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Publication details Contributors
The preferred citation for the chapters in this document HOW TO OBTAIN EU PUBLICATIONS Editorial Board
is provided in each specific chapter (see also the Appendix
Free publications: Jesús San-Miguel-Ayanz
“Information on copyright, citation and disclaimer”, p. 195).
• one copy: Daniele de Rigo
The full version of each chapter (expanded and fully peer- via EU Bookshop (; Giovanni Caudullo
reviewed) will be published in the online version of the Atlas in
the Forest Information System for Europe web site (permanent • more than one copy or posters/maps: Tracy Houston Durrant
URL The online version of from the European Union’s representations
Achille Mauri
each chapter is the recommended version to cite. (;

Citing individual chapters should be the preferred option. To from the delegations in non-EU countries
refer to the entire book as opposed to individual chapters, please
cite as: by contacting the Europe Direct service
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San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant,
T., Mauri, A. (Eds.), 2016. European Atlas of Forest Tree calling 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11
Species. Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. (freephone number from anywhere in the EU) (*).
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WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE EU? The editorial board (Daniele, Achille, Jesús, Giovanni, Tracy).
© European Union, 2016 More information on the European Union is available on the
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The information and views set out in this book are those of Scientific board
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of the European Union. Neither the European Union institutions H. John B. Birks, University of Bergen, Department of Biology,
Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your
and bodies nor any person acting on their behalf may be held Bergen, Norway
questions about the European Union:
responsible for the use which may be made of the information Giovanni Caudullo, European Commission, Joint Research Centre,
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Reuse is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged. (*) The information given is free, as are most calls (though some operators, phone boxes or hotels
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The reuse policy of the European Commission is implemented by
a Decision of 12 December 20111 . Dave Durrant, Forestry Commission, Forest Research, Farnham,
United Kingdom (retired)
The general principle of reuse can be subject to conditions Giorgio Guariso, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica,
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Published by the Publications Office of the European Union, made of the following information. Sandra Oliveira, University of Lisbon, Institute of Geography and
L-2995 Luxembourg, Luxembourg. Territorial Planning, Lisbon, Portugal
Salvatore Pasta, National Research Council, Institute of
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species Cartographic Representations Biosceinces and Bioresources, Palermo, Italy
Printed version Underlying cartographic features depicted on the maps in this Jesús San-Miguel-Ayanz, European Commission, Joint Research
atlas are derived from the Digital Chart of the World and Lovell Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (VA), Italy
ISBN 978-92-79-36740-3
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Front cover image: Photograph of a holm oak (Quercus ilex) taken in Oxfordshire, OX29 8RU, United Kingdom.
Despeñaperros Natural Park (Andalusia, Spain) a Natura 2000 site, in which
a LIFE project was implemented for the conservation of protected species "Mighty oaks from little acorns grow"
such as the Iberian imperial eagle, the Iberian lynx, the black vulture and the
black stork. The open holm oak forest in the area favours the production of
a multiplicity of forest ecosystems such as game, timber, range, cattle feed
and acorns, and sustains a high level of animal and plant biodiversity.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

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Bottom: Copyright Alfonso San Miguel, CC-BY
freely accessed.

2 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 2 12/04/2016 12:07

European Commission.atkinson. Jean Latour. MemoryCatcher. Richard Sikkema. Günther Seufert. Steven Munson. the Editorial Board has put every effort to credit all Cotovanu. Madrid. Switzerland Diego Magni. University of Padova. Horla Maria C. Caldeira. School of Agriculture. Taxelson. The completion of this Atlas would Kazanskaya. Jonson22. Wendy Cutler. Ninara. Gary Houston. ISeneca. Kenraiz. Italy Acknowledgements Photos. Italy The Netherlands (Mr. Civil and Building This publication is the culmination of a fruitful collaboration Trentanovi. Italy Achille Mauri. Jonas Fridman) Geosciences. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Vassil. Alessio Sbarbaro (Yoggysot). European Commission. Authors Data contributors Jesús San-Miguel-Ayanz. US Forest Service. Rae. Centre for Slovak Republic (Ms. Axel Kristinsson. European Commission. A. Palermo. S. Giallopolenta. Forest & Kim Starr. Aanjhan Ranganathan. Gráinne Mulhern. Paul Schulze. Firenze. Frauke Feind. Francesco Ciabatti. Italy Agriculture. numerous forest and vegetation experts from institutions and Hans Braxmeier. Javi MF. Heino Polley) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Jannik School of Agriculture. Department of Environmental and Natural Resources.indd 3 08/04/2016 11:05 . European Commission. Ispra (VA). Huskarl. Lisbon. Zseeee. Italy Natalia Guerrero Maldonado. Ferreira Maria Conceição. Italy Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Margherita Di Leo. We apologise for any Smith. J. Zuzana Kmetova) Sandra Thanks also to Arlette Goergen of the Doronenko. for which we would be pleased to rectify Xemenendura. Pieter Beck. Birks. Italy eu (see also the Chapter “The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: Santiago Saura. Sten Porse. Forest knowledge on environment. Italy Dynamics of Environmental Processes. Arnstein Rønning. Agrarian Tommaso Sitzia. 40) Erik Welk. and Michael Frankis was crucial for adding new Egan-Wyer (je_wyer). Geography and Demography. Pereira. Alexander Cahlenstein. Samuel Killworth. understanding Santos Cirujano Bracamonte. European Commission. Benham. Department of Natural Systems Takeshi Kuboki. Nuno Lavrador. miluz. Botaurus stellaris. Madrid. Centre.www. Hamburg. Soldatnytt. UK Edward Eaton. David Wright. University of Padova. Tomás Royo. Snow and list of contributors is shown below. João C. University of Tuscia. benet2006. Norlando Pobre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Albertas Kasperavicius) Sarajevo. NatureServe. Technical University of Madrid. Department of Natural Systems and Resources. Francisco Antunes. Portugal (Ms. Santiago Saura Martínez de Toda.L. Sarah Mubareka. ECOGESFOR modelling. Institute of Salvagnin. European Commission. Gheorghe Marin) Paula Nieto Quintano. Morris. University of Lisbon. Landscape Research WSL. Achille Mauri. Jiří Berkovec. ECOGESFOR contributors and trace all copyright holders. USA Francesca Rinaldi. Alan Gregg. Richter. Joint Research Centre. Javier Martin. Dezidor. Annemarie Bastrup-Birke) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Department of Agriculture. Ispra (VA). Department of Land. weisserstier. László Szalai. Alan Semper. Department of Agronomy. Department Research Group. European Commission. Superior National Forest. Ispra (VA). Joint Research Centre. Norway Sweden (Dr. Michael Wunderli. The Editors wish to extend their gratitude to the anonymous Nicholas A. Roberta (PD). School of Bergen. the JRC is grateful for the support and commitment offered Manfred Gut. Molekuel. Gherardo Chirici. Anssi Koskinen. Romania (Mr. Suzanne E. Pavel Buršík. Peter Smith. EU Publications Office for her assistance in coordinating the Black. referees. Forestales y del Medio Natural. Entomart. Technical University of Madrid. Ispra (VA). Flavio Da Ronch. Victor M. Mr. School. Andrey Environment. Ispra (VA). Ola Sallnäs. Dalibor Ballian. Danielgrad. Thomas Quine. NASA. Guillermo Fernandez Centeno. Gianluca Nicolella. Italy Alberti. Murray B. Jo Simon. NH53. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Andrew.www. Joint Research Centre. Loughborough. No-author. Ispra (VA). Richard Allaway. Stefano Zerauschek. to Grainne Mulhern and the army of other proof-readers Noel Feans. Sven Scheuermeier. Italy Dave Durrant. In particular. Portugal Forestry Specialization. Joint Research Centre. Angela Benito. Institute for the Geo-referenced Database of Genetic Diversity (GD)2 . Miquel Llop. Veiko Adermann. Varlan. Andreas Rockstein (AnRo0002).. Jeremy Atkinson. Jan Oldenburger) Pieter Beck. Nicolas Raymond. Portugal of Claude Vidal. In addition.eufgis. Alexej Potupin. Vicente Selvas. Spain. Portugal have not been possible without their contribution. Joint Research Centre. Drury University. Italy Silvano Radivo. Forest Research Centre. Maher27777. Jean-Pol Sofia Cerasoli. liz west. Madrid. Franco Rossi. Jorge Franganillo. Atlas. for the assistance of William Adnams and in particular. Ana Paula Dias) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. University of Bern. Ispra (VA). Vince Aitor Gastón González. Farnham. Legnaro standardisation of the atlas. Ispra (VA). Fredi Bach. Portugal Zharkikh. Ian Rosenzweig. Forestry Commission. Edinburgh. Svíčková. Michael Simoncini. Ptelea. Neil McIntosh. Crusier. Joint Research Centre. Agriculture and Forestry. Ian Andrews. Stefanst. Free Institute for Environment and Sustainability. European Commission. Joint Research Centre. the authors are grateful Lippert. Ispra (VA). Springfield Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Forest Research. Pablo. Elin. Guilhem Vellut. Brian Gratwicke. Germany provided the necessary data for the preparation of the Atlas. European Commission. Andrew_Writer. Vasile Madrid. Adrian Lanz) Biosceinces and Bioresources. Biology Department. Emma Silviana Mauri. Hungary (Mr. Research Group. University of Florence. University of Florence. Jevgenij Voronov. Spain. unintentional omission. Phil Sellens. Josh Starlinger. Italy Bragança. Stan. Viterbo. Inga Vitola. Jan Homann. Research Centre. Franco Caldararo. Vivian Kvist Johannsen. Lamiot. Institute of Plant Sciences and Bellinzona. Biocenter Klein Flottbek. Ispra (VA). Verollanos93. for their ability to spot errors and inconsistencies through the Patrice. Lithuania (M. NTNU Faculty of Natural Sciences and Bellinzona. Department of Biology. Jim Ferguson. Sergey Urzhumskov. Dan Nordal. Velella. J. Marina Torres. Caroline Sada. Department of Soil Sciences. European Commission. Barbara Zecchin. Switzerland Technology. Ispra (VA). Basil. Korhonen) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Franz Jongleur100. Shankar S. Ispra (VA). Daniele de Rigo. Joint Research Centre. Alpo Roikola. John Redmond) Landscape Research WSL. forest ecosystem and tree species Grandmont. Gian-Reto Tarnutzer. John B. Nociveglia. Spain. Graziano Propetto. Núria Guerrero Hue. Rosendahl. Ettore Balocchi. ETSI Montes. Territorial Planning. European Commission. Agro-Food and Forest Systems. Farnham. European Commission. Finally. Stanislav quality of this publication. Ispra (VA). European Ioana Popescu. European Commission. Georgi Kunev. Tara2. Agriculture and Forestry. Italy Germany (Dr. Polytechnic Institute of Bragança. Chris De Biological. Delventhal. Drahkrub. Joint Research Francesca Giannetti. Bernt Rostad. through the publication process. National Research Council. Son of Groucho. Bern. Estudios Europeos de Medioambiente Estonia (Mr. Hauke Musicaloris. Kelley. Marco Conedera. United Kingdom F. Aldo De Bastiani. University of Lisbon. Enrico Pompei) Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research. Paolo da Reggio. of Geobotany and Botanical Garden. Ispra (VA). Ashley Giovanni Strona. Joint Research Centre. Marion Arne Cierjacks. Joint Research Centre. Madrid. System on Forest Genetic Resources (EUFGIS) . European Commission. Dave Hamster. Faculty of Forestry. David Friel. Independent researcher Latvia (Ms. Alpes de Haute Provence. Wolfgang Staudt. Germany ETSI Montes. Italy Ireland (Mr. Firenze. Milano. Mati Valgepea) Giovanni Caudullo. Italy Kirchoff. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. Legnaro (PD). University of Edinburgh. echoe69. Anne Ghisla. European Commission. Estormiz. Italy Davide Fumagalli. Hannu. Nacho. Lukasz insights on the preparation of the Atlas chapters. William Warby. Giulia Corradini. Food and Forestry Systems. Department of Land. United Kingdom between the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre and Graham Calow. Alfie Ianni. Giancarlo Pasquali. José I.schoenmakers. Sarah Millar. Department of Austria (Dr. IKB. Iciar Alberdi Asensio. National Research Council. Forestales y del Medio Natural. Sarang. readability and Peter Trimming. Stewart Juan Ignacio García-Viñas. Dewsbery at Lovell Johns Ltd (UK) whose patience. Joint Research Ragnar Jonsson. Rainer Food. Independent researcher Francesco Gasparetti. data and information on forest tree species”. University of Agronomic Sciences and Mr. Mihai Enescu. Ispra (VA). Forest Research Centre. Miguel Vieira. Technical University of Madrid. Carl Mueller. Forest Research. John Tann. European Information Missouri. Italy Agnieszka Kwiecień (Nova). Thomas printing process and to Matteo Cassanelli for providing support and Resources. Vito Buono. Patrik Krebs. Engineering. by the forestry administrations in the member states that Schneider & Christoph Aistleitner (Mediocrity). Wouter Hagens. Tanaka Juuyoh. Benediktv. Sallyofmayflower. Christa Regina. Willy Tinner. United Kingdom Spain (Mr. Department of Biodiversity of Useful Plants. University of Lisbon. Stuart Caie. Sergey Norin. Italy Marcelo Javier López. Ispra (VA). Romania Mario Pividori. Alfonso San Miguel. Society and Biosecurity. Bosco. gravitat-OFF. University of Padova. Rob Hille. Henson. MajaDumat. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. Legnaro (PD). ioa8320. Giovanni Claudio Bosco. European Commission. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 3 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Robert Anders. Pancrazio Campagna. Food and Forestry Systems. Jiricek72. Forestry Commission. Spain Finland (Kari T. Spanish National Research Council. Jose Luis Cernadas Iglesias. Niki. Ruben Holthuijsen. ECOGESFOR Research Group. Joint Research Centre. Ronnie Nijboer. Roland Tanglao. Italy Switzerland (Mr. Independent researcher Denmark (Ms. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Insubric Ecosystem Research Group. Hans Fransen. Harald Deischinger. Jennifer Slot. Cesare Ravazzi. Vlad Butsky. F. Somepics. Bri Weldon. Irina universities across Europe. Martin Pospíšil) Daniele de Rigo. School of Agriculture. Ispra (VA). A Michael Kranewitter. Agnieska Ovaskainen. Spain Enrico Romani. Schwabe90. Pinho. Halle (Saale). Azevedo. Giuseppe Milo. Loughborough University. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Portugal Cristian Mihai Enescu. Institute of Environment. lifar. Sergio Piccolo. Nova. cafepampas. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Conservación. for Ecosystem. ETSI Montes. Toms Zālītis) Dalibor Ballian. Roberto Boca. Tonelli. Donald Hobern. Mattivirtala. p. S. Italy Forest Genetic Resources (EUFORGEN).. Giovanni Caudullo. Italy Wit. Kimberly Vardeman. Joint Research Centre. Sean and high professional standards have significantly added to the MacEntee. Forest Focus/Monitoring dataset. MarioM. Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Animals and Environment. Forestales y del Medio Natural. Cesare Ravazzi. Ragnar Jonsson. Italy Aleksasfi. University of Bergen. Chris M. Bruce Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Italy Szmigiel. The exhaustive Selz. Yuri Timofeyev. tree-species. Maja Dumat. Forestry Commission. Department for Innovation in Bj. Arnaud 25. Snow and Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Joint Research Centre. Allie Caulfield. Stein Tomter) Salvatore Pasta. Frank Vassen. Tomasz Proszek. Atif Rafik. Department of Natural Systems and Resources. Bucharest. Steven Gill. Barredo. Patrizia Gasparini. Pedro Dias. Klemens Schadauer) Centre. Laszlo Kolozs) Patrik Krebs. Norway (Mr. BioSoil dataset. Ján Sokoly. Willow. Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. Italy H. Madrid. Centre Economics. Roberto Vallejo Bombín) João S.L. Switzerland Italy (Mrs. Tom Brandt. Jean-Marc Frémont) Tracy Houston Durrant. MrT HK. Domenico Lara Vilar. Photo Credits Raul Abad Viñas. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Richard Sikkema. Mahlum. jez. Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg. Christinamari. Gaston Aitor. Roberto Verzo. Joint Research Centre. Jean-Baptiste Bellet. Marinella Zepigi. United Kingdom (Mr Mark Lawrence) University of Lisbon. Tracy Houston Durrant. Mr. Institute of Geography and Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change. Wojciech Przybylski.evoltree. Mr. Miltos Gikas. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. European Commission. Italy Czech Republic (Mr. claude05alleva. Ieva Licite. Juan Ignacio García Viñas. ilovebutter. Joint Research Centre. European Commission. davidgsteadman. Jevgēnijs Šlihto. David Nicholls. Doc Searls. Franco Giordana. Ispra (VA). Karl Brodowsky. Spain France (Claude Vidal. Marilyn Peddle.R. Italy Minna Räty. Willy Tinner. Eran Finkle. mornarsamotarsky. Fundación Global Nature. Lisbon. University of Sarajevo. Leonid Mamchenkov. Franz Josef. Magnus Manske. Umberto Salvagnin. Lisbon. Anna Barbati. This led to an improved scientific soundness. Claudio Claude Vidal. Natural resources. Göranssons Åkeri AB i Färila. Valentin Sabau. Insubric Ecosystem Research Group. Bosnia Herzegovina Institute for Environment and Sustainability. in future editions or online versions of the atlas. University of Hamburg.

data and information on forest tree species 40 How to read the Atlas 46 Abies alba Silver fir 48 Picea omorika Serbian spruce 117 Abies spp. Limes (Linden) 184 Picea abies Norway spruce 114 Ulmus spp. Elms 186 4 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. disturbances and threats 8 Forest bio-based economy in Europe 20 European forests: an ecological overview 24 European forest classifications 32 European Forest Types: tree species matrix 34 Past forests of Europe 36 Tree species 40 The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling. Birches 70 Populus tremula Eurasian aspen 138 Carpinus betulus Common hornbeam 74 Prunus avium Wild cherry 140 Carpinus orientalis Oriental hornbeam 76 Prunus cerasifera Cherry plum 142 Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut 78 Prunus mahaleb Mahaleb cherry 143 Celtis australis Nettle tree 80 Prunus padus Bird cherry 144 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lawson cypress 81 Prunus spinosa Blackthorn 145 Cornus mas Cornelian cherry 82 Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir 146 Cornus sanguinea Common or red dogwood 84 Quercus cerris Turkey oak 148 Corylus avellana Common or European hazel 86 Quercus frainetto Hungarian oak 150 Cupressus sempervirens Mediterranean cypress 88 Quercus ilex Holm or evergreen oak 152 Eucalyptus globulus Tasmanian blue gum 90 Quercus palustris Pin oak 154 Euonymus europaeus Spindle tree 92 Quercus pubescens Downy or pubescent oak 156 Fagus sylvatica European beech 94 Quercus pyrenaica Pyrenean oak 158 Frangula alnus Alder buckthorn 96 Quercus robur and Quercus petraea Pedunculate oak and sessile oak 160 Fraxinus angustifolia Narrow-leaved ash 97 Quercus suber Cork oak 164 Fraxinus excelsior Common ash 98 Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 166 Fraxinus ornus Manna ash 100 Salix alba White willow 168 Ilex aquifolium European holly 102 Salix caprea Goat willow 170 Juglans regia Common walnut 103 Sambucus nigra Black elderberry 172 Juniperus communis Common juniper 104 Sorbus aria Common whitebeam 174 Juniperus oxycedrus Prickly juniper 105 Sorbus aucuparia Rowan or Mountain ash 176 Juniperus phoenicea Phoenician juniper 106 Sorbus domestica Service tree 178 Juniperus thurifera Spanish juniper 107 Sorbus torminalis Wild service tree 180 Larix decidua European larch 108 Tamarix spp. Tamarisks 182 Olea europaea Olive 111 Taxus baccata European or English yew 183 Ostrya carpinifolia European hop-hornbeam 112 Tilia spp.indd 4 08/04/2016 11:05 . Contents Preambles 2 Publication details 2 Contributors 2 Introduction 5 Preface on the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 6 The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe 7 Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. Circum-Mediterranean firs 50 Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce 118 Acer campestre Field maple 52 Pinus cembra Arolla pine 120 Acer platanoides Norway maple 54 Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia Aleppo pine and Turkish pine 122 Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore or sycamore maple 56 Pinus mugo Dwarf mountain pine 124 Aesculus hippocastanum European horse-chestnut 60 Pinus nigra Black pine 126 Ailanthus altissima Tree of heaven 61 Pinus pinaster Maritime pine 128 Alnus cordata Italian alder 62 Pinus pinea Stone pine 130 Alnus glutinosa Common or black alder 64 Pinus sylvestris Scots pine 132 Alnus incana Grey alder 66 Populus alba White poplar 134 Alnus viridis Green alder 68 Populus nigra Black poplar 136 Betula sp.

citation and disclaimer 196 Spring foliage of Norway maple (Acer platanoides).com: CC0) Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 5 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. (Copyright Jiricek72. Glossary 190 Appendices 194 The European Commission 194 Information on copyright.indd 5 08/04/2016 11:05 . pixabay.

Happy reading! Rainbow over Sierra Morena (southern Spain). forests and other wooded lands cover some 40% of the European Union’s landmass. Affairs and Fisheries Youth and Sport Field maple (Acer campestre) in a rapeseed (Brassica napus) cultivation near Dorchester (Dorset. citizens and policy makers. involving collaborations with national forest services. This European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first report to compile and make this essential information available to forest managers. Introduction Preface Dear readers. prevent soil erosion. and support leisure and recreation – as well as providing timber and other forest products. but also to protect them and keep them in good condition. vegetation and pests for example. Knowing how forest tree species are distributed across the EU is vital for making decisions about forest management. provide habitats for plants and animals. soils. the selection of species for afforestation and the measures for adapting to climate change. Unsustainable management practices have resulted in habitat and biodiversity loss. Storms. research organisations. By learning more about our trees and forests.indd 6 08/04/2016 11:05 . (Copyright Ian Andrews. our economies and our lives. In order to continue providing European citizens with their wide range of economic. Maritime Education. we can truly appreciate their critical role in our environment. it is crucial that our forests are managed sustainably – and this requires improving our knowledge. universities and international institutions dealing with the many different aspects of forest life. Today. (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) Karmenu Vella Tibor Navracsics European Commissioner for European Commissioner for the Environment. the protection of areas of high nature value. fires and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more intensely as a result of climate change. AP) 6 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. the botanical a precious natural resource and a source of income and wealth. They are remarkable ecosystems.www. environmental and social benefits. protect us from floods and landslides. Culture. Forests capture and store carbon. I believe that this European Atlas of Forest Tree Species will soon become an important reference text for this rich European resource. Europe's forests have been in a period of recovery after centuries of deforestation and degradation. Over the past 200 years. An enormous amount of work has gone into creating this Atlas. forests are under pressure. However. researchers. UK).geograph. And continued high nitrogen depositions are a concern.

Official E. Schulte. FROM THE COMMISSION pp. vol. research Spruce forest surrounding the Atorno Lake (Belluno. 5. Tiefenbacher. lack of standardised forest information systems across countries [5] CC0) Ayanz. Luxembourg. but instead develop definitions and methods [2] Council of the European Union. ed. management of forest resources in Europe. San-Miguel-Ayanz. The largest of these was the Biosoil project8. Environmental Monitoring 11. EUR 23020 EN (Office 112 (2007). related information systems were still ongoing11 . Although essential for the process of harmonising forest information from NFIs.Validation Spatial Data Infrastructures Research 2. Forest Europe . Chronologically. the latest of which was published in 2015. including forest area. et al. [11] J. San-Miguel-Ayanz. the focal point for information on forest resources in Europe. vol. The every four years. San-Miguel-Ayanz Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) is a key objective of In 2005. 1 Technical Research (Publications Office of Information and Communication Platform (EFICP)10 . et al.Assessing Hazards. Forest focus [10] D. Hiederer. http://www. Proceedings. 2007). In order to further support prototype is already available at http://fise. Official (Publications Office of the European Journal of the European Union 29.Scientific and Technical Research the European level). their impacts need to be definition of forests.. EU. This information is used to assess the sustainable the collection of harmonised information on forest resources in development of FISE builds on existing European systems such as management of forests in the different regions of Europe and to Europe. Mauri. 2 that may allow for the derivation of these datasets.europa. R. Attempts to establish common information systems at [3] Council of the European Union. and often their own To ensure coherence among policies. J. EFFIS and the Forest Focus database.growing Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration would be necessary to assess the state of forest resources at life (2016). International Journal of monitoring database system . system. forest biomass and the for fossil-fuel-based materials and energy) climate change or regional scales. Forest Strategy had existed since 1998. G. Schmuck. vol. a series of regulations were established over the years to collect information on forests and to ensure their sustainable management. with the expiration of the Forest Focus regulation in 2006. Database and Expert forest information system in Europe. Warsaw (2007). or regional forest information systems. Additionally. Micheli. Hiederer. Flies. de Rigo. chap. Houston Durrant.). G. Project . As part of the Forest Europe process. European countries are currently under no obligation to report information on forest resources to European forest information systems. The most common systems are the National Forest Inventories (NFIs). as part of which a soil survey was conducted in 22 EU countries. setting up a comprehensive common European forest information Managing Disaster . pp. COMMUNICATION Emergencies and Disaster Impacts. the COST Actions do References not in themselves produce harmonised European datasets (which [1] Ministerial Conference on the Protection of [8] R. 6) and for forest fires (the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS)7). Energy Framework. e012228+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 7 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. et al. those dealing with system. A second four. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species.Soil Data Analysis. 2011). The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe. cite as: Autumnal foliage of the horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). Publ.. These environmental data EU Member States are establishing a Forest Information System (2015). Regulation EEC No 3528/862 and Regulation EEC No 2157/923 helped establish information systems for the monitoring of air pollution in forests and for forest fire prevention. However. 2011). the (2003). However. D. 2012). 2005. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. The forest-based sector plays a crucial role within a contained within this series of reports is very valuable. 9 . However. Suarez Meyer. which were held in Strasbourg (1993). distribution of forest tree species have been compiled. (1986). Union. it does the European Commission has been collaborating with European growing bioeconomy in terms of value-added. Schulte. (Eds. Houston Durrant. Within this strategy. it is necessary to harmonise national the targets established in the cross-sectorial policies that affect information at the European scale so as to derive pan-European forests and forest resources. Initiatives to support this harmonisation process were first financed through the Forest Focus regulation. Within the European Union. Official module. Both regulations were substituted by the Forest Focus regulation4 during the period 2003-2006.jrc.Scientific and Journal of the European Union 1. the European Commission and the (1998). Houston Durrant.. 3 the European level were launched through the EFICS regulation (1992). Lisbon the establishment of two of these centres. Although a common EU [6] T. [12] European Commission. Hiederer. The information from these projects was incorporated and is available in the Forest Focus database of the Joint Research Centre.. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Off. Vienna (2003). forest protection indicators in mountain regions. most countries in Europe have their own systems in place to collect information about their forests. and aims to become elaborate the series of reports on the State of Europe’s Forests. The latter mitigation. they collect ground data and forest parameters that can be processed to obtain harmonised European forest information. Forests in Europe. This QR code points to the full online version. and not lend itself to a more detailed assessment of environmental NFI services to produce harmonised forest datasets at European (through the sequestration of carbon and providing a substitute processes as the reports are made at national rather than local level. A. While NFIs are very different in most countries. 669–673.. A commitment to SFM forms the basis of services and the European Environment Agency led to the European Commission in 2013 opened a new opportunity for the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe creation of 10 environmental data centres. initiatives to bring together European Evaluation Journal of the European Union the JRC set up a four-year Framework Contract in 2009 EFDAC. including the Climate and forests at European level. Tilsner. As countries have their own national European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. J. an agreement between several Commission The adoption of the new EU Forest Strategy12 by the all European countries. This is an extended summary of the chapter. Caudullo. Seoane. E. The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe J. Please. San-Miguel-Ayanz. the EU Biodiversity Strategy & Natura 2000. for the provision of data and services to EFDAC. While the information year Framework Contract was established in 2012. Several projects were financed for the harmonisation of different forest parameters. etc. In this context. The responsibility for the establishment of a common European forest information (Forest Europe1).eu..indd 7 08/04/2016 11:05 .foresteurope. which facilitated the establishment of common European forest information systems for air pollution (the Forest Focus database5. job creation. R. for Official Publications of the European transmission impeded the successful establishment of a common Communities. The establishment of FISE is at the core of the EU provide a reliable pan-European assessment of the state of the Forest Strategy as the instrument to assess progress towards forests. www. Approaches to 2005). E.Analysis of biodiversity (1989)10 and followed by the setting up of a European Forest [4] Council of the European Union. pp. countries report centres were named EFDAC (European Forest Data Centre) and for Europe (FISE). carbon stocks. [9] T. Houston Durrant. Different EU policies affect the forest-based sector It is difficult to produce detailed harmonised information on dataset is one of the core datasets used for the production of the (and therefore European forests). In: San-Miguel- (Copyright Hans Braxmeier. and the difficulties faced in establishing common protocols for data methodology. 774 (2009). and biodiversity data were collected in standardised plots in 19 countries. 1–17 (2013). and datasets on forest basal areas. Oslo (2011) and Madrid forests and soils. of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest biodiversity . and to ensure the sustainable forest information. J.. J.. A. little progress was made in [7] J. I. Journal of Systems Applications. (InTech. (Copyright Domenico Salvagnin. the European Union. Sixteenth International Workshop on (IEEE. T. 24729 of EUR . Italy).com: CC-BY) initiatives on the harmonisation of reporting activities from NFIs were launched in the form of Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Actions. and a national information on a series of forest criteria and indicators ESDAC (European Soil Data Centre). Although there is no comprehensive common European forest information system to which countries report. was given to the JRC. 2016. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. For this reason. T. 24777 of EUR . FISE is currently under development. a compilation of national datasets does not modelled.

holistic view of forest animals than young forests6 while the age of forest stands shows management.1 % of the total1 .g. the value of marketed roundwood reached 11 500 due to transdisciplinary modelling and knowledge integration)12-20 . 1: Short rotation forestry (SRF) of % and the living below This may be essential even at the science-policy interface ground biomass (roots. However. and addresses the to functional groups (e. Barredo.indd 8 08/04/2016 19:12 . of which around three-quarters classified as ‘Cultural heritage’1 . wood. Cultural services are part of the rich set of ecosystem services provided by forests. this Europe. Forests in Europe (FOREST EUROPE)¹. the litter with 9. global aspects of climate regulation). evidence suggests that old forests may better understand the complex issues around social.8 million ha of forest resources of some of these types of plantations (see also Figures 1 and 3) reducing soil erosion. over the past century. G. ecosystem and of 0. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. Positive services of short rotation forestry million ha) is designated for protecting water.7 million ha of the overall forested Similar forestry practices are exploited or investigated in to reduce the necessity to use fossil fuels.) with 7. For example. 22 . processes and services associated to forest resources. cultural wooden buildings) and another “carbon sink” is constituted by heritage) and beyond (e. the value of which reverberates far outside the forest sector (see Box 1). the area is covered by forests. Furthermore.g. ectomycorrhizal fungi. Dormagen. R. catchment scale (e. T. J. their usage and their interaction with other natural and temperate ecological zones have been disturbed by natural causes anthropic systems.) with 28. 33 % of the total land area (215 million ha) by at least two tree species (during the last 15 years. C. not all types of forest can provide the same level of support. For offs may emerge between competing usages and adaptation/ example. the potential impact infrastructures1 . European forest biomass adsorbs a remarkable amount of atmospheric CO2. with a positive trend of increase for the of forests composed by a single tree species has continuously forested areas. Trade- biofuels frequently compete for a variety of non-energy uses. disturbances and threats D. Strona. water quality and quantity”21 .8 % of the European GDP) constitutes the gross value added by the forest sector1 . years old and 18 % are over 80 years old.g. 30 million hectares of European forests have been protected with the main objective to support biodiversity or landscape conservation.3 billion Euro1 . (Adapted from an image authored by Harald Deischinger. fire causes the damage size in 8-20 years. climate This kind of plantation is here exploited for the final stage of purification of change and ecosystem services21. 90 million forests age from 80 to 400 years8 . Houston Durrant. soil. Forestry and forest- based industries in Europe allow almost 3 million people to earn their living (estimates for 2010)1 . to biotic causal factors (1. Di Leo. wood can be used as material for furniture production mitigation strategies for forest resources in view of climate and Fig. wind and snow damage (SRF) include carbon sequestration. economic provide higher water storage from storm rainfall and local flooding and environmental changes related to forests” within a general mitigation4. However. million Euro. with complex in young even-aged forests1 . and the Forest Information System for Europe").25 million cultural sites are located in European forests. https://archive. In the recent Forest Strategy of the European Union functions. The coppice is then used to produce In this chapter. aesthetic. which is about 9 % of the net greenhouse gas emission in the region (414 million tonnes in the EU-28)1 . primary feedstocks for wood-based a multiplicity of ecosystem functions and services6. etc. when referring to statistics from the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of a wood chips. 5 . Wood-based biofuels also help Unfortunately. This role is especially relevant in (estimation based on reports covering 73 % of the forested area)1 .g. regional scale (e. Although data are incomplete. considered in an integrated way. http://archive. Recent research results suggest how the density of 36 million ha. while 70 % are dominated fires and pests..5 %. 10. etc. pests. M. bioclimatic and anthropogenic aspects. the distribution of tree ages patterns and relationships among forests and other wooded suggests that. Ultimately. 150 million ha are of art. thus contributing to areas in Europe are affected by forest damage.g. 90 % of forest and other wooded land has been reported as available for recreational purposes1 . considering only the protective functions of forests. de Rigo. they affect soil resources. However. mountainous areas and areas with extreme climates. Among the abiotic factors.I. branches. and a large majority of European countries (more than 90 %) have specific objectives in relation to biodiversity1 (see Box 1). trunks. 3: Another example of short rotation forestry. Boca In Europea . while the overall value of marketed non-wood goods related to forest resources reached 2. 8 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. CC-BY. Recreational and tourism aspects play an important role. . almost 3. monetary value alone does not provide a complete picture of the real impact of forest resources in Europe (see the next section of this chapter). services. At the same time. soil protection.5 million ha forests while storm. water regulation and purification). forest)7. or land management9 . 2: Qualitative illustration of some ecosystem functions. Forests can offer a key contribution to mitigate the effects of climate change.9 million ha damaged by insects and trees are used which are able to reach their economically optimum A significant share of European forests (more than 110 diseases). Coppice short rotation of willows.1 %). its progress and open problems on wide-scale integrated considered available for wood supply1 .g. More in general. several forests in boreal and lands..) to the In addition. a deeper understanding of the structure and may be appreciated by considering that the larger proportion of functional relationships among forest resources and other natural overall forest carbon pools is constituted by forest soils (54. (e. This could be achieved by integrating and saprophytic beetles appears higher in undisturbed old-growth diverse data. four strategic orientations explicitly recommends “advanced details on the forest ecology. In this respect. at least 1. irrigated by water from a purification plant in northern France. 3 tree species composition and management practices may affect (Fig 4 top). J. 11 . In Europe. An estimate of 103 million euro (0. They also interact (see on page 7 the chapter "European Union Forest Strategy with other natural resources. PD) “Forest bio-based economy in Europe”). biodiversity and sustainability. richness of as provided in foresteurope. frequently due several European countries as energy crops23-26 .. G. They may range from the local scale (e. carbon is also stored in long-lasting structures (e. In particular. and on construction sites as building material2 (see also chapter global changes . Fast-growing decrease greenhouse gas emissions1 . water resources and biodiversity1 . For example. However. Germany. the bio-economy (see the next chapter). integrates peculiar relationships with species richness which appear specific internal and external forest-policy issues. Wood is a primary source of renewable energy in Europe2. Caudullo. intrinsic complexity context so as to “maintain and enhance forest cover to ensure In 2010. Instead. and anthropic systems requires some underpinning concept to be compared to the living above ground biomass (leaves. composition and age structure may research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to be relevant. they play a multifaceted wood products which replace more energy-demanding materials or industrial processes/sectors1 . in order to provide policy-making with a robust science-based However. problems (data and modelling uncertainties. it is assumed the definition of Europe and its Country Groups forest management practices are recommended in a broader (Adapted from an image authored by F. This brief overview of facts and statistics aims to provide the soil-protection services offered by European forests a descriptive picture of the multifaceted aspects of forests in reverberate also as climate change mitigation. Forests protect soil resources by significantly have been estimated to affect 0. information systems and models in a modular way. covers the multiple benefits of forests. Other wooded lands cover an additional area of decreased)1 . This service of forest resources amounts in Europe to an average (from 2005 to 2015) annual carbon sequestration of 719 million tonnes. weather). one of the some of which are introduced in the next section.g.highlighting the key role of the scientific state (Adapted from an image authored by Alexej Potupin. and cultural ecosystem services linked to recreation are generally Forest resources should not be considered as a monolithic more favourable in uneven-aged and old even-aged forests than entity. As an example. CC-BY. on biodiversity or soil acidification is debated27-30 . sustainable water from nitrates and phosphates. whole forest value-chain”21 . Lamiot. biodiversity ha by broadleaved ones and 48 million ha by mixed forests1 . wildfires. 40 % of the forests are between 20 and 80 considering forests in relation with natural disturbances like Fig. They may also offer more suitable habitats for some strategy which “promotes a coherent. soil formation. Bosco. Fig. San-Miguel-Ayanz. above-ground biomass carbon of mature forests may increase as 113 million ha are covered by coniferous forests.

CC-BY. the index declined between 1990 and 2013. http://archive. bottom)31-33 .is/6hhk5) Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 9 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. although an A: Accipiter nisus in Galicia. that combines data and models”21 . nature of forest systems as a highly connected hub interacting The anthropogenic impact on the connectivity and with a large network of other natural and anthropic systems fragmentation of European forests shows a variety of diverse (see Figure 6). CC0. (Source: Eurostat33) Setting the complexity of European forests in a broader context: integrated natural resources modelling and management The reductionist classification of forests as a domain. approximately 95 % of “European forests: an ecological overview”). As mentioned. The anthropic component may dominate geographic43 and climatic heterogeneity44-46 (see also the chapter D: Pyrrhula pyrrhula. 5: Some of the forest birds monitored in the common bird index (see Figure B: Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Luopioinen. nevertheless (Copyright Alpo Roikola. uses and 88 % of alluvial forests in 45 European countries have F: Turdus viscivorus. the index associated with common forest birds shows a recovery with a positive trend between 2000 and 2013. continent characterise the local peculiarities of the forest sclerophyllous vegetation. a b c d Fig. then to agricultural intensification (see also Figure 4. http://archive. CC-BY. Top: The role of wood and other solid biofuel among the renewable sources for the primary production of energy. The European continent has high C: Dryocopus martius. United Kingdom (Copyright David Friel. (Copyright Noel Feans. Haukipudas. CC0. the original floodplain area in Europe has been converted to other population densities and intense landscape diversity47. disappeared from their potential range34 . Fig. biotic and uneven patterns are evident42 . while the common farmland bird index experiences a noticeable decrease (which has mainly been associated with agricultural changes33). CC-BY. edge interface.. along with high (Copyright Estormiz.. http://archive. Spain. This also calls is highly variable. The complexity and heterogeneity of the landscape. http://archive. (Copyright Jose Luis Cernadas Iglesias. and a meaningful assessment of forest patterns may diverse information systems [. climate. heathlands and peatlands. ranging from 5 % to 40 % depending on the for a cooperative information approach towards “integrating country.] into a dynamic modular system require the integrated analysis of the local landscape composition. which highly depend upon abiotic. and distance from other lands and 70 % of the European territory the specificities of the European continent easily confirm the shows landscapes with poorly connected woodlands. http://archive. Another example may specific sector ideally segmented in parallel with others (and refer to the landscape-wide losses of biodiversity concerning the as such. 4. Considering the level of invasion by alien plants. Spain. (Copyright Estormiz. anthropogenic factors. Kittilä. Finland.indd 9 08/04/2016 11:05 . the regional interdependence of sound forest information and management share of “physically connected” sites (complex forest subnets) with the management of other natural resources. this holistic multifunctional role is patterns. However. decline of several European farmland birds as a trade-off linked defined boundaries of its scientific/technical domain. Lake district. orography and anthropic patterns in the European average lower impact is reported for most European woodlands. Overall. Finland. suitable to be investigated and managed within well. Data for the resources in Europe. from 1990 to E: Regulus ignicapilla in Galicia. although f seamlessly “embedded” in a more general economic frame) has some multiple-use agroforestry practices may effectively been challenged by the growing evidence of the transdisciplinary support biodiversity and ecosystem services provision35-38 . some European landscapes. habitat morphology and connectivity39-41 . bottom). For example. (Source: Eurostat2) e Bottom: An indicator of biodiversity such as the common bird index is a composite multispecies statistic and is considered by Eurostat as a headline indicator on the status of natural resources in the European Union31-33 . While 40 % of the forest lands are within a 100 m underlined by the Forest Strategy of the European Union. http://archive.

natural resources and ecosystems. cover and bad agricultural practices136. pathogenic agents injurious to plants such as parasites. their related services6.or pest-degraded (Copyright: Paolo da Reggio.e. environmental. albedo. regulated lakes) can store/release water when more appropriate for maximising the combined multi- purpose efficiency of agriculture irrigation. with wildfires111 and to impact on ecosystem services112 and the Ecological and biotic/abiotic stressors influence the health. composition and sustainability of forests. conversely. for more details. 6: A simplified overview of some key interactions among forest resources and other natural and anthropic systems (adapted from de Rigo121 . Adapted from an image authored by Alpes de Haute Provence. The elements directly affecting forest resources are tightly connected with other factors. plant pests and diseases (see Box 4) show multifaceted patterns of spread. hydro-power and other water usages. systems”116 and due to huge economic and social impacts of their vegetation and other land cover may influence the global climatic system. with consequences for plant health. the frequency complicated due to the need to reliably model the climate change and intensity of floods and droughts and. an increasing frequency of seasonal floods may prevent water reservoirs to exploit their full storage capacity. and large forest fires in the Mediterranean countries88-90. 25. 72. whose mitigation impose severe constraints to the effectiveness of seasonal water allocation. locally networks (Figure 6)114. An increasing frequency of seasonal droughts may require the stored water not to be exploited when otherwise more valuable.indd 10 08/04/2016 11:05 . society and climate change103. moderate Fig. precipitation interception. Furthermore. for example concerning carbon sequestration. implying severe consequences for both ecological and economic aspects.wikimedia. landslides). water resources quality and water storage loss138-140 . This network of interactions is the transdisciplinary subject of management policies. 10 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. dynamics and trends of forests. 48-52 and projected perturbations under climate change53-59 appear as highly differentiated and interconnected by complex patterns which require integration of advanced modelling and management approaches25. energy and wood production. drinking water and vegetation cover) influences water sediment transport (see retention of water in forest sites145. 10. agricultural practices) or negatively (wildfire. due to industry. the extent of preservation of forest core areas and genetic diversity as well as by the management practices to which the forest is subject3. and energy supply while also determining flood and drought risks. the share. cloudiness and global warming. disturbances and management of upstream forests approaches to reduce tree drought stress by increasing the Water resources directly affect agriculture. Forest composition and management may display complex transdisciplinary interactions and trade-offs not yet completely understood.jpg). These regional patterns may locally reverberate at the catchment scale. 124. At the same time. for example the spread of pests and pathogens may potentially affect the regional/continental scale. Another family of forest disturbances is linked to abiotic factors and may also display catastrophic effects on forests73. http://w3id. deadwood and fuel Natural resources are intrinsically entangled in complex causal accumulation. 74. In absence of a sustainable vegetation cover and of a developed root system floods and soil erosion5. navigational. Regional and local scale along with the “feedbacks between the social and biophysical changes are also driven by global scale climate changes and by general economy/technology drivers which may modify local land use and other anthropic influences on ecosystems (e. 115 whose management is increasingly altering the sediment transport in water resources and the relationship between precipitation and run-off. 131-135 . 7: Steep hills and slopes may be particularly vulnerable to erosion. as a consequence. 60-66 . etc. Ultimately. hydro-power and other key usages of water (e. and the threats to which they may be exposed. 22. 96-100 . pest outbreaks. CC-BY.g.g. Fig.g. 110 . A water management designed to be efficient under the assumption that upstream and riparian forests are relatively stable may be impaired by the consequences of altered land-cover and thus run-off dynamics125-128 . climate and climate Right: Adret de l’Escure. Impacts of similar disasters may potentially persist or intensify under future projected scenarios of economy. 84 . This is because dams and other water reservoirs (e. (e. Biological invasions such as emerging plant pests and diseases have the potential to further interact'Escure_badlands. 104 . 115). They range from flash floods105-107 and severe storms in Western Europe with an expected trend of increasing intensity108 . In particular.wikimedia. and recreational)122-124 . AP. for them to be ready to accumulate more upstream water during flooding events and thus better contribute to their mitigation122. and ultimately fire risk and erosion patterns. regional changing patterns of forests. 60. However.g. The particular composition and health of a forest is influenced by the suitability of its plant species to the local climate. distribution and sustainability of forest resources play a decisive role in exacerbating or mitigating droughts. Forests At the same time. From a broader perspective. rain or wind storms (see Box 3) or large landslides sometimes connected to the impact of intense runoff on the geological peculiarities of a given catchment or region74. changes and directly varying precipitation intensity and duration. 20. 59. Recently. energy. 129. sometimes more remote but essential in order to understand the status. Left: Canossa.e. also depending on their suitability to the local environmental conditions of the ecosystem they affect72-83 . Changes in the regional patterns of precipitation and temperature may potentially affect the local soil water dynamics. Europe has experienced a series of particularly severe disasters101. agriculture. because of unfavourable land use or climate change).org/mtv/Mastrave/img/INRMM-simpl. industrial. the impact of these biotic disturbances may occasionally be destructive. the possibility to integrate risk assessment and multipurpose use optimisation of different resources: a challenge which is change affect soil erosion both indirectly by driving land cover This may induce water-managers to alter established water progressing on different fronts25. 128. large-scale floods in Central Europe109 . soil erosion (with its connection with the and water resources are further connected in some recent dynamics. Impressive examples are constituted by the resources management at the river-basin scale142-144 . CC-BY. Examples are wildfires (see Box 2). 130 . 127. given the spatial permeability among connected areas. the snow/ice melt and accumulation. Italy. These policies could greatly benefit from the integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM)114 . France. this general goal is critical for ensuring the sustainable provision of economic assets and ecosystem services by forests. While land cover directly protection (i. Figure 6). https://commons. forest cover and good removal of soil and exposure of the underlying parental material. these phenomena might persistently alter the landscape due to the complete affects soil erosion either positively (i. surface waters and ground water reserves18. 102 . 137). 85-95 .). see also http://w3id. The land cover of river catchments influences the precipitation-runoff relationship. 41. Some factors act at the local scale economy with substantial uncertainties113 . fires.jpg ). 146 .org/mtv/Mastrave/img/INRMM114. canopy cover. domestic. 67-71 .g. As previously mentioned. 117-120 . https://commons. may alter the natural stratification of taxa with respect to the frequency of waterlogging154-156 ...2204755 (doi: . 8: The ability of forest tree species to tolerate periodic flooding and soil-water saturation varies from taxon to taxon. 148 if not. The opposite feedback also holds: forest resources may help to control even advanced stages of land degradation such as desertification153 (see Figure 13). 160 . Riparian forest buffers also provide remarkable services and require flooding-tolerant tree species38. Different trees are better suited to cope with different intensity of soil moisture. bottom: qualitative visualisation of the typical local topography of a valley side. some areas may be subject to more intense run-off (gullies. http://archive. Within forested areas. Within forested mountain valleys of hills. Forest fires and deforestation in semi-arid Mediterranean areas may contribute to severe land degradation151. occasionally. There. Right: qualitative visualisation of the typical dendritic network along which flow accumulation due to run-off is more intense (gullies).indd 11 08/04/2016 11:06 . Right top. 157. http://archive. influenced by the local climate and also by the local patterns of vegetation. Fig. 159. 9: Source: Daniele de Rigo. this also depends on the flooding tolerance of the rooting system. 152 . erosion rates and thus forest soil carbon losses may be concentrated in relatively few critical areas. Adapted from an image authored by Richard Allaway. a sustainable. gullies and small secondary valleys are a consequence of the geomorphological processes. pasture. Top right image: a typical valley in the temperate mountain system. Trentino Alto Adige) clearly shows the stratification of coniferous trees (upper part) and more flooding- tolerant broadleaved trees/shrubs (lower part). CC-BY. CC-BY. The partial coverage by debris and sediments with high permeability (due to periodic intense runoff and sediment transport) may sometimes require these strategic tree species also to be drought tolerant20. Delventhal. (Adapted from an image authored by F. Vallorcine Valley towards Mont Blanc.6084/m9. . Alps.figshare. the wider-scale climate (determining a complex land-use/forest/water/climate feedback which might be simply invisible to single sectoral approaches)149. http://dx. agriculture. while anthropic factors (e.doi. shallow secondary drainages or valleys). middle. Among other factors. The water cycle is linked with land use and with water and forest resources management.figshare. healthy forest cover requires the presence of suitable tree species. The presence of flooding- tolerant vegetation may mitigate erosive phenomena and protect the carbon accumulated in the forest soil. management of forests or water bodies. CC-BY. Left: the side of a secondary valley (Italy.6084/m9. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 11 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 158 . with possible repercussions on the local micro-climate147.2204755). flooding and waterlogging.g. 150 .

167. Continent-wide. gullies and riparian areas where higher rates of potential erosion coexist with higher frequency of waterlogging or flooding. the larger proportion of forest carbon pools is constituted by forest soils (54.2247472 (doi: 10. This box qualitatively illustrates the network of valleys. sustainable forest cover in these critical areas is able to display a multifunctional mitigation and protection. 161. with a limited number of tree species suitable to thrive under the combined effect of these stressors154.1 %)1 .figshare.. a b c Fig. 162 .org/10. et al. In particular. shallow landslides117. At the same time. 10: Source: Daniele de Rigo.figshare. temperate and subtropical mountain systems host a variety of forest ecosystems44.6084/m9. In Europe. the boreal. 164. some forested areas in hills and mountains may be subject to a multiplicity of disturbances. hollows. A healthy.doi. 165 . 12 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 160.6084/m9. 131. rockfall. Forests and other vegetation may provide a very effective protection to mitigate soil and carbon loss and can support the provision of some key ecosystem services concerning mass stabilisation and buffering/attenuation of mass flow such as sediments.2247472). http://dx. European mountainous areas are among the one more susceptible to potential soil erosion by water163 . 159. 155.indd 12 08/04/2016 11:06 . The extent of this protection is also related to particular species composition of forests166 .

land use and and higher resistance to invaders73 . CC-BY. and the corresponding rich Fennoscandia may expose unfrozen soils for longer periods – which may set of ecosystem functions and services they may provide. https://archive. 12: Austria. Copyright NH53. The Figures 9 and 10 provide an overview suggest that storm intensity is increasing with a potentially deeper (e. dead wood and infrequently disturbed areas may be more sensitive to some management practices)172 . which are not monolithic systems but instead a composition of uneven subsystems. Although it is impossible to summarise even a simplistic overview of these animals in a picture. (Adapted from an image authored by Stanislav Doronenko. 179 . https://archive. deep gullies (background) and slope instability. However. Areas subject to frequent intense run-off and even occasional waterlogging tend to host flooding-tolerant tree c d species and other resistant vegetation. CC-BY.g. Evidence suggests that vegetation in European areas characterised by a high summer temperature is more sensitive to drought- stress and that droughts have more influence on grasslands than forests173 . A further complication lies in the intrinsic complexity of forest ecosystems. http://archive. Bottom: in the beginning of E: Red fox. e f Fig. https://archive. https://archive. (Adapted from an image authored by Claudio Bosco: CC-BY) This array of relationships suggests the importance of improving and integrating the modelling and management of these natural resources – forest. monitoring these effects may require an integrated perspective. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology. soil. a series of storms affected northern and central Europe. However. 14: Biodiversity of forest ecosystems may also be appreciated for the rich variety of animals living in European forests and woodlands. 13: Forest tree species may serve to mitigate and control desertification.e. water resources – along with Considering some forest threats. which in turn may intensify erosion . CC-BY. Bavarian Forest National Park. United Kingdom. 170 and other and management)114 . whose establishment may help to counteract a pattern of losses may become evident at wider than local spatial further erosion. by means of shallow landslides93 .is/oMGnD ) D: European beaver. either quantitatively (the plant species to exemplify some of the aforementioned interactions among winds exceeding 160 kilometres per hour. at the boundary is still subject to substantial uncertainties which may lead to between two subtropical ecological zones (subtropical mountain system and quantification of impacts ranging over orders of magnitude178 . taller forest vegetation appears to mitigate the effect of even severe summer heatwaves and droughts (for a b Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 13 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. management may intensify degradation phenomena. (Castor fiber).indd 13 08/04/2016 11:06 . Germany. and wildfires169. (picture foreground). https://archive. is/sgHwD and http://archive. (Vulpes vulpes). Fig. overall increase the risk of wind damage to European forests74. flooding and and the overall landscape. which include birds (see Figures 4-bottom and 5) and mammals. In the picture. http://archive. Copyright Dave Hamster. CC-BY. 177. Copyright MrT HK. CC-BY. (Adapted from images authored by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CC-BY. deeply incised gullies with their more intense runoff and flow accumulation as the major impacts of forest plant species biodiversity and its (which may generate ephemeral streams) may become suitable for flooding-tolerant trees. CC-BY. Copyright NTNU. subtropical dry forest). (Adapted from an original image authored by Bernt Rostad. More diverse forest ecosystems appear to be more stable and species mixtures may have lower levels of pest damage Fig. local patterns of increased precipitation and subsequently more saturated soils. Bavarian Forest National Park. Some evidences composition of forests and of agriculture areas) or qualitatively uneven subsystems. sudden pest-induced disruption of forests). positive feedbacks may partly counteract negative ones. a flood meadow. United Kingdom. on the many disturbances and stressors to which forested areas penetration into mainland Europe. disturbances. on February disturbances108. a few well known mammals are here illustrated in their forest environment. The storm was associated with intense precipitation. CC-BY. The overall impact of the aforementioned threats may be challengingly difficult to assess within the complex chain of interactions among taxa in forest ecosystems. along with other key vertebrates and invertebrates. In Europe. 11: Some feedbacks between vegetation.g. Even vegetation and forest management may affect different taxa in substantially different ways depending on their habitat (for example. plant pest outbreaks also land use management (integrated natural resources modelling intensely affect land cover168 . Agriculture practices over tree species richness has been correlated with higher levels of hills may expose bare soil to erosion and contribute to generating rills provision for a multiplicity of ecosystem services175 . Sweden. 15: Top: an extratropical cyclone over the United Kingdom. CC-BY. knowledge on these key aspects soils wetter than the surrounding landscape occupy a small valley between eroded crops in a hill close to the Apennines in Central Italy. 108. 171 also influence the connectivity of habitats The important case of forests in mountainous areas may help 2014. Copyright Neil McIntosh. Furthermore. while higher temperatures in in hills and mountains may be subject. Salix and other shrubs and trees tolerant to scales176. B: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). A: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus). C: Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Copyright MrT HK. the extreme event of the 2003 drought) compared with shorter vegetation174 . As already Forested sand dunes in Fårö. F: Wolverine (Gulo gulo).is/4abQB Fig. However. https://archive.

Box 1: Forest ecosystem services and Biodiversity Forest is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in Europe and is home to much The multiplicity and complexity of services provided by forest ecosystems Forest biodiversity refers “to all life forms found within forested areas and the of the continent’s biodiversity. 187. Simplified overview of the main ecosystem services provided by forest and other woodland ecosystems. mechanical energy) chemical. fibre. Nutrition (biomass and Provisioning Regulation and Mediation of waste. Three concrete actions are proposed in the Biodiversity Strategy to achieve target 2. These benefits are classification185 was adopted as a reference typology of ecosystem services. forest habitats and whole ecosystems. Understanding the complex vitality and biodiversity. timber. hierarchy of four levels. tems and their Services (MAES). European forest ecosystems face multiple natural and anthropogenic threats. 14 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. there ecosystems to human well-being181 . outputs of forest ecosys. 182 .org/10.6084/m9.indd 14 08/04/2016 11:06 . a changing climate is producing increased droughts in the Mediterranean. Non-material interactions with Some aspects of ecosystem services ecosystems and land-/ may reverberate in multiple catego- seascapes (coastal forests): ries with complex feedbacks (e. Forest ecosystem Simplified overview of the main services forest ecosystem services.figshare. simultaneously maintaining and improving forest health. is growing consensus that increasing levels of biodiversity increases the stability of forest ecosystem functions.g. The first. the contribution of non-market in the physical. material and energetic it covers all the ways in which living outputs from living forest systems. material and energetic outputs multiple services. clean air. liquids and gases. the concept of multifunctional forest relies on the need to biophysical structures. Despite the existence of some knowledge benefits to humans in terms of climate regulation. ecosystems and socio- economic systems in the conceptual framework for supporting ecosystem assessments in the European Union. Likewise. Evidence in this respect supports. sustainable forest the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems51. the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services (MAES) initiative is a key action for the advancement of biodiversity objectives. 16: Relationship between biodiversity. sustainable forest management and multifunctional forests. hydrological cycle / water flow. locations or situations that produce benefits concepts. Spiritual. For instance. To this end at EU level the CICES gaps on how biodiversity supports and interacts with forest ecosystem energy. Specifically they include forest production of temporal stability of total biomass at higher levels of diversity175.figshare. intellectual or spiritual state of people.doi. Here. Finally. biodiversity and ecosystem processes that underpin toxic substances. filtration and Physical and intellectual chemical conditions of freshwaters). They are the direct and indirect contributions of categorised into three main types: provisioning. there is evidence suggesting the dependency of defined as ecosystem services. The second is from forest ecosystems mediation or moderation of the environment that In line with the guiding principles of the Forest Strategy and the Biodiversity ecosystem function. and also to inform the development and implementation of related policies on forest among others. Unlike forest market services. In addition. thus maintaining the provision of The provision of forest ecosystem services includes three interlinked Provisioning services include all nutritional. water and energy.3047380 (doi: 10. and normally non-con. surface / ground water. erosion control and many others. ecosystem services are as the regulation of the physico-chemical and biological environment. which are the benefits that people obtain A large number of forest services have been identified at European level specific functions and services on biodiversity175. Decreased levels of from ecosystems180 . which is a subset of the interactions between affects people’s performance. and fluxes of nutrients and energy. forests provide a multitude of necessitates a comprehensive framework and a systematic extensible ecological roles they perform”186 . The tems that affect physical and mental complete classification defines a states of people. and all these processes are having an effect on the provision of ecosystem services from forests. from Maes et al. The two They are the physical settings. The MAES analytical framework of Figures 16 and 17 ensures consistent approaches are used throughout the EU regarding mapping and assessment of ecosystem50. The classification is based on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES)185 . cultural services include the non-material outputs of forest ecosystems. functions and services. These actions are in synergy with the provisions of the EU Forest Strategy regarding enhancing forest biodiversity and forest multifunctionality184 . Mediation of flows (mass. The schema is based on the categori- sations proposed by the Common International Classification of Cultural section: it covers all the Ecosystem Services (CICES) and the non-material. 182 . such as timber. biomass. balanced way. These include decomposition.182 . occurs within forest ecosystems. 51. Fig. The framework links human societies and their well-being with the biophysical environment. is any change or reaction which from forest ecosystems. gaseous / air flows) Energy (biomass-based and Maintenance of biological. the mediation of flows in solids. In the EU. as well maintain forest productivity while increasing the provision of non-market the capacity to provide ecosystem services. At this juncture. greater concepts. regulating/maintenance biodiversity affect ecosystem functions and service delivery. target 2 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy183 aims to maintain and enhance ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructure and restoring at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems. production. They include the degradation of wastes and Strategy. and Action 7 launches an initiative to ensure no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Specifically.3047380). interactions influencing the provision of forest services requires the underlying factors and relations of these three concepts integrating the biophysical and socio-economic domain to be addressed. They can involve ensure the delivery of multiple market and non-market services in a forest services to society is sometimes neglected because their full value individual species. toxics and potable water) Maintenance other nuisances Materials (biomass. for instance.6084/ m9. 187. Regulating and maintenance services are derived nutrient cycling. forest disturbances are foreseen to increase (forest fires. https://dx. classification of those services. Mapping and Assessment of Ecosys- sumptive. Forest services that meets societal demands. and cultural services (Figure 17). non-potable water supply) liquid. In addition. organisms in forest ecosystems can mediate or moderate the ambient environment that affects human performance. and on MAES (Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services) approach50. symbolic and other interactions Cultural Fig. Action 5 improves the knowledge base on ecosystems and ecosystem services. management plays a fundamental role in multifunctional forest. invasive pests) and competing socio-economic demands for forest services can result in multiple drivers of forest change. ecosystem process. Action 6 sets priorities to restore ecosystems and promote the use of green infrastructure. CC-BY. 188 . 182. physical conditions Provisioning section: it covers all Regulating and maintenance section: nutritional. a simplified visualisation is proposed. water supply. is often not accounted in economic terms. 17: Source: Daniele de Rigo.

forest soil is an essential resource (e. an intensification of both phenomena may be possible in the Mediterranean region. for a scenario with a global temperature increase of 3. 36 and 26 million ha affected)241 . leading to more frequent and intense torrential rains in autumn with associated flash floods over the coasts and nearby mountain slopes and increased erosion150 . Kelley. http://archive. retaining and delivering nutrients to Middle: Example of deep rill. CC-BY. which might eventually vegetation cover. 243 . 235 . To compare. CC-BY. (Adapted from an image authored by Francesco Ciabatti. For example. forest systems are characterised by a complex breakdown of soil structure and to other processes such as an array of functions and feedbacks. It supports negative impact on the soil erosion process. forest soil also has the capacity to retain and release the loss of forest soil. It may be observed that beech trees are absent where the intensity of run-off causes high soil moisture or even occasional waterlogging. contributing to flood mitigation and water purification and it takes a fundamental part in biogeochemical cycles. In this particular example. Fig. the area burned by forest fires could more than double in Southern Europe. more generally. Soil erosion is also closely related with run-off. agricultural practices exposing in Europe are the main component of forest-related carbon stock. the overall amount of forest soil carbon deserves a European forested areas might be affected by less obvious potential specific focus. suggests a noticeable increment as the European mountain systems163. Weakened protection is offered during wintertime.9 billion tonnes240. in particular considering that Mediterranean soils are often already very thin and that the Mediterranean forest disturbances are predicted to increase due to climate change (e. This factor means that forest soils in these estimated to store about 2. 250 . http://archive. Similar circumstances may reduce the provision of soil protection ecosystem services by a forested area. no flooding-tolerant species appears to occupy the niche left empty by beech. In particular. Top: minor gullies converging in a beech forest (Fagus sylvatica). (Adapted from an image authored by Chris M. 19: Rills and incipient gullies of erosion within a forest of broadleaved trees. CC-BY. as a consequence of wildfires or pest spreads) have a providing critical ecosystem functions and services. with a subsequent unsustainable imbalance between soil formation and soil erosion rates. in the period 2071-2100. biotic and abiotic factors soil degradation is mainly caused by erosion by water (93 million It is not rare for European forests to have experienced for ha affected by at least moderate or higher degradation) followed decades an increment of tree biomass. Considering the current anthropogenic emissions of CO2 in Spain are almost equivalent to trends of land-use change and the corresponding vegetation- the carbon stored in Spanish forest soils238 . negatively affecting or even preventing the establishment of a new forest cover. In these cases. Therefore. the total soil organic carbon supporting European or negatively influence the precipitation-runoff relationship. Italy. Occasionally.5 °C. http://archive.g. etc. More changes in the climatic conditions can directly or indirectly affect generally.g. in forest soils has been found to significantly vary with site factors. after a clear-cut). grasslands. forests. may occasionally be subject of carbon stock of the soils235 . several four times the amount of carbon estimated to be stored in the Mediterranean areas experience an alternation of long-lasting biomass of Spanish forests. either can be a cause or an effect of the other93. tree roots influence water enhanced flood risk244-248 . water resources and the land use and such as local climatic zones44. Carbon stock in the forest floor and mineral soil also appears to be highly dependent on the local tree species. cattle crossing.indd 15 08/04/2016 11:06 . soil. suspended by all types of forests and tree species associations. physical and chemical larger trees potentially producing more litter. management are intrinsically linked. concentration appears to decrease with decreasing latitude237. shrublands and grasslands are often semi-arid or arid. However. Evidences suggest that in temperate and boreal forests it could be increased by 200. intense precipitation and subsequent run- off/waterlogging may remove as sediments the forest topsoil. The vegetation cover is able to positively considerations. composition and health. 241 . The loss of forest soil as a result of erosion processes leads to a decline in organic matter and carbon cycling. This trend highlights the worrying impact of additional forest soil losses in this region. a reduced productivity of forest resources. a Fig. forest soils resources (e. especially in the European areas with high erosion rates such estimated from 1950 to 2040. erosion may be unnoticed by non-experts due to the leaf litter and the geological irregularities of the terrain in mountainous areas (although litter dams may ease the identification of erosive phenomena). Forests above. Along with this risk. On the other hand. 18: In mountainous area. forests is estimated in the order of 12 billion tonnes. soils of forests. In turn. agroforestry and agriculture. 242 .is/lCSsD) Bottom: removal of trees within forest gullies may intensify erosion and slope instability. with more numerous and by wind erosion (39 million ha affected). Paired This remarkable service of forest soils is not uniformly provided catchment studies identified some alterations in runoff. Forests of soils and trees in the forests of several European countries. filtration and soil stabilisation. resources. interaction between soil and forest However.and below-ground: the water. This is areas can be less subject to erosion the enhanced susceptibility for a given landscape to generate mass movements. http://archive. Forest management may influence all these aspects. CC-BY. 20: Within forests. exposed on a track. although in Europe the soil carbon threats. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 15 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 249. the erosion of forest soil might progress in the gullies with a weakened protective effect by vegetation. soil resources in Europe may often be fragile. a figure to A healthy vegetation cover and good agroforestry practices compare with the total carbon stock of forest trees (whole tree) positively influence soil erosion while heavily perturbed forest estimated to be about 7. where the understorey has been removed close to a (Adapted from an image authored by Nociveglia. longer droughts may seriously affect the future forest cover and composition151. Fig.) and soil erosion (see the local composition of tree species239 . Vegetation cover. Morris.g. climate feedback. Carbon stock solid and nutrient fluxes due to management practices20 . The carbon budget degradation (respectively. (Adapted from an image authored by J. (Adapted from an image authored by NH53. A typical example is the relationship between vegetation 500 % in forest floors and by 40-50 % in top mineral soil by changing cover (e. a degraded vegetation land cover Beside carbon stock. the ongoing plant growth. in the last 29 years the droughts with intense rainstorm events. CC-BY.g. other saturate236 . to intense degradation where forest disturbances damage the Aside from this potential increment. apparently induced or intensified by human alteration of the forest topsoil. bare-soil or. compared with the period 1961-1990)104. Mediterranean areas generally show a less rainy climate - in Spain alone.500 million tons of carbon. In Europe. Irrespective of these also Figures 8-11). crops.

Box 2: Wildfires and adaptation strategies of forest tree species
Natural and human-caused fires associated with agriculture and grazing The same strategy is also adopted by some rock roses of the genus Cistus,
have historically defined the Mediterranean landscape203, 204 . Wildfires are which have seeds protected by thick teguments214, 215 . On the other hand,
not only destructive factors, but they can, if moderate and not frequent, the passive pyrophytes are plants adapted to avoid or limit fire damage.
increase the biodiversity and complexity of the Mediterranean vegetation These species can have thick or suberized barks which protect the cambium
communities205 . Mediterranean woody and scrub vegetation has been from heat damage, such as stone pine (Pinus pinea) or cork oak (Quercus
exposed to recurring fires for long periods206 , and has developed different suber). Some limit the exposure of the crown to fire thanks to rapid height
adaptation strategies to survive. Fire-adapted plants are defined as growth during the juvenile period or to a strong self-pruning habit which
pyrophytes (fire loving plants), in some cases requiring wildfire for their increases the height of the lowest part of the crown, adopted by various
reproduction. They can be divided into passive and active types in relation species of the genre Pinus. Others have leaves with low flammability
to the feed-back responses to fire205, 207. due to high water or ash content, or lower amounts of resins; e.g cypress
(Cupressus sempervirens) or many broadleaves216-218 .
The active pyrophytes are able to regenerate after a fire even if damaged.
Two main strategies are identified. One is vegetative regeneration through In Mediterranean climes, terpenoids play an important role in wildfires
re-sprouting from roots. These plants in fact store their nutrient reserves and vegetation dynamics. They are present in conifers and in several
underground where they are protected from fires, and are heliophilous, sclerophyllous plants rich in essential oils, increasing their flammability
so that the light of burnt areas stimulates their growth. Most of these rate. When in high concentration in litter, terpenoids also inhibit seed
trees and shrubs belong to the sclerophyllous vegetation group, such germination. Wildfires, by destroying these substances accumulated on the
as oaks (Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Quercus calliprinos, Quercus ground, promote the colonisation of new species, including the germination
pyrenaica), but also carob (Ceratonia siliqua), heath plants (Erica arborea, of seeds from the same plant that originally produced the terpenoids,
Erica australis), myrtle (Myrtus communis), mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), which needs fire for its regeneration219-221 .
Mediterranean buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus), etc.206, 208-211 . The other
active strategy is seed protection and the requirement for the stimulation The top right map enlargement shows clearly the damage caused by a single
fire of over 12 000 ha that occurred in Sweden in 2014, the largest fire of the
of fire to germinate. This is the case for some of the Mediterranean year and among the largest recorded anywhere in Europe in recent years88 .
conifers, such as Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Turkish pine (Pinus brutia)
and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), which are unable to re-sprout, but
develop cones which protect the seeds and which are opened by the heat
of fires (serotinous cones)206, 212, 213 .

Fig. 21: The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) was established jointly by the European
Commission (EC) services (DG ENV and JRC) and the relevant fire services in the EU Member States and the
Forest and Civil Protection services other countries222 as the EC focal point of information on forest fires.
The Rapid Damage Assessment module of EFFIS was set up to provide reliable and harmonised estimates
of the areas affected by forest fires during the fire season. The methodology and the spatial resolution of
the satellite sensor data used for this purpose can map all fires of about 40 hectares or larger. Although
fires smaller this are not mapped, the analysis of historical fire data has determined that the area burned
by wildfires of at least 40 ha accounts for about 75 % of the total area burnt every year in the Southern EU.

The figure shows the total cumulated burnt areas mapped by EFFIS from 2000 to 2015 across the entire
region covered. As expected, the regions with the most fires are in a band across southern Europe, and
the five most affected countries (Portugal, Spain, Mediterranean part of France, Italy and Greece) account
for around 85 % of the total burnt area each year222 . However, almost all countries have been affected,
at least in some years, by large fires of more than 40 ha. The northern regions such as UK, Ireland and
Scandinavia are not usually as affected the southern regions, but in dry years, especially in the early parts
of the season before the new green vegetation has started to sprout, large wildfires can occur.

This enlargement shows some the large fires that have
occurred in the last 15 years in Ireland and Scotland. Some
of these fires occur on peatland, and can be very difficult to
extinguish if the fire penetrates the surface and becomes a
smouldering fire.

The northern half of Portugal and parts of northern Spain are historically the The other most affected parts of Europe are concentrated around the Mediterranean region.
most affected regions with a significant proportion of the annual total burnt Particularly affected are the large islands (Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily), Greece and Croatia. Like
area recorded here. In these regions, the main fire season occurs in summer. the other most affected countries, the main fire season for these countries is in summer.

16 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 16 08/04/2016 11:06

Fig. 23: Forest fire in Degaña, Asturias, Spain in August 2009.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

Fig. 22: Serotinous cone opening after a fire.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

Box 3: Forest disturbances by wind and storms
Wind is a natural disturbance agent in forests189 . Although windstorms at
small scale constitute part of the forest ecosystem dynamics, catastrophic
windstorms or wind throws are possibly the most intense and economic
damaging abiotic agent in European forests. They are responsible for
more than 50 % of the primary damage to forest stocks in Europe179 .
Although information gathering on windstorm frequency and damage is not
comprehensive, since there is no European system in place for this purpose,
it is estimated that about 0.12 % of the standing volume of Europe is
damaged annually (1950-2010)190 . Over 275 wind storms were recorded in
Europe in the last 112 years, which means that, on average, nearly 2.5 wind
storms take place every year22, 191 .
Windstorm damage to forests is not only produced at the time of the storm,
when trees are broken or blown over by the wind speed and intensity, but
through subsequent agents that may affect the damaged area, which can be
biotic, such as pests and diseases that originate in the fallen trees (such as
bark beetle attacks), or fires, which may happen due to the large availability
of woody material (fuel) on the ground. Interaction between windstorms and
bark beetles has occurred historically192 .
The potential damage caused by windstorms to forests depends on a variety
of factors, including meteorological conditions, especially wind speed, soil
type and condition, tree species composition193 and forest management
practices. Trees with shallow roots are the most vulnerable; this vulnerability
increases if trees grow on sandy soils or very wet soils, and also with the
height of trees. In general, conifer species seem to be more vulnerable than
broadleaves, although vulnerability is also affected by forest management
and site conditions194 .
Windstorms often affect species composition and may accelerate tree
succession; they alter stand structure, diameter distribution and canopy gap
size within a forest195-197. However, the natural effects of windstorms are
often non-lasting. In intensively managed forests, often felled trees and the
affected areas replanted soon after the event, have a strong influence in
tree regeneration in the affected area198, 199 .
Despite the limitations in the way that climate change effects have been
modelled, predictions of future climate scenarios indicate a trend to an
increase in the number and intensity of wind storms in Europe200 and in
Fig. 24. Top left: Pine damaged by wind snap after a storm in Germany in 2013.
other world areas where they are already happening201 . However, forest (Copyright AnRo0002, CC0,
management and adaptation strategies can help in mitigating potential
Bottom left: Wind throw of pine after a storm in Germany in 2013
future wind storm damage202 . (Copyright AnRo0002, CC0,

Top right: Significant wind throw damage after a storm in Loch Bharcasaig, Scotland.
(Copyright Andrew, CC-BY,

Bottom right: Storm Gudrun struck Denmark and Sweden in January 2005. The
damage resulted in the creation of the world’s largest wood stockpile.
(Copyright Göranssons Åkeri AB i FÄRILA: AP)

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 17

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 17 08/04/2016 11:06

Box 4: Biotic disturbances: forest tree pests and diseases
Trees can be infected by a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, in counteracting their spread highlight how vectors can play a fundamental,
bacteria, fungi and insects. The European and Mediterranean Plant and largely unpredictable, role in promoting large scale epidemics (both X.
Protection Organization (EPPO) identified more than 150 quarantine fastidiosa and the PWN are transported from a host to another by flying
pests as locally present in the European and Mediterranean region. Most insects). For X. fastidiosa, this aspect is particularly compelling, since the
of the research on tree pests focuses on species having direct economical large number (some tens) of insect species capable of carrying the pathogen,
relevance. Yet, severe epidemics often involve species that, despite not combined with its very large host range (more than 300 plant species)
commercially valuable, occupy key positions in ecosystems. These events makes any intervention measure aiming at the eradication of the pathogen
may have profound negative effects on the ‘value’ of forests in a broad extremely difficult. A possible strategy would be that of selecting resistant
sense, weakening or hampering the ability of a forest to store carbon, hosts, as has been suggested for the common ash dieback, a lethal fungal
to reduce risk of floods and to purify water112 . In addition, there is an disease that represents a serious threat for European forests, due to the key
increasing recognition of an invisible network of species interactions that role played in ecosystems by the common ash232 .
is fundamental for ecosystem functioning223 . From this perspective, the
These paradigmatic cases also emphasize several problems in
detrimental effect pests may have on a few species could set in motion
communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere
a cascade of consequences eventually leading to a general reduction of
of society, and possible philosophical obstacles related to the common
species diversity.
negative public perception towards managing natural forests233 . In general,
A particular case much relevant to pest risk assessment is that of planted the management and prevention of epidemic spreads require coordinated
forests, which represent about 10 % of European forests in terms of actions that should go beyond the national scale, especially because one
area224 . Planted forests usually consist of one or few species, and are of the leading causes of epidemics is represented by the involuntary
increasingly threatened by both typical and newly emerging pathogens225 . transport of pathogens through international trade. Nevertheless, climate
Epidemics may have greater effects in planted forests than in natural ones, change clearly plays a fundamental role in promoting the spread and
due to the absence of the dilution effect typical of diverse ecosystems, increasing the virulence of alien pathogens, and so do human induced
which acts as a natural barrier for the spread of host-specific pathogens habitat alterations. Consequently, future conservation actions should
by lowering the probability of a pest individual to find a suitable host226 . necessarily target multiple threat drivers simultaneously234 .
Molecular techniques offer important new tools to tackle the problem Within this Atlas, each chapter focusing on specific tree species provides
of forest pests from new perspectives. In particular, they could help a section with a summary of main threats and diseases (see also chapter
to get a better grasp on pathogen virulence, host specificity and host How to read the Atlas). For further details (e.g. for host-pest and pest-host
susceptibility, making it possible to identify sensitive pests that could lists of the tree taxa which are susceptible hosts for a given mentioned
be harmful if moved to other regions, or under future climatic and/or pest or disease) and for a more detailed overview of main pests and
ecological scenarios227, 228 . diseases of European forest tree species, an extensive selection of
periodically updated literature is available in de Rigo et al78 .
Clearly, monitoring all possible pests is not feasible, so that a priority is
identifying potential pathways of introduction in order to prevent possible
future situations such as, for example, those caused by Xylella fastidiosa
in Italy229, 230 and by the pine wood nematode (PWN) in Portugal231 . These
two diseases are now creating great concern, and are both presumably
consequences of single involuntary introductions230, 231 . The strong difficulties

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Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 19

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 19 08/04/2016 11:06

. Bodensee in Steinach. rise. As an example. massive supporting columns are exploited. R. have set targets In the UK. The transition towards a more sustainable primary production at least consideration. in Germany and however the transition towards a true bioeconomy relies on a As a result of the adoption of functional building regulations and technological Italy. while the overall market of new sectors such as biomaterials and green chemistry. or made a breakthrough in the UK as a result of environmental policies. namely Germany (21.. use natural inputs.1 %). The remaining 42 % is exploited for energy and accounts for about 5 % of the total energy consumption in EU4 . lightness of wood making it possible to utilise building sites that could also induce a number of significant economic benefits. 1: Platforms may be based on pole frame structures (1a) or on panel elements (1b).0 %)5 . there are regional differences in the attitudes towards WMC. Forests and Europe’s economy electricity appliances. 20 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. which represents approximately 7 % of EU manufacturing GDP and nearly 3. and the and resource efficiency will certainly benefit the environment but materials such as steel and concrete6 . Canton of Traditional timber frame building in the Burgenstraße (Castle Road). (Copyright Norlando Pobre. the market share of WMC has remained low. the market share of wood-frame in residential construction amounts of energy and do not produce waste as all materials to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and are adopting legislative methods increased from 8 % in 1998 to 25 % in 2008. Ireland and the Alpine increasing in the 2000s. energy (see box on “Forest-based energy”) and bio-based products (see box on “Forest resources in bio- based products”). 1: Three different wood-frame multi-storey construction (WMC) techniques and corresponding key wood elements7. particularly so in the Nordic countries. food (see box on “The importance of non-wood forest products in Europe”). individual country targets. furniture. The forest industry includes products such as buildings (see box on “Wood in modern urban construction”). 2: In the post-and-beam technique. 2012 data). D. national building regulations are being revised towards to 30 % in 2007. However. Mubareka. driven by the small. and on average a greater and more sustainable use of renewable resources. as development. Thus. The volume of roundwood produced is strongly linked to the value added to the raw material (see Figure 3). F. Jonsson.8 %) and France (8. Different WMC techniques imply different industrial workflows. https://archive. including several final elements such as doors and ) Fig. Forest bio-based economy in Europe S. and has been fires. yet the regulations and attitudes plan aims at further shifting the European economy towards a larger number of storeys with a wooden frame is being allowed towards wood use vary from one province to another.4 billion Euro for 2012. as Box 1: Wood in modern urban construction with natural ecosystems. Pine logs. and also in Finland WMC is approaching a ten per cent market share7. WMC diffusion is dependent on regulatory framework and industry structure7. Cannock Chase. Sikkema A bio-based economy may be defined as one using “. However. has raised questions about St. stimulating the economy through encouraging innovation and Until the late 1980s. https://archive. the UK. Finland (10. countries. already has a market share of around 10 %6 . J. close to two thirds of which came from the five largest producing EU Member States. 3: Modular elements are instead directly manufactured at the factory. CC-BY. 58 % of harvested EU wood biomass is processed by EU forest-based industries. series of breakthroughs in technology and cost effectiveness. employing more than 22 functional criteria as opposed to prescriptive criteria. Likewise. textiles. Modified from Hurmekoski. Austria (8. due to the negative perceptions arising from historic city share of wood-frame in all construction increased from 1 % in 1990 The bioeconomy in Europe already exists. et al. and job creation. In Austria. packages. throughout Europe7. wood-frame is common in the single-family housing million people2 . with a 40 % market share. Overall. Sweden (16. Gallen. or CC-BY) (Copyright Thomas Quine. trade balance. residential WMC has reused in the ecosystem. Azevedo. production paradigms that rely on biological processes sector. Also in Ireland. (Copyright Jeremy Atkinson. which include the production of energy Timber Bridge Construction in Arbon. the use of wood for construction has been well as the pure availability of biomass2 . books. Rinaldi.3 %). de Rigo. In Sweden wood-frame multistorey construction (WMC) share of WMC could increase from 2 % to 10 % towards 20307. and it has been suggested that the market region of Europe7. southern Germany.”1 . expend minimum Many countries across Europe. UK. wood-framed buildings with more than two the building practice has been changing from on-site construction to building new and competitive industries through the emergence storeys were prohibited by building regulations in most European wood-frame off-site construction.indd 20 08/04/2016 11:06 .is/sdVn7) the sustainability of mobilising biomass for these purposes and the forest economy-environment-energy nexus. In many cases this has led to an increased use.5 million jobs. some 101 million m3 of sawnwood were produced in the EU-28 in 2013. from renewable sources in the EU. the share of wood-frame in multistorey construction is on the In Southern Germany. the market share in the WMC segment is still rather estimated at 2. magazines and newsprint. The important role of forests in reaching the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive targets. Switzerland. of wood as an alternative to conventional construction the rising interest towards WMC among the developers.7 The forest-based sector plays an important role within the (Copyright Elias Hurmekoski: AP) European Union (EU) in terms of value added. R. The values of sales for these products total to more than 200 billion Euro3 . but there are as yet no discarded by one process are inputs for another process and are to ensure that buildings and materials satisfy the requirements implicit in data on the WMC segment specifically. However. www. The Commission’s bioeconomy strategy and action Construction Products Directive adopted in the EU in 1988. CC-BY. encouraged by EU policies.2 %. such as not sustain corresponding buildings made of concrete.

mushrooms have traditionally been picked for self-consumption. pine nuts. (Copyright Maja Dumat.e. non-wood forest products such as berries. resin. In recent years. CC-BY. the Nordic common rights (right of public Chestnuts are a very important non-wood forest product of forests in In 1993-2013. This free access. https://archive. facilitated by a dense network of forest roads. Despite this. the first studies on mushrooms in the region were conducted with the purpose of assessing diversity. including workers from neighbouring countries and from as far as SE Asia11 . This activity is still mainly undertaken by locals. 14 . Italy. Germany. there is a general lack of regulation of the cultivation of these non-forest wood products12 . however. cork. berries sales have decreased as a result of urbanisation and aging of the rural population. CC-BY. CC-BY. At the same time. i. Top: Chestnut bur. workshops and other training initiatives by forest. in Finland 55 000 commercial mushroom pickers have been trained since the early 1970s. and within the limits of the village where they reside or the neighbouring village15 . chestnuts. cork. https://archive. contributed plant products. Population in cities have recently developed an interest in wild mushrooms which has led to the organisation of courses. Chestnut diseases such as “ink disease” and “chestnut (NWFPs) such as mushrooms. blight” and the newly arrived “chestnut gall wasp” (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) berries are among the most important from economic and social points of makes berry and mushroom picking an essential part of the way of life in are serious threats to this product. Latvia. level of inputs required in the chestnut systems have led to the recent (Copyright William Warby. processing and marketing of natural products. honey truffles and forests. or freedom to roam) grant access for picking Mediterranean countries. Raspberries. In the Mediterranean region. About one-third of berries and some one tenth of mushrooms picked in the Nordic countries enter the market. and seasons. CC-BY. For example. agriculture and environment associations. CC-BY) expansion of chestnut agro-forestry systems in some Mediterranean regions. regions to minimise the effects of these agents. the European average production of chestnuts has been access to the wilderness. Almost all the mushrooms picked locally have international markets as final destination including Spain. CC-BY. even from private agriculture systems. Among these. Although no official statistics are available for the production and trade in the region. productivity and the economic potential of mushrooms as a forest resource13. honey and truffles are of extreme importance to the economy. (Copyright Michela Simoncini. As a Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 21 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. as well as low berry prices. https://archive. France. https://archive. chestnuts. more than 10 % of the global production18 . Bottom: Understorey of Vaccinium myrtillus in a coniferous forest. The high market price of chestnuts and the low 130 000 tonnes per year. during the past decade. and Italy. usually self-employed or retired elderly woman. Top: Blueberry picking. Localised research (for example17) and view. commercial berry picking (Copyright Yuri Timofeyev. Italian white (Copyright Inga Vitola. This region is one of the few in the country where there is a strong local knowledge concerning wild (and even cultivated) mushrooms. Bottom: Chestnuts. mushrooms are estimated to contribute 5 to 10 million Euro to the local economy every year. CC-BY. non-wood forest products such as mushrooms. picking. As an example. Sales tax and income tax exemptions on selling berries and mushrooms picked by an individual continue to be key incentives for commercial picking. Truffle hunter with his dog. The FAO has classified NWFPs into two broad categories: animal and rural areas of the Nordic This process is favoured by the movement of people from the countryside Variety of mushrooms found in the forests of Priekuļi. commercial picking has become a very important economic activity in the region since the 1980s. pine nuts. Thanks to this strong tradition and a rich stock of mushrooms. to cities in the region and abroad and by the abandonment of traditional services throughout Europe. In several European ) truffles are highly sought after and have high value. https://archive. Box 2: The importance of non-wood forest products in Europe Forests systems are responsible for a diversity of very valuable ecosystem In northern Europe. relied largely on migrant pickers. https://archive. Tuscany. individually or in groups of (Copyright Maja Dumat. in the Northeast of Portugal. This activity has provided significant income for families and individuals on an annual basis. Non-Wood Forest Products mushrooms and other non-wood forest products (NWFP). Formal education in mushrooms has been offered in the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança since 199116 .indd 21 08/04/2016 11:06 . the Nordic common rights allow access for picking berries. of NWFPs to provide additional income vary widely between (Copyright Ragnar Jonsson. Opportunities in the sale and processing forest extension promoted by forest associations has. Earlier interventions to promote NWFP utilisation have included training in identification.

this industry provides 1. The industry is going through structural changes. data refer to 2007. Latvia and Luxembourg. For Fig. For Greece. For Hungary and Malta. The short-term patterns of the actual evolution may be complex since they are subject to several sources of local fluctuations. while the consumption trend for graphic paper is a decreasing one. Lithuania and the Netherlands. First. the transition to the industrial society and economy. toward a bio-based economy. with a recycling rate that increased from 40% in 1991 to 72% by 2014. Recycling plays an important role within this industry. Portugal and Norway data are provisional. Indeed.indd 22 08/04/2016 11:07 . (Copyright jaymethunt. 3: Roundwood production in 2012 and gross value added of forestry and logging. adding 15 billion euros to the Gross Domestic Product of the European Union. (Copyright sonja_paetow. 4: Integrated forest resources management within the context of a bio-based economy. paper is the most recycled product in Europe. data refer to 2011. 2: Qualitative evolution from the pre-industrial society to two subsequent transitions. CC0. CCO. Corrugated cardboard. Recovered paper make up 54% of the raw material used in the paper industry34 . https://archive. (Author: Daniele de Rigo) Box 3: Pulp and Paper Industry The pulp & paper industry is an important industry within the forest-based bioeconomy of Europe. France. The qualitative future trend will also depend on the cumulative feedback effect due to different potential technology and policy scenarios. the available data refer to 2006.5 million jobs in the value chain. Thus. The trade-off emerges considering different optimisation frameworks. Fig. Two extreme frameworks optimise policy / management options towards classic economic optimum (forestry marked economics and other provisioning services of forest resources) or instead towards pure forest ecosystem conservation / restoration (maximising non- monetary forest ecosystem services). consumption of paper for sanitary and packaging purposes is rising. (Author: Daniele de Rigo) 22 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Intermediate efficient options to support policy and society decisions may emerge with a multi-criteria framework for integrated forest resources modelling and management. data refer to 2009. For Italy. Qualitative trade-off between monetary and non-monetary benefits. https://archive. Waste paper for recycling. (Source: Eurostat5) Fig. Using some 150 million cubic meters of wood per annum.

Revision 253698 of ch. K. also associated with considerable costs27. Bosco. Bio-based materials should Public on-line Consultation (Publications Superior Agrária do Instituto Politécnico de Bragança. IEEE Earthzine 7. P. M. Running Pure: The importance of forest protected areas to the risk of both erosion and slope instability32 . e. Ireland. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Sawatdeenarunat.. T. ThinkForest (European Forest Institute. S. In a wider Economic and Social Committee and the [21] T. G. Surendra. 119 (2006). rep. pp. providing a science-based support to critical policy and Please. Houston Durrant. A few examples of this low-value. [24] K. T. Journal of Economic provide to the society. This QR code points to the full online version. pp. the soil layers of forests have a high filtering em soutos e castinçais de Trás-os-Montes. Sung. Canuti. A shift towards bio-based products can lower and the bioeconomy: future steps”. 310 (2011).-F. J. Directorate- General for Research and Innovation . as injection moulding for musical instruments. Forest bio-based economy in Europe. In Europe. industry/sector). The targets for renewable energy have resulted in a surge in the use of wood pellets within the EU. Parliament. P. (Copyright Richard Sikkema. Azevedo. M. et al.6 % compared with 200919. The EU-28 is the largest global producer of wood pellets. Caudullo. Jonsson. S. composed of materials of biological origins. be able to replace fossil fuels on a large scale for chemicals and materials Office of the European Union. 231 (2013). the Netherlands and Sustainability 8. vol. 275 (1999). and energy crops10 . Communication discarded by one process become inputs for another process. together along with the ecosystem services which forests can of forest residues in bio-refineries8 . Publ. ) Relationship between bioeconomy and non. BioScience 62. [8] RoK-FOR Project. J.g. Shrestha. C. Poesen. Y. 910137+ (2014). our dependence on fossil fuels. highlighted by the clear monetary value of some forest biomass9. CC-BY). O. Development services provides a non-monetary benefit which requires France. Vranken. (Communication from the Commission to Ecological Economics 95. 29576+. lakes. society decisions. M. framework to be properly assessed22-24 . L. 28 and the impact of [10] K. United Kindgom. E3146 (2012). Left: Forest-based production of wood pellets. Products are considered “bio-based” if they are either wholly or partially 2 Summary of position papers received in gestão de recursos florestais na Escola response to the European Commission’s energy and bio-based assets. J. C. de Rigo. chapter). 26 . Poesen. or explicitly manage forests for watershed protection33 . cite as: (Copyright Agnieska Ovaskainen: CC-BY) Mubareka. in Information and Communication both erosion and slope instability hazards may occur together Industrial Biotechnology 11. Annals of reducing the potential erosion caused by rainfall30. Bosco. R. in food. 2015).. 2011). Landslides are (2014). R.. B. forests provide important non. 181 (2015). (Copyright Andrew_Writer. the European and Biorefining 5. no. Lasserre. Yan. 323 (2013). production in the EU-28 rose by 97. the United Nations. 40–41 (2013). These range [7] E. Furthermore. Poesen. Baveye. the monetary Large quantities of different types of base or platform chemicals can Committee of the Regions . for cups. 465–480 [29] C. Sikkema. A. indirect costs. et al. shrub of (2012). the Netherlands and Belgium. Sallustio. Bosco. 2015). This is an extended summary of the chapter. Research innovation summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related on both forest bioeconomy and ecosystem services may thus main topics. Nebe. The EU-28 is a net importer of wood pellets: the level of imports from non-EU Member States rose to 6. Vandekerckhove. State of Mediterranean understorey and ground-layers) make a significant contribution to forests 2013 (FAO. forest strategy: for forests and the forest- benefits associated with the bioeconomy may be considered be isolated or produced from wood. from municipal and industrial organic wastes. Panagos. C. 2013). G.. ecosystem services (e. Pimentel. Gowdy. 141 (2006). Khanal.. drinking water (World Bank / WWF Alliance [14] A. L. 250 (2011). Den Eeckhaut. These few examples among many underline the tight relationship between environmental economics and conservation/ Timber stack.. Vila Real (1989). Jonsson. N. A. J. which was an overall increase of a staggering 267. A. Tech. However. Terhorst. According to the European Commission.. Scarlat. S. [25] G. The multiple layers of vegetation [11] Y.indd 23 08/04/2016 11:07 . Geomorphology plates and utensils by mixing natural fibres and plastics. K. “Forestry statistics in detail”. https://archive. Part of the remaining water supplies relies on rivers. bio-based products and biofuels represent approximately EUR 57 billion [4] European forest ecosystems. a significant part of forest ecosystem and cosmetic industries (tree sap). unfortunately leading to surprisingly high direct and (2015). biorefineries may replace our main source of energy and materials: and Sweden. In countries such as Germany. Environment. There is a partial overlap between these biopolymers. (2012). et al. León. Ferrario. Azevedo. as phenol substitutes through liquefaction or pyrolysis of 2013). recreational activities and the tourism “Forestry statistics”. Tavone. Bioproducts in annual revenue and involve 300 000 jobs.. 103 (2015). The purpose of this both monetary and non-monetary aspects. 2009). J.). Cortez. Right: wood pellets. 43 (2012). EU. ThinkForest seminar “Forests Nations. last category are summarised below. Highland. J. J. where the most contribute to integrated modelling and management of forest updated content may be freely accessed. C. This depends on the efficient conversion of feedstocks. its monetary and non-monetary impacts25. eds. One of the major sources of damage to soil resources in residues. COM(2013) 659 final [22] P. Forest soil [13] J. Sikkema. According to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans. sub-canopy or midstorey. the Council. FAOSTAT (Food and processing products and ultimately resulting in reduced resource-use Agriculture Organization of the United some crucial aspects linked to sustainability and to minimising [3] L. restoration efforts focusing on key functional aspects of healthy (Copyright David Wright. 52 of School of a sometimes quite challenging21 multi-criteria economic petroleum. energy consumption and waste material production. Slowly.Part [16] J. Methods such as fermentation and biological catalysts [2] N. often Technology and Design Reports (Växjö [27] L. Germany. D.. [32] 2014). C. Hurmekoski. accounting for around half of the total renewable energy consumption. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. Sassa. Van University. whose water quality critically depends on land use within the catchments33 . C. [5] Eurostat. Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. 2003). Natural Hazards and Earth in a typical forest (canopy. Materials and Bioenergy pp.6 % overall between 2009 and 2013. from the commission to the European [20] R. (Springer International Publishing.g. [15] M. water dams and reservoirs. Inventário de cogumelos for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Moreover. pulping liquors and different types based sector. [34] CEPI Key statistics 2014: European Pulp and Paper Industry pollutants32 . Carvalheira. In Sweden and Denmark. C. Baveye. [12] G. Proceedings of the National perspective on the overall role of forest resources. Anais da Associação Micológica A Pantorra S. Garcia. D.. Dallemand. 2016. 65 % of public water supplies come from groundwater.4 million tonnes by 2013. Azevedo. [28] M. Meneses. Nita. M. Bio-based products B. Sander. Statistics Division. biomass used for heating. Prospects for timber frame in 29. cooling and electricity would supply about two-fifths of the 20 % renewable energy target for 2020. Klose. Verstraeten. Master’s thesis. L. Europe.. The full version of these efforts may require an integrated perspective focusing on this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Vila Real (1990). 2015). pp. Gerasimov. drink [6] R. resources. D. Vida Rural pp. Biofuels. C. 177 pp. or so that they can be reused in the ecosystem. Kirchhoff. thus increasing efficiency in Development 15. a forest bio-based economy already considers replace traditional chemical approaches. many European forest authorities explicitly mention watershed functions within their plans33 . Ensino em resources considering the wide variety of industry products. de Rigo. 2012). [19] Eurostat. Perspectives 26. [26] D. its output reaching an estimated 13. wood pellets are exclusively used in heat production for the residential sector while the industrial use for power generation prevails in the United Kingdom. Vizzarri. e01a52d+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 23 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. pp. P. Växjö.. Jonsson. [30] D. CC-BY. 744 two concepts... is due to soil erosion by rainfall and runoff and [9] Y. 31 . Nord. 1195+. CC-BY.2 million tonnes in 2013. Damm. with even greater effects29 . into high-value biofuels and bio-based products. Sweden. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. F. de Rigo. Marchetti. detail. https://archive. 225 (2015). (Eds. Hausman. Aside from the monetary value associated with forest State of play and future potential . macrofungos em povoamentos de and topsoil are also able to reduce the surface runoff mitigating castanea sativa em Trás-os-Montes. System Science 15. B. M. Making boreal forests [31] C. Technology 359. Inventário de Silvicultural Research 38 (2014). to agricultural and forest Technological Forecasting and Social Change 99. work for people and nature. F. Use. [33] N. Science of The Total Environment 447. R. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. F. Portugal (Universidad de León. the amount of wood used for energy purposes in the EU would be equivalent to today’s total wood harvest4 . Depending on the society and policy needs. Mauri. both sectors are well established20. 3 (2015). Azevedo. Forest products can be used in the Council and the European Parliament. Environmental [18] Food and Agriculture Organization of As discussed. capacity regarding most of the chemical components of Master’s thesis. Zhao. et al. and toxic waste production. Several of the main European cities either obtain a significant proportion of their drinking water from protected forest areas. Bio-based economy in Europe: 6. monetary services to the economy and society (see previous Luxembourg. V. Monforti- [17] E. M. Rinaldi. J.. Chan. Journal of Biobased 2014). Dudley. de Rigo. J. Gouveia. Van Turnhout. Box 4: Forest-based energy Forest-based woody biomass is currently the most important source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU). IFIP Advances S. et al. Dewitte. Revision 225852 of emphasising the role of chaining processes so that materials ch. If achieved. Barrow Haven. Austria and Italy. [23] J. J. applications. 661–667. C. Luxembourg. P. Off. Yin. Box 5: Forest resources in References monetary aspects of forest ecosystem services bio-based products [1] European Commission. Hetemäki.A new EU Academy of Sciences 109. anaerobic digestion-based multi-storey house building in England.

They share several characteristics of the boreal (Copyright Jean Latour. European forests: an ecological overview D. Evaporation exceeds precipitation. Houston Durrant. CC-BY.I. mild winters with an annual rainfall of 400-900 mm.g. 2 . but some may be found on the northern coast of Turkey. variety of effects on the surrounding microclima. 1: A key factor in the local variability of ecosystems is the influence of water bodies. “Mountain systems” are classified as a separate Ecological Zone in each domain and are characterised by a high variation in both vegetation formations and climatic conditions1. north-eastern Spain and parts of central south-east Italy. they may contribute to mitigate the temperature range inducing a with Köppen-Trewartha climatic types. temperature and rainfall27. and Polar. Found throughout the Mediterranean Basin. The Subtropical Humid Forest zone has high humidity every month with annual rainfall usually over 1  000 mm distributed throughout the year. The temperate domain covers a large area across mainland similar. Boreal and Polar. a given forest or woodland grows10-17. France. Europe and is subdivided into Temperate Oceanic Forest. The Saar river influences part (Tropical is absent). 28 . In the Subtropical Steppe zone. which are based on temperature and rainfall27. Subtropical Dry Forest. Even at the regional Temperate Oceanic Forest is typically found on the western or and country scale. The annual rainfall may vary quite significantly from 400-800 mm in lowlands For its Global Forest Resources Assessment. At the first level a total of five domains are distinguished Temperate Mountain Systems are found in the Alps and the Top: Subtropical dry ecological zone. 2. evaporation generally exceeds precipitation.being a factor e. 27. Boreal Pyrenees in Europe. parts of the Mediterranean Basin and vegetation is dominated by shrubs adapted to arid environments. The vegetation stabler pattern. exploited by a rich variety of applications11-13. These regions are found at the southern Fig. Temperate Steppe and Temperate Mountain global and continental scale by the ecological zone where Systems. The vegetation may be quite varied depending on the altitude. The average monthly temperature is always core differences in local forest ecosystems18-22 . 27. Four of these domains can be found in Europe (Tropical is absent). T. which are based on 400 mm per year). 2: FAO ecological zones for forest reporting (2010).is/2XBaO) At the second level. It occurs throughout the southern regions of Europe and is divided into Subtropical Humid Forest. deciduous broadleaved forest or mixed forest: a typical example in Europe is oak-hornbeam in Central Europe. Barredo Ecosystems may be classified into a variety of groups or Temperate domain zones according to their homogeneity1-9 . Vegetation may comprise evergreen broadleaved forest. above 0 °C and there is adequate rainfall in all seasons. precipitation is also used to subdivide the domains into a total of 20 subclasses. The FAO Ecological Zones Temperate Steppe is found in the deep interior of the continent Fig. exposure and humidity. Subtropical Dry Forest is the typical Mediterranean climate with dry. The FAO zoning is forest. the classification of FAO is summarised and a shorter frost-free season and at least one month having complemented by a qualitative analysis of the secondary average temperatures below 0 °C. vegetation is pine forest. 24 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. typical vegetation is sclerophyllous evergreen forest. and influence the local geomorphology . CC-BY. Polar Temperate mountain system Subtropical mountain system Subtropical Mountain systems can be found in the southern Boreal tundra woodland Temperate steppe Subtropical steppe mountain regions of Europe and the Middle East. Temperate Continental Forest may be found in the interior and eastern areas of the continent. Subtropical domain The subtropical domain is generally characterised by having on average at least 8 months above 10 °C. Introduction Boundaries of the Ecological Zones approximately coincide with Köppen-Trewartha climatic types. is dominated by grass and low shrubs. may exercise a Boundaries of the Ecological Zones approximately coincide and is characterised by cold winters and relatively low rainfall (200. An Ecological The temperate domain lies in a region where average Zone may be defined as an area with broad yet relatively temperatures above 10 °C can be found from 4 to 8 months of the homogeneous natural vegetation formations that are year. These components have been derived latitudes. J. Rainfall generally European area as subordinate constituents of the local decreases with distance from the ocean and also at the higher forest ecosystems. Beside providing additional humidity. the Food and up to 2 000-3 000 mm on windward lower coastal mountain slopes. Similar to the Oceanic zone the main vegetation cover is by means of a robust fuzzy analysis of climatic similarity26 . Relatively few regions of Europe can be classified as Subtropical Humid Forest.indd 24 08/04/2016 11:07 . of which 12 can be found across the European continent. the distribution of environmental and windward side of the continent and has the mildest climate of the ecological zones may contribute to the understanding of four temperate zones. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) produced The main vegetation type in these areas is deciduous broadleaved a global ecological zoning classification1. There is a larger annual range ecozone components which may coexist in a given of temperatures than in the Oceanic zone. Boreal mountain system Temperate continental forest Subtropical dry forest Boreal coniferous forest Temperate oceanic forest Subtropical humid forest Note: Only the main ecological components are represented. woodland and shrub. in shaping the slope of mountain and hill sides. 17. evergreen coniferous forest and deciduous forest. Subtropical. precipitation is also used to subdivide the domains into a total of 20 subclasses. Caudullo. of northeastern France and western Germany. for example maquis dominated by Quercus ilex. de Rigo. Water resources. based on temperature: Tropical. At the first level a total of five domains are distinguished based on temperature: Tropical. of which 12 can be found across the European continent. Subtropical Steppe and Subtropical Mountain Systems. Temperate. "Mountain systems" are classified as a separate Ecological Zone in each domain and are characterized by a high variation in both vegetation formations and climatic conditions1. http://archive. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Temperate. with In this chapter. although not necessarily identical. At the second level. 28 . Temperate Several key aspects of forest resources are influenced at the Continental Forest. Typical Bottom: Temperate oceanic ecological zone. http://archive. (Copyright Wolfgang Staudt. In Western Europe a typical example is beech. Subtropical. 2. Four of these domains can be found in Europe zone and are snow covered for large parts of the year. such as lakes or rivers. 23-25 . hot summers and humid. Winters are colder.

CC-BY. In Boreal Coniferous Forests the summers are short with at most 3 months having temperatures above 10 °C. and is typified by dense coniferous forests. The name taiga has been given to the subarctic lands of Eurasia with their extensive coniferous forests. Along the mountain ridge. the water body on the right and the partial wind protection offered by the corresponding valley allow a boreal coniferous forest component to Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 25 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. https://archive. Boreal Coniferous Forest and Boreal Mountain systems. Climatic conditions are similar to the Boreal Coniferous Forest zone but are colder and more extreme with very low winter temperatures and permafrost. CC-BY. Orography. CC-BY. However. domain is characterised by a large annual range of temperatures. average availability of core undisturbed patches40-43). their left bank) and grassland (left side of the picture) is clearly connected with the aspect of the banks. dominated by spruce and fir in northern Europe and western Siberia. Boreal mountain systems may be found in parts of Norway and the eastern part of the Russian Federation. See also Figure 6. https://archive. Temperatures are extremely cold and there is continuous permafrost. slope. At very local scale. where it meets the Polar domain. the impact of differential solar radiation. Human influence is evident in the complex patchiness of pastures/grassland fragmenting the forests in the lower part of the valley. Winters are long and cold. Top: canton of Bern. Forest areas and grassland alternating along the peaks of a mountain ridge. pine shrubland (right side of the two small valleys. Romania. usually below 500 mm. and larch in central and eastern Siberia.indd 25 08/04/2016 11:07 . Species are similar to those found in the Boreal Coniferous Forest zone. the transition between sparse trees (right of the picture). There are no sub-divisions in this domain as it is generally only very sparsely vegetated. shadow side of the peaks) and grassland/sparse vegetation (sunny side and saddle landforms).is/AxnHo) Bottom: Retezat Mountains. In the foreground. Geographically this zone covers the northern part of Eurasia. but the vegetation cover is more open. i. This domain is found across the northern regions of Eurasia and is subdivided into Boreal Tundra woodland. a dominant ecological component of boreal tundra woodland is visible. Fig. Switzerland. Vegetation comprises open woodlands and scrub. Polar domain In the Polar domain there are months with average temperatures below 10 °C throughout the year. average connectivity and fragmentation of forest/shrub Middle: Northern Sweden subarctic landscape. Boreal Tundra occurs at the northern limit of the Boreal zone. or subarctic. prevailing wind direction and intensity.e. dominant winds and peak-induced rain shadow effects may contribute to the regularity of the pattern of forests (in the picture. (Adapted from an image authored by Vasile Cotovanu. Boreal domain The boreal. See also Figure 5. (Adapted from an image authored by Horia Varlan. with one to four months with average temperatures above 10 °C and generally low levels of rainfall. 3: Local-scale pattern of ecological components. https://archive. In Europe there is a small Polar region in the very northern tip of Scandinavia. Wider scale ecosystem characteristics may be influenced by these details (for example. (Adapted from an image authored by Alexander Cahlenstein. aspect and the presence of surrounding peaks influencing the local solar radiation and rain shadow effects are among the factors able to alter vegetation at very local scales by affecting the local pattern of disturbances and the availability of resources.

indd 26 08/04/2016 11:07 . Polar Boreal Tundra Boreal Mountain 26 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.

Boreal Coniferous Temperate Mountain Temperate Steppe Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 27 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 27 08/04/2016 11:07 .

indd 28 08/04/2016 11:07 . Temperate Continental Temperate Oceanic Subtropical Mountain 28 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.

Subtropical Steppe

Subtropical Dry Forest

Subtropical Humid Forest

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 29

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 29 08/04/2016 11:07

Fig. 5: The transition between different bioclimatic conditions and ecosystems
(even within the same ecological zone) may occasionally happen along sharp
boundaries. Slovakia, Western Carpathians. The sides of this mountain ridge
show a sudden transition between a dense coniferous forest and a grassland
with sparse trees. Different solar radiation, dominant winds and induced rain
shadow effects may contribute to this kind of transition along mountain ridges
(see also Figure 3). Anthropogenic factors such as delimited pastures may also
induce or reinforce these sudden transitions. The different ecosystems may
even influence the local micro-climate: for example, coniferous forests may
have a lower albedo than areas with predominant grassland - with subsequent
differential radiation/warming feedbacks10, 29, 30 .
(Adapted from an image authored by Ján Sokoly, CC-BY,

FIg. 4: The transition between ecological zones sometimes happens within
relatively low distances.

Top: Italy, geographic sudden transition between the Alps (temperate
mountain system) and the Po valley (whose sparse forests are
predominantly characterised by a temperate oceanic climate). Although this
transition may be smoother in other areas of the Alps, in the picture the
urban/agricultural landscape (foreground, Schio, Italy) lies at an elevation
of less than 300 m above sea level while the mountain peaks (background,
at a distance of few kilometres) are more than 1000 m higher. Ecological
zones classified according to the Global Forest Resources Assessment of
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO FRA) 1, 2.
(Adapted from an image authored by Doc Searls, CC-BY,

Middle: France, Massif Central, Puy de Sancy (foreground) and the contiguous
plain with low elevation hills (background). Even in this case, the sudden
transition is between temperate mountain ecosystems to temperate oceanic
forests. The transition is smoother in other areas of the Massif Central.
(Adapted from an image authored by Patrice, CC-BY,
Fig. 6: Norway, Femundsmarka National Park at the transition between the ecological zone of the boreal
Bottom: Wider scale view of the Alpine transition between the temperate mountain system and that of the boreal coniferous forests.
mountain system and the surrounding plains hosting fragmented temperate
oceanic forests. Top: Compared to the sometimes sudden transitions highlighted in Fig. 4, in this region the component of
(Adapted from an image authored by Francisco Antunes, CC-BY, boreal coniferous forests may show a smoother shift towards the boreal mountain component.
(Adapted from an image authored by Mahlum, PD,

Bottom: Detail of a typical forest ecosystem in the region.
(Adapted from an image authored by Robert Anders, CC-BY,

30 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 30 08/04/2016 11:07

Pages 26-29: Temperate continental zone: mixed broadleaved forest on Veľká homoľa mountain near
Polar zone: polar shrub vegetation in Sør-Varanger (Finnmark, Norway). Modra (Bratislava, Slovakia).
(Copyright Soldatnytt, CC-BY, (Copyright Ján Sokoly, CC-BY,

Boreal tundra zone: shrub tundra vegetation in northern Kola Peninsula (Murmansk, Temperate oceanic zone: mixed broadleaved forest along Ystwyth river (Ceredigion,
Russia). Wales).
(Copyright Ninara, CC-BY, (Copyright Ruben Holthuijsen, CC-BY,

Boreal mountain zone: boreal forests on the side of the cliff over the Aurlandsfjorden Subtropical mountain zone: mediterranean mixed forest on mountain area of the
(Sogn, Norway). Pollino National Park (south Italy).
(Copyright Stan, CC-BY, (Copyright Brian Gratwicke, CC-BY,

Boreal coniferous zone: coniferous forest by Hundtjärnen lake near Floda (Dalarna, Subtropical steppe zone: steppe dry grassland on Djurdjura Massif of the Tell Atlas
central Sweden). chain (Kabylie, Algeria).
(Copyright Taxelson, CC0, (Copyright Atif Rafik, CC-BY,

Temperate mountain zone: mixed broadleaved and coniferous stands in the Black Subtropical dry forest zone: sclerophyllous evergreen vegetation on the coasts of the
Forest (Freiburg, Germany). Fethiye Gulf (Muğla, south-western Turkey)
(Copyright ilovebutter, CC-BY, (Copyright Jorge Franganillo, CC-BY,
Fig. 8: Romania, Transsylvania, Fanatele Oroiului. A meadow-steppe
grasslands in the temperate continental ecological zone. This landscape
Temperate steppe zone: steppe grasslands near Poltava (Poltava Oblast, Ukraine). Subtropical humid forest zone: mixed broadleaved and coniferous forest on the side of shows components of temperate steppe and the beginning of some
(Copyright Vlad Butsky, CC-BY, Pontic Mountains near Trabzon (Trebisonda, Turkey). characteristics from the temperate mountain system.
(Copyright Aleksasfi, PD,
(Copyright Alexandru Badarau, AP, )

Local ecology characterisation by means of This implies the existence of forest areas where the main
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tropical desert scrub woodland forest forest forest forest forest

super- perarid arid semi- sub- humid per- super- This is an extended summary of the chapter. The full version of
arid arid humid humid humid this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at The purpose of this
summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related
humidity provinces main topics.
This QR code points to the full online version, where the most
Fig. 7: Holdridge Life Zones updated content may be freely accessed.
Please, cite as:
de Rigo, D., Houston Durrant, T., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., 2016.
European forests: an ecological overview. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz,
J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.),
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg,
pp. e01e873+

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 31

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 31 08/04/2016 11:07

European forest classifications
G. Caudullo, S. Pasta, F. Giannetti, A. Barbati, G. Chirici

Phytosociology The sector of phytosociology which deals with vegetation system (EUNIS), available at
dynamics and aims at detecting successional series is known This database provides information about European habitat
Phytosociology is a rather young discipline which started
as symphytosociology. The vegetation series (or sigmetum) classification, data sheets on species, habitats and designed
in Europe in the early decades of the last century with the
is a group of spatially and/or temporally interconnected protected sites compiled in the framework of Natura 20008 ,
Swiss botanist and ecologist Josias Braun-Blanquet1 . This
vegetation units that may co-occur in different succession and species mentioned in relevant international conventions
discipline is focused on describing plant communities through
stages or steps within the same place. Progressive succession and in the IUCN Red Lists. The EUNIS habitat classification
a multi-purpose approach, taking into consideration different
is the natural dynamic process from pioneer to mature and is a hierarchical classification of the terrestrial, freshwater
parameters such as species composition, frequency, cover,
stable communities (the so-called ‘climax’ or head series), and marine habitats for the whole of Europe9 . Up to now this
structure (tree, shrub, herb, moss layers), spatial distribution
while regressive succession is a disruptive process from classification provides a pan-European reference set of units
(the so-called sociability; i.e. causal, clumped, etc.). The aim
more complex communities to open and less developed plant for meeting requirements in policy objectives and in supporting
of phytosociology is to provide effective synthetic information
assemblages; the latter mostly issues from intense and/or applications that relate to biodiversity monitoring and reporting.
about plant communities in order to assign them to different
frequent anthropogenic disturbance. A crosswalk from the EUNIS habitats at level 3 to the European
and recognisable units called syntaxa. Syntaxa are then
In the last century a very large body of phytosociological phytosociological syntaxa and vice-versa is also available10 .
grouped hierarchically within a classification system which
literature has been published, and a variety of schools with
is ruled by the ICPN (International Code of Phytosociological European Forest Types
different approaches formed, especially in southern and eastern
Nomenclature)2 . Phytosociologists usually collect data through
Europe, while this approach found no or little consensus in the The European Forest Types (EFTs) scheme has been
vegetation relevés recording the species occurrences within
United Kingdom and in north European countries. Recently the developed by an international consortium of experts with the aim
selected plot areas using a semi-quantitative cover-abundance
European Vegetation Survey, a working group established in to create a user-friendly classification system. It is, in fact, able
scale. Collected data are then analysed looking for similarities
1992, joined European phytosociologists in order to develop to facilitate understanding, interpretation and communication of
and dissimilarities in order to detect distinct vegetation types.
common standards, organize scientific meetings and survey data on indicators describing the status and trends of forests,
More recently several numerical models have been developed,
programmes, and to produce shared protocols and publications5, and forest management in Europe. The EFTs is a hierarchical
which help to identify dominant and diagnostic species, to 6
( In the first overview of vegetation units, classification consisting of 14 categories, including 78 forest
evaluate species-richness and species-evenness, and which can
80 classes, 233 orders and 928 alliances have been detected types11-13 . The 14 categories represent groups of ecologically
lead to a more objective classification of vegetation units3 .
all over Europe7. distinct forest communities dominated by specific assemblages
The hierarchical classification foresees, as the botanical
of trees, including introduced tree species, while the types
one, different ranks. The association is the basic vegetation EUNIS Habitat Classification correspond to a finer level of division of the category in terms
unit: it represents a plant community defined by a particular
The European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (ETC/BC), an of tree species composition. The EFTs is, therefore, a flexible
and uniform floristic composition and habitat structure, where
international consortium working with the European Environment system to compare forest information on ecologically similar
a relative constancy or abundance of characteristic species is
Agency (EEA), developed the European nature information forests, unlike other classification systems that present an
recognisable (called also diagnostic or dominant), which can
describe the community and its ecology. The upper units are
a group of lower ones, which share one or more diagnostic RANK SUFFIX EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
and dominant species4 . Each unit is assigned a scientific name Class -etea Quercetea ilicis All the evergreen woody plant communities of the Mediterranean basin.
and is defined with compound names formed by one or two
Order -etalia Quercetalia ilicis All the Mediterranean forests dominated by evergreen broadleaved trees.
scientific names of the dominant and diagnostic plant species
with a different suffix for each rank2 . Alliance -ion Quercion ilicis All the Mediterranean forests dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex).
Association -etum Aceri campestris- Mixed wood dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex) and several deciduous
Quercetum ilicis broadleaved species typical of the North-Western Sicilian calcareous
mountains in the meso- and supra-Mediterranean bioclimatic belts.

Table 1: Example of the hierarchical classification of a forest dominated by
holm oak according to the nomenclature used in phytosociology.

Subalpine larch-arolla pine forest near Morgex (Valle d’Aosta, North-West Italy).
(Copyright Giovanni Caudullo: CC-BY)

32 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

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2011). R. Chytrý. South England). J. This QR code points to the full online version. 173 (2009). [15] R. the EFTs have been applied in several EU level forest monitoring initiatives as a reference framework to report data on biodiversity14. Paris (2004). Chirici. vol. Science 19. G. Marchetti. Alterra. Lazaroa 30. 7 the European Union. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. 145 (2014). The diversity of Management 321. [4] M.. et al. 1964). [2] H. Wageningen. NL (Springer-Verlag.. H. commons. 1 (1989). de Rigo. South Portugal). Moravec. 41–97.). 12 . count 110 alliances and do not cover plantations and anthropogenic forests..wikimedia. S. [6] M. J. (1992). (Hampshire.. J. Faber-Langendoen. Corona. P.wikimedia. Fluvial forest in Záhorie Protected Landscape Area along the Morava River (West Slovakia). P. rep. North Spain). phytosociological alliances and their E. D. Houston Durrant. EUNIS Inventories: Contributions to Forest habitat classification . Pflanzensoziologie: habitat classification and related data Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde sets. (Springer Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Netherlands. et al. Jennings. (Copyright Stanislav Doronenko. [11] Moss. European forest types: Categories and Loucks. Forest Ecosystems.. Suarez Meyer. rep. vol. M. Mauri. [10] J. 20 of Managing Biodiversity. G. McRoberts. e01e1b6+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 33 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Off.revised. commons.. A.An International Journal (2000).org: CC-BY) Evergreen sclerophyllous scrub forest near Faro (Algarve. 15 and sustainable forest management indicators for Forest Europe (Ministerial Atlantic lowland beech forest in the New Forest National Park Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe: MCPFE)11. So far. second edn. 739 Biosystems . Giannetti. Marchetti. Official Technical Research (Publications Office of Journal of the European Union 35. Copenhagen. European S. S.Scientific and [8] Council of the European Union. Nature biodiversity . cite as: Dwarf pine forest in Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (Pyrenees of Huesca. 2016. EU. J. eds. D.. European vegetation . 2007). Rodwell. pp. Caudullo. 81. Weber. (Copyright Tracy Houston Durrant: CC-BY) impractical number of classes: e. O. (Copyright Miguel Vieira. D. A. Peet. San-Miguel-Ayanz. Schulte. Schaminée. Barbati. Chirici. European Environment Agency. the EUNIS classification at level 39 counts more than 700 forest units. L. Luxembourg. Winter. D. Chirici. 2002). J. P. Tech. Houston Durrant. Applied Vegetation [13] CC-BY) Spruce-birch boreal forest in Norra Kvill National Park (Kalmar County. van der Maarel. (Copyright Marilyn Peddle. Roberts. [12] A. module. et al. O.Analysis of biodiversity and Fisheries. Evaluation relationships to EUNIS habitats (National of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest Reference Centre for Agriculture. (Eds. Berlin. Braun-Blanquet. G. 2011).. McRoberts. where the most updated content may be freely accessed.. T. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Pasta.. (2014). Davies. D. E. Mucina.g. (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) European forest classifications. Barbati. Biodiversity Assessments. M. defined by Rodwell and colleagues7. Marchetti. National Forest [9] C. Development of vegetation syntaxa crosswalks to EUNIS This is an extended summary of the chapter. 24777 of EUR . Tech. et al. Please. E. South Sweden).. [5] L. et al. G. 93 (2007). A. reporting and policy (European Environment Agency. Ecological types for sustainable forest management Monographs 79. E. M.An overview of [14] T. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics.. Vegetatio 141. Caudullo. K. Forest Ecology and [7] J. Plant Journal of Vegetation Science 11. 267 (2009). F. E. R. Hill.indd 33 08/04/2016 11:07 . Mucina.. G. CC-BY) References [1] J. Theurillat. Wageningen. 173 (2015). European Atlas of Forest Tree M. Barbati. www. Publ. Corona. while the European phytosociological communities. Corona. P. Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology [3] L.. Barbati..

8 Cypress Cypress forestforest 10.2 Subalpine 3.9 Other mesophytic mesophytic deciduous deciduous forests forests 6. Barbati.2 Oak-birch 4.3 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Macaronesian and Macaronesian riparian riparian forestforest 13.1 Acidophilous oakwood oakwood forestforest 4.5 Pedunculate Pedunculate oak swamp oak swamp forestforest 11.4 Portuguese oak and oakMirbeck’s and Mirbeck’s oak Iberian oak Iberian forestforest 8.2 5.4 Maple-oak forestforest 5.4 Portuguese 8. or predominant but in peculiar and not characteristic ecological counting 14 broad categories which include 78 forest types.4 Macaronesian laurisilva laurisilva 9.3 Canarian Canarian pine forest pine forest 10.6 8.210.7 Lime 5.1.9 CedarCedar forestforest 10. birch.2 Sessile 5. riverine Non riverine alder.) forest spp.2 Oak-birch forestforest 5.western 8.3.1.Italian 8.5 Lime-oak forestforest 5.7 Atlantic maritime maritime pine forest pine forest 2.2 Fraxinus Fraxinus ornusornus and Ostrya and Ostrya carpinifolia carpinifolia forestforest 8.5 11.1 5. Hungarian oak and oakSessile and Sessile oak forest oak forest 8.3 Subatlantic submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.6 Valonia 8. Anatolian Anatolian 8. European Forest Types: tree species matrix M.7 Atlantic 2.8 HorseHorse chestnut chestnut and walnut and walnut mixedmixed woodswoods 9. Mire 11.1.2 11. For every EFT the presence categorized in three classes: the species is abundant and dominant and secondary in some cases.1.11 Mediterranean Mediterranean yew stands yew stands 11.7 8.1110.2 Central 7.2 Atlantic 6.4 13.4 Nemoral 2. Acidophilous 4.4 Mountainous birch birch forestforest 4.210.birch.1 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest . Hungarian oak. Pividori.2 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest .3 Palm 9. or or 13.8.3 Alpine 3.4 Birch Birch swamp swamp forestforest 11.8.2 and Pinepine-birch and pine-birch borealboreal forestforest 2.Pinus pinaster pinaster Mediterranean.8.steppe .1 Mediterranean evergreen evergreen oak forest oak forest 9.1 Thermophilous Thermophilous ash forest ash forest 8.1.western .2 8.4 8.7 Juniper Juniper forestforest 10.4 Nemoral BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 2.6 Maple-lime 5.310.7 Crimean 7. some broadleaved and alien trees.8.4 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .8 Nemoral 2.2 Turkey 8.1 Lowland 6.8.9 10.1 Subalpine larch-arolla larch-arolla pine and pinedwarf and dwarf pine forest pine forest 3.8. Alpine 3.2 Anatolian Anatolian BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 10. Broadleaved 9.3 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .6 Mixed 2.4 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Anatolian and Anatolian ScotsScots pine forest pine forest 10. Acidophilous oak and oakoak-birch and oak-birch4.1 Mediterranean Mediterranean BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 10.1 Riparian Riparian forestforest 12.5 Carpathian 7.3 Nemoral sprucespruce forestforest 2. Giannetti.5 10.3 8.3 Nemoral 2.5 Carpathian 6. Boreal forestforest 1.Pinus halepensis halepensis Macaronesian Macaronesian regions regions 10.8 Oriental 7. .8.1 Spruce 1.3 Alpine ScotsScots pine and pineBlack and Black pine forest pine forest 3.1010.6 Illyrian 6. the species presence in the EFT is either secondary presented as proposed and revised by Barbati and colleagues1-3.3 13.1.Pinus pineapinea 10. Thermophilous deciduous deciduous forestforest South 7. Floodplain 12. the presence in the EFT is both dominant of which are divided into sub-types.7 Moesian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.1.1 Spruce and spruce-birch and spruce-birch borealboreal forestforest 1. Mesophytic deciduous deciduous forestforest 5. Mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7. Juniperus sp.3 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest . Beech forestforest 6.6 Valonia oak forest oak forest 8.6 AspenAspen swampswamp forestforest 12. It has to be taken into account that 34 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Introduced tree species tree species forestforest In this table the European Forest Types (EFTs) scheme is of the main tree and shrub species of forest interest in Europe in the EFT. Floodplain forestforest 12.3 Apennine-Corsican mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7. Beech 6.8.2 Subalpine and mountainous and mountainous sprucespruce and mountainous and mountainous mixedmixed spruce-silver spruce-silver fir forest fir forest 3.6 11.) forest 8.Italian .2 FluvialFluvial forestforest 12.Pinus .6 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Anatolian and Anatolian fir forest fir forest 10. G.Pinus .2 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .alder.2 12. Boreal 1.Greek.4 Central 6.8 Ravine 5. Coniferous 10. F.4 Illyrian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.3. separated into three main groups: conifers. Broadleaved evergreen evergreen forestforest 9.6 Moesian 11.1 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .2.1 Pedunculate oak–hornbeam oak–hornbeam forestforest 5.2 Nemoral 2.6 10. Mountainous 7. A. Alpine coniferous coniferous forestforest 3.2 8.2 Turkey oak.1 Hemiboreal forestforest coniferous coniferous and mixed and mixed broadleaved- broadleaved- 2.4 Macaronesian 9.8.Greek.3 Birch Birch forestforest 13.8 10.5 Macedonian 8.3.8. Coniferous forests forests of theof the 10. Chirici CONIFERS CONIFERS BROADLEAVES BROADLEAVES Pinus peucesempervirens sempervirens CATEGORY CATEGORY FOREST FOREST TYPE TYPE communis communis Abies nordmanniana nordmanniana Juniperus phoenicea phoenicea articulata articulata Juniperus oxycedrus oxycedrus Juniperus thurifera thurifera Populus canescens canescens Carpinus orientalis orientalis Ostrya carpinifolia Ostrya carpinifolia Castaneacoccifera coccifera Juglanspubescens Betula pubescens Pinus canariensis canariensis Cedrus brevifolia brevifolia atrocinerea atrocinerea Abies borisii-regi borisii-regi betulus betulus Pinus halepensis halepensis avellana avellana Populus tremula Populus tremula Pinus heldreichii Pinus heldreichii Fagus moesiaca Fagus moesiaca sativa sativa orientalis Fagus orientalis Pinus sylvestris sylvestris Fagus sylvatica sylvatica Alnus orientalis Alnus orientalis Alnus glutinosa glutinosa pendula pendula Salix eleagnos Salix eleagnos Quercus suber Taxus baccata baccata pinaster Pinus pinaster Picea omorika omorika Alnus cordata cordata nigra nigra Pinus cembra cembra regia regia Larix decidua Larix decidua Juniperus sp.7 Crimean mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.8.6 Mediterranean Mediterranean lime (Tilia lime (Tilia spp.5 Lime-oak 5.4 10.1 Alder Alder forestforest aspenaspen forestforest 13.1 Pedunculate 5.1 Subalpine 3.2 Central European European mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.3 Apennine-Corsican 7.7 Lime forestforest 5.4 Mountainous 3.1.3 Pyrenean 11.1 Lowland beechbeech forestforest of southern of southern Scandinavia Scandinavia and north and north central central Europe Europe 6.2 Pine 1.1 South western western European European mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.1.3 Pyrenean oak forest oak forest 8.1.1 11. Introduced 14.2 Olive-carob 9.3 Alder Alder swamp swamp forestforest 11.) forest spp.4 Oriental Oriental hornbeam hornbeam (Carpinus (Carpinus orientalis) orientalis) forestforest 8.5 Carpathian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.2 Pine mire Pine forest mire forest 11. has been evaluated.3 Hop-hornbeam Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia) carpinifolia) forestforest 8.1 Acidophilous 4.2 Ashwood Ashwood and oak-ash and oak-ash forestforest uplands uplands 5.7 CeltisCeltis australis australis forestforest 8.10 Tetraclinis Tetraclinis articulata articulata standsstands 10. The species presence in the EFTs is conditions of the EFT.) forest 8.5 Other sclerophlyllous sclerophlyllous forests forests 10.3 8.3 Palm groves groves 9. Non 13.6 Maple-lime forestforest 5.1 Mediterranean 9.steppe 8.4 AspenAspen forestforest 14.4 8.2 ItalianItalian alder alder forestforest 13.1 Ashwood Ashwood and oak-ash and oak-ash forestforest lowlands lowlands 5.1.4 Illyrian 7.1 8.7 10.4 Central European European submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.7 Chestnut forestforest 8.2 Atlantic and subatlantic and subatlantic lowland lowland beechbeech forestforest 6. Hemiboreal 2.3 12.3 10.7 Moesian 6.5 Mixed ScotsScots pine-birch pine-birch forestforest 2.6 Illyrian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.3.1 Spruce Spruce mire forest mire forest 11.9 Other 5.2 Sessile oak–hornbeam oak–hornbeam forestforest 5.6 Mixed ScotsScots pine-pedunculate pine-pedunculate oak forest oak forest 2.110.7 Chestnut 8.2 Olive-carob forestforest 9.1 12.1. Mediterranean.5 Other 9.3 Subatlantic 6.Pinus .1 8. Thermophilous 8. Hemiboreal forestforest and nemoral and nemoral2.5 Thermophilous Thermophilous maplemaple (Acer (Acer spp.5 Macedonian oak forest oak forest 8.6 Moesian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.8. and Mireswamp and swamp forestforest 11.8.8 Oriental beechbeech and hornbeam-oriental and hornbeam-oriental beechbeech forestforest 8.110.indd 34 08/04/2016 11:08 . Anatolian Anatolian and and 10.8 8.8 Ravine and slope and slope forestforest 5.5 8.2 Nemoral ScotsScots pine forest pine forest coniferous coniferous forestforest 2.2 13.4 Maple-oak 5.8 Nemoral silversilver fir fir 3.1 13.1 Hemiboreal 2.8. Cedrus libani libani alba alba Alnus incana incana Salix cinerea Salix cinerea Abies others others Taxusfragilis Salix fragilis Quercus ilex ilex Salix caprea caprea Betulaviridis viridis peuce Populusfaya Juglansfaya Pinus mugo mugo Pinus pinea pinea Abies abies abies nigra nigra Abies alba alba Cupressus Cupressus Tetraclinis Tetraclinis alba alba Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Castanea Carpinus Carpinus Carpinus Quercus Quercus Quercus Populus Populus Populus Populus Corylus Corylus Cedrus Cedrus Myrica Myrica Betula Betula Fagus Fagus Alnus Alnus Alnus Alnus Alnus Abies Abies Abies Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Picea Picea Picea Salix Salix Salix Salix Salix Salix 1.5 Mixed 2.5 Carpathian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.5 Alti-Mediterranean Alti-Mediterranean pine forest pine forest 10. Mesophytic 5.2.

Ailanthus altissima P. Corona. Off. Rhamnus alaternus References Buxus sempervirens frangula Rhamnus alaternus Rhamnus Tilia tomentosa Rhamnus frangula Tilia Tilia cordata tomentosa Tilia Tilia platyphyllos cordata Tamarix sp.. Chirici. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer- Populus hyb. G. Corona. 145 (2014).. Forest Ecology and Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species Management 321. F. Please. Luxembourg. Acer negundo Prunus serotina 35 Acer negundo 08/04/2016 11:08 . Marchetti. second edn.. reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Plant Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology Cornus Tamarixsanguinea sp. Fagus Corylussylvatica avellana moesiaca Fagus sylvatica Fagus Fagus Fagus orientalis moesiaca Castanea sativa Fagus orientalis Quercus Castaneacoccifera sativa Quercus Quercus ilex coccifera Quercus Quercus suber ilex Quercus Quercus trojana suber Quercus Quercus cerris trojana cerroides Quercus cerris Quercus Quercus Quercus petraea cerroides robur Quercus petraea Quercus Quercus Quercus frainetto robur pyrenaica Quercus frainetto Quercus JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. A. European Forest Types: tree species matrix. mas Cornus sanguinea Cornus Erica Cornusarborea mas scoparia Erica arborea Erica Arbutus unedo Erica scoparia ornus Fraxinusunedo Arbutus Fraxinus Fraxinus excelsior ornus Fraxinus Fraxinus angustifolia excelsior Olea europaea Fraxinus angustifolia Phillyrea latifolia Olea europaea Sambucus nigra of Forest Tree Species. (Eds. G. For this reason the presence of variability in their species composition and structure according to in many cases the EFTs are wide forest communities having inner Crataegus Sorbus arialaevigata Crataegus Crataegus monogyna laevigata Prunus cerasifera Crataegus monogyna Prunus Prunus spinosa cerasifera Prunus Prunus avium spinosa Prunus Prunus mahaleb avium Prunus Prunus padus mahaleb Prunus Prunus lusitanica padus Cercis siliquastrum Prunus lusitanica Ceratonia siliqua Cercis siliquastrum Pistacia terebinthus Ceratonia siliqua Acer platanoides Pistacia terebinthus Acer Acer campestre platanoides Acer Acer tataricum campestre Acer Acer sempervirens tataricum Acer Acer pseudoplatanus sempervirens Acer Acer opalus pseudoplatanus Acer Acer monspessulanum opalus Ilex aquifolium Acer monspessulanum Euonymus europaeus Ilex aquifolium Buxus sempervirens Euonymus europaeus 141. Caudullo. P. dominant or secondary in some cases. Pinus radiata In: San-Miguel-Ayanz.indd 35 Quercus Quercus pubescens pyrenaica Quercus Quercus faginea pubescens Quercus Quercus ithaburensis faginea Quercus Quercus macrolepis ithaburensis Ulmus Quercusminor macrolepis grabra Ulmus minor Ulmus Ulmus Ulmus laevis grabra Celtis australis Ulmus laevis Species is present but not dominant Species is present in either category Aesculus ippocastanus Celtis australis Species is dominant in that forest type Laurus nobilis Aesculus ippocastanus Platanus orientalis Laurus nobilis Pyrus pyraster Platanus orientalis Pyrus Pyrus communis pyraster Malus sylvestris Pyrus communis Malus Malus domestica sylvestris domestica Sorbusdomestica Malus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia domestica torminalis Sorbus aucuparia Sorbus Sorbus some species can be both. Picea sitchensis Pinus contorta Larix kaempferi Pinus Pinus strobus contorta This QR code points to the full online version. M. M. The purpose of Quercus Quercus palustris rubra Robinia Quercuspseudoacacia palustris Ailanthus Robinia altissima pseudoacacia Eucalyptus sp. Giannetti. Biosystems . J.). Marchetti. Houston Durrant.. P. D. pp. de Rigo. cite as: [1] A. [3] A. where the most updated content may be freely Pinus Pinus radiata strobus This is an extended summary of the chapter. Barbati. Publ. Corona.An International Journal Tilia platyphyllos accessed. Copenhagen. 2007). G. Pividori. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Pseudotsuga menziesii European forest types: Categories and Tsuga heterophylla Agency. Sorbus aria torminalis more local ecological conditions. 93 (2007). T. Mauri. M. EU. A. European Atlas Quercus rubra Populus e01f162+ Phillyrea latifolia Pseudotsuga Sambucus nigra menziesii [2] A. Barbati. M. Chirici. Prunus serotina Eucalyptus sp... Chamaecyparis lawsoniana types for sustainable forest management ALIENS reporting and policy (European Environment Picea Tsugasitchensis heterophylla ALIENS Larix kaempferi this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics.. Barbati.. 2016. Barbati. Marchetti.

2. and charcoal (macrofossils)1 and of microscopic pollen grains. European forests have also undergone very major changes due to the alternating glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary (last 2. J. 6 000. Contemporary ecologists and foresters can learn from ‘lessons from the past’ about forest responses and resilience to environmental changes in the past. 10 %) (Fig. 1). 7). Quantitative interpretation of such data Fig. These taxa become abundant again in the open conditions of the Homo sapiens phase where they are shown in plain red. spores. and hence representation of different pollen types.was and still is the dominant technique in the Quaternary period. Cryocratic taxa are coloured red and stippled.6 million years). stomata).g. The horizontal lines represent partitions of the pollen stratigraphy into pollen- assemblage zones. Protocratic trees are coloured blue. in the sedimentary sequence (Fig. in terms of quantitative estimates of past plant abundances is less 6 000.invented in 1916 by the Swedish geologist Lennart von Post . Interpretation of pollen-stratigraphical data in a qualitative manner in terms of major past vegetational changes is relatively straightforward2 . a small lake in south-west Scotland covering the last 12 000 radiocarbon years. alluvial. 3 . Peglar. and charred particles (microfossils) preserved in lake. European forests have greatly changed in their extent and structure in the last 5 000 years due to human activities (the Homo sapiens phase) in the current Holocene interglacial in which we live. 2)4 . mesocratic trees are green. The first arrival of a taxon is more difficult to assess. Introduction Were European forests 500. 15 000.g. Note the progressive northward spread into straightforward because of the differential production. The vertical axis is radiocarbon (14C) years before present (BP) based on eight radiocarbon dates. 7 000 years ago). especially the last 15 000 years of the late-Quaternary. 8 000. Past forests of Europe H. 5 000. 3)5 . All the pollen and spore percentages are expressed as percentages of the total number of terrestrial pollen and spores counted (generally 500-600 per sample). Von Post had the idea of expressing fossil pollen assemblages as percentages of the sum of pollen grains counted. bog. 5 %. W. When the value of a particular pollen type exceeds a certain threshold value it can be interpreted as reflecting the first expansion of that taxon at different sites (Fig. Pollen analysis as a tool for vegetation reconstruction . 5 000 years ago) to produce so-called ‘isopollen’ maps for particular pollen types where the contours represent different pollen values (e. 36 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. to answer these questions we need to reconstruct past forests indirectly using the fossil record. leaves. The percentage contours are percentages of total tree and shrub pollen. Alnus (alder). and extent over the last 5 million years or more in response to global climate changes. 5 000. Quercus (oak). 6. 150 000. structure. and 2 000 radiocarbon years before present (BP). 2. Birks. 1.5 million. Approaches for (Modified from Huntley and Birks4) quantitative interpretation are currently an area of active research within Europe and elsewhere (e.g. Pollen analyses by Sylvia M.indd 36 08/04/2016 11:08 . 2: ‘Isopollen’ maps of Quercus (oak) pollen percentages across Europe for 12 000. When many sequences have been studied. and of presenting these percentages as stratigraphical pollen diagrams with pollen assemblages plotted against their stratigraphical position through the sediment sequence (Fig. dispersal. and taxa associated with human activity and the Homo sapiens phase of the Holocene are shown in red. structure.5 %. and other sediments where organic material can be preserved2 . fruits. and 5 million years ago similar in species composition. because the absence of pollen or macrofossils may not mean a true absence of the taxon in the landscape. and striking differences between different areas.g. 1: Summary pollen diagram from Loch Cill an Aonghais (Argyll).g. and extent to the forests of Europe today? As we cannot directly observe the forests of the past. and Corylus/Myrica (hazel/bog myrtle) indicate when these trees or shrubs are inferred to have first expanded near this site. oligocratic and telocratic taxa are orange. showing how the percentages of different pollen types vary with depth. 1). He showed strong similarities in pollen diagrams from a small area. 10 000. cells (e. wood. their pollen data can be mapped for a particular time interval (e. southern Scandinavia by 6 000 BP and the subsequent contraction at 2 000 BP in Norway. 4 000. so-called ‘isochrone’ maps can be constructed where the contours represent ages established by radiocarbon dating (e. Fig. This involves the study of seeds. The small arrows by the Betula (birch). Pollen analysis There are ten basic principles of pollen analysis1 (see Box 1). and hence age. Alternatively when interest is centred on the directions and rates of tree spreading. B. The results of a pollen analysis are most commonly presented as a pollen diagram.5 million. He was thus able to provide the dimension of time (vegetation’s fourth dimension) to the study of past vegetation and forests2. Tinner European forests have varied in their composition.

Europe’s forests during Quaternary x If two or more series of pollen assemblage are obtained from Taxodium cypress. the Californian Sierra Nevada. Engelhardia. temperature and moisture rise in their progressive extinction in Europe. This geoflora was first defined by development from the end of a glacial stage through the ensuing J. too cold for tree growth. 4)17. Trees are absent. there are such strong areas of the globe (eastern Asia and eastern North America) is ecological similarities that the Danish pollen analyst Johannes explained by the hypothesis explicitly presented in the 1850s Iversen recognised in 195816 an interglacial cycle consisting of by the American botanist Asa Gray (1810-88). while others survived longer rich podsols and peats. These belts lay between lowland xeric steppe-like vi Different pollen grains and spores can be identified to various Table 1. Following the tropical and sub-tropical Europe during the LGM as they do today on the Tibetan Plateau in viii If a sample of the pollen rain is examined from a peat or lake- Palaeocene. Although the species and their relative abundances the Quaternary and their restriction today to two almost opposite may vary from one interglacial to another. A sample of the pollen rain is thus an indirect record of the regional vegetation at that point in space and time Palaeocene 66 southern Europe (including the Caucasus) and possibly in parts of western Asia13 . possibly. the oligocratic phase.3. Juniperus America (e.g. turbulence. and ruderal herbs glaciated mountains (e. pollen is well mixed by atmospheric in the glacial stages that cover 80 % of the last 2. vegetation growing on infertile (low available phosphorus18) humus- Pseudolarix false larch. warmth-demanding and or frost-sensitive trees and shrubs (e. phase is characterised by the development of temperate deciduous As a result of the west-east barriers and the many relatively cold forests of Quercus. (standard pollen counts are usually ca. and bog at the beginning of the Quaternary (e. and the ocean floor where pollen is preserved Quaternary low as 180 ppm during glacial stages.) occur in the final telocratic phase and. or permanent snow or ice. shrubs. Stewartia). These ecological phases within an interglacial Hemisphere about 2. Sorbus aucuparia rowan) immigrate into formerly glaciated south-east or north to south reaching low latitudes without sea areas and expand to form a mosaic of grassland. Nyssa blackgum.3 Sichuan and Qinghai. Clethra several sites. Such mid-elevation belts of trees can be seen today in the Andes. Box 1: Principles of pollen analysis Europe’s forests prior to the Quaternary ice-ages the Quaternary whereas the remaining 20 % consists of shorter The Quaternary period with its multiple glacial stages with interglacial stages during which conditions were similar to. Time is shown in million years with vegetation too dry for tree growth and high-elevation tundra-like taxonomic levels (e. or i Pollen grains and spores are produced in great abundance by ice-sheets and intervening temperate interglacial stages began slightly warmer than. along with Betula birch. fragmentary due to the shortage of fossiliferous sedimentary (water seepages. Hence Oligocene 33.g. frost action and cryoturbation destroy the leached infertile Fig 3: ‘Isochrone’ map for Quercus (oak) in Britain and Ireland showing acid soils. and land-use. These were largely replaced by trees of the temperate fauna19. Populus aspen. such low-latitude areas. etc. Fraxinus ash. Rocky Mountains) run north-west to juniper. around the sun. Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations were as Holocene 0. topography. decline. species. they provide a record. Carpathians.6 million years ago) contained many genera characteristic of trees such as Pinus.6 million years. Carya) to vanish finally from Europe during the especially. dating). Picea. Abies). ice-sheet in Russia at 60° N (12 . Partial geological time scale. Oligocene. and. High Period Epoch Age (Million years) iii Pollen and spores decay more or less rapidly. and stages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene.indd 37 08/04/2016 11:08 . Quercus oak. represented by the sedimentary record (Fig. 1). Climatic deterioration (temperature decreases. and possibly Alnus alder. Carya hickory. The successive loss of interglacial (about 10 000-15 000 years duration) and into the next these taxa during the Pliocene epoch and the early Pleistocene of glacial stage. and Miocene epochs (66-5. often glacial. Populus. frequently disturbed by ground- mountains) and the Mediterranean Sea provided barriers to the ice activities. In contrast.9 The evidence we have suggests that many European trees the pollen rain is a complex function of the composition of the survived the last glacial maximum (LGM) in relatively narrow Palaeogene Eocene 56 refugial elevational belts (ca. Tsuga hemlock. wind-throw. it is possible to study changes in past pollen pepper-bush. (Modified from Birks ) 5 marked and widespread climatic and environmental changes12 . The cool phases four or five ecological phases (Box 2 and Fig. grazing mega- China11 . Tilia lime. eastern. 1). except in specialised refugia. Europe lost Alnus on fertile brown-earth soils (Fig. Appalachians. Scotland between 8 000 and 6 000 BP. Salix sediment sequence. and Asia. southward retreat of many of the Arcto-Tertiary geoflora resulting At the onset of an interglacial.g. Pterocarya wing-nut. 2 and 3) Neogene existed widely in the Northern Hemisphere across North western and central Europe15 there is strikingly similar vegetation America. and herbs expand on the newly exposed mineral soils. and Kazakhstan12 . Uzbekistan. the present day12 . Many taxa had already disappeared dominated woods (Pinus. the mountain and the protocratic phase begins. 11 . which results in a more or less uniform pollen rain Pliocene 5. Very high concentrations (usually around 100 000 cm-3) in the Knowledge of the flora and vegetation of the Palaeogene and American Rockies. The its progressive rate and/or expansion from the south-west at 9 500 radiocarbon years before present (BP) through England and southern and Europe’s forests in the Quaternary period telocratic forest vegetation is very similar to the oligocratic phase central Ireland to 8 500 BP and its declining rate as it spreads north into The Quaternary period (last 2. resulting in multiple (at are not synchronous between sites because the onset of a phase such least 50) glacial-interglacial cycles driven by secular variations in as the oligocratic phase may depend on local site features such as insolation as a result of periodic fluctuations in the Earth’s orbit bedrock geology. and open barriers. Liriodendron. Tsuga. Tajikistan. the Pamir. and Larix larch may have grown locally ix If pollen assemblages are obtained from several levels through a modern European forests (e. parts sediment permit efficient analyses and statistically robust results Neogene (‘Tertiary’) periods (66-2. at the onset of the next glacial cryocratic phase as forests course of the early. During the glacial stages. and in parts mud sample of known age (dated by annual layers or radiocarbon million years ago) when plants (e.75 million years ago.g. Sequoia. the pollen assemblage is an indirect record of the regional tropical lowlands of the Indo-Malaya region occurred in north. Alps. Liquidambar. record. 10 .g. Phellodendron reduced moisture. (e. Pyrenees. admittedly an indirect Fagus beech. ericaceous heaths. Pinus. There is increasing evidence from macrofossils and charcoal and local vegetation surrounding the sampled site at a point of west Europe9 .S.6 million years) witnessed very except that as the climate cools towards the end of the interglacial. Abies fir) as well as genera willow. ravines). Nipa palm) found today in the of south-east Turkey. see Table of the Sino-Himalayan region. Picea spruce. Base-demanding shade-intolerant chains and valleys of south-eastern Asia (e. and the Tien Shan in Kazakhstan12 . 300-1 000 grains per 1 for an outline of the relevant geological time scales) is very Trees may also have occurred scattered in locally moist sites sample). The mesocratic cold stages and to spread northward during temperate intervals. and Ulmus elm. Ulmus.g. Given these extreme conditions iv Before reaching the ground. fertile soils rich in nitrogen and to spread southward along unglaciated areas or valley corridors in phosphorus and with a low humus content (Fig. Gardner and C. Betula. but see 14 for a contrasting view). 500-800m) in the mountains of vegetation. the European tree flora of the Pliocene epoch (5. Carpinus hornbeam.01 as in bogs. Magnolia. 18 . 1) Liquidambar sweetgum. Magnolia magnolia.or mid-Quaternary9.g. Meliosma. combined with the west-east chains of assemblages of pioneer. Picea. Taxodium. comprises open conifer- ‘mixed mesophytic forest’. Corylus hazel.6 million years ago.g. Caucasus growing on skeletal mineral soils. Ettinghausen in 1869. except warm-temperate-subtropical ‘evergreen forest’ of south-eastern in openings caused by fire.g. The cryocratic within the late Pliocene epoch and the subsequent Pleistocene phase represents the cold and dry. vegetation. rising to pre-industrial levels Pleistocene 2. steppe. The next phase. lakes. Liriodendron tulip-tree. Aesculus chestnut)9. Salix.6 of 280 ppm in interglacial stages. of the regional and local vegetation and their development growing today in eastern Asia and/or eastern North American as far north as the north-eastern edge of the great Fennoscandian near the sampled site at various times through the time interval (e. Shade-intolerant herbs and many trees or their close relatives that today are found in the shrubs are rare as a result of competition and habitat loss.6 million years ago. in such microrefugia during the LGM. Hedera) decline. Much of the region north of 40° N was function of transferring the male gamete to the female ovary: the covered by large terrestrial ice-sheets and widespread permafrost vast majority fall to the ground with temperatures possibly 10-25 ° C lower than present. Sequoia redwood. family) youngest epoch at the top going down to older epochs at the bottom.g. genus. These trees interglacial stages assemblages and hence in the regional and local vegetation belong to the so-called Arcto-Tertiary geoflora that in the Pollen analysis and macrofossil studies reveal that in north- through both time and space (Figs. Glacial-stage conditions account for 80 % of Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 37 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.g. arctic-alpine. climate. vii In vegetated areas pollen is ubiquitous in lake and bog sediments. Tilia. Eocene. most cork tree. Large terrestrial ice-sheets started to form in the Northern Ilex. stage with sparse continental glaciations. Yunnan) and North herbs. remains in central. Pinus pine. unless the processes aridity and temperature 2-5 ° C lower than today were features of of biological decomposition are inhibited by a lack of oxygen. and trees (e. in the Zagros mountains of Iran. scrub. and north-eastern Europe that conifer time in the past 2. thereby permitting temperate and warm temperate trees woodland growing on unleached. so-called ‘cryptic’ or ‘micro’ refugia in sequences in Europe8 . What were European forests like environmental conditions were very different from the present prior to the Quaternary? interglacial (Holocene or post-glacial plus the recent Anthropocene) ii A very small fraction of these fulfil their natural reproductive in which we live today. plants about 2.3 an obvious question12 is how did European forest trees survive within an area of similar vegetation and landform Neogene these repeated long glacial-stage conditions and where did they Miocene 23 v The proportion of each pollen type depends on the number of grow in the glacial stages? parent plants and their pollen productivity and dispersal. Europe.

21 . At the onset of an • mid-late Holocene (6 000 years ago-present) interglacial. corresponding to the extensive phase of human activity involving clearance and grazing of Picea abies through Finland. climate change. pine). Abies collapses were rapid. and Abies pure Fraxinus excelsior European ash. This corresponds to the Base.g. although strongly reduced. The glacial-interglacial cycle showing the broad changes in biomass. arctic-alpine. and Norway over the last mesocratic phase in central and north-western Europe. dispersal. the model.indd 38 08/04/2016 11:08 . 26 . 22 . high competitive tolerances. moisture-loving taxa such as Fagus. in particular LANDCLIM is able to simulate extinct vegetation d e types which were growing in the past at the site before anthropogenic Europe’s forests in the Holocene (11 700 disturbance became excessive. hence levels of disturbance (low vs. the invasion of Picea into northern and central Fennoscandia corresponding to the oligocratic phase in north-western and central the natural geographical range of Fagus. The characteristic trees of the interglacial phases differ in their reproductive and population biology and ecological and competitive Box 2: Glacial-interglacial phases in north-west Europe tolerances17.g. Similar cycles occurred in southern Europe. forest clearance and prehistoric shifting cultivation and livestock f b) Map of Italy and Switzerland with Lago di Massaciuccoli denoted by a black farming (Fig. emigration.. unique to the Holocene is called star. 5 000 (LANDCLIM) for different climatic conditions (today vs. Juniperus. Simulations of today’s vegetation under low disturbance shows In some areas of central and north-west Europe. probably a result of an interaction c) Future (2071-2100 AD) mean monthly temperature and precipitation between prehistoric human activities and a tree pathogen. or climate change. a a b c the broad-scale of an entire interglacial cycle of 10 000-15 000 coastal lake in Tuscany (central Italy). Picea abies Norway spruce. and temperature that take place during a glacial (cryocratic) stage low competitive tolerances. areas there was a rapid change from Tilia. and • early interglacial stage til biom m r u cre ‘cold-stress tolerant’ and ‘adversity’ traits17. mesocratic. 20. disturbance by fire and by browsing25. ericaceous heaths. and • fertile brown-earth soils Protocratic Telocratic chance as it affects survival. Fe • rich assemblages of herbs. pine. corresponding to the telocratic phase.g. England24 . 5 000-6 000 years ago Abies disappeared a dynamic vegetation model with d) present climate and future climate Figure from Henne et al. Carpinus) form open forests together with evergreen broad-leaved trees (e. with pollen values of Abies halving f) Holocene pollen percentages of upland trees and shrubs at Lago di within 13 and 22 years at sites in Italy27 and Italian Switzerland28 . willow) xim as Within these three broad groups of protocratic. Quercus spp. it is possible that the rapid spread of Fagus across Basso. predation. warming) and years) there is often great variation between interglacials. in cr e a sin g te m p e reasin western and central Europe17. and possibly and land use25 . soil. European tree & N L ow bio m a e P e species persisted locally. This vegetation type disappeared during the late colonisation and expansion of new immigrants such as Fagus Holocene most likely in response to excessive anthropogenic burning sylvatica European beech. and establishment may Oligocratic & Telocratic: all have contributed to the observed differences in interglacial • late interglacial stage bio forest patterns17.g. Olea europaea olive) and mediterranean shrubs (e. Spontaneous regeneration of Abies alba and Quercus ilex maquis (low biomass) will expand. and telocratic) are shown along with the display ‘pioneer’ and ‘exploitation’ late-Holocene the ability of pollen stratigraphy to differentiate between many of sedimentary pollen record of Lago di Massaciuccoli is used to validate the different interglacials17. soil leaching. corresponding to the protocratic phase in central and • forest clearance. probably in response to over-exploitation of environmental resources30 . medium-low rates of population oi l Protocratic: es ass De increase. red star shows position of Gorgo Basso in southern Sicily (Fig 4). genotypic variation. 23 . In some areas (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) 38 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.g. for colonisation. temperate taxa (e. 1). mesocratic. for example. mixed Fagus-Ilex holly-Quercus forests developed whereas in other cleared or cultivated areas. or a combination of these factors32 . rates of spreading. shrubs. with a dynamic vegetation model years. In agreement. Unique to the Holocene ls like environments of the glacial stages. a response to forest disturbance creating gaps forests and arboreal cover increases. large clearings within Tilia. evergreen oak forest central Europe in the last 4 000-5 000 years4 may have only been will prevail16 . in the steppe. 31 may be a contemporaneous response to subtle temperate and Mediterranean conifers (e. Abies. with projected by a regional climate model (SMHI) for Lago di Massaciuccoli. simulations show the disappearance of Carpinus betulus European hornbeam4 . Pistacia pistachio). southern Sicily (Fig 5). • range of soil types. There is an apparent order within interglacial forest patterns when viewed at Simulation of future vegetation dynamics at Lago di Massaciuccoli. low reproductive rates. These changes commonly occurred after an The westward. ectomycorrhiza with a phosphorus-mining strategy. Mesocratic trees have dominant soil features. relaxation in grazing pressure. This new phase. warm- followed by the abandonment of cleared and cultivated areas. present and future Mediterranean vegetation moisture). 33. Factors such as location of refugia • mid interglacial stage asing temp • temperate deciduous forests In cre a sin g in the cryocratic phase. With low land use. Ostrya hop-hornbeam. The mid. 1). the Homo sapiens phase (see Box 2)17. reduced Box 3: Palaeo-model comparison: past. Other types of secondary woodland developed in areas beyond causes. Similarly. Artemisia wormwood. e s oi Homo sapiens: ric h in fertil cryocratic phase in central and northern Europe. While the establishment of this vegetation type under current climate with moderate land use. humus-rich podsols and peats sin a with substantial differences in comparison to central and north- tur g ss ur western Europe10. oligocratic. competition. for example woods of over the last 6 000-7 000 years resulted in major changes in forest Europe. arbuscular phosphorus-scavenging • glacial stage mycorrhiza. Chenopodiaceae goosefoot)11. often fertilised (Modified from Birks and Birks18) Ulmus. respectively. As with Ulmus in England. or Ilex aquifolium common holly became accumulation of mor humus. high rates of population increase. Oligocratic and telocratic trees have medium reproductive N&P • skeletal mineral soils s. This 6 000-7 000 years4. forest cover declines and steppe-like environments expand during the climatic deterioration at the transition from the interglacial to the next glacial (temperature decreases. established on particular soil types following abandonment of changes in the natural fire regime within the boreal forest15. In the to Fagus-dominance17. Betula spp. ing Ma • unleached fertile soils Incr and oligocratic and telocratic plants. probably in response to excessive Neolithic climate scenario and moderate disturbance before 2010. or Quercus-dominated forests on well-drained soils. elm pollen values halving within 5 years at a site in southern d) and e) Vegetation simulated at Lago di Massaciuccoli with LANDCLIM. medium-low Cryocratic: Interglacial rates of population increase. Protocratic trees have high reproduction rates. agriculture G la cial north-western Europe. the actual floristic and soil M or Decre Dec forest composition varies from interglacial to interglacial in north. Finally. Taxus baccata composition and structure and in soil conditions. and trees (birch. while under moderate land use forests will be reduced and facilitated by the creation of abundant. northward. 22. deciduous Quercus. bogs Cryocratic ea e m r rat s as • infertile. distances over which g biomass spread occurred. 22. ‘competitive’. P limitation e fe rtile s olis. forest clearance Abies alba co-dominance with Quercus ilex (see right image) in the and subsequent dereliction of clearings may have facilitated local Mediterranean forest. steppe. Quercus ilex holm oak. and podsolisation and while broad-leaved deciduous trees remain important11. in a cryptic Mediterranean stand in lowland Tuscany. Pinus) expand abandonment may have occurred as a result of local population step-wise climate change. and ‘saturation’ • sparse assemblages of pioneer. Massaciuccoli. All vegetation models were initialised with the same present-day Italian Peninsula. whereas within each phase of an interglacial (ca. with widespread gradually replace Mediterranean evergreen broad-leaved trees. There was a steep fall in Ulmus pollen values (Fig. a delayed migration unrelated to simple into the broad-leaved deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen collapse following. Fagus sylvatica during Mesolithic times followed climate change Future climate and vegetation conditions at Lago di Massaciuccoli are (cooling and a moisture increase) in southern and southern-central comparable to present climate and vegetation conditions at Gorgo Europe29. Mesocratic: Mesocratic Oligocratic fertility. 23 . Sweden. The phases of the interglacial (protocratic. and southward spread and expansion following phase during the mid-interglacial.52 from the Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean lowlands of the e). high rates. and ruderal plants traits 17.or Quercus-dominance reduction in fire frequency17. Towards the end of the interglacials. English yew. 11. Due to warmer conditions. and ‘late-successional’. Whatever its rising moisture availability. moderate). Betula. Alnus. years ago-today) a) Present-day (1950-2000 AD) mean monthly temperature (±1 The mesocratic phase in the Holocene interglacial stage was standard deviation) and average total monthly precipitation at Lago di greatly modified about 5 000-6 000 years ago by the onset of Massaciuccoli close to Pisa (Tuscany). high competitive tolerances. and and associated interglacial stage. or while boreal and steppe vegetation declines (e. yet • open conifer (spruce.

is only one time-slice in the last 11 700 years since the last [21] J. 1299 (2014).. H. Forests initially became more open. Birks. (2001). Frontiers in Ecology and We see that European forests have been changing since the and climate representative of tree and ecosystem-climate [22] P. K. this record is a long-term ecological observatory where of environmental variation that these systems have experienced ecological responses to past climate change and the ecological in the past and by reconstructing the environmental conditions legacies of societal activities can be deciphered. Science 325.. Bennett. S. Marquer. Birks. H. Wijmstra. 5: Dense evergreen oak forest (Quercus ilex) south of Gorgo Basso. Tinner. Birks. (Yale Univ. Fig.. several different [10] T. Restoration efforts should aim to conserve or restore developing only within the last few centuries38-40 . Global Change and Reviews 90. Mitchell. T. 1960) [50] J. [13] K. W. American Journal of Botany 100. dynamic eco-physiological models with palaeoecological evidence called Homo sapiens phase (see Box 2)17. Methoden und Ergebnisse. pp. 1995) P. Kaltenrieder. York Academy of Sciences 1297. T. Science 17. J. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. J. Future forest historical systems if possible. Archaeobotany 22. vol. C.g. There is very much still to be learnt about Fig. 521 (2013). Palaeogene. plant-functional traits.or global-scale shifts [11] N. As Karl Flessa and Steve Jackson55 the face of future global change is aided by considering the range discuss. [37] W. all existing forest systems have a finite time limit to growing University (2004). 38 ) and can. increased human interference including regular burning36 forest systems existed in the past that have no modern counterparts [15] G. woodland management) This pattern is not. Fifth. and Hedera ivy declined while their dominant species have developed in different places and [8] D. Williams. Publ. and recent times. A. secondary regeneration. 2014). 1521 (2009). H. Global Change Biology and wood. 32. Paleobiology nature since the last glacial. Birks. C. A. 49. Management 8. Tinner. vol. 1973). 25 (2015). (Eds. T. J. ed. forest pathogens. and ecosystem [7] A. J. and Picea were also may have different properties owing to different histories and to second edn. 292 (2012). Blois. J. J. [48] Birks. vegetation burning. ploughing. United Kingdom. Human project future ecosystem conditions solely on the basis of present. and extent of forests in Europe? glacial stage. B. The palaeoecological record can pinpoint the time of origination of particular forest systems (e. 54. Handbook of holocene Palaeoecologists look to the past whereas global-change palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. Ecological Monographs Record of Ecological Dynamics: altered by climate-change or millennial-long land-use activities51? 83. Miguel-Ayanz. vol. during the late Neolithic. W. K. M. J. have been extensively managed by selective silviculture over many understanding of modern ecosystems and ecological processes (2004). Huntley. but both rely solely on their 3 (1986). composition. J. 29. and Picea (non. when the time window extends figures in a very short time and for her meticulous editing.. or abruptly when the dominant trees are replaced by other 34 and have shown that secular climate change has kept many targets trees. Di Pasquale. [44] J. 15. 1679 (1999) systems can no longer be sustained47. Elias. S. W.. and settlements (Figs. Ongoing rapid major disturbances (e. Quercus ilex forest) are unique to the Holocene. 147 (2008). 56 . Fagus (re-sprouters). et al. 391-424. 194 (2015). J. Wehrli. [5] H. Mauri. a small lake in southern coastal Sicily. 17 that and Archaeobotany 2.-C. Roman. pastoral and arable farming37. Journal of during glacial stages and rapid spread and expansion and unique These palaeoecological questions suggest that it is inadequate to vegetation science 25. Fraxinus. forming monospecific forests25. The Geological are so characteristic of the Quaternary (Pleistocene. 1958). J. G. In: San- environmental conditions40 . 1698 (2012). 53 . B. 395 (2011).. B. 29 Corylus avellana in the early Holocene across much of north-west [16] J. Most systems disappear. 2042 (2007). Journal of Ecology 93. [38] H. D. Huntley. antecedents in different places. T. can thus help to identify critical Palaeoecology (Edward Arnold. to design.. 6 (Uppsala [45] S. 419 (2013). Vegetation History Pleistocene9. quantified.. favoured by humans for their valuable acorns or timber. 1498 (2009). only obtainable (Elsevier. second edn. D. Sandel. et al. maquis. Willis. G. Science 305. systems in Europe17. Davis.g. create. J. K. 23 of Advances in Global Change Research. Tinner. systems are thus inevitably uncertain and historically contingent. 103 (1991). Reu. B. Quaternary Science [34] W. Conedera. Birks. 40 . [12] Birks. 2008). Luxembourg. J. 87. However.. as defined by Biology 21. W. This process was interglacial epochs on the formation and Europe4. similar forest ecosystems. Off. 48 . Giesecke. properties40 . G. Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences the mid-Holocene (See Box 3)25. where the most hundreds of years. S.. F. et al. [56] B.. Alnus. Quaternary [29] W. Jones. Evolution of Plants (Oxford. disturbance-sensitive taxa such as Tilia. A. The purpose of this analysis but increasingly strengthened by macrofossil studies) The dynamic nature and the often non-analogue character summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related is continual change at time scales of millions. Mai. International Journal of Biodiversity centuries38. J. M. cite as: Birks. 1214 (2005). Tinner. F. Conedera. 1 (Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse. Palynology 79. many novel future responses. E. pp. Forests develop when certain plant species last 5 000 years raises critical questions about appropriate targets updated content may be freely accessed. Marchetto. B. animal widespread synchronous transformations of ecosystems40. and expansion of more permanent land-use practices (e. 10 . Houston Durrant. N. 25. The holocene spread of spruce vegetation type is representative of natural conditions in coastal Sicily prior several additional insights and important lessons from the past40 . Journal of Ecology 99. similar systems had different 106 (Gustav Fischer Verlag. Reviews 28. K. An Atlas of Past Biogeography 31. R. Ecology 87. P. D. 153 (1993). [18] H. forest ecosystems of today [14] P. 127 Edwards. under which these systems were initiated and developed40 . Journal of Ecology 99. B. C. Emerson.. T. 664 (2011). Ecosystem Services & 168 (2005). Lindbladh. 50 . Lotter. Medieval. Macias-Fauria. Combourieu-Nebout. 1995). B. [32] T.. where Universiteit Årsskrift. J. Iversen. W. 17. [54] S. fields. H. heaths. Overpeck. et al. and of European forests in the time-span of the Holocene or even the main topics. J. D. [55] K. presumably in response to regional. Ammann. 1 26. 1971). B. Henne. 2005). Tinner. [35] C. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28. this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Continued forest clearances systems arose at approximately the same time in different K. vol. (Elsevier. A. et al. ultimately legacy effects of different antecedents40 . D.g. environmental changes may almost certainly ensure that many Few major terrestrial forest systems have existed for more historical restoration targets will be unsustainable in the coming than 10 000 years and most are considerably younger. practically no unplanted forest environments survive (e. C. 356 (2015). Palaeoecological studies have Please. The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages. et al. This and Present Pollen Maps for Europe. Allen. Lotter. H. W. Ammann. EU.. J. Third. Birks. L. 4. Bugmann. Birks. McElwain. Bradshaw. Plant Ecology & Diversity [40] S. 41 . the earth system may be accompanied by widespread ecosystem Journal of Biogeography 18. Svenning. ed. T. 676 (2015). 17 and the importance of Abies alba in southern Europe in extinction of plant taxa. D. F. by inference in some cases. indicate the specific environmental changes that led to the development of the system References [1] H. Birks. the so. 5. M. W. S. Caudullo. B. J.. The palaeoecological record of European tree and forest history outcomes. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23. Jackson. Acer maple. A critical question is thus are today’s ecosystems (Koebenhavn. Forest vegetation First. B.27. A and used as a key to “understanding the biotic effects of future narrow time window (e. 495 (2004). [30] R. Peglar. eds. 1983). Tzedakis. Iversen. E. 1266 (2013). Tinner. Jackson. 0-13.. vol. Such information. 15. Fagus. Tinner. J. 17. Fourth. 61 (1993). S. and past European forests using the vast amount of palaeoecological 2 700-2 000 years ago with Greek and Roman colonisation involving regular this underestimates the risk of major disruption of the system by data available in Europe4. M. 4: Xeric maquis and cultivated land north of Gorgo Basso. Jørgensen. pt. Science. 696 have no long history even in the time span of the Holocene and (2013). 484 1261 (2006). W. Thus apparently similar systems [9] K. Flessa. A. Science 314. W. [33] M. 2 (Cambridge in scandinavia. A. tree combinations in the different interglacial stages13. become abundant and dominant at specific areas under particular (‘baselines’) for restoration efforts. occurred as the result of the development in atmospheric circulation involving climatic shifts that led to Palaeobotany and Palynology 218. to human-induced creation of maquis vegetation (Fig. 593-612. Rey. 551 from the palaeoecological record. with all its climatic shifts10. Tinner. as shown by We are very grateful to Cathy Jenks for preparing this text and the palaeoecological record.g. Colombaroli. 36. Colombaroli. vol. Journal of Vegetation husbandry. Uppsala University Press. [41] J. (‘analogues’)45. B. Bronze Age. Journal of Biogeography 16. 1523 (2004). Iron Age. 18. and the range of environmental variation under which the system Science. W. 26 . 2623-2634. et al. et al. H. if not all. This QR code points to the full online version. (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) in the places where they occur and all have been preceded 503 (1989). changes in diverse regions40. Bradshaw. H. 17. J.g. 281 (2015). impact with forest clearance and agriculture (Fig. These forests may change gradually revealed major human imprints on many. n/a (2015). J. C.. 39 . with progressive extinction from Europe of trees of relationships under past or future climate change? Are they robust [23] J. and manage emerging novel ecosystems to ensure high biodiversity Given the richness of forest-tree responses during the Quaternary and a supply of ecosystem goods and services in the future54. Birks. Vegetation History and Journal of Ecology 95. H.D. W. 1980). disturbance-resistant taxa such as Quercus. Encyclopedia of Ecology. The Holocene 25. no. Palaeoecologists apply the concept that “the present is the key to Why is European forest history important to the past” whereas global-change ecologists project this forward [20] J. Williams. 4 and 5). K. environmental change40 . 37). eds.. M. H. C. Ohlson. Geology 29. The bearing of glacial and (2013). [47] K. maquis and day observations47. thesis. B. thousands. K. H. to 10 000-15 000 due to major changes in the Earth’s climate system due to orbital forcing9 . 200-300 years) underestimates the environmental change”55 . 567 (2009). 46 . [2] H. H. The development of Denmark’s [51] S. Ostrya. Willis. Viking. The Holocene 15. Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. Abies. [31] T. Encyclopedia of Quaternary [28] Quaternary [53] M. Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte [43] B. Quaternary Science Zagwijn. Bennett. J. et al. T. Turekian. led ultimately to the widespread deforestation of much of Europe Europas. Quaternary Science Reviews the Environment 13. Reasoner. Almost all extensive and naturally forested areas surviving today ecologists look to the future. de Rigo. Jackson. e010c45+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 39 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Seddon. modern ecologists? and use “the present is the key to the future”. Salix. Annual particularly intense in the lowlands of Mediterranean Europe. by ecosystems (not necessarily forest systems) that differ in [6] L. structure. Journal of The palaeoecological record for European forests provides [4] B. [46] J. Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future have resulted in a continuous dynamic of tree survival in refugia Environmental Change (The National [26] G. structure. Willis.indd 39 08/04/2016 11:08 . fire. Huber. Tzedakis. This sclerophyllous vegetation type expanded range of variation within which a forest system is sustainable.g. Second. A. Journal of Ecology 103. Trondman. Williams. Global Change Biology p. M. The Holocene 25. however. 523 (2013). M. some decades  34. and agriculture. pp. Hewitt. The full version of the many palaeoecological studies (mainly based on pollen dynamics under global-change conditions52. the so-called Arcto-Tertiary geoflora in the Pliocene and early to climate conditions beyond modern states? Are species ranges in Science Reviews 28.). crop cultivation. Birks. 26. is a rich and largely untapped record of ecological dynamics over Assessing whether current forest systems are sustainable in a wide range of time-scales. et al. Problems of the Early Post-Glacial Forest Development in [49] A. van Andel. 156 (2014). Shuman.. Journal of maintained itself in the past40 . 35 . Veloz. H. equilibrium with environmental factors such as climate50 or have [24] S. Review of Palaeobotany and pp. [27] D. 199 (2014). Hobbs. B. (2015). P. B. and ecological surprises are certainly possible42-46 . Jackson. [19] F.000 Years Ago. 194 (2000). (Springer Netherlands. Lang. In general. Tinner. Examples include the former abundance of 106 (Gustav Fischer. B. [52] P. 2013). 2016. 2005). But the present Denmark. Corylus. Hubschmid. et al. 17. R. Mock. [42] S. Ecology S. T. as a basis for past reconstructions or future predictions. Restor Ecol 21. [36] W. A promising novel approach is to combine Fig. J. What ‘lessons from the past’ can be learnt from the ever. Press. but more importantly. J. B. Giesecke. Holocene) the realised environmental niches of species been significantly [25] W. Academies Press. R. Quercus. Methoden und Ergebnisse. Jackson. Annals of the New and the development of extensive pastures of ‘commons’. Mountain Regions. survived on rocky calcareous slopes less suited for agriculture. 549 (2006). Ruosch. et al. Longer time periods (e. Willis. 755 (2007). 30. 1 000-2 000 (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) years) inevitably increase the inherent range of natural variation Acknowledgements in the earth system40 . human activity)17. et al. Review of [39] R. 133–143. usually in response to extrinsic environmental change41 or moving at centennial to millennial time-scales9. Tzedakis. universal but rapid regime-shifts in 1. B. 13. Birks. vol. Hannon. Iversen. The repeated glacial-interglacial cycles15. U. H. environmental thresholds beyond which specific modern forest [3] H. changing composition. pp. 4). Ulmus. H.and scrub-pasture and hazel coppice expanded. What emerges from to produce palaeo-validated scenarios of future vegetation This is an extended summary of the chapter. van der Hammen. Birks. Past forests of Europe. Global Change M. 273 (1999). G. palatable) expanded34 . C. at different times17.. Ph. Schwörer. Betula. Willis. J. Ammann. interspersed by periods of abandonment and places. [17] H.

accuracy and uneven definitions of measured/estimated quantities for different taxa. 20-22 (see also the chapters low accessibility13.i. However. Caudullo. As an example. This Atlas is based on possibly the richest set of information harmonised at the European scale and focusing on recorded occurrences of forest tree tree species distribution and habitat suitability for the current Bottom left: France. Therefore. The park is characterised by very high A key piece of information to allow some of these impacts biodiversity. However. 40 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. In both cases. darker areas . temperate. For example. risk assessment on emerging risks due to exotic forest pests and diseases often has to be performed coping with a broad set of uncertainties4 . In the mountainous areas or where land use and landscape diversity is wide. Top left: A view of the European continent at night shows clearly the large centres of population. it might be that the available field “European forests: an ecological overview” and “Forest resources significantly alter the local composition of forests compared observations are not dense enough to offer a statistical sampling in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. estimated using a cost-distance algorithm which computes the “cost” of travelling between two locations. Continental-scale modelling of tree undisturbed areas may display a rich variety of species adapted to domain. 16 . Houston Durrant. CC-BY. displays an impressive set of challenges for it to be addressed at (Adapted from an image authored by Hans Fransen. From European Commission and the World Bank14 . experiencing highly a wide range of climate patterns17-19 . Top right: Accessibility may be defined as the travel time to a location of interest using land or water based travel. information gaps between multiple administrative units and institutions may potentially lead to classify regional field observations on a given species (missing from the local inventory) as false negatives. 1: Top left: Croatia. for example because without wide uncertainties on the real detailed composition and disturbances and threats”). and threats to be reliably estimated is the availability of updated (Adapted from an image authored by gravitat-OFF. management practices might prevent or mitigate the natural local distribution of tree species (see Figure 1). where forest ecosystems is elevated. T. However. aspect. The global change in its environmental (climate change). with more than 800 identified species and subspecies of plants. explicitly calling for “advanced research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to better understand the complex issues around social. 14 (see Figure 2). About one third of the continent is covered by mountain systems (according to a recent revised classification based on the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre approach20) and in most massifs the forest cover is a key component up to the timberline. Fig. From NASA. As a consequence. economic and social consequences2. precipitation patterns may vary greatly depending on the local elevation. even this apparently simpler objective management. de Rigo. with about 3  % of world land hosting almost 7 % of the world population (estimates for 2014)12 . and usually measured in units of time. J. 2: A qualitative visual overview for some of the dimensions of complexity and heterogeneity in the European continent. Bottom left: The peculiar administrative heterogeneity of Europe (28 member states in the European Union with 24 official languages and several states which are either federations. federacies or in any case providing large autonomy to internal administrative units) further increases the complexity and intrinsic uncertainty of continental-scale environmental modelling. areas with predominantly For example. less accessible ones . slope. see Figure 6) is uneven with extensive areas of the continent very poorly covered. Grazing and managed forest stands generate patches of locally uniform the European scale Europe is densely populated. Even the uniformity of tree species within managed forest stands may be subject to border effects with increased diversity of species. species distribution and habitat suitability needs to adapt to this coexist in the same mature ecosystem. Therefore. This shows the varying levels of human influence. Mountain forests are exposed to heterogeneous bio-climatic conditions: temperature. with a large array of possible environmental. Top right: Romania. Forest management may changes species. economic and environmental changes related to forests”1 . boreal up to the polar climate its overall high heterogeneity. The similarity with the top left view is evident. social and economic dimensions is expected to impact on European forest systems in complex ways (see chapter “Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. with different spatial density of sampling. temperate and boreal mountain systems. Europe spans These characteristics of the continent contribute to define interspecific competition by other tree taxa. This is because the many regional datasets are often autonomously collected and the continental scale. Potential impacts include changes in the suitability of whole regions for certain forest taxa and types. data and information on forest tree species D. Bottom right: orographic complexity. Stratification over the years of forest and land situation5-11 . Several hundred thousand harmonised field observations have been collected and integrated to cover several millions of square kilometres. Krka National Park. with the potential natural vegetation15. Beside future potential threats. with intense landscape diversity highly variable bio-climatic conditions influence local forest and relatively few undisturbed areas of high wilderness and ecosystems and their composition17. The values in the map represent the cost required to travel across them (hence this is often termed a friction-surface). the anthropogenic pressure on subtropical. and resulting solar and rain shadow. mountains characterise more than one third of the exceptional challenge with a harmonisation effort to integrate managed forests may exhibit very diverse patterns with sudden European land (see Figure 2) with peculiarities associated to the the different sources of forest-based field observations. disturbances and threats”). a much denser network of field observations would have been required to reliably reconstruct at the km2 resolution the local distribution of forest tree species (not only including the ones that occupy Fig. field observations of forest tree species in these areas may be associated with information limited to very local conditions. CC-BY. solar irradiation. also considering how to better take advantage from the already available land cover mapping. G. at the landscape scale this results in Heterogeneity of forests and forest data at a high heterogeneity. The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling. http://archive. while over the subtropical.indd 40 08/04/2016 11:08 . transdisciplinary robust assessment is required to identify and address emerging immediate risks for forest ecosystems. Earth Observatory40 . (Adapted from an image authored by Sergey Norin. http://archive. the local density of available field observations (plot density. San-Miguel-Ayanz The European Commission has recently published a Forest Strategy for the European Union (see chapter “The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe”). 3 .e. CC-BY.more prevalent in the far north of the continent and along mountain ranges. and resulting variations in the spatial distribution of forest tree species in Europe. http://archive. where anthropogenic influences might be greatest.

contributions and modifications by means of an internal version control system. The available European-wide data and information have been comprehensively integrated set of available data and information. As a consequence. (Adapted from an image authored by Francesco Gasparetti. Other sources provide coarse-resolution Left: Forest patchiness and variability: hills with a mixed land cover where forests show limited core undisturbed areas and extensive forest borders estimates on the chorology of vascular plants covering the whole of Europe (FISE)1. the extended summaries of this book are associated with their 50 international experts who devoted their efforts in co-authoring. and able to tolerate a larger amount of outlier data or data affected by peer review. diagrams. improved data and modelling. 45 under the semantic array programming paradigm43. with the design and implementation of a dedicated chain of data-transformation modules (D-TM)43. has been complemented by open contributions from international scale” in this chapter).indd 41 08/04/2016 11:08 . the D-TM chain for each chapter version generates intermediate information with semantic enhancements. Furthermore. https://archive. a chapter will be persistently published in the FISE high uncertainties – a feature which is essential at the considered spatial portal. for which the information is sometime more incomplete). Additional sources of information are available by supra-national initiatives that collect forest-based field observations for a number Fig. Although fragmented. At a finer scale. DOCX). the overstorey canopy layer but also the ones in the midstorey and understorey. a cycle of internal review – with the support of external reviewers – and subsequent content revision has been iterated up to finalise the extended summary for each chapter (see Figure 4). Overall. the definitions and methods underpinning the impressive amount of collected information are not yet uniform among the different inventories²⁴. See also Figure 2 and Box 2 for an overview on the underpinning uncertainty at different spatial scales. aspect and subsequent solar irradiation. 3: of specific purposes25-29. revising. here forests are more homogeneous with weaker evidences of border of specific forest tree species36-39 . That said.g. extended statistics and within FISE. Fig. local richer information (although not yet harmonised with the information available elsewhere) may be able to provide locally more accurate estimates. annotated by the co-authors by using common word-processing formats (DOC. LaTeX. machine-readable semantic structure. From the human-editable format. which correspond to over 1 600 unique references. which may serve for further readings. as well as to different patterns Europe or at least a substantial part of the continent30-35. with the potential contribution of additional co-authors. http://mfkp. For a given chapter version. the extended summaries with their cycles of review and revision required the support of novel computational tools. Overall. Existing land cover mapping exercises may complement database and information systems within a modular array of . models. For each of them. without previous peer-reviewed versions of an updated chapter will remain accessible. notes that “harmonized information on forests and forest resources at EU level is still limited. the INRMM-MiD catalogue covers about 5 000 indexed publications. an INRMM-MiD public record is available with integrated metadata and meta-information on the cited publication. categories . and the Forest Information System for Europe”) to integrate diverse of slope. to ease the collaboration and with the systematic internal recording of all considering other ancillary layers. under a clearly defined taxonomy of roles42 geospatial layers (at 1 km2 spatial resolution) to be processed. bibliography and text). the making of the printed version of the Atlas required the processing and generation of more than 18 000 files (considering only the textual information content) organised in more than 2 400 units of content. The content-processing chain is implemented on a GNU/ Linux computing environment44.instead the first time a systematic coverage of forest tree taxa distribution Right: Italy. insights and comments for the is the result of an ensemble of hundreds of intermediate maps generated European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is similar to that applied to the printed chapters of the Atlas. the content-processing chain of D-TMs starts from text and references. these formats are unsuitable for an automated semantic enhancement of their content. CC-BY. disturbances and threats”)43. advisors and reviewers. a brief overview on the Atlas review model and via statistical resampling to ensure that the final estimate is more robust edition. probability of presence) and suitability (maximum habitat suitability) map corresponding updated online full version. The review model for the Online reviewing. All authors. The main goal of this Atlas is to offer a robust integrated synopsis harmonising information-rich areas with information-poor ones. Another mixed land cover. this information by providing high-resolution estimates of forest models. Canton of Lucerne. based on the most effects. This European Atlas of Forest Tree Species provides for (Adapted from an image authored by Benediktv. After the initial design and implementation of core materials and methods (data. https://archive. and habitat suitability at the continental scale. tables and other supporting information. CC-BY. The Atlas provides an overall bibliography with more than 2 400 cited references to scientific and technical collected and harmonised within the Forest Information System for The modelling strategy here summarised is designed to be inclusive Box 1: The review model and content-processing chain of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species The making of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species required several Concerning the modelled maps. Periodic updates might be possible for e. If accepted. To obtain the printed version of this Atlas. notwithstanding important research efforts in this field”23 . the continental-scale modelling exercise here described can be exploited by users for a more consistent pan-European overview of forest tree species. as harmonised scale (see section “Heterogeneity of forests and forest data at the European extended literature. Although easy to edit with images. In Europe. this required about 20 000 core intermediate iconography. Unfortunately. Each distribution (relative by Figure 4. The Commission staff working document accompanying the Forest Strategy for the European Union. most countries collect information about forest resources by means of National Forest Inventories (NFIs)24 . 4: The review model of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. each updated manuscript will undergo a more extensive on its content-processing chain is summarised. The manual harmonisation of the bibliography was based on the records stored in the Meta-information Database on Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM-MiD.such as broadleaved and coniferous trees . of which more than 2 400 are on forest resources. 41(see chapter “The European Union Forest Strategy are exposed to the anthropic influence. As highlighted years of work for the editorial board and intense exchange with more than sources within a single coarse-resolution overview. In addition. Here. 46 . Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 41 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. PDF and RTF documents with a harmonised. providing additional information. about INRMM see also the chapter “Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. chorology areas may integrate several These few statistics refer to this printed version of the Atlas. 46 . data and information on forest tree species. Marche region. to derive HTML. the detailed composition and proportion of forest tree species may locally vary. integrating recent or The modelling.

Genomics and Evolution (www. This has been achieved by means of SemAP array-based European Information System on Forest Genetic Resources The modelled maps. since the main effort of systematic data collections such as national forest inventories is more focused on forest areas. remarkable biotic disturbances (such as some forest pests) may spread also over landscapes with sparse but susceptible trees. Beech and Ash. single trees) that are traditionally analysed in This dataset derived from National Forest Inventory data genetic surveys conducted in natural populations. and keeping up-to-date inventories and maps of land cover. highly uncertain or missing data (::nanless::). https://archive. specifically Pine. Database System. https://archive. updated enriched information and maps with an increasing level of datasets 200752).evoltree. was produced with an automatic classification technique based 2152/200350 mentioned Bottom: France. from which the data used in this project27. The dataset CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) used in this project came from the Biodiversity module. and society domains. CLC map covers 36 European countries with a pixel size of 1 hectare. CC-BY. Genetic Diversity (GD). Input refers to the online taxonomy of array-based semantic constraints (EUFORGEN) program. conserve. Among other constraints.indd 42 08/04/2016 11:08 . through sustainable forest management” Atlas (https://w3id. In these forest sites. 42 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. (LAEA) for the datasets used: European Forest Inventories (EF). aims to produce large-scale maps of national territories recorded for more than 3 300 sample points in 19 European Countries. species in approximately 375 000 sample points with a spatial excellence addressing four major disciplines: in order for FISE to offer a continuous FISE is putting an intensive effort toward harmonising the org) of the national focal points for 98 target tree species in 31 delivery of advanced forest research and products (as a “dynamic heterogeneous sources of information on forest-based field European countries. Under this scheme the monitoring is carried out Harmonising forest cover datasets by participating countries on the basis of a systematic network Available maps of land cover in Europe have been harmonised of observation points (Level I) and a network of observation within FISE as complementary information on forest categories plots for intensive and continuous monitoring (Level II). forest patches. EUFGIS (EG). The modelling methodology for compliant 1 km² grid (LAEA EPSG CODE 3035)49 . but dynamically evolving populations the scientific. after the removal of outliers. Furthermore. The (GD)2 database This project is a Community scheme for harmonised. 6: Plot is designed to publish (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forest in Europe.eufgis. The database geospatial application47 of the semantic array programming and provides information on the presence/absence of forest tree is part of the EVOLTREE project (Evolution of Trees). all considered as not available information. Genetics. normed by EC Regulation No. Geo-referenced Database of Genetic Diversity (GD)2 The semantics underpinning the array of different data The (GD)2 is a dataset of sample points localising genetic European National Forestry Inventories database sources has been systematically harmonised by exploiting the units (populations. CC-BY. effects in European forest ecosystems. Linear formations contribute to support connectivity among Fig. broad. and example of landscape with a scattered woodland component. the array-based semantics of (Adapted from an image authored by Fredi Bach. covering 21 European countries8 . All datasets used have been harmonized to an INSPIRE information sources is provided. diagrams and statistics available in the printed semantic constraints43. The datasets considered in this Atlas are able either within the natural environment to which they are adapted for supporting a multifaceted ecosystem of uses and customers in to provide records on presence/absence or at least presence only (in situ). or artificial. even approximate information able to systematically cover these European areas may be essential. in which plant CORINE project. EUFGIS dataset contains geo-referenced Europe (see also Box 2). It comprised two modules: Soil Module51 and Biodiversity Module25. Oak. The map initiated in response to the “Forest Focus” Regulation (EC) No. They are collections of forest field surveys information on around 2 500 forest samples. This map is a 25 m spatial resolution raster derived from LISS III. Baden-Wurttemberg. 46 . to provide harmonised soil and forest biodiversity data. The complete Forest Focus dataset covers 30 European Countries Pan European Forest Type Map 2006 (FTM) with more than 8 600 sample points. data and modelling integration. SPOT4/5 and MODIS satellite imagery and Corine Land BioSoil dataset Cover 2006 data. comprehensive and long-term monitoring of air pollution species. which aims to “maintain. Forest Focus (FF). In this section. 2152/200350 . at the boundary between the subtropical mountain system and the subtropical dry forest. Some among the simpler of them are (EUFGIS) version of this FISE Atlas will be further improved with additional exemplified hereinafter with the notation ::constraint::. and enhance the biological diversity of forests. a more detailed summary of the data and localization. Although the presence of tree species characterises these examples. (e. 5: Examples of sparsely forested areas with mixed land cover. and able to assimilate further forest information not yet exploited. each typology of species specific map is also described. including their species will be precious (see Figure 4). The data managing the data JRC implemented a Forest Focus Monitoring sources used are listed below. This notation This project is part of European Forest Genetic Resources modelling modules and data currently under harmonisation. each harmonised dataset expects the corresponding geospatial records to have nonnegative values (::nonnegative::). Therefore. Based on earth observation satellite images. from which was extracted the forest cover from the classes “Broadleaved forest”. contains geographic information of a limited number of tree based. policy-making.g. 38 .is/GmS3a) Middle: Turkey. launched by the Commission of the European species from both the tree layer and the ground vegetation layer was Communities. restore and data from experts in local/regional distribution of specific tree which implements the paradigm (see Figure 8)48 . BioSoil (BS). useful for the species chorology) for the main tree species in elsewhere (ex situ). computed with a spatial grid of 50 km2. 28 . Top: Germany. It includes the classes “Broadleaved Forest” and This project was one of a number of demonstration studies “Coniferous Forest”. “Coniferous forest” and “Mixed forest”. It was launched in April 2006 and financially supported by the European Union Forest Focus/Monitoring dataset within the 6th Framework Programme. (Adapted from an image authored by Fredi Bach. The EUFGIS maintains an online portal (www. aerial photographs and ground surveys. the latest version of the map 2006 has been implemented by The European Environmental Agency)37. (Adapted from an image authored by Schwabe90. However. The aim of the BioSoil project was on a Neural Network clustering algorithm36 . For (proportion of broadleaved and coniferous trees)36-39 . tree populations are modular system that combines data and models into applications”1) observations24-29 . providing data of Materials and methods with information about the growing tree species and geographical the main tree species presence. https://archive. 48 . The online version of the Harmonising presence and presence/absence genetic resources. a network of (SemAP) paradigm43. resolution of 1 km²/pixel. trees in non- forest areas may be supported by scarcer field observations. covering 38 European countries. some tree formations may not fulfil the definition of forest and thus may be classified differently in the available land cover maps. Fig.

multiple presence/absence raster maps. from the single element of a given spatial cell (pixel value) up to sparse collection of them. This refers to areas with a Modelling methodology dimensional slices of the bioclimatic space are displayed. This model supports the generation of high resolution taxon. This map counts 22 land taxon. the integration of continental-scale arrays of geospatial filed observations. In some cases the chorology maps have been derived from the species distribution maps available on the EUFORGEN website34 . entire data and information. the detailed list of relevant Fig. 8. EGC). This is the basis for the RDS- more advanced modules . The analysis is performed with an innovative modelling methodology designed to preserve a consistent logics and quantitative meaning (i. AP. two- highlight poor survivability conditions. normalised by the precipitation of the Spatial distribution: the C-SMFA model conditions very dissimilar from all the ones observed for the wettest month) vs.e. Hultén and Fries33 and on the Atlas Florae integrate conditions are very similar to those of at least some of the field MHS model. The map also the difference between the total precipitation of the wettest highlights unsuitable areas in Europe: i. estimates the relative probability of presence (RPP) of the taxon based on the datasets of field observations as harmonised within the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE)1. 7: Broadleaved and coniferous forest density. the distribution of observed trees is visualised against The data and information harmonised in FISE has been the where the taxon is found. or bioclimatic input layers to estimate the tree species maximum habitat suitability). C-SMFA also supports suitable for the taxon to survive (denoted in the legend as trees to be analysed in their distribution patterns within a statistical resampling and Monte Carlo analysis as enhancement for high survivability areas). It is classified as “Native” (green area) when the species is thought to occur naturally and “Introduced” (orange area) when the species has been historically introduced and is nowadays naturalised. This is due to the semantic role as a statistic constraint of the within FISE1. Permissible values may vary depending on specific requirements of the particular algorithm and complex semantics constituted a challenging big-data which is expected to operate on the arrays. Conversely.e. Furthermore. 25-28. a heterogeneous collection of references has been gathered and consulted. as exploited in the modelling methodology to generate tree species accuracy of the estimation36-39 . three pairs of bioclimatic factors: basis for generating the modelled maps and diagrams which Each map is modelled with an innovative methodology • annual average temperature vs. In particular. CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) and ESA GlobCover 2009 (EGC). computed with a spatial grid of 50 km2. In the EGC map the forest classes are suitability maps at the taxon level (1 km2 pixel size). http://w3id. 17. (LAEA) for the datasets used: Pan European Forest Type references is provided. Each map is modelled with a spatial frequency analysis of the available field observations. The sampling points are derived from the same datasets which have been used to model the species distribution and the maximum habitat suitability. precipitation.indd 43 08/04/2016 11:08 . The frequency analysis considers multiple spatial scales to account for the different local density of data. In particular. distribution and suitability maps. where the taxon currently lives or could live. This is not as easily obtained with classical approaches Further details on the modelling aspects can be accessed in distribution maps at the taxon level (1 km2 pixel size). 54 . 8: Examples of the array-based semantic constraints. The elements composing the array may be accessed and denoted Together. observations where the taxon occurs. for each class estimates the maximum habitat suitability (MHS) of the taxon observed are obtained by means of high-resolution bioclimatic the maximum tree cover percentage was adopted as the potential based on the datasets of field observations as harmonised and geographic factors (e. precipitation patterns must be composed of ::nonnegative:: values. it is constrained to have a consistent semantics with an additional array of geospatial information.)8. ESA GlobCover 2009 (EGC) Map 2006 (FTM). in order to improve the overall map quality (constrained spatial multi-scale frequency analysis. high-resolution tree species based on high-resolution bioclimatic and geographic factors (e. . based on the datasets of field observations8. similarly addressed with the GeoSemAP approach. The species frequency over a 50 km square grid (represented by means of dots with variable size): this shows the percentage of species presence related to the amount of sampling points inside the grid. Left: an array of raster layers (e. based on temperature. C-SMFA)8 . 41 . paradigm (GeoSemAP) has been exploited43. the geospatial semantic array programming probability of presence is a ::proportion:: between 0 and 100 %. coarse. values in [0 1]. are associated to each tree species/taxon chapter (see chapter following the relative distance similarity approach (RDS-MHS) How to read the Atlas).g. 2. while the estimated problem. the average distribution (relative probability of presence) and suitability based on temperature. RDS-MHS estimates the maximum spatial extent • and the seasonal variation of the monthly precipitation (i. precipitation. 47.object of ongoing research . solar Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 43 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.g. The species chorology: this is the broad range and qualitative spatial distribution of the tree species derived from one or more bibliographic sources. 46. the local bioclimatic multidimensional bioclimatic space. forest cover classes. 55 as cover classes defined with the United Nations Land Cover Classification harmonised within FISE1.e. High values represent areas which are highly solar irradiation)8. i. cover maps (CLC. In most chapters. (maximum habitat suitability). 31 . Each map The local bioclimatic conditions where a given taxon is described through percentage ranges of tree cover. 17. Chorology and frequency This category of maps summarises two basic pieces of information concerning the species: 1. the precipitation of the driest month.e. 53 . • potential solar irradiation in spring-summer vs. resolution chorology and frequency maps. As for the distribution maps based on the C-SMFA model. or climatic information on e.g. a consistent semantics) within the heterogeneous array of data and information which is necessary for the diversity of the European continent to be covered. along with their underpinning uncertainty matrix layers and list of matrices. 8. Each map based instead on the average habitat suitability. value. combining the continental-scale arrays of geospatial with different levels of granularity. For this. Source: Daniele de Rigo. Most of maps are principally based on historical works about the vascular plant chorology by Meusel and Jäger32 .. Maximum habitat suitability: the RDS-MHS model same as those exploited to estimate the coarse-resolution forest The forest cover classes have been extracted from land This model supports the generation of high resolution plot frequency maps. 54 . the full online version of this chapter. In all the tree species chapters where chorology maps are available. information on the spatial probability of finding a broadleaved (or coniferous) tree species has been used as C-SMFA statistic constraint to improve the Fig. 8. range. In these areas. Right: Another semantic dimension associated with the aforementioned arrays is defined by the numerical values of each array element. 41 . bioclimatic information constituted a challenging big- data problem. This array of factors allows the observed forest cover classes within the C-SMFA model. elevation temperature of the coldest month. In bioclimatic pattern very dissimilar from all the observed patterns particular. autoecology diagrams (also known as series of global Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument climate-space diagrams) have been derived for the described Fine Resolution mosaics for the year 2009. 41 . lower values To ease the visual interpretation of some patterns. Among other constraints. The field observations are the System and a spatial resolution of 10 degree seconds39. For example. presence/absence data constitute a ::binary:: information.g. The number of measured plots per each spatial pixel. annual precipitation. For producing the chorology maps. the array-based semantics of each The GlobCover project in 2010 produced a global land cover map harmonised forest density expects the corresponding geospatial raster layers Autoecology diagrams derived by an automatic and regionally-tuned classification of a time to provide the proportion of forest cover (::proportion::). areas with bioclimatic and driest month.. autoecology diagrams.

Since they cannot completely prevent software uncertainty.g. a trade-off exists between increased complexity of models (assuming that this increase is associated with a better approximation of the reality. The information on the presence at the plot-scale of a given tree species may be useful for assessing the species chorology and the maximum extent of its distribution.6084/m9. https://dx.g. between different National Forest Invetories. software and data uncertainties: a qualitative integrated overview of trade-offs for estimating pan-European forest tree taxa information Fig.g. NFIs24). This assessment may be performed without additional data-transformations. 9: Overly simplistic models may be affected by high modelling uncertainty because too many non-negligible components of the real system are not taken into account by the model. even this qualitative trade-off has been taken into account for adapting the modelling complexity of the discussed maps and diagrams.figshare On the semantics and interpretation of European-wide available presence/absence records In the section “Harmonising presence and presence/absence datasets” of this chapter.e. with growing modelling complexity. 44 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. which for some categories of models may be structurally impossible77. statistical resampling and robust statistics) which may also contribute to mitigate software uncertainty79-84 . the underlying information to assign the presence/absence value for a given pixel and a given tree species refers to measures within plot areas belonging to that pixel (i. an overview of available field-observation datasets has been summarised. 10: Qualitative visualisation of the potential cumulated effect due to the combined uncertainty in modelling. This may reverberate in higher final data uncertainty.doi. However.indd 44 08/04/2016 11:08 . since the overall area of those plots can be considered as negligible with respect to the 1 km2 area of the pixel. Among other aforementioned concepts and criteria. sampling strategy and stratification. Source: Daniele de Rigo. accurate datasets may be available with detailed annotation on survey methodology. However. In particular. finer-resolution details within highly heterogeneous areas such as mountain systems and high-diversity landscapes). sometime with higher prediction errors for new data77. 78) and the resulting increased software complexity. even the complexity of the underpinning software code increases. The data used refer to the presence/absence of a given forest tree species with a spatial resolution of 1 km2/pixel brought up into line with an INSPIRE compliant 1 km2 raster grid. 11: Qualitative visualisation of varying trade-offs for different available spatial resolution of input data and information. CC-BY. the NFI-derived presence/absence information at pixel level needs to be properly processed to model more advanced statistics than the mere probability to find at least one tree of the given species in the 1 km2. Box 2: Modelling.doi. A qualitative ranking is proposed to simplistically illustrate the different complexity associated to the modelling approaches discussed in this chapter. CC-BY. This increase of the combined data uncertainty may be mitigated with robust modelling techniques (e.figshare Fig. whose cumulated uncertainty depends even on the initial uncertainty of the input data. https://dx. Integrated modelling frequently exploits multiple heterogeneous data sources by combining specific data-processing and intermediate derived data as generated from specialised software modules. At local. The harmonisation process and some of its intrinsic challenges8 may be exemplified considering the dataset derived from NFI Software engineering techniques and good computational science practices may help to mitigate the rise of software uncertainty. software and data.figshare Fig. Source: Daniele de Rigo. Source: Daniele de Rigo. 78 .org/10. The uncertainty of each data-transformation is propagated up to the final combined output. possibly with a supporting statistical analysis so as to more easily detect outliers. CC-BY. More complex models might be associated with a higher sensitivity of their estimates to outliers and input uncertainty.doi. which typically differ from inventory to inventory (e.6084/m9. the areas where field observations have been recorded). Coarser spatial resolution of input data may be associated with an intrinsic partial loss of information (e.6084/m9. regional or national scale.

not only to forests.. (Landwirtschaftsverlag. J. ISSN:1868- Department. Bankamp. Parliament. Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty. pp. D. Dijkstra. R. Formal Methods for adaptation. Journal of the European Union 1. not the pixel one). COM Documents Directorate-General for Agriculture and plants in Europe Vol.. Sommerville. Resources Programme .Band I. L. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Ph. R. Communication from [17] D. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems II. Caudullo. quantity estimated in the C-SMFA based maps. Malhotra. a set of harmonised land cover maps has been summarised.indd 45 08/04/2016 11:08 . the measured records of presence/absence at the plot scale: ideally. [69] G. euforgen. 40. Fu. IEEE Journal this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at [27] R. Banker. should tend to the value forests and its relative probability of presence The software implementation of nontrivial computational science models assumed in the pixel by the “probability of presence” quantity. Barredo. Journal of Software [10] R. Jalas. Otahel. eds. The purpose of this [15] U. ed. Fortmann-Roe. Software D. E. R.g. Figs. Fifth Ministerial [71] S. 303+ 2014). Europe . Allen. DC. Interaktive CD-ROM zur Altman. M. The frequently nested and sometime implicitly introduced in apparently simpler probability of finding some tree species (irrespective of which particular A first evident difference between the information conveyed by the two (ICAETR). Special issue: “Environmental [9] R. Proceedings of the 30th Science 2675. et al.. W. R.Distribution maps pp. Study of a collaborative [58] G.Analysis of biodiversity Louvain (UCL) and European Space Agency Conference On The Protection Of Forests module. Schaerer. The species frequency is estimated within forested species within the plots implies the absence of the species within the entire with the same aim. I. J. (2012). no. Soft Errors in Modern Electronic Systems. SECSE ’09. 774 (2009). Dominici. McInerney. Taylor. Diversified landscape structure in [40] M. et al. Liu. 2015). 2010). Vergleichende Manuals. where the most Communities. et al. CLC. Hlava. 53. . et al. J. San-Miguel-Ayanz. If we consider each of them as approximating a negligible area. The size of software code and its particular the next section).. EFSA-EPPO Joint 2012). Georeferenced database of Variance Tradeoff (2012). Geophysical Research Abstracts EN-C (Publications Office of the European [26] EUFGIS.Scientific and Technical Research M. Sutter. health . Lempert. Metzger. J. I-III. [47] D. Sander. The those whose available field observations do not enable a more detailed Array programming allows the code size and its structural complexity Pan-European Forest Type Map 2006 (FTM)36 may serve to better exemplify spatial analysis to be performed). A disciplined. pp. Houston Durrant. 1 (2007). et al. Flies. Barredo. Zweig.136 (2004). [48] D. et al. Understanding the Bias- / Interactive CD-Rom Map of the Natural de Rigo. with the combined “probability of presence” .org/. Resources Programme (2016). (Springer US. 98pp (2013). Brussels (2008). Schulte. 16 of Efsa Scientific Mountain Areas in Europe: Analysis of 2012 International Congress on of Computer Programming (2014). 155 pp. J. E. A. This quantity differs from estimation of the corresponding forest tree species cover.16. Atlas Florae [44] C. [22] H. G. GotW #74 in Guru of the 4238. de Rigo. [77] S. Publ. Watkins.. Jäger. pp. 214–238. E. completely covered by forests while the second one is sparsely variable having its own probability distribution which is a function of the context. A. I.05b (Network For Distributed Processing: An Object- 2010. Gass. F1000Research 3. de Rigo. Research (Publications Office of the [21] Food and Agriculture Organization of the [34] EUFORGEN. They have been considered broadleaved (or coniferous) tree species within a negligible area belonging forest inventories may be more easily mitigated with the robust statistical relevant in the wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling here discussed for the to the considered 1 km2 pixel. eds. Fortmann-Roe. eds. 2015). This QR code points to the full online version. rep. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Kosztra. Bontemps. San-Miguel-Ayanz. Halounová.).. the European Union. Ciscar. R. 24729 of (2009). Hatton. the biases and modelling uncertainty43. We denote this presence” of single tree species can be properly combined together is the woodlands close to the treeline in the mountain systems. In the section “Harmonising forest cover (and thus susceptible to be estimated for a broader set of taxa. de Rigo. Müller. Computational Interdisciplinary Sciences. This independent statistic is homogeneous resampling exploited by the C-SMFA model and by its integrated use of pan- European-wide harmonisation challenge on forest tree species information. 56 and Remote Sensing. vol. Wasowski. [3] European Commission. European Union 50. (Free Software Foundation. This is an extended summary of the chapter. other sources of uncertainty should be of the categories broadleaved forest. Roberts. Roque. EFSA Journal 9. [64] J. Nature 508. no. 2010). Busetto. (Koeltz scientific books. Rebaudengo. Suarez Meyer. forest-based sector. National Forest Sensing and Geoinformation not only for Project . S. Caudullo. Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants repository of semantic metadata and Hosseini. Stucki. of the United Nations. mountain areas in EU member states. SECSE ’09 (IEEE. Mauri. 3773+ Inventories . The full version of global map of accessibility (2008). S. Reporting (Springer.Pathways for Common Scientific Cooperation. 2009).. pp. Revision 266853 E. Politecnico di Milano.Validation of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Vegetation Europas.Final Report. Commission Staff [19] M. Wang. Italy (2015). the European Economic and Social IFIP Advances in Information and in Europe Vol. 312 (2014). Software Systems. M. Abstracts 15. unknown average probability of finding the given tree species within a plot by a given species or category of species. San-Miguel-Ayanz. et al. may nevertheless have different RPP if the first measures considers them as random samples of a binary quantity (the point presence/absence. Hiederer.-C. Soergel. Map of the Sixteenth International Workshop on (IEEE. or located within unknown statistic with the name of “probability of presence” and this is the object of ongoing modelling research and will possibly enable a future ecological zones unable to support a dense forest cover). S. A. this advanced modelling approach of the tree species which are respectively broadleaved or coniferous and it requires a far more complex chain of data-processing steps. [12] Eurostat. Geophysical Research ICSE Workshop on. Kwakkel. Proceedings of the National of ch. [2] European Commission. Fortmann-Roe. FTM classifies each 25×25 m pixel in Europe into one data-transformation and modelling steps. be further modelled by estimating its values for all the tree species whose species frequency within forested areas. A. Instead. Official Journal of the (2014). ed. Baker. European Union. 24777 of EUR . pp. A. J. J. 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flickr. The root system tends to be shallow. prefers moderately fertile ground. it is able to maintain a high rate of growth until a 50% . The leaves are typically 10 × 7 cm. and its optimal growth is in humid soils situated on calcareous ’red he growing season of at least 140 days. Longitudinally its range is from distribution of beech in Europe. Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Fagus sylvatica. data and information on forest tree species” on page 40. hot summers of the previous year. North Italy). The beech nuts are an important source of food for several animals survive and grow below the canopy of established trees. relatively mature age. In contrast to many other becau The maps local densities of the underlying data sets. and reproduces very late (40-50 years old). veneering and occur naturally and “Introduced” (orange area) when the High presence 70% . understorey vegetation level and in that case beech seeds survive they also play a major part in seed dispersal by hiding the seeds better than those of other tree species. It is a Fagus and fully peer-reviewed) will be published in the online version of large deciduous tree that can maintain its high growth rate until late maturity. but could expand year). plywood.5. every 5 to 8 years. The sampling points to drought when compared to coniferous stands15 . It them very s tolerates rigorous winter cold. low probability of presence. monoecious: the male and female flowers are borne on the same (Copyright Ettore Balocchi.70% make it ideal for boatbuilding. Caudullo Fag throughout the Atlas. The full version of each chapter (expanded Fagus sylvatica L. However.g. but continentality is also associated or volcanic parent rocks. flooring.30% and good workability16 . from Spain in the west to northwest Turkey in the east. it is one of the most diversely used tree species in Europe. 3) Maximum Habitat Suitability. Beech is maps and diagrams concerning: 1) Frequency and Chorology. G. D. circum-Mediterranean firs). and birds including squirrels. the species: the Cantabrian Mountains in the west to the Carpathians and Balkan with limiting its spread in north-western regions4 .50% tree species.) is a large deciduous of the two18 . Climate change since it needs good drainage and will not tolerate waterlogged Mountains in the east. with wavy margins and Large beech in a mountain pasture in Piani di Praglia (Genova. and excellent bending capabilities as “Native” (green area) when the species is thought to Mid-high presence 50% . they have been harmonized to Fagus sylvatica in Europe: distribution. and can even be the side of a hill than at the bottom of a clayey basin. under unfavourable local conditions a relatively shallow root system may make well as a list of the bibliographic sources used to construct the the tree vulnerable to wind-throw1 . The chorology of the native spatial conditions. de Rigo. from furniture to musical instruments. habitat. The bitter edible nuts are sharply so that natural regeneration is possible in silvicultural systems with continuous crown coverage as the seedlings are able to individual trees or more detailed images concerning the bark. usually following High quality images are also included relative to forest habitat. Most chapters deal with a single tree that commonly reaches 30-40 m and is capable of attaining Frequency the va heights up to 50 m in some locations1 . distribution. such as the Po valley and extremes of its range where it is likely to become less competitive in or compacted soils1.50% wear-resistance. In cases where it is not possible to distinguish between the natural and introduced range. It is not particularly soil- and failing to retrieve all of them1 . see the chapter “modelling. Uncertain. finally threats and diseases. 4) branches. the wood is hard and has a pale cream colour Low presence 5% .90% cooking utensils such as bowls. and the amount of potash in its leaves. 28 . which is aimed to be written in an easily accessible style but at the same time Fagus sylvatica scientifically grounded. dataset of forest field observations made from a The map has been modelled with an innovative number of different surveys and available within the methodology designed to take into account the different Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). and EUFORGEN27. Therefore. for all those species for which sufficient data exist. making it susceptible the eastern parts of Europe it is replaced by oriental beech (Fagus its range into Scandinavia and the Baltic9. and is normally present at altitudes of more than 1 000 m. Its seed production is characterised by irregular (it is the most shade-tolerant broadleaved tree in its range10). or European beech.. Its wood is strong and wears well making it ideal for a wide range the Ca of uses. How to read the Atlas General information This section provides a brief overview on how to understand the information provided in the species chapters present in this Atlas. (Copyright AnRo0002. since trees in southern Europe are able to cope better with species distribution (Map 2) and the maximum habitat drought than those in the north1 . stairs. The predominance of beech means a reduction of light level in the leaves. is one of the most important and widespread broadleaved trees in Europe. It is species has been historically introduced and is nowadays Very-high presence > 90% also used for pulp and can be coppiced for fire wood and charcoal due to its relatively high energetic potential1. It grows well on soft soils in which the root system can easily penetrate woolly Ganod currently probably at its maximum post-glacial spread7. Beech shows a moderate soil-acidifying ability12 .org: CC0) 94 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species Modelled spatial distribution of the species This map represents the relative probability of not enough data available to make any predictions about presence of the species derived from a harmonised the probability of presence. calcified or lightly acidic and is frosts in the south to Bergen in southern Norway4-6 . as well as for pulp and firewood. “Actual” range Threats and Diseases The root system architecture of beech may vary depending is shown. woodpeckers and jays. beech requires a humid atmosphere with precipitation well distributed throughout the year and a well-drained soil. it does not thrive on among sites that are regularly flooded or which have stagnant water. Its natural range extends from southern Some Scandinavia to Sicily. Sicily) it is only Frequency and Chorology small scattered populations left after the last glaciation. therefore it is found more often on same records indicate that the species has spread across Europe from orientalis). With around 250 known usages. Beech furthers soil conservation due to its production of a large quantity of litter (around 900 g/m2 per dots): this shows the percentage of plots inside the grid the Hungarian plain. They have an oval to elliptic shape. although it cannot tolerate the most acidic and gn reported by the National Forest Inventories. naturalised. Houston Durrant. At the southern part of its range (Spain. and for this reason cannot drought and moisture availability are limiting factors for the This map summarises two basic pieces of information concerning survive too far north in Scandinavia7. Field d Annual precipitation (mm) Technical terms Technical words are presented in this font and are listed in the glossary on page 190 at the end of the Atlas.5 to 8. while the pale brown colour signifies a and information on forest tree species” on page 40. Its from one or more bibliographic sources. are presented at a high-spatial resolution of 1 km. www. sensitive11 and grows on a wide variety of soils with a pH range protec Distribution Frequency of Fagus sylvatica occurrences within the field observations as from 3. An analysis of pollen also sensitive to late CC-BY) 2) Modelled Distribution. 18 . musical instruments (piano pinblocks). data at that location. panels. importance and usage and The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. short teeth at the end of the parallel veins on each side2.indd 46 08/04/2016 11:08 . particularly at the 1. The thin bark provides little chorology. Dark For more details on the data set and modelling green colour means the species is very likely to be found techniques used. dark and shiny > 75% Chorology Native A key contribution of this Atlas is the inclusion of innovative green. no-data Importance and Usage Marginal/no presence < 5% Beech is an important European forestry tree. 8 . While generally showing a noticeable For more details on the datasets and methodology used.10% qualitative spatial distribution of the tree species derived Mid-low presence 10% . High summer temperatures. 14 . usage and threats obtain species information that is as homogeneous as possible T. 16 .wikimedia. In each chapter there is an extended summary of the current state of knowledge about that species. platters and wooden spoons. habitat and ecology. The tree is usually single-stemmed with silver-grey bark. 8. Beech trees conserve the productive those oppos the species to continue with paragraphs concerning the species capacity of the soil better than many other species. It needs a found at elevations of up to 2 000 m1. 3 . tri-angled and are borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks. although in a few cases the information is presented at < 25% 25% . but is sensitive to spring frost. (Diptera Cecidomyiidae). strength. sylvatica is derived after Meusel and Jäger. As the climate becomes more continental in the south and east (primarily because of drought). mast years (when a very heavy crop is produced). see the Atlas chapter “modelling. that contain the species of interest. It has a typical life span of around 150-300 years. For some regions there were 46 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. It tolerates very shady situations Autoecology. although there are some areas in Europe may have impacts on its future distribution. Shiny dark green leaves with red galls caused by the fly Mikiola fagi Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. commons. Although the chapters have been written by a number of different authors. Fruiting normally occurs Habitat and Ecology Beech is a hardy species. on local soil conditions17. each chapter has been through a revision by scientific experts and includes a comprehensive list of scientific references. as resistance to rockfall and wind-throw17. Owing to the capacity of its root system for assisting in Each chapter starts with a summary and description of the circulation of air throughout the soil. On the contrary. The species frequency over a 50 km square grid (blue where it is not found as a native tree. these are coloured pale grey. Fine grained 2. woodpigeons. suitability (Map 3). It deer is Beech is widespread across Europe: it can be found from Sicily range for F. fruits and flowers. It is classified Medium presence 30% . furniture. The species chorology: this is the broad range and and knot-free. the Atlas at http://w3id. Though not demanding of soil type. there appears to be some genetic variability across different climatic are derived from the same datasets used to model the zones.75% taxon level (e.

it Management 215. from or preferential planting of other species). J. et al. [25] M. Genetika 45. Poznań. A. G. Annual average the species of interest are coloured blue. I-III. Forest Ecology and References 1986). Watschinger. E.wikimedia. The ecology and silviculture of beech: from 369 (2013). P. Botanice 46. A. Annual average temperature (°C) Potential spring-summer solar irradiation (kWh m-2) Seasonal variation of monthly precipitation (dimensionless) usage and threats. 1976). 1982).indd 47 08/04/2016 11:08 . Slope Stability and complete list of contributors is at the beginning of the atlas. thus illustrating the described species. [18] L. Off. Warszawa. Helsinki. The maps are presented at a high-spatial resolution of 1 km.g. Invasive Species Compendium. E... Goldstein. 233 (2002). the local bioclimatic conditions are very very similar. Darter. notes on the taxonomy of the species or information about a related species). 17 (2011). online version of each chapter. mature trees can suffer internal rot by the fungus netrate Ganoderma applanatum. uations nge10). Alberi d’Europa (A. Granier. In appearance they are generally Tundra. The online version will be hosted within the newly established Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). [27] H. et al. J. Thomas. EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) Each chapter has been fully referenced with the most up- [8] T. Anatolia. Mitchell. 2008). www. 1995). et 123 (2007). Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions. 2003). E. diagrams and text. T. Forest Ecology and ges. M. [11] CC-BY) can be found in the chapter “modelling. However. Its (Collins.Structure and Salicaceae to Balanophoraceae (Committee Function 21. orange areas highlight low the Caucasus. The datasets as well as a number of bioclimatic and geographic in the Foliage and fruits of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis). vol. this is Mid-high survivability because the European beech is more susceptible to late frosts12 . [30] K. Mondadori. [20] CABI. make [9] K. et al. J. The presence of ty12 . Hemleben. S. Chorology of Annual precipitation (mm) trees and shrubs in south-west Asia and [16] M. cold desert areas). Rydberg. Oxfordshire. 1 (Polish Scientific Publishers. In practice. Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil) musical [5] R. habitat. Stokes. Jalas. Seasonal variation of monthly more climatic conditions. Baker. Knežević. 2016. EU. Fries. More. temperature and precipitation). Jäger. E. Spring and is frosts often damage young trees or flowers appearing at the ften on same time as leaves. 1557 (2012). Netherlands. Key Fact In some chapters there is a supplementary box focusing on some particular aspects of the species or taxon considered (e. Suominen. T. Caudullo. Atlas Florae Europaeae: [13] L. K. The Online European Atlas of Forest Tree Species will be part of the FISE Communications (FISE-Comm): http://w3id. Browicks. de Rigo. Meusel. there markedly coexists with part of its natural niche19-22 . 111 (2000). based on the datasets of field temperature vs Annual precipitation. Young beech trees are susceptible to grows woolly aphid. (Koeltz scientific books. Isacsson. Cheshire. (Fagus sylvatica) (2008). cite as: ola fagi T. This code points to the full online version of the species chapter. Kramer. Geßler. P. J. Di Iorio. A guide to forest tree ending species selection and silviculture in Ireland. A. Journal of Ecology [17] J. for Mapping the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Fennica Vanario. Dahlstrom. 1974). The leaves are slightly longer. and showing observations as harmonised within the Forest Information summer solar irradiation vs. Goia. Beech is rive on among the susceptible hosts to Phytophthora ramorum and Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability. High survivability the species is found. Walthert. the specific climate niche of that species. Z. [10] A. es little Mature beech forest with autumn colour foliage in Delamere forest. through the text and listed at the end of the chapter. oriental beech tends to favour pattern very dissimilar from all the observed patterns where the valleys while European beech is found further up the slopes. D. www. Šijačić Nikolić. fully peer-reviewed version of the chapter having the possibility to download maps. acidic and gnawing by squirrels and other mammals. It is harcoal [6] E. N. M. Norris. Plant Systematics and Evolution 232. I. 94 (2013). Oprea. and tend to have more vein-pairs (9-14 as Negligible survivability similar to those of at least some of the field observations where opposed to 5-9)3 . J. Forest Genetics 2. Zieliński. Achim. Plant Systematics and Evolution 162. Atkinson. These observations are the the coldest month. 134. water. Old trees (100-1200 years) may suffer areous ’red heart’ which reduces stability and timber value8 . B. factors. Packham. competition th Italy). Oriental beech can be found in the Balkans. abilities [4] J. G. F. J. Journal of Biogeography 35. Rothe. C. Norris. et al. This refers to areas with a bioclimatic Medium survivability two18 . In the online version it will additionally be possible to navigate Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 95 through the expanded. 281 (2004). The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. E. D. darker and less glossy than those of European beech. 2186+ (2015). In these areas. Meier. no-data species to survive (denoted in the legend as high survivability them to be two separate species1 . data and information on bioclimatic and geographic variables. Forest Ecology and Management 259. Fagus orientalis Dark blue areas represent areas that are highly suitable for the Fagus orientalis. All the references are sequentially included ourable R. [7] D. data and information H range protection from fire. readers will find the correct way to sylvatica and other beeches in Europe: distribution. in those areas marked “negligible survivability” the species is unlikely to grow. Atlas of North European vascular plants (North of the Tropic of Cancer). while those plots containing as climate-space diagrams) have been derived for this Atlas we have focussed on three: 1. 22 . Average temperature of how a given species might be constrained by one or System for Europe (FISE). A. Contributii to-date scientific literature. Johnson.. Collins tree guide ope. © Crown Copyright) forest trees (CABI. It deer is a limiting factor because they eat young stands. 1 (2007). Modelled maximum habitat suitability This map represents the Maximum Habitat Suitability of the species. Nicoll. 2009). Sum of precipitation of the driest month. A [1] The number of observations on every species is represented by a grey forest tree species” on page 40. Kaya.g. I.forestry. A. UK. others consider Uncertain. 3 Average temperature of the coldest month (°C) Sum of precipitation of the driest month (mm) [14] A. Welander. Ranger. 100. (National Council for Forest (Bioversity International. 1804 (2006). UK. Fagus sylvatica namely the areas where the species could potentially occur if climatic conditions and ecological conditions are met. EPPO Bulletin 45.. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143. Grimm. G. Fagus here (in the online version. be coloured blue in others where different species are forest plot distribution presented in Map 1. Fang. Trees . northern Iran and Crimea18 . 315 (1989). The Images m2 per large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is harmful for beech and eptible r. 2213 (2010). Barredo. [22] M. R. Löf. pp. C. distribution of vascular plants in Europe Vol. EFSA Journal 9. Nonić. Degen. is closely related to Fagus sylvatica. Annals of Forest Science 59. The CABI encyclopedia of V. solar irradiation and elevation range. 161 (1995). eds. [23] G. adjacent regions. understanding of species. M. M. (Springer grained [2] A. Low survivability the species occurs. Management 190. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 47 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. ng and (2011). E. Frequency) in combination with high-resolution bioclimatic parameters (e. Löf. even if deliberately planted there. A revised [26] T. [28] EUFORGEN. Rome. Magri. [19] J. For more details on the data and modelling aspects. It is modelled based on a harmonised and very dense dataset of forest plots available for most of Europe (see Map 1. et al. P. F. D.. Dorren. Stögerer. et al. [29] J. 2006). 213 (2002). Stanković. [21] M. Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised Forest Ecology and Management 297. Lechowicz. Images have been carefully selected to help identification/ limatic and Otiorhynchus scaber) is another threat to beech21. 273 (2015). Conversely. C. D. A field guide to the trees of colour Britain and northern Europe (Collins. bioclimatic conditions where a given species is observed variables may also be found. Tardif. Captions also identify the individuals er with References who have provided the image and the relative copyrights. cite the full chapter). which has been revised by three iceable Research and Development (COFORD). Sîrbu. Where both species are present. Its range overlaps with that Mid-low survivability of the European beech and there is frequently hybridisation between the survivability conditions. [3] O. C. e012b90+. This QR code points to the full online version. et al. 183 (2005). M.. Simonetti. where the most up-to-date content can be found. Paule. Distribution map of beech Field data in Europe (including absences) Observed presences in Europe field observations from forest plots. le Hir. Autoecology Diagrams In most chapters. Denk. J.. M. E. Augusto. Praciak.g. commons. Publ. Sunesen. K. [12] L. due to which may become a more serious problem in the future5 . A. Italy. Detailed information on the data and techniques used survive ly soil- (Copyright Drahkrub. Graf Pannatier. Herbivory by short-snouted weevils (Strophosoma melanogrammum Forst. Kandemir. 2. The local In the online version of the Atlas other combinations of adapted to different conditions. G. [15] A. logged large regions across Europe have climatic suitability to this pest. a given species may not be found in all the areas marked “high survivability” for other reasons (e. 2013). Potential spring. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. autoecology diagrams (also known possible combinations of variables is very large and for spot (one for every plot). Houston Durrant. Journal of Biogeography 33. Berger. Some authorities consider them to be sub-species. Hultén. 108 pp. QR chapter code and citation information This is an extended summary of the chapter. The correct way to cite this extended summary is also shown Please. D. [24] A. and can also be damaged through stripping on forest tree species” on page 40. 450 (2008). Vols. gene to landscape. Langer. and extended set of references will be available in the full (Forestry Commission. In: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Binkley. 3.euforgen. Forest Ecology and Management ns. The map is modelled with an innovative methodology taking ystems into account the different spatial distributions of the underlying able to es. 167–210. Grey patches on this page may same as those used to estimate the coarse-resolution precipitation vs. or oriental beech. Milovanović. scientific experts. see are obtained by means of a number of high-resolution The overall climate space occupied by each of the field the Atlas chapter “modelling.

indd 48 08/04/2016 11:08 . throughout the year. There are different ice-age refugia of silver fir in northern. The wood is non-resinous. Mid-high presence 50% . The uppermost part > 75% Chorology of young trees has a conical shape gradually changing to become a Native rounded dome as the tree grows older2 . During the seventeenth century. on the Suisse plateau and in South and Eastern Concerning its past distribution palaeo evidence suggests Germany as well as in the Czech Republic and Austria. Unlike the other European natural range. Distribution Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Abies alba. usage and threats A. Caudullo Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and Mediterranean Abies species. which is in agreement with results obtained using biochemical (Copyright Crusier. It often Medium presence 30% . Threats and Diseases Silver fir is particularly susceptible to frost desiccation due to late spring frosts. on the Massif and molecular markers10 .s. Mauri. 18 .75% early years. generally in April or May. alba is derived after several sources29-31 . the Balkans. It is a distinctive tree. It is one of the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe. while new seedlings are extremely sensitive to frost damage. insects. Young tree near Zwardoń village (South Poland). in Switzerland.90% Silver fir is considered an important ecological and functional Very-high presence > 90% balancer of European forests and can serve as a keystone species for maintaining high biodiversity in forested ecosystems9 . and the buds are red-brown and non-resinous. 16 . Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. central and conspicuous numbers in the Pyrenees.) is a large conifer that can be found in central Europe and some parts of Southern and Eastern Europe. Stands of silver fir are present was positively responding to climate warming in Central Europe Habitat and Ecology in the Dinaric Alps and are continuously connected towards the and adjacent areas. its wood was used to produce ships’ masts. Its future distribution is subject of a debate between palaeoecologists and modellers. favouring diseases and plant pests. Southern Alps of Northern southern Italy. Silver fir shows a (Abies x borisii-regis)2 .wikimedia. as documented in many tree ring series11 . The future preferred with a pH from acid to neutral. Italy and Ticino and the Eastern Alps.10% sylvatica). and can live for up to six or eight years. 20 . With particularly cool and moist habitats this tree can live up to 500- 600 years3. Flowers only appear after 30 to 40 years. The main limiting factors are a lack of summer heat and adequate moisture during the growing season. with mean yearly precipitation between 700 and 1800 mm9 .org: CC-BY) It is also found more sporadically in Eastern France. < 25% 25% . de Rigo. Other insects Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. G. D. and in the Apennines. Growth is very slow in 50% . 4. silver fir is decreasing as a result of nutrient content and alkalinity conditions except compact and hybridises with the Greek fir (Abies cephalonica) forming stable animal browsing and replacement by Norway spruce (Picea hydromorphic soils. habitat. where it naturally However. fungi and industrial emissions. Abies alba Abies alba in Europe: distribution.l. The fungi Armillaria mellea agg. Its main distribution is concentrated in Central Europe. and then rapid as the tree matures. while others suggest stable conditions or expansions15. which makes it a good material for carpentry and furniture. and Heterobasidion annosum are responsible for butt rot and windthrow. the Pyrenees and potentially France. commons. Deep and moist but not too wet soils are populations of intermediate forms described as Bulgarian firs abies). The fully developed seeds are mainly dispersed by wind. silver fir is also used for paper production. the Carpathians and Albania. This tree is considered an important ecological and functional balancer of European forests and a fundamental species for maintaining high biodiversity in forested ecosystems. Silver fir tolerates a wide variety of soil types with different Rodopi mountains in Bulgaria and Greece. Phytophagous insects such as Mindarus abietinus and Dreyfusia normannianae are often the cause of infections to needles and bark. At lower altitudes it competes with beech (Fagus Low presence 5% . 4 and reach heights above 60 m4-7 making it among the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe. Silver fir is often distributed on relatively high elevated areas Frequency of Abies alba occurrences within the field observations as reported (500-2000 m a.). The chorology of the native spatial range for A. 48 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. In the next decades the climate Annual precipitation (mm) of central and southern Europe is predicted to become warmer and somewhat drier22 .) is a large evergreen coniferous tree mainly distributed in montane areas in Central Europe. it prefers cooler and moister damage in monocultures1 .70% Importance and Usage High presence 70% . 14 . The needles are dark green and glossy on their upper side while the lower side has two silver- green waxy bands of 6-8 rows of stomata. light and fine-grained and also easy to work. no-data (Picea abies) or Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) at the upper tree Marginal/no presence < 5% limit1. This tree is also the most heavily browsed of the commercially important tree species in montane forests of central and southeastern Europe8 . conditions. This tree is mostly found mixed with Norway spruce Uncertain. with contrasting climate-response forecasts. Insect pests such as mistletoe and bark beetles have already been responsible for a reduction of silver fir in the Mediterranean. It is very shade tolerant and can remain as a “seedling bank” Mid-low presence 10% .30% under the canopy of older dominant trees for decades. being the first conifer species to appear among them4 . in particular to sulphur dioxide SO2 exposure during winter19 . although it has lately been replaced by the cheaper Norway spruce1 . Along with Norway spruce (Picea abies). Some studies noticeable soil-acidifying ability15 . especially in those areas where drought stress is more frequent21 .50% invades deciduous forests due to its easy natural regeneration. favouring summer temperatures ranging from approximately 14 °C to 19 °C9 . Plantations of silver fir are rare outside its distribution of Silver Fir is subject of a debate. but is also Frequency present in Southern and Eastern Europe. It requires relatively high moisture conditions by the National Forest Inventories. possibly because of increased potential for insect suggest a reduction in response to future expected warming13. The essential oils obtained from the leaves were also used in the past to heal bruises as well as for treating coughs and colds1 . During the 19th century it was popular as a Christmas tree. It is also very sensitive to fire19.50% straight-stemmed with a silver-grey trunk1 . a more economically valuable species12 . During the past decades silver fir Central.

Biogeography 22.. Forest Ecology and Science 71. Boivin. 151 (2003). Silver fir is vulnerable to Ips typographus which is also associated to potentially harmful fungal assemblages24-26 . 28 . Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability.. 113 (2014). et al. Guide: Biology. Pathology. Rothe. Adaptation. 565 [3] S. [19] W.. Kirschner. Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen (Verlag Eugen Ulmer. Part B: Regional Aspects.. G. Distribution map of silver fir 179 (2014). 2010). Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants Field data in Europe (including absences) Observed presences in Europe field observations from forest plots. The Holocene 10. Old cones do not fall but Dark-grey bark of a mature tree with fissured plates. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. AP) Scenarios of Climate Change Impacts Jena. K. Caudullo. in Europe Vol. Frontiers in Ecology and P. H. Ellenberg. L. Tinner... Jalas. Ranger. Vegetation Ecology of Archaeobotany 15. I. A. [12] R. 27. D. [9] W. Global Change Biology [30] H. 2001). Vergleichende Erect maturing seed cones on a branch.. H. Flora d’Italia (Edagricole. G. 2010). G. Jäger. forest trees (CABI. Wagner. (Copyright IKB. conifers (Brill. Contribution of Silviculture. Management 181. C. fourth edn. et al.. Senn. M. Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Conservation. D. www. et al.. Pathology 18. Biomes. Praciak. Larsen. 1973). et al. Bowes. 233 (2002). Burgess. A handbook of the world’s [18] E. 83. [13] L. (Eds. [27] R. Bugmann. Ruosch. M. Please. CC-BY) [16] H. 250 [14] M. (Copyright Crusier. [25] D. J.-M. de Rigo. cold desert Negligible survivability Low survivability Mid-low survivability Medium survivability Mid-high survivability High survivability Branches with dark-green needles: leaves have an elliptical insertion but are positioned to avoid shading. Cailleret. in Switzerland. R. G. K. pp. T. D. Suter. III (Gustav Fischer A. Ecological Monographs Mycological Research 105. Vegetation History and [4] H. Scholz. Binkley. www. The CABI encyclopedia of 319. Caudullo. vol. UK. Begerow. et al. 2016. 435 (2006). Leuschner. Ecology. Jürimaa. Bugmann. [26] L. Garbelotto.indd 49 08/04/2016 11:09 . where the most updated content may be freely accessed. Farjon. E. Scientific Topics Focus 2. J. Vegetation Press. Oxfordshire. to Ephedraceae) (Committee for Mapping [17] L. References [1] A. H. [11] U. de Rigo.. 108 (2008). Leiden. usage and threats. (2013). I. Augusto. Abies alba in Europe: distribution. Risks of Exotic Forest Pests Proceedings of the National Academy of and Their Impact on Trade (The American Sciences 111.. (OCCR. (Abies alba) (2011).). Davi.wikimedia. 302 (2013). 2009). Vegetation History and mri10a15+ (2016). Nicolotti. II. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. habitat. 1982). 2 Gymnospermae (Pinaceae 2014). Büntgen. Flora Helvetica. cite as: Mauri. MeteoSwiss. Abies alba Uncertain.wikimedia. Qian. Appenzeller. Hanel. et al. and Vulnerability. n/a (2015). 419 (2013). Helsinki. et al. 100 (2014). Global Ecology and [28] R. M. commons. Wagner.. et al.. 1403 (2001). Off. vol. M.Band I. 659 (2014). Trees and Forests: A Colour Impacts. Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora remain and disintegrate on the tree. EU. Climate Change 2014: [6] B. Atlas Florae Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised eds. G. [24] R. Propagation. no-data Tundra. Durand-Gillmann. Bern. Switzerland. Tinner. Gonthier. Mauri. Martì J. Lauber. This QR code points to the full online version.. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. 25 (2010).euforgen. et al. de Andrés. 2013). Pignatti. [10] R. D. Forest Ecology and Management 328. Fennica Vanamo. M. J. Ellenberg. Giordano. Forest Pathology 44. B. Archaeobotany 23. Cheddadi. 44 (1988). eds. Average temperature of the coldest month (°C) Sum of precipitation of the driest month (mm) Annual precipitation (mm) This is an extended summary of the chapter. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Annals of Forest Science 59. [15] M. [31] J. Coll. Mycological Progress 12. G. L. 79–88. H. F. W. 127 the Environment 12. F. Forest Ecology and Management [2] A. [23] M. (2000).. Oberwinkler. [22] V. et al. Toward Quantitative . C2SM. 6905 (2014). Annual average temperature (°C) Potential spring-summer solar irradiation (kWh m-2) Seasonal variation of monthly precipitation (dimensionless) European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Houston Durrant. Cailleret.. [29] EUFORGEN. p. Phytopathological Society. Camarero. (Copyright Vassil. de Rigo. e01493b+ Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 49 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Press. (2014). Maiorano. Gell-Mann. Möhl. Annals of Forest [8] J. X. European Journal of Forest [5] K.. 2014). Meusel. 25. [20] L. Central Europe (Cambridge University [21] J. Surgery. C. Drenkhan. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University [7] H. Barros. Agroscope and ProClim. 18 (2014). M. FOEN. pp. Nageleisen.. Bologna. J. S. et al. Suominen. Hanso. T. Adamson. Publ.. A. PD) such as Cinaria pectinatae and Epinotia nigricana are affecting bark and buds2 . Wick. commons. 1998). It is also a susceptible host to Dothistroma septosporum and vulnerable to Gremmeniella abietina and Dothistroma septosporum 8.

When well Circum-Mediterranean firs have been historically classified on the base established. Tinner interest and due to the threats. which is a hybrid of Abies cephalonica and Abies woods. marocana the Republic of Macedonia. A. numidica is Boiss. pinsapo has never been extensively felled. subspecies. botanic. marocana (Trab. Abies cephalonica Loudon (Greek fir). it for agricultural purposes was the main threat. and the wood is widely utilized in the building sector. Circum-Mediterranean firs are evergreen conifers from medium (25 m in height for Abies numidica) to large size (up to 1 Abies pinsapo var. (Bulgarian fir). A. nordmanniana subsp. A.) Cebalos & Bolaño sometimes planted in hedges as it takes trimming well10. with little difference between sapwood and heartwood 8-10 . fir species with a limited distribution area32 . their preservation as genetic resources Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region. A. A. radially perpendicular and brush-like 7 Abies cephalonica 8 Abies nordmanniana subsp. Macedonia. Thanks to their aptitude to inter-species breeding. from 5 to 20 mm long. where abundant. twisted to point 9 Abies nordmanniana subsp.) Mattei (Sicilian fir). Southern fir populations deserve special disturbance adapted species or converted into rural areas. nordmanniana has a wider range and is occupied by those firs34 . Wood is soft. pinsapo young plants keep their needles longer and A. equi-trojani stands are grows in the western Rif Mountains in northern Morocco. in many countries the most endangered fir forests along the Black Sea. Unlike others. firs expanded and contracted Mediterranean firs commonly form pure stands in their optimal following the glacial cycles. nordmanniana subsp. urban pressure with ongoing cutting in marginal rural areas for provinces of Malaga and Granada. This is largely the result species. cephalonica. adaptation processes of firs30 . (Copyright weisserstier. Later. 31 .com: CC-BY) 50 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. pinsapo occurs in South Spain in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula in Bulgaria. A. cedars (Cedrus spp. brown-reddish. Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana) is one of the tallest European trees. distribution areas of A.) and have evolved. The speciation probably occurred risk of late frost damage and water transpiration losses. A. The species are able to tolerate long droughts in summer and tend to form pure stands when in optimal habitats. (Spanish fir). complementing the protection of natural easily hybridise. & utilized locally for many purposes.). composed 5 Abies alba of short and horizontal branches regularly spaced. Threats and Diseases pure stands on mountains in western Anatolia near to the Aegean In the past. Great importance is given to their preservation. Pollen 5 cones are clustered along the undersides of the current year’s twigs. A. flattened. Abies cilicica Ant. 6 A. Circum-Mediterranean firs occur stands (national or local parks and reserve) with the conservation principally in mountain areas with medium to high precipitations rates which are mostly concentrated during the winter of genetic resources outside their natural habitats (plantations. numidica). Lebanon in the north-central part of Sicily9. 13. bornmuelleriana. cephalonica has a widespread distribution. 24 . probably due to Kabylia region of Algeria. are still exploited for which two subspecies are recognised: Abies nordmanniana subsp. They all are genetically closely related and can have been elaborated. reddish or dark brown at maturity. deciduous and evergreen of the geological and climatic history of the Mediterranean region where firs oaks (Quercus spp. cephalonica. Taxonomic notes concentrated principally during the winter period20-22 . pinsapo). A. Caudullo. Around the Mediterranean basin firs now CC-BY) A. 25-28 . A. Diverse genetic conservation strategies with fragmented and limited distributions. of which two include Importance and Usage the circum-Mediterranean fir species. due to its soft and light structure. Albania and Serbia. Circum. the genus Abies is classified in 10 sections. 19. The stem is stra