warming climate 11 . The isolation of populations due to fragmentation could give northern part of A. Diversity and Conservation guidelines for genetic conservation and Status (Brill. EU. Firs are particularly sensitive to excessive (anthropogenic) fire disturbance. Usta. Biological [3] A. Plant Biosystems . which is currently one of the rarest conifer Liepelt. G. Terrab.. Gardner. L. pp. Raynal. 123 (2005). Camarero. Gardner. 2010). J. Schütt. [17] J. A. 162 (1992). 151 (1990). Ziegenhagen. University 12. Fady. [19] G. [12] M. [27] H. Carreira. 38320/0+. H. Bonin. used in the past for plantations. (Springer Netherlands. pp. The IUCN Red List of 206 (2001). the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Arianoutsou. Mayland-Quellhorst. C. This is the case [1] B. M. flora (Environment Directorate-General. e015be7+ Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 51 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Bocconea [16] A. Syrian fir forest (Abies cilicica) in Western Taurus Mountains (South Turkey). Gardner. cephalonica needs to be genetically [6] J. iForest . 823 (2002). pp. 427 (1997). Tinner. (Springer International Publishing. B. Kaya. 348 (2007). Holz als Roh- On the other PD) other fir species. Häggman. P. CC-BY) References and making them more susceptible to diseases. www. Kastamonu University 12. Schuck. habitat. pp. G. 2014). [24] Z. M. S. Arbez. Aussenac. The latter benefits 2009). PLoS ONE 9.Circum-Mediterranean Forest of Spanish firs (Abies pinsapo var. [28] L. rep. Ulus. Ramawat. [14] P. EUFORGEN technical Biogeography. [8] J. 256 (2012).. [13] M. a. M. pp. 2016. 409 (2007). und Werkstoff 53. Forests degraded by fire and grazing activity are more susceptible to pathogens. V. Ecological Monographs Ochoa. Red List of Threatened Species (2011). so that post-fire regeneration is not always guaranteed12. Bioversity International (2011). [33] S. [40] J. R. G. D. E. Knees. mature trees which are protected by fences. et al. D. et al. P. nebrodensis. This is an extended summary of the chapter. alba. Junta de Andalucìa. Holmbom. The total Sicilian fir (Abies nebrodensis) population counts 24 619 (2011). Arista. 34-37. D.Biogeosciences and Forestry 5.). [18] N. 30320/0+. 131 (2001).indd 51 08/04/2016 11:09 . Zurayk. 42295/0+. Herrera. [26] N. [20] W. cite as: Caudullo. cephalonica distribution. G. Threatened Species (2013). Vendramin. [39] J. J. H. due to the harsh summer conditions and the International Journal Dealing with all Forestry 28. Oryx 35. Silva. When severe. et al. Corona. such as A. 33 . J. C. G. 30478/0+. eds. J. commons. Talhouk. P. especially in drought periods34. Threatened Species (2011). S. use of mediterranean firs (abies spp. S. Sánchez. Knees.. Yahi. 273 (1995).An entirely successful. L. J. x borisii-regis ingression may (2015). 257–291. M. 18. conifers (Brill. which from wetter conditions. (Copyright Verollanos93. The IUCN 24 of Managing Forest Ecosystems. New attempts have been planned Aspects of Plant Biology 147. Ahuja. This QR code points to the full online version.. [22] L. Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants [37] M.). R. G. M. Krajňáková. Caudullo. but in some isolated A. firs in Europe: distribution. T. Plant Systematics and 1997). Goat and cattle grazing activity can be particularly destructive when 16. F. Arianoutsou. which naturally co-exists in the The Complete Reference (Timber Press. therefore A. making it less suitable for firs. D. Yayim Yener. [38] M. Off. S. Hafizoglu. The IUCN Red List of Oryx 44. P. (2010). plants:Conserving Europe’s threatened 2008). [9] C. 1973). eds. Alizoti. Alaoui. [10] A. [32] M.. Barbero. Loisel. 141 (2010). 242 (2012). Now in most fir forests pasturing continues under control. wild fires can destroy entire stands and degrade the habitat. D. Talavera. pp. Forest Pathology 37. J. Abies . Roig. J. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. vol. Gardner. damaging seedlings and young shoots of juvenile plants and limiting forest regeneration. J. [34] L. vol. N. cilicica stands livestock grazing is still one of the main threats13. Conifers: An Analysis of their Distribution. 287–310. Oecologia 164. Sevilla. However. 2 Gymnospermae (Pinaceae Management and Restoration of to Ephedraceae) (Committee for Mapping Southern European Forests. Gardner. 38. counting a population of just 24 mature B. Threatened Species (2013). Arista. Helsinki. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. (Eds. Publ. A. The gymnosperm database Biotechnology and Biodiversity. W. Journal of Biogeography 38. G.wikimedia. which is pervasive in most Mediterranean areas. pp. Please. 1107 83. (Copyright Vince Smith. García Esteban. E. J. Moreira. pp. Trees 6. Threatened Species (2011). 42275/0+. [15] S. Bowker. Esteban. et al. 1 (2004). Post-Fire in Europe Vol.. (2011). A handbook of the world’s Development and Biodiversity. Daskalakou. Luxembourg. 125 (2012). Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 292. M. for A. Fennica Vanamo. J. 130 (1962). [23] M. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [36] P. et al. U. pp. pinsapo has seen an increase in attacks of the root rot fungus Heterobasidion spp. e90086 (2014).. Talavera. R.conifers. B. S. De las Heras. usage and K. Winieski. Lahme. A. B. J. Ganatsas. Annals of Forest Science 59. Jalas. Fady.. [21] H. de Rigo. Tinner. P. Conservation 97. http://www. and the coleopteran Cryphalus numidicus in recent decades. Gömöry. Kuhlenkamp. V. species in the world. The IUCN Red List of Tech. P. de Palacios. Aguado. Prada. 39 (2007). Awad. trees14 . The IUCN Red List of Vegetatio 87. Earle. Biologìa del pinsapo (Consejerìa de Medio [2] S. Hamburg. Filer. M. 42293/0+. G. Sękiewicz. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. depleted soil of native areas. [11] A. Abies accidental fires represent the major cause of forest Farjon. protected. 419 (2013). E. [5] F. [30] J. Farjon.. M. Cheddadi. Taxon 56. Weisgerber. Silvae Genetica Journal of Forestry Faculty of Kastamonu with the use of compost and summer watering40 . 2012).. et al. Arista. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. rise to a low genetic flow and therefore genetic diversity. since it is potentially threatened by hybridisation with [7] B. F. R. Klaehn. locally and abroad for its protection. Quézel. Thomas. S. Seyidoglu Akdeniz. 276 (2010). Linares. In: (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) San-Miguel-Ayanz. Ziegenhagen. S.. Khuri.. Houston Durrant. A. M. Fady. 2013). LIFE and endangered Lexikon der Nadelbäume (Nikol. E. de Palacios. Atlas Florae 6 (2012). Herrera. A. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and [4] K. A. 7. 2008). A. Linares. R. An Atlas of the World’s [31] P. Journal of Forestry Faculty of and their hybrid A. Mauri. it has not yet been [25] I. Liepelt. Conifers of the World: [29] A. Knees. M. x borisii-regis. D. [35] M. Eckenwalder. Knees. Paitaridou. Ambiente. Khater. B. Marpeau. This fir is under an extensive conservation programme Evolution 284. Silvae Genetica 54. 39 . European Commission. pinsapo) in Sierra Bermeja (South Spain). Suominen.. S. Knees. Fady.

90% and strong and. commons.) is a medium-size tree commonly growing in most of Europe and extending its range with pH lower than 6 or higher than especially deciduous oak distribution ranges from 55° to 38° N. Field maple reaches its eastern limits in the beginning of a vegetative season potentially have an impact Corymb of hermaphrodite flowers with green-yellow the Voronezh Region in Russia. rather smooth and hard but with shallow 25% . It is also commonly planted in gardens and parks and for street and roadside. (Copyright Wendy Cutler. 2 . at least one year. usage and threats B.50% or in hedges. The leaf is simple. In autumn the foliage colour is rich gold over a long period. and considered an Mid-low presence 10% . especially Chorology domed. then turn upwards3 . pairs. but also as a shrub in the understorey1. but also grows well on heavy clay and is able to subsist on soils Field maple (Acer campestre L. produced in coppiced mixed forests. It prefers England. www. habitat. southern Sweden and Denmark to the Pyrenees. It is extremely shade- eastwards to the Caspian Sea. natural germination usually takes 18 months. < 25% silviculturally managed and often grows in spontaneously The bark is light grey. The samaras ripen in late September and are reported by the National Forest Inventories. forming part of temperate mixed deciduous forests as a tolerant during the first decade.50% 50% . Five-lobed yellow leaves with smooth margins. Field maple is a monoecious species. Leaves are in opposite Castanea. sometimes red. in the Crimean Peninsula. except as an ornamental tree9 . de Rigo water needs and avoids waterlogging. although it distribution of field maple covers most of Europe: the latitudinal is more common in mesophile CC0) Importance and Usage Uncertain. Pollination is typically entomophilous.) were planted in fields and Low presence 5% . becoming darker. On the continent it fissures. exfoliating in small flakes when older2 . The wood is white. 5-16 cm long and 5-10 cm broad. or several days before bud burst4 . 3 . 4 . Sicily. species has not been planted widely outside its natural range. typically reaching 15 m it is often a subdominant species in many plant communities. rounded lobes with a smooth margin2. this maple has been planted traditionally in rural areas as living props for in seed-bearing years. field maple does not form pure stands. Seed dormancy lasts spatial range for A. well-established 5 to 8 year-old seedlings begin rapid growth Caucasus and at the southern shores of the Caspian Sea4. Acer campestre Acer campestre in Europe: distribution. It is a mesophile species. Tilia.5-3 cm long and grouped Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Acer campestre. 6-8 . tall (exceptionally 25 m) and 60-70 cm in trunk diameter.indd 52 08/04/2016 11:09 . from sea level up to 1 600 m in altitude4. bright green when just unfolding. usually low. these factors make it well adapted for hedges2. with short side-shoots. as tree. flowering usually starts in late April. favouring calcareous soils. where this maple Marginal/no presence < 5% together with the elm (Ulmus spp. (Copyright AnRo0002. mainly for fire and pulp. with five blunt. Distribution This species is adapted to areas that are in transition between Habitat and Ecology Mediterranean and Euro-Siberian ecoregions. even if late frosts at Spain and North Africa. D. Frequency of Acer campestre occurrences within the field observations as in 3-4 bunches. Usually individuals show complex temporal patterns of sex expression during the flowering season. The crown is > 75% can be characteristic of mixed broad-leaved woodland.75% established and semi-natural populations1 . producing hermaphrodite flowers. 10 . There are few serious diseases affecting the field maple. appreciated for its beautiful colours in autumn and Mid-high presence 50% . scrub Medium presence 30% . either simultaneously with. It coppices very freely up to an age of 60- grapevines. Ulmus and the branch ends droop. and it is rare in coniferous forests2. about ten widely spaced in an erect head. it is used Very-high presence > 90% Annual precipitation (mm) Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. which means properly field maple. warmer climates but it can also be winter hardy and tolerate the Greece and northern Turkey.wikimedia. Across its principally causing damage on young seedling in nurseries.10% vineyards as living props for grapevines. G. natural range. when sizeable timber is available. field maple is not normally Frequency be present as a tree.30% important element of the landscape4 . crimson coloured with wings horizontally aligned at 180°. no-data The scientific name Acer campestre. The fruits are double CC-BY) 52 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. hard High presence 70% . but light requirements are higher subdominant tree. probably originates from Italy. 2. The natural Field maple has a very wide ecological range. Its wood is used 100 years and it is very tolerant of cutting and grazing of shoots. This that lasts for about 25 years3-5 .70% for blossoms before leaves appear9 . bole is sinuous and Native with species of genera such as Quercus. but instead Field maple is a medium-sized tree. It is also appreciated as an ornamental plant for its flowers and coloured foliage in autumn. It can Given its low commercial importance. but it is supposedly capable of dispersing some portion of its pollen by wind1 . campestre is derived after EUFORGEN15 . from central and southern forests. Field maple has moderate stamens and sepals and no petals. Together with elms. The chorology of the native dispersed by the wind from mid October on. 5 . Zecchin. displaying autumn colours. Caudullo. Isolated occurrences can be found in temperature extremes of continental sites. 9 . Flowers are small and yellow-green. in the on the distribution of the species1.

F. Dewitte. The field maple and other species of genus Acer are highly vulnerable14 to the Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) which is a large wood-boring beetle native of Asian countries. Its adventitious roots are suitable to be exploited for soil bioengineering to increase the stability of slopes and mitigate erosion12 . The CABI encyclopedia of 10. Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability. Ducci. Operophtera) and drilling (Cossus. Acer campestre in Europe: distribution. CC-BY) British forestry (CABI. in combination with other valuable broadleaved tree species.Final Report (Food 1974). 2013). The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. [5] 1986). Chybicki. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. the United Nations. www. Threats and Diseases There are few serious health problems affecting the field maple. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 15. In: San-Miguel- Ayanz. P. Savill. but with negligible impact on field maple growth13 .. Ecology and silviculture of INTERPRAEVENT 2002 in the Pacific Rim Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised the main valuable broadleaved species (2002). and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.. Meusel. Xyleborus) insects2. de Rigo. I-III. Vergleichende Chorologie der [15] EUFORGEN. Caudullo. joinery and flooring. This QR code points to the full online version. either in the field or in the nursery. (Copyright Pancrazio Campagna. E. 2004). [8] E. D.eppo.. Other negative agents affecting different maple trees include aphids as well as defoliating (Lymantria. G. Fries. Global Ecological [3] A. Rauschert. 1739 (2014). Praciak. Field maple flowers provide abundant Medium survivability pollen and its nectar used by bees resulting in good honey and honeydew yield4. K. Atlas of North European Annual precipitation (mm) vascular plants (North of the Tropic of Cancer). Guidelines for genetic conservation and