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“Information on copyright, citation and disclaimer”, p. 195).
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Achille Mauri
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Citing individual chapters should be the preferred option. To from the delegations in non-EU countries
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2 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 2 12/04/2016 12:07

Ján Sokoly. claude05alleva. Italy Natalia Guerrero Maldonado. Joint Research Centre. Yuri Timofeyev. Italy Davide Fumagalli. Verollanos93. S. University of Lisbon. Joint Research Centre. Sallyofmayflower. European Commission. Switzerland Technology. John Redmond) Landscape Research WSL. Institute of Salvagnin. Ispra (VA). Franco Giordana. School of Agriculture. European Commission. Jan Oldenburger) Pieter Beck. Ronnie Nijboer. Göranssons Åkeri AB i Färila. Stewart Juan Ignacio García-Viñas. Thanks also to Arlette Goergen of the Doronenko. Wolfgang Staudt. Jan Homann. Technical University of Madrid. Estudios Europeos de Medioambiente Estonia (Mr. for which we would be pleased to rectify Xemenendura. Vito Buono. Alexej Potupin.schoenmakers. Springfield Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Miquel Llop. Polytechnic Institute of Bragança. Sarang. Eran Finkle. European Commission. Ruben Holthuijsen. Sean and high professional standards have significantly added to the MacEntee. MajaDumat. Hamburg. Agro-Food and Forest Systems. Ispra (VA). Thomas Quine. Institute of Plant Sciences and Bellinzona. Giovanni Caudullo. Maja Dumat. Italy Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Ian Rosenzweig. Marina Torres. Franz Jongleur100. Milano. National Research Council. Jonas Fridman) Geosciences. NatureServe. Guillermo Fernandez Centeno. Mahlum. Italy Marcelo Javier López. Ispra (VA). Joint Research Centre. Farnham. Romania Mario Pividori. Zseeee. Cesare Ravazzi. Forest Research. Italy Szmigiel. Jeremy Atkinson. Delventhal. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Hans Fransen. Alan Semper. Rob Hille. Italy Ireland (Mr. Snow and Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Nociveglia. Society and Biosecurity. Richter. weisserstier. Andreas Rockstein (AnRo0002). European Commission. Spanish National Research Council. Sergey Urzhumskov. Molekuel. European Commission. Marco Conedera. Department of Biology. davidgsteadman. Patrik Krebs. Azevedo. Forestry Commission. ECOGESFOR modelling. University of Padova. 40) Erik Welk. Roberto Vallejo Bombín) João S.. Mr. Agrarian Tommaso Sitzia. Geography and Demography. United Kingdom between the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre and Graham Calow. Laszlo Kolozs) Patrik Krebs. Franz Josef. Tomás Royo. US Forest Service. Michael Wunderli. Roberta (PD). Joint Research Centre. Vince Aitor Gastón González. Ispra (VA). Somepics. Legnaro (PD). Achille Mauri. data and information on forest tree species”. Michael Simoncini. Miguel Vieira. Ispra (VA). Magnus Manske. Madrid. Sarah Millar. J. Christinamari. European Commission. Umberto Salvagnin. Roberto Boca. Vivian Kvist Johannsen. Ispra (VA). Frank Vassen. Dalibor Ballian. Rainer Food. Maher27777. Tom Brandt. Faculty of Forestry. Atif Rafik. Pinho. Ispra (VA). EU Publications Office for her assistance in coordinating the Black. Alfonso San Miguel. Halle (Saale). forest ecosystem and tree species Grandmont. Forestry Commission. Dezidor. ilovebutter. Andrew_Writer. Madrid. Joint Research Centre. Viterbo. Italy Dynamics of Environmental Processes. Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg. Franco Caldararo. Bucharest. Joint Research Ragnar Jonsson. The Editors wish to extend their gratitude to the anonymous Nicholas A. Marilyn Peddle. Joint Research Centre. Forestales y del Medio Natural. Horla Maria C. Italy Aleksasfi. NH53. Spain. Anne Ghisla. Gianluca Nicolella. Irina universities across Europe. Food and Forestry Systems. J. Forest Research Centre. European Ioana Popescu. João C. Department of Soil Sciences. Centre for Slovak Republic (Ms. Shankar S. Donald Hobern. Territorial Planning. Taxelson. Tara2. Atlas. Santiago Saura Martínez de Toda. European Commission. Vasile Madrid. miluz. Adrian Lanz) Biosceinces and Bioresources. Department of Land. Lukasz insights on the preparation of the Atlas chapters. Ispra (VA). Roberto Verzo. Jiří Berkovec. University of Bergen. Insubric Ecosystem Research Group. This led to an improved scientific soundness. University of Edinburgh. United Kingdom Spain (Mr. Italy eu (see also the Chapter “The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: Santiago Saura. Giuseppe Milo. Stefano Zerauschek. Samuel Killworth. p. ETSI Montes. Ispra (VA). by the forestry administrations in the member states that Schneider & Christoph Aistleitner (Mediocrity). Alexander Cahlenstein. In addition. Enrico Pompei) Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research.L. European Commission. Kenraiz. Lisbon. Joint Research Centre. Vassil. Velella. Pablo. cafepampas. Axel Kristinsson. Tanaka Juuyoh. Steven Gill. Sarah Mubareka. liz west. Department of Agronomy. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Conservación. Anssi Koskinen. Jean-Pol Sofia Cerasoli. Fredi Bach. Portugal Cristian Mihai Biology Department. Sergey Norin. Anna Barbati. Andrew. Son of Groucho. Vlad Butsky. Italy Wit. Barbara Zecchin. Mati Valgepea) Giovanni Caudullo. Brian Gratwicke. University of Florence. Svíčková. Jim Ferguson. Elin. Ana Paula Dias) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Doc Searls. Joint Research Centre. Portugal Forestry Specialization. Gary Houston. European Commission. Kimberly Vardeman. Pedro Dias. Ettore Balocchi. Domenico Lara Vilar. European Commission. Firenze. School of Bergen. Entomart. Chris De Biological. Romania (Mr. Ian Andrews. Giancarlo Pasquali. United Kingdom F. System on Forest Genetic Resources (EUFGIS) . Tracy Houston Durrant. Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. IKB. Claudio Claude Vidal. Sergio Piccolo. Allie Caulfield. Gian-Reto Tarnutzer. Hungary (Mr. Zuzana Kmetova) Sandra Oliveira. the Editorial Board has put every effort to credit all Cotovanu. Gaston Aitor. Joint Research Centre. Giulia Corradini. Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest. William Warby. Nicolas Raymond. Institute for the Geo-referenced Database of Genetic Diversity (GD)2 . Agnieska Ovaskainen. Agriculture and Forestry. Hauke Musicaloris. Centre Economics. Department Research Group. Switzerland Diego Magni. Alpes de Haute Provence. Leonid Mamchenkov. Spain Finland (Kari T. Edinburgh. Mattivirtala. Forest Research. Forestales y del Medio Natural. Graziano Propetto. understanding Santos Cirujano Bracamonte. Alpo Roikola. Joint Research Francesca Giannetti. Authors Data contributors Jesús San-Miguel-Ayanz. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Insubric Ecosystem Research Group. Spain. Bern. University of Sarajevo. Francisco Antunes. Roland Tanglao. the authors are grateful Lippert. ioa8320. Department for Innovation in Bj. echoe69. Ispra (VA). BioSoil dataset. Independent researcher Francesco Gasparetti. Varlan. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Arnaud 25. European Commission. Crusier. Joint Research Centre. Schwabe90. Paolo da Reggio. Murray B. Stuart Caie. Wouter Hagens. The completion of this Atlas would Kazanskaya. Forestry Commission. Jean-Baptiste Bellet. Pavel Buršík. Ispra (VA). Inga Vitola. Rae. Ninara. ECOGESFOR Research Group. Margherita Di Leo. Joint Research Centre. Stefanst. Forest & Kim Starr.R. European Commission. MemoryCatcher. Estormiz. Ferreira Maria Conceição. Department of Biodiversity of Useful Plants. Huskarl. Department of Land. Jonson22. Frauke Feind. Pieter Beck. benet2006. Thomas printing process and to Matteo Cassanelli for providing support and Resources. Martin Pospíšil) Daniele de Rigo. Ispra (VA).. University of Tuscia. Ptelea. Natural resources. Daniele de Rigo. Dewsbery at Lovell Johns Ltd (UK) whose patience. Guilhem Vellut. Bruce Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Benediktv.www. Vicente Selvas. Klemens Schadauer) Centre. Department of Natural Systems Takeshi Kuboki. Georgi Kunev. Niki. Department of Natural Systems and Resources. Stanislav quality of this publication. Günther Seufert. tree-species. László Szalai. Snow and list of contributors is shown below. Spain. Kelley. School. lifar. MarioM. Birks. Tonelli. Portugal of Claude Vidal. University of Hamburg. Patrizia Gasparini. Nacho. Chris M. Alan Gregg.L. John Tann. Basil.eufgis. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Legnaro standardisation of the atlas.evoltree. Research Group. University of Padova. Norway (Mr. Stan. USA Francesca Rinaldi. United Kingdom (Mr Mark Lawrence) University of Lisbon. Miltos Gikas. Caldeira. European Commission. European Commission. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Superior National Forest. Joint Research Centre. Flavio Da Ronch. Ispra (VA). ETSI Montes. Morris. ISeneca. Neil McIntosh. Albertas Kasperavicius) Sarajevo. Nuno Lavrador. Department of Agriculture. Steven Munson. S. Gráinne Mulhern. and Michael Frankis was crucial for adding new Egan-Wyer (je_wyer). Palermo. Italy Kirchoff. Independent researcher Denmark (Ms. Legnaro (PD). Javi MF. Joint Research Centre. Italy Alberti. Andrey Environment. Núria Guerrero Hue. European Commission. Firenze. Bri Weldon.indd 3 08/04/2016 11:05 . Engineering. Stein Tomter) Salvatore Pasta. Lamiot. Germany ETSI Montes. University of Lisbon. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Madrid. gravitat-OFF. Nova. Research Centre. School of Agriculture. Jannik School of Agriculture. Norway Sweden (Dr. Italy Achille Mauri. for the assistance of William Adnams and in particular. European Commission. Civil and Building This publication is the culmination of a fruitful collaboration Trentanovi. Benham. Franco Rossi. A. Drahkrub. Ispra (VA). referees. Josh Starlinger. NASA. Forest knowledge on environment. Ispra (VA). José I. Pereira. Centre. Annemarie Bastrup-Birke) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Italy Acknowledgements Photos. Arnstein Rønning. Javier Martin. Marinella Zepigi.atkinson. Mr. Iciar Alberdi Asensio. Independent researcher Latvia (Ms. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 3 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Richard Sikkema. the JRC is grateful for the support and commitment offered Manfred Gut. Karl Brodowsky. Spain Enrico Romani. Dave Hamster. Technical University of Madrid. Joint Research Centre. David Friel. Italy Dave Durrant. Ispra (VA). Italy Minna Räty. Giallopolenta. Italy Silvano Radivo. Jean-Marc Frémont) Tracy Houston Durrant. University of Lisbon. Bosco. Lithuania (M. Joint Research Centre. Jose Luis Cernadas Iglesias. Portugal have not been possible without their contribution. Pancrazio Campagna. Madrid. University of Bern. Willy Tinner. Barredo. Botaurus stellaris. Victor M. Gherardo Chirici. Loughborough. Loughborough University. Dan Nordal. MrT HK. Tomasz Proszek.www. Jorge Franganillo. Jo Simon. Free Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Christa Regina. Wojciech Przybylski. Ispra (VA). David Nicholls. University of Padova. Food and Forestry Systems. Ieva Licite. Phil Sellens. Korhonen) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Soldatnytt. Italy The Netherlands (Mr. Richard Sikkema. Italy Agnieszka Kwiecień (Nova). Paul Schulze. In particular. Peter Smith. Ispra (VA). Drury University. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. for Ecosystem. to Grainne Mulhern and the army of other proof-readers Noel Feans. Veiko Adermann. for their ability to spot errors and inconsistencies through the Patrice. Alfie Ianni. Switzerland Italy (Mrs. European Commission. European Commission. Willow. John B. University of Florence. Biocenter Klein Flottbek. Department of Natural Systems and Resources. Italy Bragança. ECOGESFOR contributors and trace all copyright holders. Technical University of Madrid. Italy H. Sven Scheuermeier. Portugal (Ms. Jiricek72. Italy Agriculture. Harald Deischinger. Emma Silviana Mauri. Willy Tinner. Henson. Francesco Ciabatti. Norlando Pobre. Agriculture and Forestry. Ragnar Jonsson. Gheorghe Marin) Paula Nieto Quintano. Animals and Environment. Toms Zālītis) Dalibor Ballian. European Information Missouri. Lisbon. F. Cesare Ravazzi. Farnham. Bernt Rostad. Ashley Giovanni Strona. Valentin Sabau. Fundación Global Nature. Ola Sallnäs. Madrid. Jevgēnijs Šlihto. Richard Allaway. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. David Wright. Department of Austria (Dr. University of Agronomic Sciences and Mr. Angela Benito. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. Danielgrad. Jean Latour. Finally. unintentional omission. Lisbon. National Research Council. NTNU Faculty of Natural Sciences and Bellinzona. through the publication process. Forestales y del Medio Natural. of Geobotany and Botanical Garden. A Michael Kranewitter. Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Jevgenij Voronov. Photo Credits Raul Abad Viñas. Jennifer Slot. Marion Arne Cierjacks. No-author. Bosnia Herzegovina Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Hannu. We apologise for any Smith. Robert Anders. Italy Forest Genetic Resources (EUFORGEN). Italy Switzerland (Mr. Germany provided the necessary data for the preparation of the Atlas. Mr. readability and Peter Trimming. Heino Polley) Institute for Environment and Sustainability. Carl Mueller. Portugal Zharkikh. in future editions or online versions of the atlas. Mihai Enescu. Forest Research Centre. Juan Ignacio García Viñas. Alessio Sbarbaro (Yoggysot). Aldo De Bastiani. Aanjhan Ranganathan. Rosendahl. Suzanne E. Forest Focus/Monitoring dataset. Italy Czech Republic (Mr. Spain France (Claude Vidal. mornarsamotarsky. Wendy Cutler. Institute of Geography and Sustainable Forestry and Climate Change. The exhaustive Selz. jez. Landscape Research WSL. Giovanni Claudio Bosco. numerous forest and vegetation experts from institutions and Hans Braxmeier. Institute of Environment. Sten Porse. Italy Germany (Dr. Caroline Sada. Joint Research Centre. UK Edward Eaton.

Elms 186 4 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. disturbances and threats 8 Forest bio-based economy in Europe 20 European forests: an ecological overview 24 European forest classifications 32 European Forest Types: tree species matrix 34 Past forests of Europe 36 Tree species 40 The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling. Contents Preambles 2 Publication details 2 Contributors 2 Introduction 5 Preface on the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 6 The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe 7 Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. data and information on forest tree species 40 How to read the Atlas 46 Abies alba Silver fir 48 Picea omorika Serbian spruce 117 Abies spp. Circum-Mediterranean firs 50 Picea sitchensis Sitka Spruce 118 Acer campestre Field maple 52 Pinus cembra Arolla pine 120 Acer platanoides Norway maple 54 Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia Aleppo pine and Turkish pine 122 Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore or sycamore maple 56 Pinus mugo Dwarf mountain pine 124 Aesculus hippocastanum European horse-chestnut 60 Pinus nigra Black pine 126 Ailanthus altissima Tree of heaven 61 Pinus pinaster Maritime pine 128 Alnus cordata Italian alder 62 Pinus pinea Stone pine 130 Alnus glutinosa Common or black alder 64 Pinus sylvestris Scots pine 132 Alnus incana Grey alder 66 Populus alba White poplar 134 Alnus viridis Green alder 68 Populus nigra Black poplar 136 Betula sp. Limes (Linden) 184 Picea abies Norway spruce 114 Ulmus spp. Tamarisks 182 Olea europaea Olive 111 Taxus baccata European or English yew 183 Ostrya carpinifolia European hop-hornbeam 112 Tilia spp. Birches 70 Populus tremula Eurasian aspen 138 Carpinus betulus Common hornbeam 74 Prunus avium Wild cherry 140 Carpinus orientalis Oriental hornbeam 76 Prunus cerasifera Cherry plum 142 Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut 78 Prunus mahaleb Mahaleb cherry 143 Celtis australis Nettle tree 80 Prunus padus Bird cherry 144 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Lawson cypress 81 Prunus spinosa Blackthorn 145 Cornus mas Cornelian cherry 82 Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir 146 Cornus sanguinea Common or red dogwood 84 Quercus cerris Turkey oak 148 Corylus avellana Common or European hazel 86 Quercus frainetto Hungarian oak 150 Cupressus sempervirens Mediterranean cypress 88 Quercus ilex Holm or evergreen oak 152 Eucalyptus globulus Tasmanian blue gum 90 Quercus palustris Pin oak 154 Euonymus europaeus Spindle tree 92 Quercus pubescens Downy or pubescent oak 156 Fagus sylvatica European beech 94 Quercus pyrenaica Pyrenean oak 158 Frangula alnus Alder buckthorn 96 Quercus robur and Quercus petraea Pedunculate oak and sessile oak 160 Fraxinus angustifolia Narrow-leaved ash 97 Quercus suber Cork oak 164 Fraxinus excelsior Common ash 98 Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust 166 Fraxinus ornus Manna ash 100 Salix alba White willow 168 Ilex aquifolium European holly 102 Salix caprea Goat willow 170 Juglans regia Common walnut 103 Sambucus nigra Black elderberry 172 Juniperus communis Common juniper 104 Sorbus aria Common whitebeam 174 Juniperus oxycedrus Prickly juniper 105 Sorbus aucuparia Rowan or Mountain ash 176 Juniperus phoenicea Phoenician juniper 106 Sorbus domestica Service tree 178 Juniperus thurifera Spanish juniper 107 Sorbus torminalis Wild service tree 180 Larix decidua European larch 108 Tamarix spp.indd 4 08/04/2016 11:05 .

indd 5 08/04/2016 11:05 . citation and disclaimer 196 Spring foliage of Norway maple (Acer platanoides).com: CC0) Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 5 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. (Copyright Jiricek72. Glossary 190 Appendices 194 The European Commission 194 Information on copyright. pixabay.

UK). and support leisure and recreation – as well as providing timber and other forest products. the protection of areas of high nature value. biodiversity. universities and international institutions dealing with the many different aspects of forest life.indd 6 08/04/2016 11:05 . fires and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more intensely as a result of climate change. In order to continue providing European citizens with their wide range of economic. researchers. provide habitats for plants and animals. prevent soil erosion. our economies and our lives. forests and other wooded lands cover some 40% of the European Union’s landmass. And continued high nitrogen depositions are a concern. research organisations. Happy reading! Rainbow over Sierra Morena (southern Spain). (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) Karmenu Vella Tibor Navracsics European Commissioner for European Commissioner for the Environment. a precious natural resource and a source of income and wealth. Culture. the botanical sciences. Maritime AP) 6 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. This European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is the first report to compile and make this essential information available to forest managers. vegetation and pests for example. Knowing how forest tree species are distributed across the EU is vital for making decisions about forest management. An enormous amount of work has gone into creating this Atlas. Introduction Preface Dear readers. but also to protect them and keep them in good condition. Over the past 200 years. forests are under pressure. Today. it is crucial that our forests are managed sustainably – and this requires improving our knowledge.geograph. the selection of species for afforestation and the measures for adapting to climate change. Forests capture and store carbon. However. Unsustainable management practices have resulted in habitat and biodiversity loss. Europe's forests have been in a period of recovery after centuries of deforestation and degradation. soils. They are remarkable ecosystems. environmental and social benefits. (Copyright Ian Andrews. I believe that this European Atlas of Forest Tree Species will soon become an important reference text for this rich European resource. By learning more about our trees and forests.www. protect us from floods and landslides. we can truly appreciate their critical role in our environment. involving collaborations with national forest Affairs and Fisheries Youth and Sport Field maple (Acer campestre) in a rapeseed (Brassica napus) cultivation near Dorchester (Dorset. citizens and policy makers. Storms.

Different EU policies affect the forest-based sector It is difficult to produce detailed harmonised information on dataset is one of the core datasets used for the production of the (and therefore European forests). Environmental Monitoring 11. as part of which a soil survey was conducted in 22 EU countries. Publ. In: San-Miguel- (Copyright Hans Braxmeier. it is necessary to harmonise national the targets established in the cross-sectorial policies that affect information at the European scale so as to derive pan-European forests and forest resources. Micheli. G.Soil Data Analysis.Scientific and Journal of the European Union 1. it does the European Commission has been collaborating with European growing bioeconomy in terms of value-added. of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest biodiversity . San-Miguel-Ayanz. Vienna (2003). Warsaw (2007).com: CC0) Ayanz.indd 7 08/04/2016 11:05 . San-Miguel-Ayanz. As part of the Forest Europe process. 1–17 (2013). system. Although a common EU [6] T. Tilsner. lack of standardised forest information systems across countries [5] R. and a national information on a series of forest criteria and indicators ESDAC (European Soil Data Centre). These environmental data EU Member States are establishing a Forest Information System (2015). 24729 of EUR . forest biomass and the for fossil-fuel-based materials and energy) climate change or regional scales. T.. and not lend itself to a more detailed assessment of environmental NFI services to produce harmonised forest datasets at European (through the sequestration of carbon and providing a substitute processes as the reports are made at national rather than local level. Forest Strategy had existed since 1998. J. the European Commission and the (1998). the JRC set up a four-year Framework Contract in 2009 EFDAC. EU. EUR 23020 EN (Office 112 (2007). Both regulations were substituted by the Forest Focus regulation4 during the period 2003-2006. E. The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe. Houston Durrant. San-Miguel-Ayanz. J. Initiatives to support this harmonisation process were first financed through the Forest Focus regulation. The establishment of FISE is at the core of the EU provide a reliable pan-European assessment of the state of the Forest Strategy as the instrument to assess progress towards forests. Chronologically. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. Energy Framework. Forests in Europe.Analysis of biodiversity (1989)10 and followed by the setting up of a European Forest [4] Council of the European Union. Within this strategy. Within the European Union. Proceedings. Mauri. A second four. most countries in Europe have their own systems in place to collect information about their forests. Forest Europe . [12] European Commission. [11] J. Hiederer. [9] T. The every four years. and biodiversity data were collected in standardised plots in 19 countries. Journal of Systems Applications. and to ensure the sustainable forest information. D. 24777 of EUR . Official (Publications Office of the European Journal of the European Union 29. Although essential for the process of harmonising forest information from NFIs. e012228+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 7 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. COMMUNICATION Emergencies and Disaster Impacts. 5. This information is used to assess the sustainable the collection of harmonised information on forest resources in development of FISE builds on existing European systems such as management of forests in the different regions of Europe and to Europe. Additionally. The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe J. 2 that may allow for the derivation of these datasets.. However.growing Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration would be necessary to assess the state of forest resources at life (2016). I. Forest focus [10] D. etc. Schmuck. little progress was made in [7] J. cite as: Autumnal foliage of the horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). (Eds. Schulte. The responsibility for the establishment of a common European forest information (Forest Europe1). which were held in Strasbourg (1993). European countries are currently under no obligation to report information on forest resources to European forest information systems.. This is an extended summary of the chapter. Suarez Meyer. research Spruce forest surrounding the Atorno Lake ( CC-BY) initiatives on the harmonisation of reporting activities from NFIs were launched in the form of Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Actions.Validation Spatial Data Infrastructures Research and aims to become elaborate the series of reports on the State of Europe’s Forests. 6) and for forest fires (the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS)7). The latter mitigation. Luxembourg. In this context. Please. Several projects were financed for the harmonisation of different forest parameters. Houston Durrant. the (2003). In order to further support prototype is already available at http://fise. A. The most common systems are the National Forest Inventories (NFIs). Official module. However.. J. 2011).Assessing Hazards. Italy).. an agreement between several Commission The adoption of the new EU Forest Strategy12 by the all European countries. pixabay. Although there is no comprehensive common European forest information system to which countries report. For this reason. a series of regulations were established over the years to collect information on forests and to ensure their sustainable management. Sixteenth International Workshop on (IEEE. (Copyright Domenico Salvagnin. management of forest resources in Europe. and datasets on forest basal areas. setting up a comprehensive common European forest information Managing Disaster . 774 (2009). 1 Technical Research (Publications Office of Information and Communication Platform (EFICP)10 . J. Tiefenbacher. which facilitated the establishment of common European forest information systems for air pollution (the Forest Focus database5. et al. forest protection indicators in mountain regions. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. the EU Biodiversity Strategy & Natura 2000. As countries have their own national European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Schulte. (1986). related information systems were still ongoing11 . Seoane. A commitment to SFM forms the basis of services and the European Environment Agency led to the European Commission in 2013 opened a new opportunity for the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe creation of 10 environmental data Flies. the COST Actions do References not in themselves produce harmonised European datasets (which [1] Ministerial Conference on the Protection of [8] R. FISE is currently under development. countries report centres were named EFDAC (European Forest Data Centre) and for Europe (FISE). 9 . Attempts to establish common information systems at [3] Council of the European Union. International Journal of monitoring database system .jrc. the latest of which was published in 2015.Scientific and Technical Research the European level). 3 the European level were launched through the EFICS regulation (1992). chap. This QR code points to the full online version. their impacts need to be definition of forests. Hiederer. Regulation EEC No 3528/862 and Regulation EEC No 2157/923 helped establish information systems for the monitoring of air pollution in forests and for forest fire prevention.europa. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Oslo (2011) and Madrid forests and soils. Approaches to 2005). ed. Database and Expert forest information system in Europe. (InTech. job creation. www. was given to the JRC. 2007). de Rigo.. pp. The information from these projects was incorporated and is available in the Forest Focus database of the Joint Research Centre. However. including the Climate and forests at European level. Union. Project . 2016. et al. with the expiration of the Forest Focus regulation in 2006. 2012). vol. vol. G. E. R. Official E. Evaluation Journal of the European Union 35. those dealing with system. a compilation of national datasets does not modelled. et al. the European Union. carbon stocks. vol. http://www. Off.. The forest-based sector plays a crucial role within a contained within this series of reports is very valuable. San-Miguel-Ayanz Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) is a key objective of In 2005. 2005. While NFIs are very different in most countries. for the provision of data and services to EFDAC. While the information year Framework Contract was established in 2012. T. the focal point for information on forest resources in Europe. Hiederer.). The largest of these was the Biosoil project8. FROM THE COMMISSION pp.. San-Miguel-Ayanz. 2011). 669–673. for Official Publications of the European transmission impeded the successful establishment of a common Communities. including forest area. but instead develop definitions and methods [2] Council of the European Union. and often their own To ensure coherence among policies. they collect ground data and forest parameters that can be processed to obtain harmonised European forest information. distribution of forest tree species have been compiled. Caudullo. or regional forest information systems. initiatives to bring together European forest. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. EFFIS and the Forest Focus database. Houston Durrant. Lisbon the establishment of two of these centres. and the difficulties faced in establishing common protocols for data methodology. Houston Durrant.

They may also offer more suitable habitats for some strategy which “promotes a coherent. catchment scale (e. one of the some of which are introduced in the next section. Houston Durrant. 30 million hectares of European forests have been protected with the main objective to support biodiversity or landscape conservation. wildfires. and anthropic systems requires some underpinning concept to be compared to the living above ground biomass (leaves. They may range from the local scale (e.3 billion Euro1 . covers the multiple benefits of forests. Among the abiotic factors. 1: Short rotation forestry (SRF) of willows. CC-BY. above-ground biomass carbon of mature forests may increase as 113 million ha are covered by coniferous forests. de Rigo. intrinsic complexity context so as to “maintain and enhance forest cover to ensure In 2010.g.g. years old and 18 % are over 80 years old. water regulation and purification). Trade- biofuels frequently compete for a variety of non-energy uses. ectomycorrhizal fungi. Fast-growing decrease greenhouse gas emissions1 . For offs may emerge between competing usages and adaptation/ example. 90 % of forest and other wooded land has been reported as available for recreational purposes1 . mountainous areas and areas with extreme climates. several forests in boreal and lands. Wood is a primary source of renewable energy in Europe2. soil as provided in foresteurope. considering only the protective functions of forests. Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. the potential impact infrastructures1 . to biotic causal factors (1.0 % and the living below This may be essential even at the science-policy interface ground biomass (roots. An estimate of 103 million euro (0. Forests can offer a key contribution to mitigate the effects of climate change. 40 % of the forests are between 20 and 80 considering forests in relation with natural disturbances like Fig.9 million ha damaged by insects and trees are used which are able to reach their economically optimum A significant share of European forests (more than 110 diseases). at least 1. In the recent Forest Strategy of the European Union functions. information systems and models in a modular way. this Europe. carbon is also stored in long-lasting structures (e. while 70 % are dominated fires and pests. Recreational and tourism aspects play an important role. Strona. In Europe. million Euro.. with a positive trend of increase for the of forests composed by a single tree species has continuously forested areas. problems (data and modelling uncertainties. The coppice is then used to produce In this chapter. their usage and their interaction with other natural and temperate ecological zones have been disturbed by natural causes anthropic systems. frequently due several European countries as energy crops23-26 . 11 . European forest biomass adsorbs a remarkable amount of atmospheric CO2. almost 3. CC-BY. . regional scale (e. and the Forest Information System for Europe"). or land management9 . of which around three-quarters classified as ‘Cultural heritage’1 .) with 7. wind and snow damage (SRF) include carbon sequestration.1 % of the total1 . water resources and biodiversity1 . 90 million forests age from 80 to 400 years8 .g. 33 % of the total land area (215 million ha) by at least two tree species (during the last 15 years. As an example. This brief overview of facts and statistics aims to provide the soil-protection services offered by European forests a descriptive picture of the multifaceted aspects of forests in reverberate also as climate change mitigation. and addresses the to functional groups (e. composition and age structure may research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to be relevant. pests. T. 3 tree species composition and management practices may affect (Fig 4 top).indd 8 08/04/2016 19:12 . economic provide higher water storage from storm rainfall and local flooding and environmental changes related to forests” within a general mitigation4. At the same time. 10. weather). J. aesthetic.1 %). 3: Another example of short rotation wood products which replace more energy-demanding materials or industrial processes/sectors1 . the value of which reverberates far outside the forest sector (see Box 1). soil. etc. irrigated by water from a purification plant in northern France. 8 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. http://archive. soil protection. in order to provide policy-making with a robust science-based However. Wood-based biofuels also help Unfortunately.highlighting the key role of the scientific state (Adapted from an image authored by Alexej Potupin. Forestry and forest- based industries in Europe allow almost 3 million people to earn their living (estimates for 2010)1 . four strategic orientations explicitly recommends “advanced details on the forest ecology. water quality and quantity”21 . Lamiot. Furthermore. Recent research results suggest how the density of 36 million ha. This service of forest resources amounts in Europe to an average (from 2005 to 2015) annual carbon sequestration of 719 million tonnes. This role is especially relevant in (estimation based on reports covering 73 % of the forested area)1 .g.5 million ha forests while storm. C. 5 . In particular. G. thus contributing to areas in Europe are affected by forest damage.g. branches. bioclimatic and anthropogenic aspects. richness of lichens. and on construction sites as building material2 (see also chapter global changes . its progress and open problems on wide-scale integrated considered available for wood supply1 . they affect soil resources.5 %. Instead. sustainable water from nitrates and phosphates. disturbances and threats D. ecosystem and of 0. Forests in Europe (FOREST EUROPE)¹. However. wood. while the overall value of marketed non-wood goods related to forest resources reached 2. However. over the past century. 22 . the litter with 9. Barredo. evidence suggests that old forests may better understand the complex issues around social. the bio-economy (see the next chapter).7 million ha of the overall forested Similar forestry practices are exploited or investigated in to reduce the necessity to use fossil fuels. Coppice short rotation of willows. climate This kind of plantation is here exploited for the final stage of purification of change and ecosystem services21. Although data are incomplete. Bosco. whole forest value-chain”21 . Caudullo. forest)7. not all types of forest can provide the same level of support.g. 150 million ha are of art. R. Fig. However. Forests protect soil resources by significantly have been estimated to affect 0. it is assumed the definition of Europe and its Country Groups forest management practices are recommended in a broader (Adapted from an image authored by F. the distribution of tree ages patterns and relationships among forests and other wooded suggests that. considered in an integrated way. Positive services of short rotation forestry million ha) is designated for protecting water. monetary value alone does not provide a complete picture of the real impact of forest resources in Europe (see the next section of this chapter).I. For example. https://archive.. Germany. Di Leo. etc. primary feedstocks for wood-based a multiplicity of ecosystem functions and services6. Cultural services are part of the rich set of ecosystem services provided by forests. Dormagen. which is about 9 % of the net greenhouse gas emission in the region (414 million tonnes in the EU-28)1 .. Boca In Europea . on biodiversity or soil acidification is debated27-30 . integrates peculiar relationships with species richness which appear specific internal and external forest-policy issues. the area is covered by forests. (e. G. processes and services associated to forest resources. and cultural ecosystem services linked to recreation are generally Forest resources should not be considered as a monolithic more favourable in uneven-aged and old even-aged forests than entity. services. However.25 million cultural sites are located in European forests. the value of marketed roundwood reached 11 500 due to transdisciplinary modelling and knowledge integration)12-20 . holistic view of forest animals than young forests6 while the age of forest stands shows management. M. Ultimately. This could be achieved by integrating and saprophytic beetles appears higher in undisturbed old-growth diverse data. In this respect.) to the In addition.) with 28. trunks. cultural wooden buildings) and another “carbon sink” is constituted by heritage) and beyond (e. 2: Qualitative illustration of some ecosystem functions. when referring to statistics from the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of a wood chips. with complex in young even-aged forests1 . They also interact (see on page 7 the chapter "European Union Forest Strategy with other natural resources. fire causes the damage size in 8-20 years. global aspects of climate regulation). J. and a large majority of European countries (more than 90 %) have specific objectives in relation to biodiversity1 (see Box 1). they play a multifaceted role. San-Miguel-Ayanz. PD) “Forest bio-based economy in Europe”). More in general. biodiversity ha by broadleaved ones and 48 million ha by mixed forests1 . For example.g. biodiversity and sustainability. (Adapted from an image authored by Harald Deischinger. a deeper understanding of the structure and may be appreciated by considering that the larger proportion of functional relationships among forest resources and other natural overall forest carbon pools is constituted by forest soils (54.8 million ha of forest resources of some of these types of plantations (see also Figures 1 and 3) reducing soil Other wooded lands cover an additional area of decreased)1 .8 % of the European GDP) constitutes the gross value added by the forest sector1 . wood can be used as material for furniture production mitigation strategies for forest resources in view of climate and Fig.

disappeared from their potential range34 . biotic and uneven patterns are evident42 . CC-BY. Kittilä. ranging from 5 % to 40 % depending on the for a cooperative information approach towards “integrating country. http://archive. although an A: Accipiter nisus in Galicia. Spain. CC0. CC-BY. http://archive. Data for the EU-28. Finland. heathlands and peatlands. Lake district. For example. http://archive. The European continent has high C: Dryocopus martius. This also calls is highly anthropogenic factors. United Kingdom (Copyright David Friel. which highly depend upon abiotic. this holistic multifunctional role is patterns.. Top: The role of wood and other solid biofuel among the renewable sources for the primary production of energy. bottom). the regional interdependence of sound forest information and management share of “physically connected” sites (complex forest subnets) with the management of other natural B: Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Luopioinen. E: Regulus ignicapilla in Galicia. While 40 % of the forest lands are within a 100 m underlined by the Forest Strategy of the European Union. from 1990 to 2013. suitable to be investigated and managed within well. (Source: Eurostat2) e Bottom: An indicator of biodiversity such as the common bird index is a composite multispecies statistic and is considered by Eurostat as a headline indicator on the status of natural resources in the European Union31-33 . Another example may specific sector ideally segmented in parallel with others (and refer to the landscape-wide losses of biodiversity concerning the as such. nevertheless (Copyright Alpo Roikola. http://archive. CC0. climate. the index declined between 1990 and 2013. http://archive. and distance from other lands and 70 % of the European territory the specificities of the European continent easily confirm the shows landscapes with poorly connected woodlands. decline of several European farmland birds as a trade-off linked defined boundaries of its scientific/technical domain. (Copyright Noel Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 9 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. then to agricultural intensification (see also Figure 4.] into a dynamic modular system require the integrated analysis of the local landscape composition. Haukipudas. CC-BY. orography and anthropic patterns in the European average lower impact is reported for most European resources in Europe. approximately 95 % of “European forests: an ecological overview”). a b c d Fig. Considering the level of invasion by alien plants. As mentioned. habitat morphology and connectivity39-41 . although f seamlessly “embedded” in a more general economic frame) has some multiple-use agroforestry practices may effectively been challenged by the growing evidence of the transdisciplinary support biodiversity and ecosystem services provision35-38 . that combines data and models”21 . http://archive. The complexity and heterogeneity of the landscape. some European landscapes. 4. along with high (Copyright uses and 88 % of alluvial forests in 45 European countries have F: Turdus viscivorus.indd 9 08/04/2016 11:05 . The anthropic component may dominate geographic43 and climatic heterogeneity44-46 (see also the chapter D: Pyrrhula pyrrhula.. the index associated with common forest birds shows a recovery with a positive trend between 2000 and 2013. continent characterise the local peculiarities of the forest sclerophyllous vegetation. Fig. Finland. nature of forest systems as a highly connected hub interacting The anthropogenic impact on the connectivity and with a large network of other natural and anthropic systems fragmentation of European forests shows a variety of diverse (see Figure 6). (Source: Eurostat33) Setting the complexity of European forests in a broader context: integrated natural resources modelling and management The reductionist classification of forests as a domain. bottom)31-33 . However. and a meaningful assessment of forest patterns may diverse information systems [. (Copyright Jose Luis Cernadas Iglesias. (Copyright Estormiz. the original floodplain area in Europe has been converted to other population densities and intense landscape diversity47. Spain. 5: Some of the forest birds monitored in the common bird index (see Figure 4. Finland. while the common farmland bird index experiences a noticeable decrease (which has mainly been associated with agricultural changes33). CC-BY. edge interface.

e. The land cover of river catchments influences the precipitation-runoff relationship.indd 10 08/04/2016 11:05 . sometimes more remote but essential in order to understand the status. 10 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction'Escure_badlands. 7: Steep hills and slopes may be particularly vulnerable to erosion. These policies could greatly benefit from the integrated natural resources modelling and management (INRMM)114 . CC-BY. conversely. Left: Canossa. 84 . implying severe consequences for both ecological and economic aspects. A water management designed to be efficient under the assumption that upstream and riparian forests are relatively stable may be impaired by the consequences of altered land-cover and thus run-off dynamics125-128 . 115). for example the spread of pests and pathogens may potentially affect the regional/continental scale. 128.g. moderate Fig.g. 22. 74. 67-71 . albedo. However. 72. and energy supply while also determining flood and drought risks. 146 . 25. At the same time. In absence of a sustainable vegetation cover and of a developed root system floods and soil Examples are wildfires (see Box 2). for them to be ready to accumulate more upstream water during flooding events and thus better contribute to their mitigation122. for more details. 127. Europe has experienced a series of particularly severe disasters101. navigational. Some factors act at the local scale economy with substantial uncertainties113 . natural resources and ecosystems. 137).g. society and climate change103.wikimedia. https://commons. 104 . The particular composition and health of a forest is influenced by the suitability of its plant species to the local climate. the frequency complicated due to the need to reliably model the climate change and intensity of floods and droughts and. soil erosion (with its connection with the and water resources are further connected in some recent dynamics. These regional patterns may locally reverberate at the catchment scale. (e. They range from flash floods105-107 and severe storms in Western Europe with an expected trend of increasing intensity108 . fires. pest outbreaks. changes and directly varying precipitation intensity and duration. and ultimately fire risk and erosion patterns. Forests At the same time. cover and bad agricultural practices136. with consequences for plant health. From a broader perspective. This is because dams and other water reservoirs (e. Biological invasions such as emerging plant pests and diseases have the potential to further interact e. agricultural practices) or negatively (wildfire. and the threats to which they may be exposed. Fig.). As previously mentioned. resources management at the river-basin scale142-144 . the possibility to integrate risk assessment and multipurpose use optimisation of different resources: a challenge which is change affect soil erosion both indirectly by driving land cover This may induce water-managers to alter established water progressing on different fronts25. climate and climate Right: Adret de l’Escure. Impacts of similar disasters may potentially persist or intensify under future projected scenarios of economy. An increasing frequency of seasonal droughts may require the stored water not to be exploited when otherwise more valuable. 115 whose management is increasingly altering the sediment transport in water resources and the relationship between precipitation and run-off. etc. Another family of forest disturbances is linked to abiotic factors and may also display catastrophic effects on forests73. 85-95 . Impressive examples are constituted by the badlands. cloudiness and global warming. energy. 124.or pest-degraded (Copyright: Paolo da Reggio. 10. because of unfavourable land use or climate change). the share. water resources quality and water storage loss138-140 . environmental. regional changing patterns of forests. surface waters and ground water reserves18. large-scale floods in Central Europe109 . 6: A simplified overview of some key interactions among forest resources and other natural and anthropic systems (adapted from de Rigo121 . The elements directly affecting forest resources are tightly connected with other factors. 129. Forest composition and management may display complex transdisciplinary interactions and trade-offs not yet completely understood. This network of interactions is the transdisciplinary subject of management policies. whose mitigation impose severe constraints to the effectiveness of seasonal water allocation. 130 . agriculture. Figure 6). the impact of these biotic disturbances may occasionally be destructive. landslides). precipitation interception. Recently. composition and sustainability of forests. https://commons. Regional and local scale along with the “feedbacks between the social and biophysical changes are also driven by global scale climate changes and by general economy/technology drivers which may modify local land use and other anthropic influences on ecosystems (e. 96-100 . the snow/ice melt and accumulation. as a consequence. 117-120 . due to industry. regulated lakes) can store/release water when more appropriate for maximising the combined multi- purpose efficiency of agriculture irrigation. these phenomena might persistently alter the landscape due to the complete affects soil erosion either positively (i. hydro-power and other key usages of water (e. AP. 20. 41. France. industrial. Italy. CC-BY. rain or wind storms (see Box 3) or large landslides sometimes connected to the impact of intense runoff on the geological peculiarities of a given catchment or region74. dynamics and trends of forests. and recreational)122-124 . 110 . distribution and sustainability of forest resources play a decisive role in exacerbating or mitigating droughts. and large forest fires in the Mediterranean countries88-90. Adapted from an image authored by Alpes de Haute Provence. http://w3id. In particular. 60-66 . with wildfires111 and to impact on ecosystem services112 and the Ecological and biotic/abiotic stressors influence the health. their related services6. pathogenic agents injurious to plants such as parasites.e. domestic.wikimedia. systems”116 and due to huge economic and social impacts of their vegetation and other land cover may influence the global climatic system. see also http://w3id. Ultimately. given the spatial permeability among connected areas. 131-135 . plant pests and diseases (see Box 4) show multifaceted patterns of spread. energy and wood production. 59. 60. the extent of preservation of forest core areas and genetic diversity as well as by the management practices to which the forest is subject3.jpg). While land cover directly protection (i. deadwood and fuel Natural resources are intrinsically entangled in complex causal accumulation. 48-52 and projected perturbations under climate change53-59 appear as highly differentiated and interconnected by complex patterns which require integration of advanced modelling and management approaches25.g. canopy cover. forest cover and good removal of soil and exposure of the underlying parental material. hydro-power and other water usages.g. drinking water and vegetation cover) influences water sediment transport (see retention of water in forest sites145. this general goal is critical for ensuring the sustainable provision of economic assets and ecosystem services by an increasing frequency of seasonal floods may prevent water reservoirs to exploit their full storage capacity. disturbances and management of upstream forests approaches to reduce tree drought stress by increasing the Water resources directly affect agriculture. 102 . also depending on their suitability to the local environmental conditions of the ecosystem they affect72-83 . for example concerning carbon sequestration. Changes in the regional patterns of precipitation and temperature may potentially affect the local soil water dynamics.jpg ). locally networks (Figure 6)114.

is/yuBCM . a sustainable.2204755).6084/m9. The opposite feedback also holds: forest resources may help to control even advanced stages of land degradation such as desertification153 (see Figure 13).org/10. this also depends on the flooding tolerance of the rooting system.figshare. occasionally. gullies and small secondary valleys are a consequence of the geomorphological processes. Among other factors. shallow secondary drainages or valleys). while anthropic factors (e. bottom: qualitative visualisation of the typical local topography of a valley side. some areas may be subject to more intense run-off (gullies. flooding and waterlogging.2204755 (doi: 10. Top right image: a typical valley in the temperate mountain system. .doi. Within forested Fig. CC-BY. 157.indd 11 08/04/2016 11:06 .6084/m9. http://archive. 148 if not. (Adapted from an image authored by F. 160 . Within forested mountain valleys of hills. There. 158 . with possible repercussions on the local micro-climate147.g. 9: Source: Daniele de Rigo. Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 11 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Different trees are better suited to cope with different intensity of soil moisture. 150 . influenced by the local climate and also by the local patterns of vegetation. erosion rates and thus forest soil carbon losses may be concentrated in relatively few critical areas. Delventhal. The partial coverage by debris and sediments with high permeability (due to periodic intense runoff and sediment transport) may sometimes require these strategic tree species also to be drought tolerant20. Correspondingly. Left: the side of a secondary valley (Italy. Trentino Alto Adige) clearly shows the stratification of coniferous trees (upper part) and more flooding- tolerant broadleaved trees/shrubs (lower part). 8: The ability of forest tree species to tolerate periodic flooding and soil-water saturation varies from taxon to taxon. healthy forest cover requires the presence of suitable tree species. middle. The presence of flooding- tolerant vegetation may mitigate erosive phenomena and protect the carbon accumulated in the forest soil. Vallorcine Valley towards Mont Blanc. pasture. the wider-scale climate (determining a complex land-use/forest/water/climate feedback which might be simply invisible to single sectoral approaches)149. CC-BY. Adapted from an image authored by Richard Allaway. Fig.) may alter the natural stratification of taxa with respect to the frequency of waterlogging154-156 . Forest fires and deforestation in semi-arid Mediterranean areas may contribute to severe land degradation151. Right top.figshare. 159. Alps.. 152 . CC-BY. http://dx. The water cycle is linked with land use and with water and forest resources management. management of forests or water bodies. Riparian forest buffers also provide remarkable services and require flooding-tolerant tree species38. agriculture. Right: qualitative visualisation of the typical dendritic network along which flow accumulation due to run-off is more intense (gullies). http://archive.

figshare. 131. 155. European mountainous areas are among the one more susceptible to potential soil erosion by water163 . The extent of this protection is also related to particular species composition of forests166 .org/10. hollows. At the same time.2247472). 165 . 10: Source: Daniele de Rigo.indd 12 08/04/2016 11:06 . 160.6084/m9.doi. the boreal. 161. some forested areas in hills and mountains may be subject to a multiplicity of disturbances. sustainable forest cover in these critical areas is able to display a multifunctional mitigation and protection.. gullies and riparian areas where higher rates of potential erosion coexist with higher frequency of waterlogging or flooding. Continent-wide.2247472 (doi: 10. In Europe. shallow landslides117. 167. a b c Fig. with a limited number of tree species suitable to thrive under the combined effect of these stressors154.figshare. 159. the larger proportion of forest carbon pools is constituted by forest soils (54. et al. A healthy. http://dx. 164. This box qualitatively illustrates the network of valleys. rockfall. Forests and other vegetation may provide a very effective protection to mitigate soil and carbon loss and can support the provision of some key ecosystem services concerning mass stabilisation and buffering/attenuation of mass flow such as sediments. 162 .1 %)1 . temperate and subtropical mountain systems host a variety of forest ecosystems44. 12 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.6084/m9. In particular.

The Figures 9 and 10 provide an overview suggest that storm intensity is increasing with a potentially deeper (e. plant pest outbreaks also land use management (integrated natural resources modelling intensely affect land cover168 . knowledge on these key aspects soils wetter than the surrounding landscape occupy a small valley between eroded crops in a hill close to the Apennines in Central Italy. United e f Fig. Sweden. land use and and higher resistance to invaders73 . is/sgHwD and http://archive. Although it is impossible to summarise even a simplistic overview of these animals in a picture. Copyright MrT HK. However. water resources – along with Considering some forest threats. https://archive. positive feedbacks may partly counteract negative ) D: European beaver. The storm was associated with intense precipitation. which are not monolithic systems but instead a composition of uneven subsystems. https://archive. Evidence suggests that vegetation in European areas characterised by a high summer temperature is more sensitive to drought- stress and that droughts have more influence on grasslands than forests173 . CC-BY. monitoring these effects may require an integrated perspective. Copyright NTNU. the extreme event of the 2003 drought) compared with shorter vegetation174 . soil. Fig. (Vulpes vulpes). However. Copyright Dave Hamster. 13: Forest tree species may serve to mitigate and control desertification. taller forest vegetation appears to mitigate the effect of even severe summer heatwaves and droughts (for example. 179 . management may intensify degradation a b Fig. Even vegetation and forest management may affect different taxa in substantially different ways depending on their habitat (for example. Furthermore. 11: Some feedbacks between vegetation. CC-BY. Some evidences composition of forests and of agriculture areas) or qualitatively uneven subsystems. and wildfires169. 108. CC-BY. (Adapted from an image authored by Stanislav Doronenko. 170 and other and management)114 . https://archive. As already mentioned. https://archive. along with other key vertebrates and invertebrates. Copyright NH53. a series of storms affected northern and central Europe. whose establishment may help to counteract a pattern of losses may become evident at wider than local spatial further erosion. 12: Austria. CC-BY. 14: Biodiversity of forest ecosystems may also be appreciated for the rich variety of animals living in European forests and woodlands. E: Red fox. at the boundary is still subject to substantial uncertainties which may lead to between two subtropical ecological zones (subtropical mountain system and quantification of impacts ranging over orders of magnitude178 .is/zrInn (Adapted from an original image authored by Bernt Rostad. Agriculture practices over tree species richness has been correlated with higher levels of hills may expose bare soil to erosion and contribute to generating rills provision for a multiplicity of ecosystem services175 . (picture foreground). (Adapted from an image authored by Claudio Bosco: CC-BY) This array of relationships suggests the importance of improving and integrating the modelling and management of these natural resources – forest. Copyright Neil McIntosh. A: Eurasian wolf (Canis lupus lupus). Bottom: in the beginning of F: Wolverine (Gulo gulo). which in turn may intensify erosion . Salix and other shrubs and trees tolerant to scales176. In the Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 13 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. on February disturbances108. Germany. CC-BY. subtropical dry forest). The overall impact of the aforementioned threats may be challengingly difficult to assess within the complex chain of interactions among taxa in forest ecosystems.g. https://archive. either quantitatively (the plant species to exemplify some of the aforementioned interactions among winds exceeding 160 kilometres per hour. (Castor fiber). by means of shallow landslides93 . In Europe. However. Gotland. Bavarian Forest National Park. B: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). http://archive. sudden pest-induced disruption of forests). Areas subject to frequent intense run-off and even occasional waterlogging tend to host flooding-tolerant tree c d species and other resistant vegetation. and the corresponding rich Fennoscandia may expose unfrozen soils for longer periods – which may set of ecosystem functions and services they may provide. disturbances. A further complication lies in the intrinsic complexity of forest ecosystems. on the many disturbances and stressors to which forested areas penetration into mainland Forested sand dunes in Fårö. Bavarian Forest National Park.e. dead wood and infrequently disturbed areas may be more sensitive to some management practices)172 . Copyright MrT HK. while higher temperatures in in hills and mountains may be subject. a few well known mammals are here illustrated in their forest environment. Germany. 171 also influence the connectivity of habitats The important case of forests in mountainous areas may help 2014. 15: Top: an extratropical cyclone over the United Kingdom. More diverse forest ecosystems appear to be more stable and species mixtures may have lower levels of pest damage Fig. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology. CC-BY. CC-BY. flooding and and the overall landscape. C: Red deer (Cervus elaphus). http://archive. local patterns of increased precipitation and subsequently more saturated soils. which include birds (see Figures 4-bottom and 5) and mammals. a flood meadow. overall increase the risk of wind damage to European forests74. Fig.indd 13 08/04/2016 11:06 . 177. deep gullies (background) and slope instability. deeply incised gullies with their more intense runoff and flow accumulation as the major impacts of forest plant species biodiversity and its (which may generate ephemeral streams) may become suitable for flooding-tolerant trees. (Adapted from images authored by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.g. United Kingdom. https://archive. CC-BY.

European forest ecosystems face multiple natural and anthropogenic threats. 187. water and energy. invasive pests) and competing socio-economic demands for forest services can result in multiple drivers of forest change. 16: Relationship between biodiversity. outputs of forest ecosys.6084/m9. 14 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.3047380). the concept of multifunctional forest relies on the need to biophysical structures. These actions are in synergy with the provisions of the EU Forest Strategy regarding enhancing forest biodiversity and forest multifunctionality184 . ecosystem services are as the regulation of the physico-chemical and biological environment. from Maes et al. functions and services. greater concepts. liquids and gases. thus maintaining the provision of The provision of forest ecosystem services includes three interlinked Provisioning services include all nutritional. Non-material interactions with Some aspects of ecosystem services ecosystems and land-/ may reverberate in multiple catego- seascapes (coastal forests): ries with complex feedbacks (e. At this juncture. hydrological cycle / water flow. sustainable forest the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems51. cultural services include the non-material outputs of forest ecosystems. Evidence in this respect supports. Regulating and maintenance services are derived nutrient cycling. Box 1: Forest ecosystem services and Biodiversity Forest is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in Europe and is home to much The multiplicity and complexity of services provided by forest ecosystems Forest biodiversity refers “to all life forms found within forested areas and the of the continent’s biodiversity. and all these processes are having an effect on the provision of ecosystem services from forests. water supply. These include decomposition. Specifically. The two They are the physical settings.figshare. In the EU. The schema is based on the categori- sations proposed by the Common International Classification of Cultural section: it covers all the Ecosystem Services (CICES) and the non-material. the contribution of non-market in the physical. forests provide a multitude of necessitates a comprehensive framework and a systematic extensible ecological roles they perform”186 . 17: Source: Daniele de Rigo. These benefits are classification185 was adopted as a reference typology of ecosystem services.3047380 (doi: 10. physical conditions Provisioning section: it covers all Regulating and maintenance section: nutritional. forest disturbances are foreseen to increase (forest They are the direct and indirect contributions of categorised into three main types: provisioning. The second is from forest ecosystems mediation or moderation of the environment that In line with the guiding principles of the Forest Strategy and the Biodiversity ecosystem function. toxics and potable water) Maintenance other nuisances Materials (biomass. Three concrete actions are proposed in the Biodiversity Strategy to achieve target 2. a changing climate is producing increased droughts in the Mediterranean. ecosystem process. To this end at EU level the CICES gaps on how biodiversity supports and interacts with forest ecosystem energy. Action 6 sets priorities to restore ecosystems and promote the use of green infrastructure. Likewise.indd 14 08/04/2016 11:06 . occurs within forest ecosystems. interactions influencing the provision of forest services requires the underlying factors and relations of these three concepts integrating the biophysical and socio-economic domain to be addressed. non-potable water supply) liquid. https://dx. for instance. 182. They include the degradation of wastes and Strategy. is any change or reaction which from forest ecosystems. the mediation of flows in solids. production. Spiritual. The first. and cultural services (Figure 17). biodiversity and ecosystem processes that underpin toxic substances. clean air. Despite the existence of some knowledge benefits to humans in terms of climate regulation. hierarchy of four levels. Finally. In addition. which is a subset of the interactions between affects people’s performance. symbolic and other interactions Cultural Fig. Here. Unlike forest market services. They can involve ensure the delivery of multiple market and non-market services in a forest services to society is sometimes neglected because their full value individual species. Understanding the complex vitality and biodiversity. Mapping and Assessment of Ecosys- sumptive. is growing consensus that increasing levels of biodiversity increases the stability of forest ecosystem functions. management plays a fundamental role in multifunctional forest. Specifically they include forest production of temporal stability of total biomass at higher levels of diversity175. 51. target 2 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy183 aims to maintain and enhance ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructure and restoring at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems. such as timber. is often not accounted in economic terms. regulating/maintenance biodiversity affect ecosystem functions and service delivery. The framework links human societies and their well-being with the biophysical environment.6084/ m9. locations or situations that produce benefits concepts. The tems that affect physical and mental complete classification defines a states of people. which are the benefits that people obtain A large number of forest services have been identified at European level specific functions and services on biodiversity175. In addition. organisms in forest ecosystems can mediate or moderate the ambient environment that affects human performance. fibre. erosion control and many others. tems and their Services (MAES). The classification is based on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES)185 . as well maintain forest productivity while increasing the provision of non-market the capacity to provide ecosystem services. there is evidence suggesting the dependency of defined as ecosystem services. material and energetic it covers all the ways in which living outputs from living forest systems. and normally non-con. the mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services (MAES) initiative is a key action for the advancement of biodiversity objectives. 187. Fig. material and energetic outputs multiple services. sustainable forest management and multifunctional forests. balanced way. 182 . and on MAES (Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services) approach50. simultaneously maintaining and improving forest health.doi. Nutrition (biomass and Provisioning Regulation and Mediation of waste. ecosystems and socio- economic systems in the conceptual framework for supporting ecosystem assessments in the European Union. surface / ground water. The MAES analytical framework of Figures 16 and 17 ensures consistent approaches are used throughout the EU regarding mapping and assessment of ecosystem50. and also to inform the development and implementation of related policies on forest among others. classification of those services. CC-BY. Mediation of flows (mass. filtration and Physical and intellectual chemical conditions of freshwaters). and Action 7 launches an initiative to ensure no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services.figshare. forest habitats and whole ecosystems. For instance. there ecosystems to human well-being181 . mechanical energy) chemical. Action 5 improves the knowledge base on ecosystems and ecosystem services. timber. a simplified visualisation is proposed. Forest services that meets societal demands. intellectual or spiritual state of people. Simplified overview of the main ecosystem services provided by forest and other woodland ecosystems.182 . gaseous / air flows) Energy (biomass-based and Maintenance of biological. Forest ecosystem Simplified overview of the main services forest ecosystem services. 188 . 182 . and fluxes of nutrients and energy. biomass.g. Decreased levels of from ecosystems180 .

agroforestry and agriculture. Forests above. physical and chemical larger trees potentially producing more litter. compared with the period 1961-1990)104. a degraded vegetation land cover Beside carbon stock. CC-BY. 242 .g. CC-BY. 235 . retaining and delivering nutrients to vegetation. The loss of forest soil as a result of erosion processes leads to a decline in organic matter and carbon cycling. Evidences suggest that in temperate and boreal forests it could be increased by 200. forests. a reduced productivity of forest resources. Considering the current anthropogenic emissions of CO2 in Spain are almost equivalent to trends of land-use change and the corresponding vegetation- the carbon stored in Spanish forest soils238 . an intensification of both phenomena may be possible in the Mediterranean region. in particular considering that Mediterranean soils are often already very thin and that the Mediterranean forest disturbances are predicted to increase due to climate change (e. climate feedback. more generally.g. forest soils resources (e. 18: In mountainous area. contributing to flood mitigation and water purification and it takes a fundamental part in biogeochemical cycles. Mediterranean areas generally show a less rainy climate - in Spain alone.and below-ground: the water. soil resources in Europe may often be fragile. Soil erosion is also closely related with run-off. http://archive. as a consequence of wildfires or pest spreads) have a providing critical ecosystem functions and services. Weakened protection is offered during wintertime. erosion may be unnoticed by non-experts due to the leaf litter and the geological irregularities of the terrain in mountainous areas (although litter dams may ease the identification of erosive phenomena). http://archive. to intense degradation where forest disturbances damage the Aside from this potential the enhanced susceptibility for a given landscape to generate mass movements. This factor means that forest soils in these estimated to store about 2. soils of forests. in forest soils has been found to significantly vary with site factors. grasslands. forest soil is an essential resource (e. Therefore. tree roots influence water enhanced flood risk244-248 .g. The vegetation cover is able to positively considerations. http://archive. especially in the European areas with high erosion rates such estimated from 1950 to 2040. other saturate236 . several four times the amount of carbon estimated to be stored in the Mediterranean areas experience an alternation of long-lasting biomass of Spanish forests. in the last 29 years the droughts with intense rainstorm events. Middle: Example of deep rill. This is areas can be less subject to erosion degradation. longer droughts may seriously affect the future forest cover and composition151.indd 15 08/04/2016 11:06 . crops. 19: Rills and incipient gullies of erosion within a forest of broadleaved trees. For example. where the understorey has been removed close to a (Adapted from an image authored by Nociveglia. 241 . CC-BY. (Adapted from an image authored by Francesco Ciabatti. 20: Within forests. http://archive. bare-soil or. suggests a noticeable increment as the European mountain systems163.500 million tons of carbon. Carbon stock in the forest floor and mineral soil also appears to be highly dependent on the local tree species. CC-BY. More changes in the climatic conditions can directly or indirectly affect generally. However. soils. composition and health. either can be a cause or an effect of the other93. In this particular example. intense precipitation and subsequent run- off/waterlogging may remove as sediments the forest topsoil. Kelley. a figure to A healthy vegetation cover and good agroforestry practices compare with the total carbon stock of forest trees (whole tree) positively influence soil erosion while heavily perturbed forest estimated to be about 7. Irrespective of these also Figures 8-11). concentration appears to decrease with decreasing latitude237. http://archive. a Fig. water resources and the land use and such as local climatic zones44. Vegetation cover. forest soil also has the capacity to retain and release the loss of forest soil. It supports negative impact on the soil erosion process. Fig. with a subsequent unsustainable imbalance between soil formation and soil erosion rates. the overall amount of forest soil carbon deserves a European forested areas might be affected by less obvious potential specific focus. (Adapted from an image authored by Chris M. Paired This remarkable service of forest soils is not uniformly provided catchment studies identified some alterations in runoff. (Adapted from an image authored by J. the area burned by forest fires could more than double in Southern Europe. forests is estimated in the order of 12 billion cattle crossing. filtration and soil stabilisation. On the other hand. the erosion of forest soil might progress in the gullies with a weakened protective effect by vegetation. interaction between soil and forest However. A typical example is the relationship between vegetation 500 % in forest floors and by 40-50 % in top mineral soil by changing cover (e. Forest management may influence all these aspects. Along with this risk. resources. In these cases. In particular. The carbon budget degradation (respectively. 243 . may occasionally be subject of carbon stock of the soils235 . 249. Occasionally. the ongoing plant growth. agricultural practices exposing in Europe are the main component of forest-related carbon stock. leading to more frequent and intense torrential rains in autumn with associated flash floods over the coasts and nearby mountain slopes and increased erosion150 . This trend highlights the worrying impact of additional forest soil losses in this Bottom: removal of trees within forest gullies may intensify erosion and slope instability. Carbon stock solid and nutrient fluxes due to management practices20 . 250 . which might eventually vegetation cover. exposed on a track. Italy.) and soil erosion (see the local composition of tree species239 . Forests of soils and trees in the forests of several European countries. the total soil organic carbon supporting European or negatively influence the precipitation-runoff relationship. soil. shrublands and grasslands are often semi-arid or arid. To compare. CC-BY. 36 and 26 million ha affected)241 . in the period 2071-2100. although in Europe the soil carbon threats. with more numerous and by wind erosion (39 million ha affected). negatively affecting or even preventing the establishment of a new forest cover. (Adapted from an image authored by NH53. for a scenario with a global temperature increase of 3. Similar circumstances may reduce the provision of soil protection ecosystem services by a forested area.g. suspended by all types of forests and tree species associations. forest systems are characterised by a complex breakdown of soil structure and to other processes such as an array of functions and feedbacks. Fig. It may be observed that beech trees are absent where the intensity of run-off causes high soil moisture or even occasional waterlogging. no flooding-tolerant species appears to occupy the niche left empty by beech. Top: minor gullies converging in a beech forest (Fagus sylvatica). management are intrinsically linked. In turn.9 billion tonnes240. after a clear-cut). apparently induced or intensified by human alteration of the forest Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 15 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. biotic and abiotic factors soil degradation is mainly caused by erosion by water (93 million It is not rare for European forests to have experienced for ha affected by at least moderate or higher degradation) followed decades an increment of tree biomass. In Europe.5 °C. etc.

Box 2: Wildfires and adaptation strategies of forest tree species
Natural and human-caused fires associated with agriculture and grazing The same strategy is also adopted by some rock roses of the genus Cistus,
have historically defined the Mediterranean landscape203, 204 . Wildfires are which have seeds protected by thick teguments214, 215 . On the other hand,
not only destructive factors, but they can, if moderate and not frequent, the passive pyrophytes are plants adapted to avoid or limit fire damage.
increase the biodiversity and complexity of the Mediterranean vegetation These species can have thick or suberized barks which protect the cambium
communities205 . Mediterranean woody and scrub vegetation has been from heat damage, such as stone pine (Pinus pinea) or cork oak (Quercus
exposed to recurring fires for long periods206 , and has developed different suber). Some limit the exposure of the crown to fire thanks to rapid height
adaptation strategies to survive. Fire-adapted plants are defined as growth during the juvenile period or to a strong self-pruning habit which
pyrophytes (fire loving plants), in some cases requiring wildfire for their increases the height of the lowest part of the crown, adopted by various
reproduction. They can be divided into passive and active types in relation species of the genre Pinus. Others have leaves with low flammability
to the feed-back responses to fire205, 207. due to high water or ash content, or lower amounts of resins; e.g cypress
(Cupressus sempervirens) or many broadleaves216-218 .
The active pyrophytes are able to regenerate after a fire even if damaged.
Two main strategies are identified. One is vegetative regeneration through In Mediterranean climes, terpenoids play an important role in wildfires
re-sprouting from roots. These plants in fact store their nutrient reserves and vegetation dynamics. They are present in conifers and in several
underground where they are protected from fires, and are heliophilous, sclerophyllous plants rich in essential oils, increasing their flammability
so that the light of burnt areas stimulates their growth. Most of these rate. When in high concentration in litter, terpenoids also inhibit seed
trees and shrubs belong to the sclerophyllous vegetation group, such germination. Wildfires, by destroying these substances accumulated on the
as oaks (Quercus coccifera, Quercus ilex, Quercus calliprinos, Quercus ground, promote the colonisation of new species, including the germination
pyrenaica), but also carob (Ceratonia siliqua), heath plants (Erica arborea, of seeds from the same plant that originally produced the terpenoids,
Erica australis), myrtle (Myrtus communis), mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), which needs fire for its regeneration219-221 .
Mediterranean buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus), etc.206, 208-211 . The other
active strategy is seed protection and the requirement for the stimulation The top right map enlargement shows clearly the damage caused by a single
fire of over 12 000 ha that occurred in Sweden in 2014, the largest fire of the
of fire to germinate. This is the case for some of the Mediterranean year and among the largest recorded anywhere in Europe in recent years88 .
conifers, such as Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Turkish pine (Pinus brutia)
and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), which are unable to re-sprout, but
develop cones which protect the seeds and which are opened by the heat
of fires (serotinous cones)206, 212, 213 .

Fig. 21: The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) was established jointly by the European
Commission (EC) services (DG ENV and JRC) and the relevant fire services in the EU Member States and the
Forest and Civil Protection services other countries222 as the EC focal point of information on forest fires.
The Rapid Damage Assessment module of EFFIS was set up to provide reliable and harmonised estimates
of the areas affected by forest fires during the fire season. The methodology and the spatial resolution of
the satellite sensor data used for this purpose can map all fires of about 40 hectares or larger. Although
fires smaller this are not mapped, the analysis of historical fire data has determined that the area burned
by wildfires of at least 40 ha accounts for about 75 % of the total area burnt every year in the Southern EU.

The figure shows the total cumulated burnt areas mapped by EFFIS from 2000 to 2015 across the entire
region covered. As expected, the regions with the most fires are in a band across southern Europe, and
the five most affected countries (Portugal, Spain, Mediterranean part of France, Italy and Greece) account
for around 85 % of the total burnt area each year222 . However, almost all countries have been affected,
at least in some years, by large fires of more than 40 ha. The northern regions such as UK, Ireland and
Scandinavia are not usually as affected the southern regions, but in dry years, especially in the early parts
of the season before the new green vegetation has started to sprout, large wildfires can occur.

This enlargement shows some the large fires that have
occurred in the last 15 years in Ireland and Scotland. Some
of these fires occur on peatland, and can be very difficult to
extinguish if the fire penetrates the surface and becomes a
smouldering fire.

The northern half of Portugal and parts of northern Spain are historically the The other most affected parts of Europe are concentrated around the Mediterranean region.
most affected regions with a significant proportion of the annual total burnt Particularly affected are the large islands (Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily), Greece and Croatia. Like
area recorded here. In these regions, the main fire season occurs in summer. the other most affected countries, the main fire season for these countries is in summer.

16 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 16 08/04/2016 11:06

Fig. 23: Forest fire in Degaña, Asturias, Spain in August 2009.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

Fig. 22: Serotinous cone opening after a fire.
(Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY)

Box 3: Forest disturbances by wind and storms
Wind is a natural disturbance agent in forests189 . Although windstorms at
small scale constitute part of the forest ecosystem dynamics, catastrophic
windstorms or wind throws are possibly the most intense and economic
damaging abiotic agent in European forests. They are responsible for
more than 50 % of the primary damage to forest stocks in Europe179 .
Although information gathering on windstorm frequency and damage is not
comprehensive, since there is no European system in place for this purpose,
it is estimated that about 0.12 % of the standing volume of Europe is
damaged annually (1950-2010)190 . Over 275 wind storms were recorded in
Europe in the last 112 years, which means that, on average, nearly 2.5 wind
storms take place every year22, 191 .
Windstorm damage to forests is not only produced at the time of the storm,
when trees are broken or blown over by the wind speed and intensity, but
through subsequent agents that may affect the damaged area, which can be
biotic, such as pests and diseases that originate in the fallen trees (such as
bark beetle attacks), or fires, which may happen due to the large availability
of woody material (fuel) on the ground. Interaction between windstorms and
bark beetles has occurred historically192 .
The potential damage caused by windstorms to forests depends on a variety
of factors, including meteorological conditions, especially wind speed, soil
type and condition, tree species composition193 and forest management
practices. Trees with shallow roots are the most vulnerable; this vulnerability
increases if trees grow on sandy soils or very wet soils, and also with the
height of trees. In general, conifer species seem to be more vulnerable than
broadleaves, although vulnerability is also affected by forest management
and site conditions194 .
Windstorms often affect species composition and may accelerate tree
succession; they alter stand structure, diameter distribution and canopy gap
size within a forest195-197. However, the natural effects of windstorms are
often non-lasting. In intensively managed forests, often felled trees and the
affected areas replanted soon after the event, have a strong influence in
tree regeneration in the affected area198, 199 .
Despite the limitations in the way that climate change effects have been
modelled, predictions of future climate scenarios indicate a trend to an
increase in the number and intensity of wind storms in Europe200 and in
Fig. 24. Top left: Pine damaged by wind snap after a storm in Germany in 2013.
other world areas where they are already happening201 . However, forest (Copyright AnRo0002, CC0,
management and adaptation strategies can help in mitigating potential
Bottom left: Wind throw of pine after a storm in Germany in 2013
future wind storm damage202 . (Copyright AnRo0002, CC0,

Top right: Significant wind throw damage after a storm in Loch Bharcasaig, Scotland.
(Copyright Andrew, CC-BY,

Bottom right: Storm Gudrun struck Denmark and Sweden in January 2005. The
damage resulted in the creation of the world’s largest wood stockpile.
(Copyright Göranssons Åkeri AB i FÄRILA: AP)

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 17

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 17 08/04/2016 11:06

Box 4: Biotic disturbances: forest tree pests and diseases
Trees can be infected by a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, in counteracting their spread highlight how vectors can play a fundamental,
bacteria, fungi and insects. The European and Mediterranean Plant and largely unpredictable, role in promoting large scale epidemics (both X.
Protection Organization (EPPO) identified more than 150 quarantine fastidiosa and the PWN are transported from a host to another by flying
pests as locally present in the European and Mediterranean region. Most insects). For X. fastidiosa, this aspect is particularly compelling, since the
of the research on tree pests focuses on species having direct economical large number (some tens) of insect species capable of carrying the pathogen,
relevance. Yet, severe epidemics often involve species that, despite not combined with its very large host range (more than 300 plant species)
commercially valuable, occupy key positions in ecosystems. These events makes any intervention measure aiming at the eradication of the pathogen
may have profound negative effects on the ‘value’ of forests in a broad extremely difficult. A possible strategy would be that of selecting resistant
sense, weakening or hampering the ability of a forest to store carbon, hosts, as has been suggested for the common ash dieback, a lethal fungal
to reduce risk of floods and to purify water112 . In addition, there is an disease that represents a serious threat for European forests, due to the key
increasing recognition of an invisible network of species interactions that role played in ecosystems by the common ash232 .
is fundamental for ecosystem functioning223 . From this perspective, the
These paradigmatic cases also emphasize several problems in
detrimental effect pests may have on a few species could set in motion
communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere
a cascade of consequences eventually leading to a general reduction of
of society, and possible philosophical obstacles related to the common
species diversity.
negative public perception towards managing natural forests233 . In general,
A particular case much relevant to pest risk assessment is that of planted the management and prevention of epidemic spreads require coordinated
forests, which represent about 10 % of European forests in terms of actions that should go beyond the national scale, especially because one
area224 . Planted forests usually consist of one or few species, and are of the leading causes of epidemics is represented by the involuntary
increasingly threatened by both typical and newly emerging pathogens225 . transport of pathogens through international trade. Nevertheless, climate
Epidemics may have greater effects in planted forests than in natural ones, change clearly plays a fundamental role in promoting the spread and
due to the absence of the dilution effect typical of diverse ecosystems, increasing the virulence of alien pathogens, and so do human induced
which acts as a natural barrier for the spread of host-specific pathogens habitat alterations. Consequently, future conservation actions should
by lowering the probability of a pest individual to find a suitable host226 . necessarily target multiple threat drivers simultaneously234 .
Molecular techniques offer important new tools to tackle the problem Within this Atlas, each chapter focusing on specific tree species provides
of forest pests from new perspectives. In particular, they could help a section with a summary of main threats and diseases (see also chapter
to get a better grasp on pathogen virulence, host specificity and host How to read the Atlas). For further details (e.g. for host-pest and pest-host
susceptibility, making it possible to identify sensitive pests that could lists of the tree taxa which are susceptible hosts for a given mentioned
be harmful if moved to other regions, or under future climatic and/or pest or disease) and for a more detailed overview of main pests and
ecological scenarios227, 228 . diseases of European forest tree species, an extensive selection of
periodically updated literature is available in de Rigo et al78 .
Clearly, monitoring all possible pests is not feasible, so that a priority is
identifying potential pathways of introduction in order to prevent possible
future situations such as, for example, those caused by Xylella fastidiosa
in Italy229, 230 and by the pine wood nematode (PWN) in Portugal231 . These
two diseases are now creating great concern, and are both presumably
consequences of single involuntary introductions230, 231 . The strong difficulties

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Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 19

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 19 08/04/2016 11:06

which represents approximately 7 % of EU manufacturing GDP and nearly 3. food (see box on “The importance of non-wood forest products in Europe”). In Austria. Likewise. As an example. 1: Platforms may be based on pole frame structures (1a) or on panel elements (1b). R. J. Modified from Hurmekoski. some 101 million m3 of sawnwood were produced in the EU-28 in 2013. 20 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 2: In the post-and-beam technique. The volume of roundwood produced is strongly linked to the value added to the raw material (see Figure 3). 2012 data). close to two thirds of which came from the five largest producing EU Member States. individual country the sustainability of mobilising biomass for these purposes and the forest economy-environment-energy nexus. southern Germany.7 The forest-based sector plays an important role within the (Copyright Elias Hurmekoski: AP) European Union (EU) in terms of value added. 1: Three different wood-frame multi-storey construction (WMC) techniques and corresponding key wood elements7. encouraged by EU policies. textiles. lightness of wood making it possible to utilise building sites that could also induce a number of significant economic benefits. et al. national building regulations are being revised towards to 30 % in 2007. R. particularly so in the Nordic countries.”1 . the market share in the WMC segment is still rather estimated at 2.3 %). WMC diffusion is dependent on regulatory framework and industry structure7. expend minimum Many countries across Europe. books. the UK. packages. Pine logs. namely Germany (21.8 %) and France (8. have set targets In the UK.. wood-framed buildings with more than two the building practice has been changing from on-site construction to building new and competitive industries through the emergence storeys were prohibited by building regulations in most European wood-frame off-site construction. has raised questions about St. of wood as an alternative to conventional construction the rising interest towards WMC among the developers. as Box 1: Wood in modern urban construction with natural ecosystems. there are regional differences in the attitudes towards WMC. The values of sales for these products total to more than 200 billion Euro3 . with a 40 % market share. 3: Modular elements are instead directly manufactured at the factory. magazines and newsprint. rise. UK. (Copyright Norlando Pobre. de Rigo. and job creation. CC-BY.indd 20 08/04/2016 11:06 . the share of wood-frame in multistorey construction is on the In Southern Germany. and also in Finland WMC is approaching a ten per cent market share7. The remaining 42 % is exploited for energy and accounts for about 5 % of the total energy consumption in EU4 .4 billion Euro for 2012.1 %). trade balance.0 %)5 . or heating. and the and resource efficiency will certainly benefit the environment but materials such as steel and concrete6 . countries. use natural inputs. due to the negative perceptions arising from historic city share of wood-frame in all construction increased from 1 % in 1990 The bioeconomy in Europe already exists. The transition towards a more sustainable primary production at least consideration. residential WMC has reused in the ecosystem. Canton of Traditional timber frame building in the Burgenstraße (Castle Road). The forest industry includes products such as buildings (see box on “Wood in modern urban construction”). which include the production of energy Timber Bridge Construction in Arbon. Sweden (16. Thus. wood-frame is common in the single-family housing million people2 .5 million jobs. and it has been suggested that the market region of Europe7. F. from renewable sources in the EU.2 %. employing more than 22 functional criteria as opposed to prescriptive criteria. Sikkema A bio-based economy may be defined as one using “. Ireland and the Alpine increasing in the 2000s. (Copyright Jeremy Atkinson. www. The Commission’s bioeconomy strategy and action Construction Products Directive adopted in the EU in 1988. Mubareka. production paradigms that rely on biological processes and. the use of wood for construction has been well as the pure availability of biomass2 . https://archive. in Germany and however the transition towards a true bioeconomy relies on a As a result of the adoption of functional building regulations and technological Italy. Different WMC techniques imply different industrial workflows. including several final elements such as doors and windows. such as not sustain corresponding buildings made of concrete. Rinaldi. However. but there are as yet no discarded by one process are inputs for another process and are to ensure that buildings and materials satisfy the requirements implicit in data on the WMC segment ) Fig. and on average a greater and more sustainable use of renewable resources. furniture. series of breakthroughs in technology and cost effectiveness. Jonsson. driven by the small. CC-BY. energy (see box on “Forest-based energy”) and bio-based products (see box on “Forest resources in bio- based products”). sector. However. stimulating the economy through encouraging innovation and Until the late 1980s. Switzerland. Azevedo. as development.. Austria (8. Also in Ireland. However. Finland (10. The important role of forests in reaching the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive targets. https://archive. while the overall market of new sectors such as biomaterials and green chemistry. Forests and Europe’s economy electricity appliances. 58 % of harvested EU wood biomass is processed by EU forest-based industries. massive supporting columns are exploited. or made a breakthrough in the UK as a result of environmental policies. the market share of WMC has remained low. Forest bio-based economy in Europe CC-BY) (Copyright Thomas Quine. Cannock Chase. Bodensee in Steinach. and has been fires. Overall. Gallen. throughout Europe7. In Sweden wood-frame multistorey construction (WMC) share of WMC could increase from 2 % to 10 % towards 20307. already has a market share of around 10 %6 . yet the regulations and attitudes plan aims at further shifting the European economy towards a larger number of storeys with a wooden frame is being allowed towards wood use vary from one province to another. the market share of wood-frame in residential construction amounts of energy and do not produce waste as all materials to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and are adopting legislative methods increased from 8 % in 1998 to 25 % in 2008. In many cases this has led to an increased use.

Raspberries. https://archive. cork. Opportunities in the sale and processing forest extension promoted by forest associations has. Sales tax and income tax exemptions on selling berries and mushrooms picked by an individual continue to be key incentives for commercial picking. The FAO has classified NWFPs into two broad categories: animal and rural areas of the Nordic countries. Top: Blueberry picking. the Nordic common rights (right of public Chestnuts are a very important non-wood forest product of forests in In 1993-2013. Although no official statistics are available for the production and trade in the region. berries sales have decreased as a result of urbanisation and aging of the rural population. Box 2: The importance of non-wood forest products in Europe Forests systems are responsible for a diversity of very valuable ecosystem In northern Europe. non-wood forest products such as ) truffles are highly sought after and have high value. Localised research (for example17) and view. in Finland 55 000 commercial mushroom pickers have been trained since the early 1970s. Italian white (Copyright Inga Vitola. About one-third of berries and some one tenth of mushrooms picked in the Nordic countries enter the market. agriculture and environment associations. however. https://archive. In several European countries. and Italy. (Copyright Michela Simoncini. Formal education in mushrooms has been offered in the Polytechnic Institute of Bragança since 199116 . during the past decade. https://archive. CC-BY. CC-BY. picking. honey and truffles are of extreme importance to the economy. the Nordic common rights allow access for picking berries. (Copyright Ragnar Jonsson. pine nuts. workshops and other training initiatives by forest. the first studies on mushrooms in the region were conducted with the purpose of assessing diversity. pine nuts. and within the limits of the village where they reside or the neighbouring village15 . usually self-employed or retired elderly woman. CC-BY. 14 . to cities in the region and abroad and by the abandonment of traditional services throughout Europe. https://archive. Thanks to this strong tradition and a rich stock of (Copyright Yuri Timofeyev. This free access. processing and marketing of natural products. This process is favoured by the movement of people from the countryside Variety of mushrooms found in the forests of Priekuļi. Earlier interventions to promote NWFP utilisation have included training in identification. Almost all the mushrooms picked locally have international markets as final destination including Spain. Among these. commercial berry picking has. as well as low berry prices. contributed plant products. blight” and the newly arrived “chestnut gall wasp” (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) berries are among the most important from economic and social points of makes berry and mushroom picking an essential part of the way of life in are serious threats to this product. At the same time. there is a general lack of regulation of the cultivation of these non-forest wood products12 . Truffle hunter with his dog. resin. mushrooms have traditionally been picked for self-consumption. France. Non-Wood Forest Products mushrooms and other non-wood forest products (NWFP). CC-BY. Despite this. or freedom to roam) grant access for picking Mediterranean countries. The high market price of chestnuts and the low 130 000 tonnes per year. As an example. of NWFPs to provide additional income vary widely between products.e. the European average production of chestnuts has been access to the wilderness. Latvia. and seasons. relied largely on migrant pickers. non-wood forest products such as berries. Population in cities have recently developed an interest in wild mushrooms which has led to the organisation of courses.indd 21 08/04/2016 11:06 . more than 10 % of the global production18 . Top: Chestnut Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 21 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. https://archive. i. individually or in groups of two. Chestnut diseases such as “ink disease” and “chestnut (NWFPs) such as mushrooms. productivity and the economic potential of mushrooms as a forest resource13. mushrooms are estimated to contribute 5 to 10 million Euro to the local economy every year. in the Northeast of Portugal. cork. Tuscany. (Copyright Maja Dumat. regions to minimise the effects of these agents. In the Mediterranean region. CC-BY) expansion of chestnut agro-forestry systems in some Mediterranean regions. Bottom: Understorey of Vaccinium myrtillus in a coniferous forest. As a result. commercial picking has become a very important economic activity in the region since the 1980s. This activity is still mainly undertaken by locals. CC-BY. facilitated by a dense network of forest roads. including workers from neighbouring countries and from as far as SE Asia11 . Bottom: Chestnuts. For example. even from private agriculture systems. This region is one of the few in the country where there is a strong local knowledge concerning wild (and even cultivated) mushrooms. This activity has provided significant income for families and individuals on an annual basis. chestnuts. level of inputs required in the chestnut systems have led to the recent (Copyright William Warby. Italy. honey truffles and (Copyright Maja Dumat. https://archive. Germany. In recent years.

toward a bio-based economy. Latvia and Luxembourg. For Spain. the available data refer to 2006. For Greece. Two extreme frameworks optimise policy / management options towards classic economic optimum (forestry marked economics and other provisioning services of forest resources) or instead towards pure forest ecosystem conservation / restoration (maximising non- monetary forest ecosystem services). The qualitative future trend will also depend on the cumulative feedback effect due to different potential technology and policy scenarios. data refer to 2009. paper is the most recycled product in Europe. 3: Roundwood production in 2012 and gross value added of forestry and logging. (Author: Daniele de Rigo) 22 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. data refer to 2011. CC0. Fig. Lithuania and the Netherlands. First. Intermediate efficient options to support policy and society decisions may emerge with a multi-criteria framework for integrated forest resources modelling and management. https://archive. Recycling plays an important role within this industry. data refer to 2007. Recovered paper make up 54% of the raw material used in the paper industry34 .indd 22 08/04/2016 11:07 . this industry provides 1. 4: Integrated forest resources management within the context of a bio-based economy. For Hungary and Malta. https://archive. CCO. (Author: Daniele de Rigo) Box 3: Pulp and Paper Industry The pulp & paper industry is an important industry within the forest-based bioeconomy of Europe. Using some 150 million cubic meters of wood per annum. Waste paper for recycling. The short-term patterns of the actual evolution may be complex since they are subject to several sources of local fluctuations. Thus. 2: Qualitative evolution from the pre-industrial society to two subsequent transitions. consumption of paper for sanitary and packaging purposes is rising. the transition to the industrial society and economy. For Italy. France. Portugal and Norway data are provisional. The trade-off emerges considering different optimisation frameworks. with a recycling rate that increased from 40% in 1991 to 72% by 2014. Corrugated cardboard. adding 15 billion euros to the Gross Domestic Product of the European Union. Then. Qualitative trade-off between monetary and non-monetary benefits. (Source: Eurostat5) Fig. (Copyright sonja_paetow.5 million jobs in the value chain. while the consumption trend for graphic paper is a decreasing one. The industry is going through structural changes. (Copyright jaymethunt.

detail. Geomorphology plates and utensils by mixing natural fibres and plastics. C. where the most contribute to integrated modelling and management of forest updated content may be freely accessed. monetary services to the economy and society (see previous Luxembourg. Canuti. BioScience 62. J. Use. 2011). industry/sector). biomass used for heating. This QR code points to the full online version. (Communication from the Commission to Ecological Economics 95. production in the EU-28 rose by 97. drinking water (World Bank / WWF Alliance [14] A. [34] CEPI Key statistics 2014: European Pulp and Paper Industry pollutants32 . D. 3 (2015). One of the major sources of damage to soil resources in residues. In Europe. Vila Real (1990). restoration efforts focusing on key functional aspects of healthy (Copyright David Wright. Box 4: Forest-based energy Forest-based woody biomass is currently the most important source of renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Part of the remaining water supplies relies on rivers. Products are considered “bio-based” if they are either wholly or partially 2 Summary of position papers received in gestão de recursos florestais na Escola response to the European Commission’s energy and bio-based assets. often Technology and Design Reports (Växjö [27] L. [8] RoK-FOR Project. applications. M. to agricultural and forest Technological Forecasting and Social Change 99. The full version of these efforts may require an integrated perspective focusing on this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. in Information and Communication both erosion and slope instability hazards may occur together Industrial Biotechnology 11. Van University.. 2015). Natural Hazards and Earth in a typical forest (canopy. de Rigo. vol. Annals of reducing the potential erosion caused by rainfall30. F. Bio-based materials should Public on-line Consultation (Publications Superior Agrária do Instituto Politécnico de Bragança. F. 43 (2012). 910137+ (2014). 28 and the impact of [10] K. In Sweden and Denmark. indirect costs. Den Eeckhaut. B. Highland. 250 (2011). into high-value biofuels and bio-based products.6 % compared with 200919. work for people and nature. Baveye. 52 of School of a sometimes quite challenging21 multi-criteria economic petroleum. However. Dewitte. Left: Forest-based production of wood pellets. forests provide important non. a significant part of forest ecosystem and cosmetic industries (tree sap). Right: wood pellets. Surendra. Sander. pp. COM(2013) 659 final [22] P. as phenol substitutes through liquefaction or pyrolysis of 2013). Azevedo. [33] N. Depending on the society and policy needs. Methods such as fermentation and biological catalysts [2] N. Tavone. J. G. Journal of Biobased 2014). the United Nations. https://archive. M. Nord. The targets for renewable energy have resulted in a surge in the use of wood pellets within the EU. Shrestha. https://archive. the European and Biorefining 5. 2012). 323 (2013). Dallemand. Cortez. framework to be properly assessed22-24 . Vila Real (1989). Terhorst. Gowdy.. N. C. many European forest authorities explicitly mention watershed functions within their plans33 . C. Ferrario. Rinaldi. Directorate- General for Research and Innovation . IEEE Earthzine 7. B.. Bio-based products B.. Research innovation summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related on both forest bioeconomy and ecosystem services may thus main topics. EU. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Vandekerckhove. et al. thus increasing efficiency in Development 15. energy consumption and waste material production. Sikkema. et al. Växjö. society decisions. C. [23] J. et al. Slowly. Jonsson. no. cite as: (Copyright Agnieska Ovaskainen: CC-BY) Mubareka. et al. pp. or explicitly manage forests for watershed protection33 . Vizzarri. e. pulping liquors and different types based sector. as injection moulding for musical instruments. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. the Council. Poesen. 2003). These few examples among many underline the tight relationship between environmental economics and conservation/ Timber stack. S. 744 two concepts. C. for cups. 661–667. Jonsson. e01a52d+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 23 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Monforti- [17] E. both sectors are well established20. the Netherlands and Sustainability 8. 2016. water dams and reservoirs. Nebe. Dudley. from the commission to the European [20] R. Proceedings of the National perspective on the overall role of forest resources. Baveye. Sweden. Khanal.A new EU Academy of Sciences 109. Meneses. 2009). Portugal (Universidad de León. 275 (1999). Klose. C. Prospects for timber frame in 29. 141 (2006). a forest bio-based economy already considers replace traditional chemical approaches. T. A shift towards bio-based products can lower and the bioeconomy: future steps”. S. [19] Eurostat. 465–480 [29] C. M. Pimentel. 2015). If forest ecosystems. Forest products can be used in the Council and the European Parliament. Perspectives 26. P. our dependence on fossil fuels. 29576+. Van Turnhout.. Materials and Bioenergy pp. (Copyright Andrew_Writer. whose water quality critically depends on land use within the catchments33 . Forest bio-based economy in Europe. A. According to the European Commission.2 million tonnes in 2013. the monetary Large quantities of different types of base or platform chemicals can Committee of the Regions . eds. V. 2015).. Mauri. J. ThinkForest (European Forest Institute. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. Forest soil [13] J. In a wider Economic and Social Committee and the [21] T.). Gouveia. Box 5: Forest resources in References monetary aspects of forest ecosystem services bio-based products [1] European Commission. Yan. lakes. Sikkema.. State of Mediterranean understorey and ground-layers) make a significant contribution to forests 2013 (FAO. L. with even greater effects29 . Azevedo. [15] M. P. J.6 % overall between 2009 and 2013. 181 (2015). be able to replace fossil fuels on a large scale for chemicals and materials Office of the European Union. [24] K. de ) Relationship between bioeconomy and non.-F. Panagos. CC-BY. Yin. Revision 225852 of emphasising the role of chaining processes so that materials ch. Science of The Total Environment 447. O. León. C. [12] G.g. L. T. Europe. J. CC-BY). which was an overall increase of a staggering 267. Bio-based economy in Europe: 6. This depends on the efficient conversion of feedstocks. (Springer International Publishing. and energy crops10 . Bosco. Carvalheira. Revision 253698 of FAOSTAT (Food and processing products and ultimately resulting in reduced resource-use Agriculture Organization of the United some crucial aspects linked to sustainability and to minimising [3] L.Part [16] J. Technology 359. 225 (2015). Zhao. pp. recreational activities and the tourism “Forestry statistics”. G. Chan. Hausman. anaerobic digestion-based multi-storey house building in England. Poesen. wood pellets are exclusively used in heat production for the residential sector while the industrial use for power generation prevails in the United Kingdom. Communication discarded by one process become inputs for another process. M. Hetemäki. (2012). Azevedo. J. cooling and electricity would supply about two-fifths of the 20 % renewable energy target for 2020. chapter). Garcia. A. Sassa. [25] G. Barrow Haven. Austria and Italy. Ireland. A few examples of this low-value. S. 103 (2015).. Aside from the monetary value associated with forest State of play and future potential . et al. resources. pp. the amount of wood used for energy purposes in the EU would be equivalent to today’s total wood harvest4 . macrofungos em povoamentos de and topsoil are also able to reduce the surface runoff mitigating castanea sativa em Trás-os-Montes. IFIP Advances S. Bosco. 65 % of public water supplies come from groundwater. 2013). These range [7] E. 31 . ecosystem services (e. The purpose of this both monetary and non-monetary aspects. Kirchhoff. Germany. United Kindgom. Houston Durrant.g. or so that they can be reused in the ecosystem. Tech. E3146 (2012). Publ. highlighted by the clear monetary value of some forest biomass9. Poesen. biorefineries may replace our main source of energy and materials: and Sweden. Caudullo. 26 . Marchetti. de Rigo. Ensino em resources considering the wide variety of industry products. Environment. together along with the ecosystem services which forests can of forest residues in bio-refineries8 . [26] D. D. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. forest strategy: for forests and the forest- benefits associated with the bioeconomy may be considered be isolated or produced from wood. (Copyright Richard Sikkema. [28] M. [30] D. Damm. accounting for around half of the total renewable energy consumption. P. Jonsson. Landslides are (2014). The EU-28 is a net importer of wood pellets: the level of imports from non-EU Member States rose to 6. the soil layers of forests have a high filtering em soutos e castinçais de Trás-os-Montes. According to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans. shrub of (2012). C. M. Sallustio. composed of materials of biological origins. K. Allard. Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. Azevedo. Development services provides a non-monetary benefit which requires France. is due to soil erosion by rainfall and runoff and [9] Y. R. its monetary and non-monetary impacts25. [32] M. from municipal and industrial organic wastes. Lasserre. in food. R. Verstraeten. and toxic waste production. Sung. providing a science-based support to critical policy and Please. M. Scarlat. Anais da Associação Micológica A Pantorra S. The EU-28 is the largest global producer of wood pellets. rep.. the Netherlands and Belgium. K. Gerasimov. J. Journal of Economic provide to the society. capacity regarding most of the chemical components of Master’s thesis. C. J. F. Vida Rural pp. unfortunately leading to surprisingly high direct and (2015).. Vranken.. Y. Inventário de Silvicultural Research 38 (2014). 40–41 (2013). bio-based products and biofuels represent approximately EUR 57 billion [4] European Commission. Inventário de cogumelos for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Moreover. Luxembourg. Off.. also associated with considerable costs27. [5] Eurostat. J. The multiple layers of vegetation [11] Y. ThinkForest seminar “Forests Nations. drink [6] R. Parliament. J. Master’s thesis. 2014). In countries such as Germany. Nita. last category are summarised below. sub-canopy or midstorey. This is an extended summary of the chapter. Hurmekoski.. 177 pp. “Forestry statistics in detail”. its output reaching an estimated 13. Furthermore.indd 23 08/04/2016 11:07 . Bosco. System Science 15. Bioproducts in annual revenue and involve 300 000 jobs. Several of the main European cities either obtain a significant proportion of their drinking water from protected forest areas. de Rigo.. Biofuels. R. (Eds. Sawatdeenarunat. Running Pure: The importance of forest protected areas to the risk of both erosion and slope instability32 . A.4 million tonnes by 2013. 119 (2006). P. Statistics Division. CC-BY.. D. L. Making boreal forests [31] C. 1195+. 310 (2011). Environmental [18] Food and Agriculture Organization of As discussed. 231 (2013). There is a partial overlap between these biopolymers.

precipitation is also used to subdivide the domains into a total of 20 subclasses. with In this chapter. which are based on temperature and rainfall27.I. exploited by a rich variety of applications11-13. Subtropical Dry Forest is the typical Mediterranean climate with dry. vegetation is pine forest. 2. The vegetation stabler pattern. The Subtropical Humid Forest zone has high humidity every month with annual rainfall usually over 1  000 mm distributed throughout the year. At the first level a total of five domains are distinguished Temperate Mountain Systems are found in the Alps and the Top: Subtropical dry ecological zone. precipitation is also used to subdivide the domains into a total of 20 subclasses. The annual rainfall may vary quite significantly from 400-800 mm in lowlands For its Global Forest Resources Assessment. Evaporation exceeds precipitation. http://archive. At the first level a total of five domains are distinguished based on temperature: Tropical. European forests: an ecological overview D. 2: FAO ecological zones for forest reporting (2010). 24 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. parts of the Mediterranean Basin and vegetation is dominated by shrubs adapted to arid environments. CC-BY. Subtropical domain The subtropical domain is generally characterised by having on average at least 8 months above 10 °C. Temperate. de Rigo. evergreen coniferous forest and deciduous forest. which are based on 400 mm per year).g. 1: A key factor in the local variability of ecosystems is the influence of water bodies. Subtropical Dry Forest. Boreal Pyrenees in Europe. 23-25 . CC-BY. Vegetation may comprise evergreen broadleaved forest. may exercise a Boundaries of the Ecological Zones approximately coincide and is characterised by cold winters and relatively low rainfall (200. J. variety of effects on the surrounding microclima. Typical Bottom: Temperate oceanic ecological zone. Subtropical Steppe and Subtropical Mountain Systems. mild winters with an annual rainfall of 400-900 mm. Subtropical. Four of these domains can be found in Europe zone and are snow covered for large parts of the year. is dominated by grass and low shrubs. deciduous broadleaved forest or mixed forest: a typical example in Europe is oak-hornbeam in Central Europe. the distribution of environmental and windward side of the continent and has the mildest climate of the ecological zones may contribute to the understanding of four temperate zones. Water resources. of which 12 can be found across the European continent. such as lakes or rivers. evaporation generally exceeds precipitation. http://archive. The Saar river influences part (Tropical is absent). The temperate domain covers a large area across mainland similar. The vegetation may be quite varied depending on the altitude. woodland and shrub. Boreal mountain system Temperate continental forest Subtropical dry forest Boreal coniferous forest Temperate oceanic forest Subtropical humid forest Note: Only the main ecological components are represented.being a factor e. and influence the local geomorphology . and Polar. They share several characteristics of the boreal (Copyright Jean Latour.indd 24 08/04/2016 11:07 . hot summers and humid. In Western Europe a typical example is beech. Boreal and Polar. Caudullo. Found throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Temperate Several key aspects of forest resources are influenced at the Continental Forest. 28 . Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur. Beside providing additional humidity. Barredo Ecosystems may be classified into a variety of groups or Temperate domain zones according to their homogeneity1-9 . "Mountain systems" are classified as a separate Ecological Zone in each domain and are characterized by a high variation in both vegetation formations and climatic conditions1. the classification of FAO is summarised and a shorter frost-free season and at least one month having complemented by a qualitative analysis of the secondary average temperatures below 0 °C. France. they may contribute to mitigate the temperature range inducing a with Köppen-Trewartha climatic types. Similar to the Oceanic zone the main vegetation cover is by means of a robust fuzzy analysis of climatic similarity26 . The FAO zoning is forest. Subtropical. In the Subtropical Steppe zone. typical vegetation is sclerophyllous evergreen forest. for example maquis dominated by Quercus ilex. of northeastern France and western Germany. Winters are colder. At the second level. Houston Durrant. An Ecological The temperate domain lies in a region where average Zone may be defined as an area with broad yet relatively temperatures above 10 °C can be found from 4 to 8 months of the homogeneous natural vegetation formations that are year. Even at the regional Temperate Oceanic Forest is typically found on the western or and country scale. 27. G. These regions are found at the southern Fig. in shaping the slope of mountain and hill sides. the Food and up to 2 000-3 000 mm on windward lower coastal mountain slopes. There is a larger annual range ecozone components which may coexist in a given of temperatures than in the Oceanic zone. Temperate. Europe and is subdivided into Temperate Oceanic Forest. north-eastern Spain and parts of central south-east Italy. Polar Temperate mountain system Subtropical mountain system Subtropical Mountain systems can be found in the southern Boreal tundra woodland Temperate steppe Subtropical steppe mountain regions of Europe and the Middle East. Four of these domains can be found in Europe (Tropical is absent). exposure and humidity. It occurs throughout the southern regions of Europe and is divided into Subtropical Humid Forest. Temperate Steppe and Temperate Mountain global and continental scale by the ecological zone where Systems. based on temperature: Tropical. of which 12 can be found across the European continent. “Mountain systems” are classified as a separate Ecological Zone in each domain and are characterised by a high variation in both vegetation formations and climatic conditions1. a given forest or woodland grows10-17. The FAO Ecological Zones Temperate Steppe is found in the deep interior of the continent Fig. Rainfall generally European area as subordinate constituents of the local decreases with distance from the ocean and also at the higher forest ecosystems. although not necessarily identical. but some may be found on the northern coast of Turkey. 27. 17. Relatively few regions of Europe can be classified as Subtropical Humid Forest. The average monthly temperature is always core differences in local forest ecosystems18-22 . T. These components have been derived latitudes. temperature and rainfall27. 2 .is/2XBaO) At the second level. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) produced The main vegetation type in these areas is deciduous broadleaved a global ecological zoning classification1. 28 . (Copyright Wolfgang Staudt. Introduction Boundaries of the Ecological Zones approximately coincide with Köppen-Trewartha climatic types. above 0 °C and there is adequate rainfall in all seasons. Temperate Continental Forest may be found in the interior and eastern areas of the continent.

https://archive. dominated by spruce and fir in northern Europe and western Siberia. Boreal mountain systems may be found in parts of Norway and the eastern part of the Russian Federation. 3: Local-scale pattern of ecological components. https://archive. This domain is found across the northern regions of Eurasia and is subdivided into Boreal Tundra woodland. the transition between sparse trees (right of the picture). Orography. domain is characterised by a large annual range of temperatures. Boreal Coniferous Forest and Boreal Mountain systems. prevailing wind direction and intensity. CC-BY. CC-BY. In the foreground. (Adapted from an image authored by Vasile Cotovanu. Temperatures are extremely cold and there is continuous permafrost. but the vegetation cover is more open. Top: canton of Bern. pine shrubland (right side of the two small valleys. At very local scale. However. with one to four months with average temperatures above 10 °C and generally low levels of rainfall. shadow side of the peaks) and grassland/sparse vegetation (sunny side and saddle landforms). Boreal domain The boreal. Fig. Wider scale ecosystem characteristics may be influenced by these details (for example. Romania.indd 25 08/04/2016 11:07 . and is typified by dense coniferous forests. Species are similar to those found in the Boreal Coniferous Forest zone. a dominant ecological component of boreal tundra woodland is visible. See also Figure 5. In Europe there is a small Polar region in the very northern tip of Scandinavia. Polar domain In the Polar domain there are months with average temperatures below 10 °C throughout the year. i. Human influence is evident in the complex patchiness of pastures/grassland fragmenting the forests in the lower part of the valley. Boreal Tundra occurs at the northern limit of the Boreal zone. the water body on the right and the partial wind protection offered by the corresponding valley allow a boreal coniferous forest component to survive. Along the mountain ridge. Vegetation comprises open woodlands and scrub. slope. See also Figure 6. Switzerland. There are no sub-divisions in this domain as it is generally only very sparsely Bottom: Retezat Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 25 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. The name taiga has been given to the subarctic lands of Eurasia with their extensive coniferous forests. or subarctic. dominant winds and peak-induced rain shadow effects may contribute to the regularity of the pattern of forests (in the picture. CC-BY. aspect and the presence of surrounding peaks influencing the local solar radiation and rain shadow effects are among the factors able to alter vegetation at very local scales by affecting the local pattern of disturbances and the availability of resources. In Boreal Coniferous Forests the summers are short with at most 3 months having temperatures above 10 °C. average connectivity and fragmentation of forest/shrub patches. Geographically this zone covers the northern part of Eurasia. where it meets the Polar domain. (Adapted from an image authored by Horia Varlan. (Adapted from an image authored by Alexander Cahlenstein. average availability of core undisturbed patches40-43). https://archive. their left bank) and grassland (left side of the picture) is clearly connected with the aspect of the banks. and larch in central and eastern Siberia. usually below 500 mm. the impact of differential solar radiation. Climatic conditions are similar to the Boreal Coniferous Forest zone but are colder and more extreme with very low winter temperatures and Middle: Northern Sweden subarctic landscape. Winters are long and cold.e. Forest areas and grassland alternating along the peaks of a mountain ridge.

Polar Boreal Tundra Boreal Mountain 26 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 26 08/04/2016 11:07 .

Boreal Coniferous Temperate Mountain Temperate Steppe Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 27 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 27 08/04/2016 11:07 .

indd 28 08/04/2016 11:07 . Temperate Continental Temperate Oceanic Subtropical Mountain 28 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.

Subtropical Steppe

Subtropical Dry Forest

Subtropical Humid Forest

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 29

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 29 08/04/2016 11:07

Fig. 5: The transition between different bioclimatic conditions and ecosystems
(even within the same ecological zone) may occasionally happen along sharp
boundaries. Slovakia, Western Carpathians. The sides of this mountain ridge
show a sudden transition between a dense coniferous forest and a grassland
with sparse trees. Different solar radiation, dominant winds and induced rain
shadow effects may contribute to this kind of transition along mountain ridges
(see also Figure 3). Anthropogenic factors such as delimited pastures may also
induce or reinforce these sudden transitions. The different ecosystems may
even influence the local micro-climate: for example, coniferous forests may
have a lower albedo than areas with predominant grassland - with subsequent
differential radiation/warming feedbacks10, 29, 30 .
(Adapted from an image authored by Ján Sokoly, CC-BY,

FIg. 4: The transition between ecological zones sometimes happens within
relatively low distances.

Top: Italy, geographic sudden transition between the Alps (temperate
mountain system) and the Po valley (whose sparse forests are
predominantly characterised by a temperate oceanic climate). Although this
transition may be smoother in other areas of the Alps, in the picture the
urban/agricultural landscape (foreground, Schio, Italy) lies at an elevation
of less than 300 m above sea level while the mountain peaks (background,
at a distance of few kilometres) are more than 1000 m higher. Ecological
zones classified according to the Global Forest Resources Assessment of
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO FRA) 1, 2.
(Adapted from an image authored by Doc Searls, CC-BY,

Middle: France, Massif Central, Puy de Sancy (foreground) and the contiguous
plain with low elevation hills (background). Even in this case, the sudden
transition is between temperate mountain ecosystems to temperate oceanic
forests. The transition is smoother in other areas of the Massif Central.
(Adapted from an image authored by Patrice, CC-BY,
Fig. 6: Norway, Femundsmarka National Park at the transition between the ecological zone of the boreal
Bottom: Wider scale view of the Alpine transition between the temperate mountain system and that of the boreal coniferous forests.
mountain system and the surrounding plains hosting fragmented temperate
oceanic forests. Top: Compared to the sometimes sudden transitions highlighted in Fig. 4, in this region the component of
(Adapted from an image authored by Francisco Antunes, CC-BY, boreal coniferous forests may show a smoother shift towards the boreal mountain component.
(Adapted from an image authored by Mahlum, PD,

Bottom: Detail of a typical forest ecosystem in the region.
(Adapted from an image authored by Robert Anders, CC-BY,

30 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 30 08/04/2016 11:07

Pages 26-29: Temperate continental zone: mixed broadleaved forest on Veľká homoľa mountain near
Polar zone: polar shrub vegetation in Sør-Varanger (Finnmark, Norway). Modra (Bratislava, Slovakia).
(Copyright Soldatnytt, CC-BY, (Copyright Ján Sokoly, CC-BY,

Boreal tundra zone: shrub tundra vegetation in northern Kola Peninsula (Murmansk, Temperate oceanic zone: mixed broadleaved forest along Ystwyth river (Ceredigion,
Russia). Wales).
(Copyright Ninara, CC-BY, (Copyright Ruben Holthuijsen, CC-BY,

Boreal mountain zone: boreal forests on the side of the cliff over the Aurlandsfjorden Subtropical mountain zone: mediterranean mixed forest on mountain area of the
(Sogn, Norway). Pollino National Park (south Italy).
(Copyright Stan, CC-BY, (Copyright Brian Gratwicke, CC-BY,

Boreal coniferous zone: coniferous forest by Hundtjärnen lake near Floda (Dalarna, Subtropical steppe zone: steppe dry grassland on Djurdjura Massif of the Tell Atlas
central Sweden). chain (Kabylie, Algeria).
(Copyright Taxelson, CC0, (Copyright Atif Rafik, CC-BY,

Temperate mountain zone: mixed broadleaved and coniferous stands in the Black Subtropical dry forest zone: sclerophyllous evergreen vegetation on the coasts of the
Forest (Freiburg, Germany). Fethiye Gulf (Muğla, south-western Turkey)
(Copyright ilovebutter, CC-BY, (Copyright Jorge Franganillo, CC-BY,
Fig. 8: Romania, Transsylvania, Fanatele Oroiului. A meadow-steppe
grasslands in the temperate continental ecological zone. This landscape
Temperate steppe zone: steppe grasslands near Poltava (Poltava Oblast, Ukraine). Subtropical humid forest zone: mixed broadleaved and coniferous forest on the side of shows components of temperate steppe and the beginning of some
(Copyright Vlad Butsky, CC-BY, Pontic Mountains near Trabzon (Trebisonda, Turkey). characteristics from the temperate mountain system.
(Copyright Aleksasfi, PD,
(Copyright Alexandru Badarau, AP, )

Local ecology characterisation by means of This implies the existence of forest areas where the main
ecozone component (e.g. a forest whose natural vegetation References
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tropical desert scrub woodland forest forest forest forest forest

super- perarid arid semi- sub- humid per- super- This is an extended summary of the chapter. The full version of
arid arid humid humid humid this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at The purpose of this
summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related
humidity provinces main topics.
This QR code points to the full online version, where the most
Fig. 7: Holdridge Life Zones updated content may be freely accessed.
Please, cite as:
de Rigo, D., Houston Durrant, T., Caudullo, G., Barredo, J. I., 2016.
European forests: an ecological overview. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz,
J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Durrant, T., Mauri, A. (Eds.),
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg,
pp. e01e873+

Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 31

JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 31 08/04/2016 11:07

European forest classifications
G. Caudullo, S. Pasta, F. Giannetti, A. Barbati, G. Chirici

Phytosociology The sector of phytosociology which deals with vegetation system (EUNIS), available at
dynamics and aims at detecting successional series is known This database provides information about European habitat
Phytosociology is a rather young discipline which started
as symphytosociology. The vegetation series (or sigmetum) classification, data sheets on species, habitats and designed
in Europe in the early decades of the last century with the
is a group of spatially and/or temporally interconnected protected sites compiled in the framework of Natura 20008 ,
Swiss botanist and ecologist Josias Braun-Blanquet1 . This
vegetation units that may co-occur in different succession and species mentioned in relevant international conventions
discipline is focused on describing plant communities through
stages or steps within the same place. Progressive succession and in the IUCN Red Lists. The EUNIS habitat classification
a multi-purpose approach, taking into consideration different
is the natural dynamic process from pioneer to mature and is a hierarchical classification of the terrestrial, freshwater
parameters such as species composition, frequency, cover,
stable communities (the so-called ‘climax’ or head series), and marine habitats for the whole of Europe9 . Up to now this
structure (tree, shrub, herb, moss layers), spatial distribution
while regressive succession is a disruptive process from classification provides a pan-European reference set of units
(the so-called sociability; i.e. causal, clumped, etc.). The aim
more complex communities to open and less developed plant for meeting requirements in policy objectives and in supporting
of phytosociology is to provide effective synthetic information
assemblages; the latter mostly issues from intense and/or applications that relate to biodiversity monitoring and reporting.
about plant communities in order to assign them to different
frequent anthropogenic disturbance. A crosswalk from the EUNIS habitats at level 3 to the European
and recognisable units called syntaxa. Syntaxa are then
In the last century a very large body of phytosociological phytosociological syntaxa and vice-versa is also available10 .
grouped hierarchically within a classification system which
literature has been published, and a variety of schools with
is ruled by the ICPN (International Code of Phytosociological European Forest Types
different approaches formed, especially in southern and eastern
Nomenclature)2 . Phytosociologists usually collect data through
Europe, while this approach found no or little consensus in the The European Forest Types (EFTs) scheme has been
vegetation relevés recording the species occurrences within
United Kingdom and in north European countries. Recently the developed by an international consortium of experts with the aim
selected plot areas using a semi-quantitative cover-abundance
European Vegetation Survey, a working group established in to create a user-friendly classification system. It is, in fact, able
scale. Collected data are then analysed looking for similarities
1992, joined European phytosociologists in order to develop to facilitate understanding, interpretation and communication of
and dissimilarities in order to detect distinct vegetation types.
common standards, organize scientific meetings and survey data on indicators describing the status and trends of forests,
More recently several numerical models have been developed,
programmes, and to produce shared protocols and publications5, and forest management in Europe. The EFTs is a hierarchical
which help to identify dominant and diagnostic species, to 6
( In the first overview of vegetation units, classification consisting of 14 categories, including 78 forest
evaluate species-richness and species-evenness, and which can
80 classes, 233 orders and 928 alliances have been detected types11-13 . The 14 categories represent groups of ecologically
lead to a more objective classification of vegetation units3 .
all over Europe7. distinct forest communities dominated by specific assemblages
The hierarchical classification foresees, as the botanical
of trees, including introduced tree species, while the types
one, different ranks. The association is the basic vegetation EUNIS Habitat Classification correspond to a finer level of division of the category in terms
unit: it represents a plant community defined by a particular
The European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (ETC/BC), an of tree species composition. The EFTs is, therefore, a flexible
and uniform floristic composition and habitat structure, where
international consortium working with the European Environment system to compare forest information on ecologically similar
a relative constancy or abundance of characteristic species is
Agency (EEA), developed the European nature information forests, unlike other classification systems that present an
recognisable (called also diagnostic or dominant), which can
describe the community and its ecology. The upper units are
a group of lower ones, which share one or more diagnostic RANK SUFFIX EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
and dominant species4 . Each unit is assigned a scientific name Class -etea Quercetea ilicis All the evergreen woody plant communities of the Mediterranean basin.
and is defined with compound names formed by one or two
Order -etalia Quercetalia ilicis All the Mediterranean forests dominated by evergreen broadleaved trees.
scientific names of the dominant and diagnostic plant species
with a different suffix for each rank2 . Alliance -ion Quercion ilicis All the Mediterranean forests dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex).
Association -etum Aceri campestris- Mixed wood dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex) and several deciduous
Quercetum ilicis broadleaved species typical of the North-Western Sicilian calcareous
mountains in the meso- and supra-Mediterranean bioclimatic belts.

Table 1: Example of the hierarchical classification of a forest dominated by
holm oak according to the nomenclature used in phytosociology.

Subalpine larch-arolla pine forest near Morgex (Valle d’Aosta, North-West Italy).
(Copyright Giovanni Caudullo: CC-BY)

32 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction

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Jennings. J. while the European phytosociological communities. Biodiversity Assessments. 2011).revised. eds. D. A. Forest Ecology and [7] J.Scientific and [8] Council of the European Union. Suarez Meyer. Chirici. D. (Copyright Tracy Houston Durrant: CC-BY) impractical number of classes: e.. M. 2002). Paris (2004)..). So far. Rodwell. www. National Forest [9] C.wikimedia. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. vol. McRoberts. Peet. Caudullo. North Spain). Wageningen. second edn. Publ. P. Pasta. [11] A. R. San-Miguel-Ayanz. Tech. Lazaroa 30. Marchetti. (Copyright Alfonso San Miguel: CC-BY) European forest classifications. et al. E. Schulte. [5] L. EUNIS Inventories: Contributions to Forest habitat classification . 2016. pp. Hill. Weber. Winter. Pflanzensoziologie: habitat classification and related data Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde sets. D. McRoberts. G. 173 (2015). Mucina. van der Maarel. (Hampshire.. CC-BY) Spruce-birch boreal forest in Norra Kvill National Park (Kalmar County. Luxembourg. O. D. Schaminée. the EFTs have been applied in several EU level forest monitoring initiatives as a reference framework to report data on biodiversity14.. Chirici. L. 2007). O. Wageningen. reporting and policy (European Environment Agency. F. Davies. 173 (2009). H. (Eds.. rep. T. Off. vol. E. 145 (2014). 41–97. Forest Ecosystems.. Fluvial forest in Záhorie Protected Landscape Area along the Morava River (West Slovakia). Braun-Blanquet. European forest types: Categories and Loucks. South England). P.. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. South Portugal). [6] M. count 110 alliances and do not cover plantations and anthropogenic forests. 1 (1989). et al.Analysis of biodiversity and Fisheries. S. Tech. Corona. G.. Moravec. Ecological types for sustainable forest management Monographs 79. 2011).An overview of [14] T. pp. [10] J. (1992). Barbati.. et al. South Sweden). EU. 12 . European vegetation . Caudullo. Plant Journal of Vegetation Science 11. Marchetti. P. G. Mucina. Barbati. 81.. 93 (2007). [15] R. K. Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology [3] L. M. Berlin. This QR code points to the full online version. (Copyright Miguel Vieira. Applied Vegetation [13] A. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. phytosociological alliances and their E. et al. (2014). where the most updated content may be freely accessed. (Springer Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Netherlands.indd 33 08/04/2016 11:07 .g. E.wikimedia. Moss. Corona. Development of vegetation syntaxa crosswalks to EUNIS This is an extended summary of the chapter. Official Technical Research (Publications Office of Journal of the European Union 35. Barbati. J. [2] H.. J.An International Journal (2000). 267 (2009). e01e1b6+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 33 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Houston (Copyright Marilyn Peddle. S. 20 of Managing Biodiversity. M. et al. [12] A. (Copyright Stanislav defined by Rodwell and colleagues7. J.. 15 and sustainable forest management indicators for Forest Europe (Ministerial Atlantic lowland beech forest in the New Forest National Park Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe: MCPFE)11. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. Please. Barbati. Theurillat. Alterra. the EUNIS classification at level 39 counts more than 700 forest units. 24777 of EUR . A. commons. Roberts. P. Giannetti. Marchetti. The diversity of Management 321. Faber-Langendoen. G. European S. Copenhagen. [4] M. D. 739 Biosystems . Science 19. NL (Springer-Verlag. module. Nature biodiversity .org: CC-BY) Evergreen sclerophyllous scrub forest near Faro (Algarve.. Corona. A. G. Chirici.. 1964).com: CC-BY) References [1] J. de Rigo. M. European Environment Agency. rep.. Houston Durrant. commons.. 7 the European Union. E. Vegetatio 141. Chytrý. cite as: Dwarf pine forest in Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (Pyrenees of Huesca. R. Evaluation relationships to EUNIS habitats (National of BioSoil Demonstration Project: Forest Reference Centre for Agriculture. Mauri.

6 AspenAspen swampswamp forestforest 12. Mountainous beechbeech forestforest Atlantic 2. Cedrus libani libani alba alba Alnus incana incana Salix cinerea Salix cinerea Abies others others Taxusfragilis Salix fragilis Quercus ilex ilex Salix caprea caprea Betulaviridis viridis peuce Populusfaya Juglansfaya Pinus mugo mugo Pinus pinea pinea Abies abies abies nigra nigra Abies alba alba Cupressus Cupressus Tetraclinis Tetraclinis alba alba Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Juniperus Castanea Carpinus Carpinus Carpinus Quercus Quercus Quercus Populus Populus Populus Populus Corylus Corylus Cedrus Cedrus Myrica Myrica Betula Betula Fagus Fagus Alnus Alnus Alnus Alnus Alnus Abies Abies Abies Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Pinus Picea Picea Picea Salix Salix Salix Salix Salix Salix 1.4 Illyrian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7. European Forest Types: tree species matrix M.3 Alpine 3.Pinus halepensis halepensis Macaronesian Macaronesian regions regions 10.8.1110. the presence in the EFT is both dominant of which are divided into sub-types.3 8.1.steppe 8.1 Alder Alder forestforest aspenaspen forestforest 13.2 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest .9 10.8.4 Nemoral BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 2.3.2 Turkey 8.2.1. Acidophilous 4. Pividori.2.2 Central 7.9 Other mesophytic mesophytic deciduous deciduous forests forests 6.4 11.1.1 Pedunculate 5. Coniferous forests forests of theof the 10.5 Carpathian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.3 Canarian Canarian pine forest pine forest 10.alder.5 Carpathian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.110.3 Nemoral 2.1 8.Pinus .) forest spp. Introduced 14.3 Pyrenean 8.4 Oriental Oriental hornbeam hornbeam (Carpinus (Carpinus orientalis) orientalis) forestforest 8.2 Atlantic 6.1.5 Carpathian 7.6 Moesian 7.2 Turkey oak.4 Mountainous 3.3 10. Hemiboreal 2. Barbati.4 10.) forest 8.5 10.3 Palm groves groves 9.110.3 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest . or or 13.4 Macaronesian laurisilva laurisilva 9.4 Portuguese 8.6 11.Italian .3. Floodplain 12.7 Juniper Juniper forestforest 10.5 11.2 and Pinepine-birch and pine-birch borealboreal forestforest 2. Thermophilous 8.6 Mixed 2.1.2 8. A.1 Subalpine 3.5 Thermophilous Thermophilous maplemaple (Acer (Acer spp.5 Macedonian 8.1 8.4 13.3 Nemoral sprucespruce forestforest 2.1.7 Crimean 7.3 Palm 9. Non 13.5 Macedonian oak forest oak forest 8.1.4 Maple-oak forestforest 5.Pinus pinaster pinaster Mediterranean.3 Alder Alder swamp swamp forestforest 11.1 South western western European European mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.210.310.1 Mediterranean Mediterranean BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 10.1 Hemiboreal 2.2 11.3 Apennine-Corsican mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.2 Olive-carob 9.2 12.2 5.1 Lowland beechbeech forestforest of southern of southern Scandinavia Scandinavia and north and north central central Europe Europe 6. Beech forestforest 6.5 Pedunculate Pedunculate oak swamp oak swamp forestforest 11.8 Ravine 5.8 8. Chirici CONIFERS CONIFERS BROADLEAVES BROADLEAVES Pinus peucesempervirens sempervirens CATEGORY CATEGORY FOREST FOREST TYPE TYPE communis communis Abies nordmanniana nordmanniana Juniperus phoenicea phoenicea articulata articulata Juniperus oxycedrus oxycedrus Juniperus thurifera thurifera Populus canescens canescens Carpinus orientalis orientalis Ostrya carpinifolia Ostrya carpinifolia Castaneacoccifera coccifera Juglanspubescens Betula pubescens Pinus canariensis canariensis Cedrus brevifolia brevifolia atrocinerea atrocinerea Abies borisii-regi borisii-regi betulus betulus Pinus halepensis halepensis avellana avellana Populus tremula Populus tremula Pinus heldreichii Pinus heldreichii Fagus moesiaca Fagus moesiaca sativa sativa orientalis Fagus orientalis Pinus sylvestris sylvestris Fagus sylvatica sylvatica Alnus orientalis Alnus orientalis Alnus glutinosa glutinosa pendula pendula Salix eleagnos Salix eleagnos Quercus suber Taxus baccata baccata pinaster Pinus pinaster Picea omorika omorika Alnus cordata cordata nigra nigra Pinus cembra cembra regia regia Larix decidua Larix decidua Juniperus sp. Hemiboreal forestforest and nemoral and nemoral2. Giannetti.3 Birch Birch forestforest 13.3 11.2 8.5 8.birch.1.6 10.8 Nemoral 2.2 Sessile 5.2 Pine mire Pine forest mire forest 11. Mediterranean.6 Illyrian 6.1 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest .4 Central 6.2 Oak-birch 4.8 HorseHorse chestnut chestnut and walnut and walnut mixedmixed woodswoods 9. Boreal forestforest 1.3 Apennine-Corsican 7.8.) forest spp.1 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest . Broadleaved 9.5 Other sclerophlyllous sclerophlyllous forests forests 10.3 Pyrenean oak forest oak forest 8.3 8. Hungarian oak and oakSessile and Sessile oak forest oak forest 8.6 Valonia oak forest oak forest 8.3 Subatlantic submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6. It has to be taken into account that 34 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.2 13.8 Oriental 7. Juniperus sp.western 8.10 Tetraclinis Tetraclinis articulata articulata standsstands 10. Acidophilous oak and oakoak-birch and oak-birch4.4 AspenAspen forestforest 14.6 Mediterranean Mediterranean lime (Tilia lime (Tilia spp.1 Hemiboreal forestforest coniferous coniferous and mixed and mixed broadleaved- broadleaved- 2.1.5 Other 9.6 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Anatolian and Anatolian fir forest fir forest 10.Pinus . Hungarian oak.3 Subatlantic 6. some broadleaved and alien trees. Floodplain forestforest 12. Boreal 1.Italian 8.3 12.1 Thermophilous Thermophilous ash forest ash forest 8.5 Mixed 2. Mire 11.2 Central European European mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.1.western .7 Lime forestforest 5.2 Nemoral 2. Thermophilous deciduous deciduous forestforest 8. Alpine coniferous coniferous forestforest 3.2. .8.4 Maple-oak 5.7 10.4 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .4 Nemoral 2. separated into three main groups: conifers.4 Portuguese oak and oakMirbeck’s and Mirbeck’s oak Iberian oak Iberian forestforest 8.2 Ashwood Ashwood and oak-ash and oak-ash forestforest uplands uplands 5.3 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Macaronesian and Macaronesian riparian riparian forestforest 13.4 8.1.1 Acidophilous oakwood oakwood forestforest 4.1 South 7.210.7 Chestnut forestforest 8.1 Acidophilous 4. Mountainous 7.1 Mediterranean evergreen evergreen oak forest oak forest 9.1 Riparian Riparian forestforest 12.steppe . F. the species presence in the EFT is either secondary presented as proposed and revised by Barbati and colleagues1-3.2 FluvialFluvial forestforest 12.3 Hop-hornbeam Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya (Ostrya carpinifolia) carpinifolia) forestforest Mediterranean 9.6 Maple-lime 5.2 Subalpine and mountainous and mountainous sprucespruce and mountainous and mountainous mixedmixed spruce-silver spruce-silver fir forest fir forest 3.1 Pedunculate oak–hornbeam oak–hornbeam forestforest 5.7 Moesian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.3.3 13. Beech 6.9 CedarCedar forestforest 10.4 Birch Birch swamp swamp forestforest 8.1 Spruce Spruce mire forest mire forest 11.5 Carpathian 6.1 11.4 Macaronesian 9.5 Lime-oak 5.2 Nemoral ScotsScots pine forest pine forest coniferous coniferous forestforest 2.8. For every EFT the presence categorized in three classes: the species is abundant and dominant and secondary in some cases.6 Mixed ScotsScots pine-pedunculate pine-pedunculate oak forest oak forest 2.7 CeltisCeltis australis australis forestforest 8.5 Mixed ScotsScots pine-birch pine-birch forestforest 2.4 Mountainous birch birch forestforest 4. birch.2 Anatolian Anatolian BlackBlack pine forest pine forest 10. Alpine 3.2 Oak-birch forestforest 5.8 10. or predominant but in peculiar and not characteristic ecological counting 14 broad categories which include 78 forest types.7 Chestnut 8.2 Pine 1. Anatolian Anatolian and and 10.6 8.4 Mediterranean Mediterranean and Anatolian and Anatolian ScotsScots pine forest pine forest 10.6 Moesian mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.1 5.5 Alti-Mediterranean Alti-Mediterranean pine forest pine forest 10.indd 34 08/04/2016 11:08 .2 Sessile oak–hornbeam oak–hornbeam forestforest 5.2 ItalianItalian alder alder forestforest 13.4 Illyrian 7. Introduced tree species tree species forestforest In this table the European Forest Types (EFTs) scheme is of the main tree and shrub species of forest interest in Europe in the EFT.8.Pinus pineapinea 10. The species presence in the EFTs is conditions of the EFT.1.1 Spruce and spruce-birch and spruce-birch borealboreal forestforest 1.1 Subalpine larch-arolla larch-arolla pine and pinedwarf and dwarf pine forest pine forest 3.Pinus .7 Lime 5.8 Cypress Cypress forestforest 10.2 Olive-carob forestforest 9. G.2 Subalpine 3.3 Alpine ScotsScots pine and pineBlack and Black pine forest pine forest 3.1.11 Mediterranean Mediterranean yew stands yew stands 11.1 Spruce 1.8 Oriental beechbeech and hornbeam-oriental and hornbeam-oriental beechbeech forestforest 8.8 Ravine and slope and slope forestforest 5.1.9 Other 5.2 Atlantic and subatlantic and subatlantic lowland lowland beechbeech forestforest 6.8 Nemoral silversilver fir fir 3.2 DownyDowny oak forest oak forest .7 Atlantic maritime maritime pine forest pine forest 2.4 8.1 Ashwood Ashwood and oak-ash and oak-ash forestforest lowlands lowlands 5.8.1 13. Coniferous 10. Anatolian Anatolian 8.8. Broadleaved evergreen evergreen forestforest 9.7 Crimean mountainous mountainous beechbeech forestforest 7.7 Moesian 6.Greek.4 Central European European submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6.8.) forest 8.1 Lowland 6.3 Mediterranean Mediterranean pine forest pine forest . has been evaluated.6 Illyrian submountainous submountainous beechbeech forestforest 6. Mesophytic 5. Mesophytic deciduous deciduous forestforest 5.5 Lime-oak forestforest 5. riverine Non riverine alder.8.6 Valonia 8.2 Fraxinus Fraxinus ornusornus and Ostrya and Ostrya carpinifolia carpinifolia forestforest 8.6 Maple-lime forestforest 5.1010.Greek.8.3. and Mireswamp and swamp forestforest 11.1 12.

. M. Marchetti. mas Cornus sanguinea Cornus Erica Cornusarborea mas scoparia Erica arborea Erica Arbutus unedo Erica scoparia ornus Fraxinusunedo Arbutus Fraxinus Fraxinus excelsior ornus Fraxinus Fraxinus angustifolia excelsior Olea europaea Fraxinus angustifolia Phillyrea latifolia Olea europaea Sambucus nigra of Forest Tree Species. Houston Durrant. M. Sorbus aria torminalis more local ecological conditions. Corona. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Pseudotsuga menziesii European forest types: Categories and Tsuga heterophylla Agency. where the most updated content may be freely Pinus Pinus radiata strobus This is an extended summary of the chapter. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana types for sustainable forest management ALIENS reporting and policy (European Environment Picea Tsugasitchensis heterophylla ALIENS Larix kaempferi this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics.An International Journal Tilia platyphyllos Barbati. Fagus Corylussylvatica avellana moesiaca Fagus sylvatica Fagus Fagus Fagus orientalis moesiaca Castanea sativa Fagus orientalis Quercus Castaneacoccifera sativa Quercus Quercus ilex coccifera Quercus Quercus suber ilex Quercus Quercus trojana suber Quercus Quercus cerris trojana cerroides Quercus cerris Quercus Quercus Quercus petraea cerroides robur Quercus petraea Quercus Quercus Quercus frainetto robur pyrenaica Quercus frainetto Quercus JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Barbati. Marchetti. For this reason the presence of variability in their species composition and structure according to in many cases the EFTs are wide forest communities having inner Crataegus Sorbus arialaevigata Crataegus Crataegus monogyna laevigata Prunus cerasifera Crataegus monogyna Prunus Prunus spinosa cerasifera Prunus Prunus avium spinosa Prunus Prunus mahaleb avium Prunus Prunus padus mahaleb Prunus Prunus lusitanica padus Cercis siliquastrum Prunus lusitanica Ceratonia siliqua Cercis siliquastrum Pistacia terebinthus Ceratonia siliqua Acer platanoides Pistacia terebinthus Acer Acer campestre platanoides Acer Acer tataricum campestre Acer Acer sempervirens tataricum Acer Acer pseudoplatanus sempervirens Acer Acer opalus pseudoplatanus Acer Acer monspessulanum opalus Ilex aquifolium Acer monspessulanum Euonymus europaeus Ilex aquifolium Buxus sempervirens Euonymus europaeus 141. reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id.indd 35 Quercus Quercus pubescens pyrenaica Quercus Quercus faginea pubescens Quercus Quercus ithaburensis faginea Quercus Quercus macrolepis ithaburensis Ulmus Quercusminor macrolepis grabra Ulmus minor Ulmus Ulmus Ulmus laevis grabra Celtis australis Ulmus laevis Species is present but not dominant Species is present in either category Aesculus ippocastanus Celtis australis Species is dominant in that forest type Laurus nobilis Aesculus ippocastanus Platanus orientalis Laurus nobilis Pyrus pyraster Platanus orientalis Pyrus Pyrus communis pyraster Malus sylvestris Pyrus communis Malus Malus domestica sylvestris domestica Sorbusdomestica Malus Sorbus Sorbus aucuparia domestica torminalis Sorbus aucuparia Sorbus Sorbus some species can be both. [3] A. Mauri. G. J. Caudullo. Corona. pp. Copenhagen. Corona. Forest Ecology and Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species Management 321. Ailanthus altissima P. P.. Picea sitchensis Pinus contorta Larix kaempferi Pinus Pinus strobus contorta This QR code points to the full online version.. Pividori. European Forest Types: tree species matrix. Rhamnus alaternus References Buxus sempervirens frangula Rhamnus alaternus Rhamnus Tilia tomentosa Rhamnus frangula Tilia Tilia cordata tomentosa Tilia Tilia platyphyllos cordata Tamarix sp. Please.. Luxembourg. Off. 145 (2014).. A. European Atlas Quercus rubra Populus hyb. Pinus radiata In: San-Miguel-Ayanz. de Rigo. P.. D. The purpose of Quercus Quercus palustris rubra Robinia Quercuspseudoacacia palustris Ailanthus Robinia altissima pseudoacacia Eucalyptus sp. cite as: [1] A. Chirici. Biosystems . Publ. M. 93 (2007). dominant or secondary in some cases. T. Plant Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology Cornus Tamarixsanguinea sp. EU. The full version of this chapter (revised and peer- Populus hyb. Barbati. Marchetti. G. Barbati. e01f162+ Phillyrea latifolia Pseudotsuga Sambucus nigra menziesii [2] A. Giannetti.). G. F. second edn. (Eds... Chirici. A. 2007). M. 2016. Acer negundo Prunus serotina 35 Acer negundo 08/04/2016 11:08 . Prunus serotina Eucalyptus sp.

spores. Cryocratic taxa are coloured red and stippled. and striking differences between different areas. Von Post had the idea of expressing fossil pollen assemblages as percentages of the sum of pollen grains counted. 1). 150 000.g. 2)4 . Alternatively when interest is centred on the directions and rates of tree spreading. dispersal. alluvial. 6. Interpretation of pollen-stratigraphical data in a qualitative manner in terms of major past vegetational changes is relatively straightforward2 .5 million. The first arrival of a taxon is more difficult to assess. and 2 000 radiocarbon years before present (BP). All the pollen and spore percentages are expressed as percentages of the total number of terrestrial pollen and spores counted (generally 500-600 per sample). European forests have also undergone very major changes due to the alternating glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary (last 2.5 %. Pollen analyses by Sylvia M. 15 000. 1: Summary pollen diagram from Loch Cill an Aonghais (Argyll). in the sedimentary sequence (Fig. especially the last 15 000 years of the late-Quaternary. and hence representation of different pollen types. and hence age. Pollen analysis as a tool for vegetation reconstruction . W. B. 2: ‘Isopollen’ maps of Quercus (oak) pollen percentages across Europe for 12 000. J. bog. Approaches for (Modified from Huntley and Birks4) quantitative interpretation are currently an area of active research within Europe and elsewhere (e. their pollen data can be mapped for a particular time interval (e. wood. and taxa associated with human activity and the Homo sapiens phase of the Holocene are shown in red. oligocratic and telocratic taxa are orange. cells (e. leaves. He was thus able to provide the dimension of time (vegetation’s fourth dimension) to the study of past vegetation and forests2. Alnus (alder). a small lake in south-west Scotland covering the last 12 000 radiocarbon years.indd 36 08/04/2016 11:08 . in terms of quantitative estimates of past plant abundances is less 6 000. and of presenting these percentages as stratigraphical pollen diagrams with pollen assemblages plotted against their stratigraphical position through the sediment sequence (Fig. and 5 million years ago similar in species composition. structure. The horizontal lines represent partitions of the pollen stratigraphy into pollen- assemblage zones. mesocratic trees are green. southern Scandinavia by 6 000 BP and the subsequent contraction at 2 000 BP in Norway. 36 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. When the value of a particular pollen type exceeds a certain threshold value it can be interpreted as reflecting the first expansion of that taxon at different sites (Fig. Tinner European forests have varied in their composition. Quantitative interpretation of such data Fig. He showed strong similarities in pollen diagrams from a small area. European forests have greatly changed in their extent and structure in the last 5 000 years due to human activities (the Homo sapiens phase) in the current Holocene interglacial in which we live. 4 000. Birks. and Corylus/Myrica (hazel/bog myrtle) indicate when these trees or shrubs are inferred to have first expanded near this site. Peglar. The vertical axis is radiocarbon (14C) years before present (BP) based on eight radiocarbon dates. and other sediments where organic material can be preserved2 .g. This involves the study of seeds. showing how the percentages of different pollen types vary with depth. 10 %) (Fig. stomata). and extent over the last 5 million years or more in response to global climate changes. structure. When many sequences have been studied. so-called ‘isochrone’ maps can be constructed where the contours represent ages established by radiocarbon dating (e. and charred particles (microfossils) preserved in lake. 7).g. 6 000.was and still is the dominant technique in the Quaternary period. Pollen analysis There are ten basic principles of pollen analysis1 (see Box 1). These taxa become abundant again in the open conditions of the Homo sapiens phase where they are shown in plain red. The small arrows by the Betula (birch). Protocratic trees are coloured blue. Contemporary ecologists and foresters can learn from ‘lessons from the past’ about forest responses and resilience to environmental changes in the past. Note the progressive northward spread into straightforward because of the differential production.6 million years). 5 %. 10 000. 8 000. Past forests of Europe H. 2.g. 3)5 .invented in 1916 by the Swedish geologist Lennart von Post . The results of a pollen analysis are most commonly presented as a pollen diagram. Fig. Introduction Were European forests 500. 5 000 years ago) to produce so-called ‘isopollen’ maps for particular pollen types where the contours represent different pollen values (e. to answer these questions we need to reconstruct past forests indirectly using the fossil record. and charcoal (macrofossils)1 and of microscopic pollen grains. 1.5 million. 1). The percentage contours are percentages of total tree and shrub pollen. because the absence of pollen or macrofossils may not mean a true absence of the taxon in the landscape.g. 3 . fruits. 7 000 years ago). 5 000. 5 000. Quercus (oak). and extent to the forests of Europe today? As we cannot directly observe the forests of the past. 2.

Hedera) decline.75 million years ago. and Ulmus elm. admittedly an indirect Fagus beech. During the glacial stages. 11 . and stages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. and the Tien Shan in Kazakhstan12 .6 million years. 500-800m) in the mountains of vegetation. ravines). vegetation. Rocky Mountains) run north-west to juniper. warmth-demanding and or frost-sensitive trees and shrubs (e.g. eastern. Abies). ice-sheet in Russia at 60° N (12 . Nyssa blackgum. High Period Epoch Age (Million years) iii Pollen and spores decay more or less rapidly. there are such strong areas of the globe (eastern Asia and eastern North America) is ecological similarities that the Danish pollen analyst Johannes explained by the hypothesis explicitly presented in the 1850s Iversen recognised in 195816 an interglacial cycle consisting of by the American botanist Asa Gray (1810-88).g. and the ocean floor where pollen is preserved Quaternary low as 180 ppm during glacial stages. often glacial. scrub. Very high concentrations (usually around 100 000 cm-3) in the Knowledge of the flora and vegetation of the Palaeogene and American Rockies. Picea. Time is shown in million years with vegetation too dry for tree growth and high-elevation tundra-like taxonomic levels (e. Pinus. Glacial-stage conditions account for 80 % of Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 37 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas.indd 37 08/04/2016 11:08 . shrubs. family) youngest epoch at the top going down to older epochs at the bottom.or mid-Quaternary9. Given these extreme conditions iv Before reaching the ground. Following the tropical and sub-tropical Europe during the LGM as they do today on the Tibetan Plateau in viii If a sample of the pollen rain is examined from a peat or lake- Palaeocene. such low-latitude areas. Such mid-elevation belts of trees can be seen today in the Andes. along with Betula birch. Caucasus growing on skeletal mineral soils. (standard pollen counts are usually ca. the Pamir. Shade-intolerant herbs and many trees or their close relatives that today are found in the shrubs are rare as a result of competition and habitat loss. fertile soils rich in nitrogen and to spread southward along unglaciated areas or valley corridors in phosphorus and with a low humus content (Fig. stage with sparse continental glaciations.g. The its progressive rate and/or expansion from the south-west at 9 500 radiocarbon years before present (BP) through England and southern and Europe’s forests in the Quaternary period telocratic forest vegetation is very similar to the oligocratic phase central Ireland to 8 500 BP and its declining rate as it spreads north into The Quaternary period (last 2. resulting in multiple (at are not synchronous between sites because the onset of a phase such least 50) glacial-interglacial cycles driven by secular variations in as the oligocratic phase may depend on local site features such as insolation as a result of periodic fluctuations in the Earth’s orbit bedrock geology. Liquidambar. and Larix larch may have grown locally ix If pollen assemblages are obtained from several levels through a modern European forests (e. Trees are absent. Tilia lime. Aesculus chestnut)9. Fraxinus ash. Gardner and C. Populus aspen. record. except in specialised refugia. species. the mountain and the protocratic phase begins. Climatic deterioration (temperature decreases. parts sediment permit efficient analyses and statistically robust results Neogene (‘Tertiary’) periods (66-2. or i Pollen grains and spores are produced in great abundance by ice-sheets and intervening temperate interglacial stages began slightly warmer than. Europe’s forests during Quaternary x If two or more series of pollen assemblage are obtained from Taxodium cypress. Although the species and their relative abundances the Quaternary and their restriction today to two almost opposite may vary from one interglacial to another. Tajikistan. and Kazakhstan12 . 1). they provide a record. (Modified from Birks ) 5 marked and widespread climatic and environmental changes12 . Clethra several sites.g. the Californian Sierra Nevada. The cool phases four or five ecological phases (Box 2 and Fig. pollen is well mixed by atmospheric in the glacial stages that cover 80 % of the last 2. Abies fir) as well as genera willow. These belts lay between lowland xeric steppe-like vi Different pollen grains and spores can be identified to various Table 1. Hence Oligocene 33. Carpathians. Global atmospheric CO2 concentrations were as Holocene 0. decline. and possibly Alnus alder. in such microrefugia during the LGM. frost action and cryoturbation destroy the leached infertile Fig 3: ‘Isochrone’ map for Quercus (oak) in Britain and Ireland showing acid soils. The next phase. Magnolia. Engelhardia. Taxodium.g.9 The evidence we have suggests that many European trees the pollen rain is a complex function of the composition of the survived the last glacial maximum (LGM) in relatively narrow Palaeogene Eocene 56 refugial elevational belts (ca. the pollen assemblage is an indirect record of the regional tropical lowlands of the Indo-Malaya region occurred in north.g. Phellodendron reduced moisture. Scotland between 8 000 and 6 000 BP.g. it is possible to study changes in past pollen pepper-bush. Partial geological time scale. too cold for tree growth. and trees (e. Juniperus America (e. Uzbekistan. remains in central. Large terrestrial ice-sheets started to form in the Northern Ilex. vegetation growing on infertile (low available phosphorus18) humus- Pseudolarix false larch. arctic-alpine. Much of the region north of 40° N was function of transferring the male gamete to the female ovary: the covered by large terrestrial ice-sheets and widespread permafrost vast majority fall to the ground with temperatures possibly 10-25 ° C lower than present. and open barriers. Liriodendron. phase is characterised by the development of temperate deciduous As a result of the west-east barriers and the many relatively cold forests of Quercus. in the Zagros mountains of Iran. This geoflora was first defined by development from the end of a glacial stage through the ensuing J. Europe. Populus. except warm-temperate-subtropical ‘evergreen forest’ of south-eastern in openings caused by fire. Box 1: Principles of pollen analysis Europe’s forests prior to the Quaternary ice-ages the Quaternary whereas the remaining 20 % consists of shorter The Quaternary period with its multiple glacial stages with interglacial stages during which conditions were similar to. Alps. unless the processes aridity and temperature 2-5 ° C lower than today were features of of biological decomposition are inhibited by a lack of oxygen. plants about 2. fragmentary due to the shortage of fossiliferous sedimentary (water seepages. Liriodendron tulip-tree. temperature and moisture rise in their progressive extinction in Europe. of the regional and local vegetation and their development growing today in eastern Asia and/or eastern North American as far north as the north-eastern edge of the great Fennoscandian near the sampled site at various times through the time interval (e.01 as in bogs. 2 and 3) Neogene existed widely in the Northern Hemisphere across North western and central Europe15 there is strikingly similar vegetation America. and land-use. Carya) to vanish finally from Europe during the especially. Tilia. These trees interglacial stages assemblages and hence in the regional and local vegetation belong to the so-called Arcto-Tertiary geoflora that in the Pollen analysis and macrofossil studies reveal that in north- through both time and space (Figs. and herbs expand on the newly exposed mineral soils. Eocene. Nipa palm) found today in the of south-east Turkey. genus. possibly.6 of 280 ppm in interglacial stages. Tsuga. These were largely replaced by trees of the temperate fauna19.) occur in the final telocratic phase and. Europe lost Alnus on fertile brown-earth soils (Fig. climate. What were European forests like environmental conditions were very different from the present prior to the Quaternary? interglacial (Holocene or post-glacial plus the recent Anthropocene) ii A very small fraction of these fulfil their natural reproductive in which we live today. comprises open conifer- ‘mixed mesophytic forest’. lakes. 1) Liquidambar sweetgum.g. and Asia. The cryocratic within the late Pliocene epoch and the subsequent Pleistocene phase represents the cold and dry.6 million years) witnessed very except that as the climate cools towards the end of the interglacial. Carya hickory. A sample of the pollen rain is thus an indirect record of the regional vegetation at that point in space and time Palaeocene 66 southern Europe (including the Caucasus) and possibly in parts of western Asia13 . Appalachians. around the sun. These ecological phases within an interglacial Hemisphere about 2. Pterocarya wing-nut. Pyrenees. Picea spruce. the present day12 . Picea.g. Magnolia magnolia. but see 14 for a contrasting view). turbulence. which results in a more or less uniform pollen rain Pliocene 5. 300-1 000 grains per 1 for an outline of the relevant geological time scales) is very Trees may also have occurred scattered in locally moist sites sample). Sorbus aucuparia rowan) immigrate into formerly glaciated south-east or north to south reaching low latitudes without sea areas and expand to form a mosaic of grassland. rising to pre-industrial levels Pleistocene 2. the European tree flora of the Pliocene epoch (5. while others survived longer rich podsols and peats. represented by the sedimentary record (Fig. Tsuga hemlock. most cork tree.3. topography. There is increasing evidence from macrofossils and charcoal and local vegetation surrounding the sampled site at a point of west Europe9 .g. The mesocratic cold stages and to spread northward during temperate intervals. so-called ‘cryptic’ or ‘micro’ refugia in sequences in Europe8 . Yunnan) and North herbs. Quercus oak. Ulmus. steppe. (e. Many taxa had already disappeared dominated woods (Pinus. Sequoia.S. southward retreat of many of the Arcto-Tertiary geoflora resulting At the onset of an interglacial. Stewartia). or permanent snow or ice. Salix. 10 . Pinus pine.6 million years ago) contained many genera characteristic of trees such as Pinus. Betula. and Miocene epochs (66-5.6 million years ago. thereby permitting temperate and warm temperate trees woodland growing on unleached. and ruderal herbs glaciated mountains (e. and in parts mud sample of known age (dated by annual layers or radiocarbon million years ago) when plants (e. In contrast. 18 .3 an obvious question12 is how did European forest trees survive within an area of similar vegetation and landform Neogene these repeated long glacial-stage conditions and where did they Miocene 23 v The proportion of each pollen type depends on the number of grow in the glacial stages? parent plants and their pollen productivity and dispersal. Meliosma. Ettinghausen in 1869. and north-eastern Europe that conifer time in the past 2. at the onset of the next glacial cryocratic phase as forests course of the early. The successive loss of interglacial (about 10 000-15 000 years duration) and into the next these taxa during the Pliocene epoch and the early Pleistocene of glacial stage. wind-throw. and bog at the beginning of the Quaternary (e. ericaceous heaths. Sequoia redwood.3 Sichuan and Qinghai. Oligocene. Base-demanding shade-intolerant chains and valleys of south-eastern Asia (e. Salix sediment sequence. frequently disturbed by ground- mountains) and the Mediterranean Sea provided barriers to the ice activities. Corylus hazel. 1). 4)17. see Table of the Sino-Himalayan region.g. the oligocratic phase. etc. combined with the west-east chains of assemblages of pioneer. grazing mega- China11 . Carpinus hornbeam. and. dating).6 million years ago. vii In vegetated areas pollen is ubiquitous in lake and bog sediments.

Spontaneous regeneration of Abies alba and Quercus ilex maquis (low biomass) will expand. mesocratic. and establishment may Oligocratic & Telocratic: all have contributed to the observed differences in interglacial • late interglacial stage bio forest patterns17. temperate taxa (e. Similar cycles occurred in southern Europe. Picea abies Norway spruce. medium-low Cryocratic: Interglacial rates of population increase. Massaciuccoli. low reproductive rates. arbuscular phosphorus-scavenging • glacial stage mycorrhiza. Towards the end of the interglacials.. Carpinus) form open forests together with evergreen broad-leaved trees (e. for colonisation. a response to forest disturbance creating gaps forests and arboreal cover increases. while under moderate land use forests will be reduced and facilitated by the creation of abundant. The characteristic trees of the interglacial phases differ in their reproductive and population biology and ecological and competitive Box 2: Glacial-interglacial phases in north-west Europe tolerances17. in a cryptic Mediterranean stand in lowland Tuscany. for example. In some areas (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) 38 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Introduction JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. and possibly and land use25 . established on particular soil types following abandonment of changes in the natural fire regime within the boreal forest15. northward. emigration. European tree & N L ow bio m a e P e species persisted locally. Whatever its rising moisture availability. Pinus) expand abandonment may have occurred as a result of local population step-wise climate change.. with a dynamic vegetation model years. the actual floristic and soil M or Decre Dec forest composition varies from interglacial to interglacial in north. There was a steep fall in Ulmus pollen values (Fig. and podsolisation and while broad-leaved deciduous trees remain important11. dispersal. or Ilex aquifolium common holly became accumulation of mor humus. Quercus ilex holm oak. it is possible that the rapid spread of Fagus across Basso. soil leaching. humus-rich podsols and peats sin a with substantial differences in comparison to central and north- tur g ss ur western Europe10. These changes commonly occurred after an The westward. arctic-alpine. corresponding to the extensive phase of human activity involving clearance and grazing of Picea abies through Finland. Taxus baccata composition and structure and in soil conditions. This vegetation type disappeared during the late colonisation and expansion of new immigrants such as Fagus Holocene most likely in response to excessive anthropogenic burning sylvatica European beech. mesocratic. with widespread gradually replace Mediterranean evergreen broad-leaved trees. and ‘saturation’ • sparse assemblages of pioneer. Abies. forest clearance Abies alba co-dominance with Quercus ilex (see right image) in the and subsequent dereliction of clearings may have facilitated local Mediterranean forest. This 6 000-7 000 years4. Ostrya hop-hornbeam. forest cover declines and steppe-like environments expand during the climatic deterioration at the transition from the interglacial to the next glacial (temperature decreases. This corresponds to the Base. The mid. bogs Cryocratic ea e m r rat s as • infertile. 33. P limitation e fe rtile s olis. hence levels of disturbance (low vs. The glacial-interglacial cycle showing the broad changes in biomass. simulations show the disappearance of Carpinus betulus European hornbeam4 . Betula spp. shrubs. or Quercus-dominated forests on well-drained soils. At the onset of an • mid-late Holocene (6 000 years ago-present) interglacial.52 from the Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean lowlands of the e). areas there was a rapid change from Tilia. While the establishment of this vegetation type under current climate with moderate land use. Fe • rich assemblages of herbs. and • fertile brown-earth soils Protocratic Telocratic chance as it affects survival. present and future Mediterranean vegetation moisture). oligocratic. and Norway over the last mesocratic phase in central and north-western Europe. With low land use. a a b c the broad-scale of an entire interglacial cycle of 10 000-15 000 coastal lake in Tuscany (central Italy). and ruderal plants traits 17. often fertilised (Modified from Birks and Birks18) Ulmus. Factors such as location of refugia • mid interglacial stage asing temp • temperate deciduous forests In cre a sin g in the cryocratic phase. Abies collapses were rapid. 5 000 (LANDCLIM) for different climatic conditions (today vs. Quercus spp. a delayed migration unrelated to simple into the broad-leaved deciduous and broad-leaved evergreen collapse following. 1). warming) and years) there is often great variation between interglacials. although strongly reduced. There is an apparent order within interglacial forest patterns when viewed at Simulation of future vegetation dynamics at Lago di Massaciuccoli. In agreement. genotypic variation. predation. moderate).or Quercus-dominance reduction in fire frequency17. This new phase. or a combination of these factors32 . distances over which g biomass spread occurred. moisture-loving taxa such as Fagus. steppe. corresponding to the telocratic phase.g. respectively. 22. and • early interglacial stage til biom m r u cre ‘cold-stress tolerant’ and ‘adversity’ traits17. pine. Simulations of today’s vegetation under low disturbance shows In some areas of central and north-west Europe. Fagus sylvatica during Mesolithic times followed climate change Future climate and vegetation conditions at Lago di Massaciuccoli are (cooling and a moisture increase) in southern and southern-central comparable to present climate and vegetation conditions at Gorgo Europe29. 11. pine). willow) xim as Within these three broad groups of protocratic. unique to the Holocene is called star. 23 . the invasion of Picea into northern and central Fennoscandia corresponding to the oligocratic phase in north-western and central the natural geographical range of Fagus. high competitive tolerances. Oligocratic and telocratic trees have medium reproductive N&P • skeletal mineral soils s. and telocratic) are shown along with the display ‘pioneer’ and ‘exploitation’ traits17. All vegetation models were initialised with the same present-day Italian Peninsula. elm pollen values halving within 5 years at a site in southern d) and e) Vegetation simulated at Lago di Massaciuccoli with LANDCLIM. the Homo sapiens phase (see Box 2)17. 31 may be a contemporaneous response to subtle temperate and Mediterranean conifers (e.g. in cr e a sin g te m p e reasin western and central Europe17. southern Sicily (Fig 5). Alnus. 1). and southward spread and expansion following phase during the mid-interglacial. Due to warmer conditions. the model. 26 . and and associated interglacial stage. deciduous Quercus. The phases of the interglacial (protocratic. probably a result of an interaction c) Future (2071-2100 AD) mean monthly temperature and precipitation between prehistoric human activities and a tree pathogen. Unique to the Holocene ls like environments of the glacial stages. mixed Fagus-Ilex holly-Quercus forests developed whereas in other cleared or cultivated areas. disturbance by fire and by browsing25. medium-low rates of population oi l Protocratic: es ass De increase. Olea europaea olive) and mediterranean shrubs (e. soil. relaxation in grazing pressure. forest clearance and prehistoric shifting cultivation and livestock f b) Map of Italy and Switzerland with Lago di Massaciuccoli denoted by a black farming (Fig. 23 . whereas within each phase of an interglacial (ca. or while boreal and steppe vegetation declines (e. 5 000-6 000 years ago Abies disappeared a dynamic vegetation model with d) present climate and future climate Figure from Henne et al. probably in response to over-exploitation of environmental resources30 . ectomycorrhiza with a phosphorus-mining strategy. ing Ma • unleached fertile soils Incr and oligocratic and telocratic plants. yet • open conifer (spruce. Similarly. In the to Fagus-dominance17. high rates. Mesocratic trees have dominant soil features. ‘competitive’. Pistacia pistachio).g. 21 . for example woods of over the last 6 000-7 000 years resulted in major changes in forest Europe. high competitive tolerances. e s oi Homo sapiens: ric h in fertil cryocratic phase in central and northern Europe.g.indd 38 08/04/2016 11:08 . English yew. and Abies pure Fraxinus excelsior European ash. As with Ulmus in late-Holocene the ability of pollen stratigraphy to differentiate between many of sedimentary pollen record of Lago di Massaciuccoli is used to validate the different interglacials17. rates of spreading. Mesocratic: Mesocratic Oligocratic fertility. Juniperus. and trees (birch. England24 . Finally. evergreen oak forest central Europe in the last 4 000-5 000 years4 may have only been will prevail16 . reduced Box 3: Palaeo-model comparison: past. probably in response to excessive Neolithic climate scenario and moderate disturbance before 2010. with pollen values of Abies halving f) Holocene pollen percentages of upland trees and shrubs at Lago di within 13 and 22 years at sites in Italy27 and Italian Switzerland28 . and ‘late-successional’. competition. red star shows position of Gorgo Basso in southern Sicily (Fig 4). Other types of secondary woodland developed in areas beyond causes. with projected by a regional climate model (SMHI) for Lago di Massaciuccoli. 22 . or climate change. in the steppe. high rates of population increase. in particular LANDCLIM is able to simulate extinct vegetation d e types which were growing in the past at the site before anthropogenic Europe’s forests in the Holocene (11 700 disturbance became excessive. • range of soil types. Artemisia wormwood. ericaceous heaths. Sweden.g. corresponding to the protocratic phase in central and • forest clearance. 20. Betula. large clearings within Tilia. climate change. years ago-today) a) Present-day (1950-2000 AD) mean monthly temperature (±1 The mesocratic phase in the Holocene interglacial stage was standard deviation) and average total monthly precipitation at Lago di greatly modified about 5 000-6 000 years ago by the onset of Massaciuccoli close to Pisa (Tuscany). Chenopodiaceae goosefoot)11. and temperature that take place during a glacial (cryocratic) stage low competitive tolerances. 22. agriculture G la cial north-western Europe. warm- followed by the abandonment of cleared and cultivated areas. Protocratic trees have high reproduction rates.

[13] K. equilibrium with environmental factors such as climate50 or have [24] S. ploughing. T. Evolution of Plants (Oxford. et al. 4. Iron Age. Bradshaw. thesis. Global Change M. et al.-C. 273 (1999). ultimately legacy effects of different antecedents40 . 1 (Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse. B. Vegetation History Pleistocene9. Willis. Willis. Birks. 17. Birks. Journal of Ecology 93. Second. environmental thresholds beyond which specific modern forest [3] H. 46 . Marquer. A. This and Present Pollen Maps for Europe. Flessa. Encyclopedia of Quaternary [28] W. 56 . J. Tzedakis. The Holocene 25. is a rich and largely untapped record of ecological dynamics over Assessing whether current forest systems are sustainable in a wide range of time-scales. 37). 18. et al. as defined by Biology 21. T. 41 . Continued forest clearances systems arose at approximately the same time in different K. Such information. J. heaths. Acer maple. [18] H. crop cultivation. J. A and used as a key to “understanding the biotic effects of future narrow time window (e. 29. 356 (2015). The palaeoecological record of European tree and forest history outcomes. Almost all extensive and naturally forested areas surviving today ecologists look to the future. W. (‘analogues’)45. Quaternary [53] M. 15. Journal of during glacial stages and rapid spread and expansion and unique These palaeoecological questions suggest that it is inadequate to vegetation science 25. J.. United Kingdom. A promising novel approach is to combine Fig. by ecosystems (not necessarily forest systems) that differ in [6] L. [54] S. Reviews 28. Henne. et al. American Journal of Botany 100. Geology 29. Tinner. Global Change and Reviews 90. J. disturbance-resistant taxa such as Quercus. 156 (2014). de Rigo. S. 593-612.. modern ecologists? and use “the present is the key to the future”. by inference in some cases. F.. Fig. Medieval. H. Uppsala University Press.. Di Pasquale. H. A. 30. Birks. Willis. W. 281 (2015). This sclerophyllous vegetation type expanded range of variation within which a forest system is sustainable. W. Tzedakis. Birks. Journal of Vegetation husbandry. et al. 549 (2006). [31] T. ed. vol. Quercus ilex forest) are unique to the Holocene. Quaternary Science Zagwijn. or abruptly when the dominant trees are replaced by other 34 and have shown that secular climate change has kept many targets trees. forming monospecific forests25. C. Lindbladh. Jackson.g.. and agriculture. pp. EU. What ‘lessons from the past’ can be learnt from the ever.g. This QR code points to the full online version... Quaternary [29] W. Ongoing rapid major disturbances (e. Tzedakis. K. As Karl Flessa and Steve Jackson55 the face of future global change is aided by considering the range discuss.. Tinner.g. [38] H. presumably in response to regional. Conedera. These forests may change gradually revealed major human imprints on many. and ecosystem [7] A. Archaeobotany 22. 36.. Fifth. Rey. Trondman. et al. L. Thus apparently similar systems [9] K. 1958). 1214 (2005). 0-13. Management 8.. U. Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future have resulted in a continuous dynamic of tree survival in refugia Environmental Change (The National [26] G. Tinner. R. 61 (1993). become abundant and dominant at specific areas under particular (‘baselines’) for restoration efforts. J. Journal of Ecology 99. 133–143.or global-scale shifts [11] N. Jackson. Williams. Global Change Biology p. et al. F. [56] B. Journal of Ecology 99. W. Quaternary Science [34] W. W. Giesecke. the so-called Arcto-Tertiary geoflora in the Pliocene and early to climate conditions beyond modern states? Are species ranges in Science Reviews 28. 2013). Colombaroli. Lotter. E. There is very much still to be learnt about Fig. under which these systems were initiated and developed40 . H. Marchetto. B. Lotter. increased human interference including regular burning36 forest systems existed in the past that have no modern counterparts [15] G. B. 1971). 35 . [27] D. Hannon. Abies. T. Global Change Biology and wood. G. and extent of forests in Europe? glacial stage. [37] W. 484 1261 (2006). at different times17. et al. 200-300 years) underestimates the environmental change”55 . eds. and Picea (non. Corylus. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28. H. animal widespread synchronous transformations of ecosystems40. Plant Ecology & Diversity [40] S. and recent times. maquis and day observations47. human activity)17. C. 29 Corylus avellana in the early Holocene across much of north-west [16] J.indd 39 08/04/2016 11:08 . vol. Fagus. B. Ostrya. Academies Press. and manage emerging novel ecosystems to ensure high biodiversity Given the richness of forest-tree responses during the Quaternary and a supply of ecosystem goods and services in the future54. 23 of Advances in Global Change Research. Huntley. G. vol. Emerson. Forests initially became more open. Birks. antecedents in different places. York Academy of Sciences 1297. M. 194 (2015). Jørgensen. 2042 (2007). survived on rocky calcareous slopes less suited for agriculture. Reu. 521 (2013). B. An Atlas of Past Biogeography 31. [44] J. H. The purpose of this analysis but increasingly strengthened by macrofossil studies) The dynamic nature and the often non-analogue character summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related is continual change at time scales of millions. Elias. The bearing of glacial and (2013). 523 (2013). Past forests of Europe. 26 . 38 ) and can. Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. C. structure. K. dynamic eco-physiological models with palaeoecological evidence called Homo sapiens phase (see Box 2)17. indicate the specific environmental changes that led to the development of the system References [1] H. universal but rapid regime-shifts in 1. Holocene) the realised environmental niches of species been significantly [25] W. Forest vegetation First. (2015). In: San- environmental conditions40 . 419 (2013).. 1523 (2004). forest pathogens. This process was interglacial epochs on the formation and Europe4. B. Tinner. Methoden und Ergebnisse. 32. Ph. 87. composition. K. have been extensively managed by selective silviculture over many understanding of modern ecosystems and ecological processes (2004). to 10 000-15 000 due to major changes in the Earth’s climate system due to orbital forcing9 . (Elsevier. J. B. with progressive extinction from Europe of trees of relationships under past or future climate change? Are they robust [23] J. 4 and 5). The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages. Encyclopedia of Ecology. B. K. Miguel-Ayanz. 495 (2004). W. McElwain. Williams. many novel future responses. as shown by We are very grateful to Cathy Jenks for preparing this text and the palaeoecological record. to human-induced creation of maquis vegetation (Fig. J.. K. forest ecosystems of today [14] P. Allen. W. Palaeogene. Jackson. N. Kaltenrieder. and Hedera ivy declined while their dominant species have developed in different places and [8] D. Mitchell. several different [10] T. occurred as the result of the development in atmospheric circulation involving climatic shifts that led to Palaeobotany and Palynology 218. Vegetation History and Journal of Ecology 95. 2 (Cambridge in scandinavia. Science 314. 48 . et al. and ecological surprises are certainly possible42-46 . Palynology 79. Human project future ecosystem conditions solely on the basis of present. Off. changing composition. F. Ammann. C. Giesecke. W. Wehrli. 292 (2012). M.g. vol. 755 (2007). eds. cite as: Birks.. [35] C. Palaeoecologists apply the concept that “the present is the key to Why is European forest history important to the past” whereas global-change ecologists project this forward [20] J. B. D. 50 . G. [36] W. Journal of The palaeoecological record for European forests provides [4] B. H.D. 395 (2011). Turekian. H. vegetation burning. J. T. Future forest historical systems if possible. J. Seddon. H. 2014).g. Betula. D. 567 (2009). but both rely solely on their 3 (1986). 1698 (2012). Birks. Review of Palaeobotany and pp. Lang. Fagus (re-sprouters). Ulmus. pp. practically no unplanted forest environments survive (e. Science 325. K. Third. 17 that and Archaeobotany 2. Review of [39] R. J. C. Luxembourg. 199 (2014). However. [32] T. [30] R. M. R. 1 000-2 000 (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) years) inevitably increase the inherent range of natural variation Acknowledgements in the earth system40 . Ruosch. The full version of the many palaeoecological studies (mainly based on pollen dynamics under global-change conditions52. is only one time-slice in the last 11 700 years since the last [21] J. 2008). Bennett. [5] H. Birks. A critical question is thus are today’s ecosystems (Koebenhavn. The development of Denmark’s [51] S. S. 5. Overpeck. Schwörer. 2623-2634. Restor Ecol 21. B. 26. Fraxinus. A. pp. fire. Publ. quantified. vol. 25. Blois. 1960) [50] J. H. changes in diverse regions40. Science 17. Bronze Age. 391-424. 40 . B. Huber. Problems of the Early Post-Glacial Forest Development in [49] A. vol. W. pp. Caudullo.. [47] K. 17. this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. T. Birks. Roman. Methoden und Ergebnisse. e010c45+ Introduction | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 39 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. 6 (Uppsala [45] S. Iversen. the so. 1299 (2014). Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences the mid-Holocene (See Box 3)25. 664 (2011). favoured by humans for their valuable acorns or timber. Tinner. H. interspersed by periods of abandonment and places.27. 4). Sandel. Longer time periods (e. with all its climatic shifts10. Willis. [46] J. Tinner. Viking. can thus help to identify critical Palaeoecology (Edward Arnold. Svenning. tree combinations in the different interglacial stages13. Science 305. 49. 1679 (1999) systems can no longer be sustained47. 103 (1991). structure. to design. some decades  34. [17] H. [52] P. (2001). Palaeoecological studies have Please. Williams. Birks.. Most systems disappear. impact with forest clearance and agriculture (Fig. 1995) P. Journal of Biogeography 16. B. J.000 Years Ago. Frontiers in Ecology and We see that European forests have been changing since the and climate representative of tree and ecosystem-climate [22] P. M. Journal of Ecology 103. International Journal of Biodiversity centuries38. Peglar. disturbance-sensitive taxa such as Tilia. similar systems had different 106 (Gustav Fischer Verlag. Ohlson. J. a small lake in southern coastal Sicily. W. Birks. (Springer Netherlands. Ecosystem Services & 168 (2005).. Mountain Regions. Birks. Mock. Mai. during the late Neolithic. 1973). only obtainable (Elsevier. where the most hundreds of years. A. et al. 10 . 194 (2000). this record is a long-term ecological observatory where of environmental variation that these systems have experienced ecological responses to past climate change and the ecological in the past and by reconstructing the environmental conditions legacies of societal activities can be deciphered. Conedera. Mauri. 1498 (2009). B. B. 1266 (2013). The Geological are so characteristic of the Quaternary (Pleistocene. Forests develop when certain plant species last 5 000 years raises critical questions about appropriate targets updated content may be freely accessed. P. C. Davis. woodland management) This pattern is not. [42] S. But the present Denmark. van Andel. 53 . Annals of the New and the development of extensive pastures of ‘commons’. J. The repeated glacial-interglacial cycles15. 17 and the importance of Abies alba in southern Europe in extinction of plant taxa. A. H. C. (Eds. (Yale Univ. Press. pastoral and arable farming37.g. Alnus. Paleobiology nature since the last glacial. and settlements (Figs. Tinner. Jones. [12] Birks. G. B. vol. the earth system may be accompanied by widespread ecosystem Journal of Biogeography 18. Wijmstra.. Houston Durrant. Ecological Monographs Record of Ecological Dynamics: altered by climate-change or millennial-long land-use activities51? 83. S. What emerges from to produce palaeo-validated scenarios of future vegetation This is an extended summary of the chapter. 551 from the palaeoecological record. The palaeoecological record can pinpoint the time of origination of particular forest systems (e. 39 . T. Journal of maintained itself in the past40 .. 1983). 25 (2015). Bugmann. M. A. environmental changes may almost certainly ensure that many Few major terrestrial forest systems have existed for more historical restoration targets will be unsustainable in the coming than 10 000 years and most are considerably younger. and Picea were also may have different properties owing to different histories and to second edn. Bennett. Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte [43] B. In general. [48] Birks. Science. J. usually in response to extrinsic environmental change41 or moving at centennial to millennial time-scales9. 15. properties40 . (Copyright Willy Tinner: CC-BY) in the places where they occur and all have been preceded 503 (1989). T. Restoration efforts should aim to conserve or restore developing only within the last few centuries38-40 . European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Jackson. n/a (2015). Birks. 1521 (2009). 13. systems in Europe17. 1980). similar forest ecosystems. D. Quaternary Science Reviews the Environment 13. et al.and scrub-pasture and hazel coppice expanded. plant-functional traits. Ecology 87. Salix. Hewitt. 17. no. 676 (2015). and the range of environmental variation under which the system Science. 5: Dense evergreen oak forest (Quercus ilex) south of Gorgo Basso. 127 Edwards. H. B. 696 have no long history even in the time span of the Holocene and (2013). S. 4: Xeric maquis and cultivated land north of Gorgo Basso. E. [19] F.. Ammann. but more importantly. 2005). The holocene spread of spruce vegetation type is representative of natural conditions in coastal Sicily prior several additional insights and important lessons from the past40 . Tinner. Examples include the former abundance of 106 (Gustav Fischer. Hubschmid. Tinner. led ultimately to the widespread deforestation of much of Europe Europas.). Hobbs. S. W. Macias-Fauria. create. 2005). Huntley. systems are thus inevitably uncertain and historically contingent. Reasoner. P. all existing forest systems have a finite time limit to growing University (2004). et al. ed. 1995). Ammann. when the time window extends figures in a very short time and for her meticulous editing. D. R. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23. and expansion of more permanent land-use practices (e. J. H. pt. however. Veloz. Jackson. T. environmental change40 . Colombaroli. fields. maquis. 147 (2008). second edn. B. The Holocene 25. Iversen. Willis. J. Annual particularly intense in the lowlands of Mediterranean Europe. J. D. [33] M. 153 (1993). J. J. M. 17. and of European forests in the time-span of the Holocene or even the main topics. as a basis for past reconstructions or future predictions. J. and past European forests using the vast amount of palaeoecological 2 700-2 000 years ago with Greek and Roman colonisation involving regular this underestimates the risk of major disruption of the system by data available in Europe4. M. Combourieu-Nebout. J. J. [41] J. H. van der Hammen. 2016. Bradshaw. secondary regeneration. if not all. J. [2] H. Handbook of holocene Palaeoecologists look to the past whereas global-change palaeoecology and palaeohydrology. 54. 1 26. The Holocene 15. palatable) expanded34 . [55] K. Fourth. D. et al. thousands. where Universiteit Årsskrift.. Quercus. Ecology S. Shuman. A.

economic and environmental changes related to forests”1 . http://archive. economic and social consequences2. The park is characterised by very high A key piece of information to allow some of these impacts biodiversity. see Figure 6) is uneven with extensive areas of the continent very poorly covered. Top right: Romania. In both cases. 16 . 40 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. http://archive. where forest ecosystems is elevated. Houston Durrant. CC-BY. a much denser network of field observations would have been required to reliably reconstruct at the km2 resolution the local distribution of forest tree species (not only including the ones that occupy Fig. This shows the varying levels of human influence. darker areas . The European Atlas of Forest Tree Species: modelling. G. Grazing and managed forest stands generate patches of locally uniform vegetation. This is because the many regional datasets are often autonomously collected and organised.indd 40 08/04/2016 11:08 . accuracy and uneven definitions of measured/estimated quantities for different taxa. Even the uniformity of tree species within managed forest stands may be subject to border effects with increased diversity of species. with more than 800 identified species and subspecies of plants. boreal up to the polar climate its overall high heterogeneity. Krka National Park.more prevalent in the far north of the continent and along mountain ranges. Fig. However. From European Commission and the World Bank14 . information gaps between multiple administrative units and institutions may potentially lead to classify regional field observations on a given species (missing from the local inventory) as false negatives. it might be that the available field “European forests: an ecological overview” and “Forest resources significantly alter the local composition of forests compared observations are not dense enough to offer a statistical sampling in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. 2: A qualitative visual overview for some of the dimensions of complexity and heterogeneity in the European the European scale Europe is densely populated. Beside future potential threats. (Adapted from an image authored by Sergey Norin. with a large array of possible environmental. Forest management may changes species. solar irradiation. where anthropogenic influences might be greatest. the local density of available field observations (plot density. Potential impacts include changes in the suitability of whole regions for certain forest taxa and types. at the landscape scale this results in Heterogeneity of forests and forest data at a high heterogeneity. for example because without wide uncertainties on the real detailed composition and disturbances and threats”). Continental-scale modelling of tree undisturbed areas may display a rich variety of species adapted to domain. explicitly calling for “advanced research and modelling tools to fill data and knowledge gaps to better understand the complex issues around social. and resulting variations in the spatial distribution of forest tree species in Europe. estimated using a cost-distance algorithm which computes the “cost” of travelling between two locations. Therefore. However. slope. aspect. field observations of forest tree species in these areas may be associated with information limited to very local conditions. mountains characterise more than one third of the exceptional challenge with a harmonisation effort to integrate managed forests may exhibit very diverse patterns with sudden European land (see Figure 2) with peculiarities associated to the the different sources of forest-based field observations. risk assessment on emerging risks due to exotic forest pests and diseases often has to be performed coping with a broad set of uncertainties4 . For example. while over the subtropical. with intense landscape diversity highly variable bio-climatic conditions influence local forest and relatively few undisturbed areas of high wilderness and ecosystems and their composition17. Europe spans These characteristics of the continent contribute to define interspecific competition by other tree taxa. experiencing highly a wide range of climate patterns17-19 . less accessible ones . and resulting solar and rain shadow. displays an impressive set of challenges for it to be addressed at (Adapted from an image authored by Hans Fransen. disturbances and threats”). However. also considering how to better take advantage from the already available land cover mapping. temperate. Caudullo. This Atlas is based on possibly the richest set of information harmonised at the European scale and focusing on recorded occurrences of forest tree species. data and information on forest tree species the continental scale. San-Miguel-Ayanz The European Commission has recently published a Forest Strategy for the European Union (see chapter “The European Union Forest Strategy and the Forest Information System for Europe”). management practices might prevent or mitigate the natural local distribution of tree species (see Figure 1). Several hundred thousand harmonised field observations have been collected and integrated to cover several millions of square kilometres. and threats to be reliably estimated is the availability of updated (Adapted from an image authored by gravitat-OFF. http://archive. Bottom left: The peculiar administrative heterogeneity of Europe (28 member states in the European Union with 24 official languages and several states which are either federations. even this apparently simpler objective management. Top left: A view of the European continent at night shows clearly the large centres of population. species distribution and habitat suitability needs to adapt to this coexist in the same mature ecosystem. The global change in its environmental (climate change). and usually measured in units of time. About one third of the continent is covered by mountain systems (according to a recent revised classification based on the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre approach20) and in most massifs the forest cover is a key component up to the timberline. Earth Observatory40 . Bottom right: orographic complexity. From NASA. with different spatial density of sampling.e. Therefore. areas with predominantly For example. with about 3  % of world land hosting almost 7 % of the world population (estimates for 2014)12 . social and economic dimensions is expected to impact on European forest systems in complex ways (see chapter “Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. CC-BY. the anthropogenic pressure on subtropical. precipitation patterns may vary greatly depending on the local elevation. Mountain forests are exposed to heterogeneous bio-climatic conditions: temperature. J. The values in the map represent the cost required to travel across them (hence this is often termed a friction-surface). 1: Top left: Croatia. The similarity with the top left view is evident. T. transdisciplinary robust assessment is required to identify and address emerging immediate risks for forest ecosystems. CC-BY. federacies or in any case providing large autonomy to internal administrative units) further increases the complexity and intrinsic uncertainty of continental-scale environmental modelling. temperate and boreal mountain systems. with the potential natural vegetation15. de Rigo. As a consequence. 20-22 (see also the chapters low accessibility13.i. Stratification over the years of forest and land situation5-11 . 3 .is/m11os) tree species distribution and habitat suitability for the current Bottom left: France. In the mountainous areas or where land use and landscape diversity is wide. As an example. Top right: Accessibility may be defined as the travel time to a location of interest using land or water based travel. 14 (see Figure 2).

If accepted. Canton of Lucerne. tables and other supporting information. data and information on forest tree species. bibliography and text). the continental-scale modelling exercise here described can be exploited by users for a more consistent pan-European overview of forest tree species. the extended summaries of this book are associated with their 50 international experts who devoted their efforts in co-authoring. which correspond to over 1 600 unique references. To obtain the printed version of this Atlas. under a clearly defined taxonomy of roles42 geospatial layers (at 1 km2 spatial resolution) to be processed. Unfortunately. the making of the printed version of the Atlas required the processing and generation of more than 18 000 files (considering only the textual information content) organised in more than 2 400 units of content. Existing land cover mapping exercises may complement database and information systems within a modular array of Switzerland. this information by providing high-resolution estimates of forest models. In Europe. Fig. the detailed composition and proportion of forest tree species may locally vary. the overstorey canopy layer but also the ones in the midstorey and understorey. For each of them. chorology areas may integrate several These few statistics refer to this printed version of the Atlas. the content-processing chain of D-TMs starts from text and references. for which the information is sometime more incomplete). revising. local richer information (although not yet harmonised with the information available elsewhere) may be able to provide locally more accurate estimates. probability of presence) and suitability (maximum habitat suitability) map corresponding updated online full version. The Commission staff working document accompanying the Forest Strategy for the European Union. As a consequence. Periodic updates might be possible for e. contributions and modifications by means of an internal version control system. collected and harmonised within the Forest Information System for The modelling strategy here summarised is designed to be inclusive Box 1: The review model and content-processing chain of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species The making of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species required several Concerning the modelled maps. and habitat suitability at the continental scale. 3: of specific purposes25-29. improved data and modelling. 41(see chapter “The European Union Forest Strategy are exposed to the anthropic influence. CC-BY. The review model for the Online reviewing. extended statistics and within FISE. here forests are more homogeneous with weaker evidences of border of specific forest tree species36-39 . Here. machine-readable semantic structure. As highlighted years of work for the editorial board and intense exchange with more than sources within a single coarse-resolution overview. models. notwithstanding important research efforts in this field”23 . disturbances and threats”)43. https://archive. diagrams. of which more than 2 400 are on forest resources. the extended summaries with their cycles of review and revision required the support of novel computational tools. Another mixed land cover. (Adapted from an image authored by Francesco Gasparetti. This European Atlas of Forest Tree Species provides for (Adapted from an image authored by Benediktv. this required about 20 000 core intermediate iconography. Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 41 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. http://mfkp.such as broadleaved and coniferous trees . Although fragmented. and able to tolerate a larger amount of outlier data or data affected by peer review. The manual harmonisation of the bibliography was based on the records stored in the Meta-information Database on Integrated Natural Resources Modelling and Management (INRMM-MiD. After the initial design and implementation of core materials and methods (data. without previous peer-reviewed versions of an updated chapter will remain accessible. 46 . DOCX). 46 . maps. From the human-editable format. annotated by the co-authors by using common word-processing formats (DOC. categories . Overall. aspect and subsequent solar irradiation. as harmonised scale (see section “Heterogeneity of forests and forest data at the European extended literature. In addition. Each distribution (relative by Figure 4. notes that “harmonized information on forests and forest resources at EU level is still limited. the D-TM chain for each chapter version generates intermediate information with semantic enhancements.instead the first time a systematic coverage of forest tree taxa distribution Right: Italy. each updated manuscript will undergo a more extensive on its content-processing chain is summarised. Furthermore. providing additional information. All authors. has been complemented by open contributions from international scale” in this chapter). advisors and reviewers. insights and comments for the is the result of an ensemble of hundreds of intermediate maps generated European Atlas of Forest Tree Species is similar to that applied to the printed chapters of the Atlas. Although easy to edit with images. about INRMM see also the chapter “Forest resources in Europe: an integrated perspective on ecosystem services. PDF and RTF documents with a harmonised. 4: The review model of the European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. 45 under the semantic array programming paradigm43.g. and the Forest Information System for Europe”) to integrate diverse of slope. At a finer . with the potential contribution of additional co-authors. https://archive. which may serve for further readings. most countries collect information about forest resources by means of National Forest Inventories (NFIs)24 . The content-processing chain is implemented on a GNU/ Linux computing environment44. these formats are unsuitable for an automated semantic enhancement of their content. a chapter will be persistently published in the FISE high uncertainties – a feature which is essential at the considered spatial portal. a cycle of internal review – with the support of external reviewers – and subsequent content revision has been iterated up to finalise the extended summary for each chapter (see Figure 4). to derive HTML. For a given chapter version. That said. the definitions and methods underpinning the impressive amount of collected information are not yet uniform among the different inventories²⁴. as well as to different patterns Europe or at least a substantial part of the continent30-35. Other sources provide coarse-resolution Left: Forest patchiness and variability: hills with a mixed land cover where forests show limited core undisturbed areas and extensive forest borders estimates on the chorology of vascular plants covering the whole of Europe (FISE)1. an INRMM-MiD public record is available with integrated metadata and meta-information on the cited publication. Marche region.indd 41 08/04/2016 11:08 . a brief overview on the Atlas review model and via statistical resampling to ensure that the final estimate is more robust edition. integrating recent or The modelling. The Atlas provides an overall bibliography with more than 2 400 cited references to scientific and technical publications. the INRMM-MiD catalogue covers about 5 000 indexed publications. LaTeX. to ease the collaboration and with the systematic internal recording of all considering other ancillary layers. The available European-wide data and information have been comprehensively integrated set of available data and information. See also Figure 2 and Box 2 for an overview on the underpinning uncertainty at different spatial scales. The main goal of this Atlas is to offer a robust integrated synopsis harmonising information-rich areas with information-poor ones. based on the most effects. Additional sources of information are available by supra-national initiatives that collect forest-based field observations for a number Fig. with the design and implementation of a dedicated chain of data-transformation modules (D-TM)43.

The modelling methodology for compliant 1 km² grid (LAEA EPSG CODE 3035)49 . is designed to publish (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forest in Europe. CLC map covers 36 European countries with a pixel size of 1 hectare. covering 21 European countries8 . “Coniferous forest” and “Mixed forest”. The (GD)2 database This project is a Community scheme for harmonised. a more detailed summary of the data and localization. Beech and Ash. 5: Examples of sparsely forested areas with mixed land cover. This map is a 25 m spatial resolution raster derived from LISS III. was produced with an automatic classification technique based 2152/200350 mentioned the latest version of the map 2006 has been implemented by The European Environmental Agency)37. aerial photographs and ground surveys. Therefore. 42 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. For (proportion of broadleaved and coniferous trees)36-39 . Among other constraints. data and modelling integration. BioSoil (BS). at the boundary between the subtropical mountain system and the subtropical dry forest. Furthermore. 48 . or artificial. This notation This project is part of European Forest Genetic Resources modelling modules and data currently under harmonisation.eufgis. (Adapted from an image authored by Fredi Bach. 2152/200350 . The database geospatial application47 of the semantic array programming and provides information on the presence/absence of forest tree is part of the EVOLTREE project (Evolution of Trees). and able to assimilate further forest information not yet exploited. https://archive. single trees) that are traditionally analysed in This dataset derived from National Forest Inventory data genetic surveys conducted in natural populations. 38 . normed by EC Regulation No. updated enriched information and maps with an increasing level of datasets 200752). providing data of Materials and methods with information about the growing tree species and geographical the main tree species presence. All datasets used have been harmonized to an INSPIRE information sources is provided. through sustainable forest management” Atlas (https://w3id. covering 38 European countries. The EUFGIS maintains an online portal (www. which aims to “maintain. Baden-Wurttemberg. and example of landscape with a scattered woodland component. after the removal of outliers. CC-BY. Genetics. broad. in which plant CORINE project. Input refers to the online taxonomy of array-based semantic constraints (EUFORGEN) program. from which was extracted the forest cover from the classes “Broadleaved forest”. It was launched in April 2006 and financially supported by the European Union Forest Focus/Monitoring dataset within the 6th Framework Programme. This has been achieved by means of SemAP array-based European Information System on Forest Genetic Resources The modelled maps. Top: Germany. since the main effort of systematic data collections such as national forest inventories is more focused on forest areas. each typology of species specific map is also described. The dataset CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) used in this project came from the Biodiversity module. (e. and enhance the biological diversity of forests. tree populations are modular system that combines data and models into applications”1) observations24-29 . EUFGIS (EG).is/9jRGz) each harmonised dataset expects the corresponding geospatial records to have nonnegative values (::nonnegative::). Based on earth observation satellite images.evoltree. Forest Focus (FF). Under this scheme the monitoring is carried out Harmonising forest cover datasets by participating countries on the basis of a systematic network Available maps of land cover in Europe have been harmonised of observation points (Level I) and a network of observation within FISE as complementary information on forest categories plots for intensive and continuous monitoring (Level II). In these forest sites. contains geographic information of a limited number of tree Middle: Turkey. (Adapted from an image authored by Schwabe90. CC-BY.g. The data managing the data JRC implemented a Forest Focus Monitoring sources used are listed below. Oak. The map initiated in response to the “Forest Focus” Regulation (EC) No. computed with a spatial grid of 50 km2. Linear formations contribute to support connectivity among Fig. aims to produce large-scale maps of national territories recorded for more than 3 300 sample points in 19 European Countries. and keeping up-to-date inventories and maps of land cover. restore and data from experts in local/regional distribution of specific tree which implements the paradigm (see Figure 8)48 . useful for the species chorology) for the main tree species in elsewhere (ex situ). The online version of the Harmonising presence and presence/absence genetic resources. They are collections of forest field surveys information on around 2 500 forest samples. The aim of the BioSoil project was on a Neural Network clustering algorithm36 . Genetic Diversity (GD). Fig. It comprised two modules: Soil Module51 and Biodiversity Module25. Geo-referenced Database of Genetic Diversity (GD)2 The semantics underpinning the array of different data The (GD)2 is a dataset of sample points localising genetic European National Forestry Inventories database sources has been systematically harmonised by exploiting the units (populations. the array-based semantics of (Adapted from an image authored by Fredi Bach. In this section. 28 . effects in European forest ecosystems. launched by the Commission of the European species from both the tree layer and the ground vegetation layer was Communities. Bottom: France. Genomics and Evolution (www. even approximate information able to systematically cover these European areas may be essential. Database System. highly uncertain or missing data (::nanless::). some tree formations may not fulfil the definition of forest and thus may be classified differently in the available land cover maps. comprehensive and long-term monitoring of air pollution species. remarkable biotic disturbances (such as some forest pests) may spread also over landscapes with sparse but susceptible trees. resolution of 1 km²/pixel. The complete Forest Focus dataset covers 30 European Countries Pan European Forest Type Map 2006 (FTM) with more than 8 600 sample points. specifically Pine. trees in non- forest areas may be supported by scarcer field observations. 6: Plot density. diagrams and statistics available in the printed semantic constraints43. and society domains. It includes the classes “Broadleaved Forest” and This project was one of a number of demonstration studies “Coniferous Forest”. 46 . (LAEA) for the datasets used: European Forest Inventories (EF). The datasets considered in this Atlas are able either within the natural environment to which they are adapted for supporting a multifaceted ecosystem of uses and customers in to provide records on presence/absence or at least presence only (in situ). policy-making. in order for FISE to offer a continuous FISE is putting an intensive effort toward harmonising the org) of the national focal points for 98 target tree species in 31 delivery of advanced forest research and products (as a “dynamic heterogeneous sources of information on forest-based field European countries. species in approximately 375 000 sample points with a spatial excellence addressing four major disciplines: Ecology. https://archive. forest patches. from which the data used in this project27. but dynamically evolving populations the scientific. a network of (SemAP) paradigm43. However. Although the presence of tree species characterises these examples. Some among the simpler of them are (EUFGIS) version of this FISE Atlas will be further improved with additional exemplified hereinafter with the notation ::constraint::. EUFGIS dataset contains geo-referenced Europe (see also Box 2). all considered as not available information. to provide harmonised soil and forest biodiversity data. including their species will be precious (see Figure 4). https://archive.indd 42 08/04/2016 11:08 . SPOT4/5 and MODIS satellite imagery and Corine Land BioSoil dataset Cover 2006 data.

54 . Right: Another semantic dimension associated with the aforementioned arrays is defined by the numerical values of each array element. based on the datasets of field observations8. For this.e. the array-based semantics of each The GlobCover project in 2010 produced a global land cover map harmonised forest density expects the corresponding geospatial raster layers Autoecology diagrams derived by an automatic and regionally-tuned classification of a time to provide the proportion of forest cover (::proportion::). information on the spatial probability of finding a broadleaved (or coniferous) tree species has been used as C-SMFA statistic constraint to improve the Fig. normalised by the precipitation of the Spatial distribution: the C-SMFA model conditions very dissimilar from all the ones observed for the wettest month) vs. 8: Examples of the array-based semantic constraints. integrate conditions are very similar to those of at least some of the field MHS model. The sampling points are derived from the same datasets which have been used to model the species distribution and the maximum habitat suitability. EGC). the full online version of this chapter. 31 . For producing the chorology maps. The frequency analysis considers multiple spatial scales to account for the different local density of data.g. three pairs of bioclimatic factors: basis for generating the modelled maps and diagrams which Each map is modelled with an innovative methodology • annual average temperature vs. This model supports the generation of high resolution taxon. precipitation patterns must be composed of ::nonnegative:: values. Left: an array of raster layers (e. The field observations are the System and a spatial resolution of 10 degree seconds39. the geospatial semantic array programming probability of presence is a ::proportion:: between 0 and 100 %. solar irradiation. Most of maps are principally based on historical works about the vascular plant chorology by Meusel and Jäger32 . The species chorology: this is the broad range and qualitative spatial distribution of the tree species derived from one or more bibliographic sources. 17. or climatic information on e. two- highlight poor survivability conditions. autoecology diagrams (also known as series of global Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument climate-space diagrams) have been derived for the described Fine Resolution mosaics for the year 2009. for each class estimates the maximum habitat suitability (MHS) of the taxon observed are obtained by means of high-resolution bioclimatic the maximum tree cover percentage was adopted as the potential based on the datasets of field observations as harmonised and geographic factors (e.object of ongoing research . Conversely. In the EGC map the forest classes are suitability maps at the taxon level (1 km2 pixel size). 54 . the integration of continental-scale arrays of geospatial filed observations.)8.e. Source: Daniele de Rigo. autoecology diagrams.g. 46. 8. entire data and information. precipitation. 41 . 55 as cover classes defined with the United Nations Land Cover Classification harmonised within FISE1. This array of factors allows the observed forest cover classes within the C-SMFA model. Maximum habitat suitability: the RDS-MHS model same as those exploited to estimate the coarse-resolution forest The forest cover classes have been extracted from land This model supports the generation of high resolution plot frequency maps.e.indd 43 08/04/2016 11:08 . Chorology and frequency This category of maps summarises two basic pieces of information concerning the species: 1. C-SMFA also supports suitable for the taxon to survive (denoted in the legend as trees to be analysed in their distribution patterns within a statistical resampling and Monte Carlo analysis as enhancement for high survivability areas). In particular. This is the basis for the RDS- more advanced modules . The species frequency over a 50 km square grid (represented by means of dots with variable size): this shows the percentage of species presence related to the amount of sampling points inside the grid. 2. resolution chorology and frequency maps. Each map The local bioclimatic conditions where a given taxon is described through percentage ranges of tree cover. Furthermore. distribution and suitability maps. 41 . Permissible values may vary depending on specific requirements of the particular algorithm and complex semantics constituted a challenging big-data which is expected to operate on the arrays. http://w3id. In these areas. AP. This refers to areas with a Modelling methodology dimensional slices of the bioclimatic space are displayed. In particular. This is due to the semantic role as a statistic constraint of the within FISE1. a consistent semantics) within the heterogeneous array of data and information which is necessary for the diversity of the European continent to be covered. bioclimatic information constituted a challenging big- data problem.. For example. 8. combining the continental-scale arrays of geospatial with different levels of granularity. RDS-MHS estimates the maximum spatial extent • and the seasonal variation of the monthly precipitation (i. In all the tree species chapters where chorology maps are available. Each map is modelled with a spatial frequency analysis of the available field observations. values in [0 1]. (LAEA) for the datasets used: Pan European Forest Type references is provided.e. 25-28. forest cover classes. the distribution of observed trees is visualised against The data and information harmonised in FISE has been the where the taxon is found. lower values To ease the visual interpretation of some patterns. (maximum habitat suitability). presence/absence data constitute a ::binary:: information. 7: Broadleaved and coniferous forest density. annual precipitation. value. As for the distribution maps based on the C-SMFA model. as exploited in the modelling methodology to generate tree species accuracy of the estimation36-39 . ESA GlobCover 2009 (EGC) Map 2006 (FTM). precipitation. observations where the taxon occurs. based on temperature. cover maps (CLC. the precipitation of the driest month. In bioclimatic pattern very dissimilar from all the observed patterns particular. the local bioclimatic multidimensional bioclimatic space. The map also the difference between the total precipitation of the wettest highlights unsuitable areas in Europe: i. 8. the average distribution (relative probability of presence) and suitability based on temperature. Among other constraints. 17. along with their underpinning uncertainty matrix layers and list of matrices. are associated to each tree species/taxon chapter (see chapter following the relative distance similarity approach (RDS-MHS) How to read the Atlas). CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) and ESA GlobCover 2009 (EGC). paradigm (GeoSemAP) has been exploited43. 41 . elevation temperature of the coldest Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 43 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. computed with a spatial grid of 50 km2. in order to improve the overall map quality (constrained spatial multi-scale frequency analysis. areas with bioclimatic and driest month. The number of measured plots per each spatial pixel. The analysis is performed with an innovative modelling methodology designed to preserve a consistent logics and quantitative meaning (i. the detailed list of relevant Fig. In most chapters.g. The elements composing the array may be accessed and denoted Together. from the single element of a given spatial cell (pixel value) up to sparse collection of them. Each map based instead on the average habitat suitability. coarse. while the estimated problem. or bioclimatic input layers to estimate the tree species maximum habitat suitability). This map counts 22 land taxon. Hultén and Fries33 and on the Atlas Florae Europaeae30. This is not as easily obtained with classical approaches Further details on the modelling aspects can be accessed in distribution maps at the taxon level (1 km2 pixel size). similarly addressed with the GeoSemAP approach. it is constrained to have a consistent semantics with an additional array of geospatial information.. where the taxon currently lives or could live. multiple presence/absence raster maps. a heterogeneous collection of references has been gathered and consulted. estimates the relative probability of presence (RPP) of the taxon based on the datasets of field observations as harmonised within the Forest Information System for Europe (FISE)1. It is classified as “Native” (green area) when the species is thought to occur naturally and “Introduced” (orange area) when the species has been historically introduced and is nowadays naturalised.g. C-SMFA)8 . • potential solar irradiation in spring-summer vs. i. In some cases the chorology maps have been derived from the species distribution maps available on the EUFORGEN website34 . range. . 53 . High values represent areas which are highly solar irradiation)8. high-resolution tree species based on high-resolution bioclimatic and geographic factors (e.

Integrated modelling frequently exploits multiple heterogeneous data sources by combining specific data-processing and intermediate derived data as generated from specialised software modules. Coarser spatial resolution of input data may be associated with an intrinsic partial loss of information (e. even the complexity of the underpinning software code increases. The harmonisation process and some of its intrinsic challenges8 may be exemplified considering the dataset derived from NFI data.figshare On the semantics and interpretation of European-wide available presence/absence records In the section “Harmonising presence and presence/absence datasets” of this chapter. 10: Qualitative visualisation of the potential cumulated effect due to the combined uncertainty in modelling. https://dx. NFIs24). finer-resolution details within highly heterogeneous areas such as mountain systems and high-diversity landscapes).doi. The information on the presence at the plot-scale of a given tree species may be useful for assessing the species chorology and the maximum extent of its distribution.doi. In particular. 78 . the areas where field observations have been recorded). Software engineering techniques and good computational science practices may help to mitigate the rise of software uncertainty. This may reverberate in higher final data uncertainty. accurate datasets may be available with detailed annotation on survey methodology. whose cumulated uncertainty depends even on the initial uncertainty of the input data.6084/m9. with growing modelling complexity. This assessment may be performed without additional data-transformations. However. a trade-off exists between increased complexity of models (assuming that this increase is associated with a better approximation of the reality. This increase of the combined data uncertainty may be mitigated with robust modelling techniques (e. https://dx.6084/m9. Since they cannot completely prevent software uncertainty. possibly with a supporting statistical analysis so as to more easily detect outliers.figshare Fig. CC-BY. More complex models might be associated with a higher sensitivity of their estimates to outliers and input uncertainty.g. an overview of available field-observation datasets has been summarised. Source: Daniele de Rigo. software and data. 78) and the resulting increased software complexity.indd 44 08/04/2016 11:08 . since the overall area of those plots can be considered as negligible with respect to the 1 km2 area of the pixel.g. which for some categories of models may be structurally impossible77. CC-BY. sometime with higher prediction errors for new data77. The data used refer to the presence/absence of a given forest tree species with a spatial resolution of 1 km2/pixel brought up into line with an INSPIRE compliant 1 km2 raster grid. 11: Qualitative visualisation of varying trade-offs for different available spatial resolution of input data and information.e. 9: Overly simplistic models may be affected by high modelling uncertainty because too many non-negligible components of the real system are not taken into account by the model. At local. even this qualitative trade-off has been taken into account for adapting the modelling complexity of the discussed maps and diagrams.doi. the underlying information to assign the presence/absence value for a given pixel and a given tree species refers to measures within plot areas belonging to that pixel ( However. regional or national scale. which typically differ from inventory to inventory (e.figshare Fig.6084/m9. software and data uncertainties: a qualitative integrated overview of trade-offs for estimating pan-European forest tree taxa information Fig. between different National Forest Invetories. The uncertainty of each data-transformation is propagated up to the final combined output. Among other aforementioned concepts and criteria. the NFI-derived presence/absence information at pixel level needs to be properly processed to model more advanced statistics than the mere probability to find at least one tree of the given species in the 1 km2. CC-BY.g. Box 2: Modelling. Source: Daniele de Rigo. A qualitative ranking is proposed to simplistically illustrate the different complexity associated to the modelling approaches discussed in this chapter. statistical resampling and robust statistics) which may also contribute to mitigate software uncertainty79-84 . sampling strategy and stratification. 44 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Source: Daniele de Rigo.

 S. S. 2011). quantity estimated in the C-SMFA based maps. M. for Bash version 2. et al. J. European Union. J. European (2003). [74] R. R. I. Journal of Software [10] R. The harmonisation between FTM. EFSA Journal 12. San-Miguel-Ayanz. 334 (2003). Keyal. Out of the ministerial\_conferences/warsaw2007. Union. eds. de Rigo. M. [61] N.. et al. GNU Coding Standards [18] M. The way that “probabilities of either due to anthropic influence or due to natural reasons (e. Fortmann-Roe. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Communications of the ACM Committee and the Committee of the Regions Communication Technology 413. (Landwirtschaftsverlag. Sutter. ECCE ’12 (ACM. Soft Errors in Modern Electronic Systems. J. http://www. [12] Eurostat. Revision 266853 E. de Rigo. Przyborski.products description and validation [52] Ministerial Conference on the Protection [84] R. Wang. Palmieri. Baxter. 2013). T. 669–673. Computational Interdisciplinary Sciences. 2010). A. a set of harmonised land cover maps has been summarised. Fennica Vanario. Baker. Rodriguez-Aseretto.Soil Data Analysis. Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty. genetic resources (2011). (2012).. Sander. et al. de Rigo. The those whose available field observations do not enable a more detailed Array programming allows the code size and its structural complexity Pan-European Forest Type Map 2006 (FTM)36 may serve to better exemplify spatial analysis to be performed). e1001745+ [5] J. 2009). Moreover.Distribution maps pp. Milano. be further modelled by estimating its values for all the tree species whose species frequency within forested areas. Caretta. G. 271 to Ephedraceae) (Committee for Mapping datasets’ multivariate transformations.indd 45 08/04/2016 11:08 . reducing as much as possible the number of modelling approach might help to mitigate the impact of software land cover information. pp. New York. Bohn. H. Europe . Suominen. Soergel. not the pixel one).g. [30] J. http://www. and Engineering. Software Engineering 21. Jalas. The frequently nested and sometime implicitly introduced in apparently simpler probability of finding some tree species (irrespective of which particular A first evident difference between the information conveyed by the two code67. information sharing in plant health (EFSA. I. This binary quantity is a random to further improve the C-SMFA application at pan-European scale. G. demographic changes”.. GotW #20 in Guru of the in Information and Communication Paper (Food and Agriculture Organization Week (1997).5b. (2014). ed. Y. information”. [11] R. Walker. CORINE land cover technical guide . ISSN:1868- Department. Biometrika 69. et al. Commission Staff [19] M. 2553+ [38] G. This QR code points to the full online version. Geophysical Research Abstracts EN-C (Publications Office of the European [26] EUFGIS. de Rigo. Technical Research (Publications Office of on (IEEE. 2011). (Springer Berlin Heidelberg. P. E.. Rome. J. 2013).. with the combined “probability of presence” . unknown average probability of finding the given tree species within a plot by a given species or category of species.. was systematically utilised as constraint in the first set of maps based on species refers to the whole pixel content. blue and into the black . IEEE Earthzine 7. 7475 of Lecture Notes in Computer 549 (2005). 2016. J. L. European Forest Genetic Engineering for Computational Science eds. Seebach. A. Bosco. Italy. Merali. [8] D. the relative probability of presence (RPP) of the same 1 km2 pixel. eds. 16+. et al.. Suominen. I. They have been considered broadleaved (or coniferous) tree species within a negligible area belonging forest inventories may be more easily mitigated with the robust statistical relevant in the wide-scale transdisciplinary modelling here discussed for the to the considered 1 km2 pixel. Karte der natürlichen monitoring database system . (2014). 242 (1982). 395–402. Atlas Florae [43] D. Ciscar. Official Technology 413. H. Proceedings of the 30th Science 2675. Rural Development. [3] European Commission. Global ecological Zones [80] A. Sommerville. http://www. 2011). H. Schaerer. Fries. Within a 1 km2 pixel. 2014 International Conference [13] A. Best practices and specific open issues have been percentage of area in 1 km2 pixel covered by the given tree species (see in summarised. [4] European Food Safety Authority. M. 7309 (2002). S. Bankamp. Scientific (ICAETR). pp. sparse of negligible area belonging to the considered 1 km² pixel. et al. J. Remote Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration (2012). C. de Rigo. J. Tech. European Commission contract No Encyclopedia of Operations Research and 2002. Vergleichende Manuals. Roberts. 1–8. Fu. Esfahani. EUR 23020 EN (Office 2005). summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related methodology. Busetto. et al. [57] S. [28] T. the CORINE Land Cover map 2006 (CLC) areas. Database and Expert [55] D. Baker. Lecture Notes in Computer the commission to the European Parliament. M. 2010). Resources Programme (2016). [25] T. IEEE Earthzine 7. should tend to the value forests and its relative probability of presence The software implementation of nontrivial computational science models assumed in the pixel by the “probability of presence” quantity. Nature 508. coniferous forest or other non-forest errors generated due to assumptions and hypotheses required by intensive considered in an integrated perspective to better design and implement categories. Italy (2015). Balanophoraceae (Committee for Mapping Theory Malek. Statistics Explained (Eurostat. Accurately Measuring colloquium on emerging risks in plant . San-Miguel-Ayanz. G.. [39] S. A. [77] S. pp. Strobl. [42] L. The coarser resolution is associated with to be significantly reduced72. E.Analysis of biodiversity Louvain (UCL) and European Space Agency Conference On The Protection Of Forests module. Forest focus Systems Applications. 56 and Remote Sensing. 3 Salicaceae to 2. Feranec. 61pp. euforgen. B. Off. de Rigo.Scientific and (ESA) (2011). [82] C. J. Therefore. 144pp (2013). 41896+. However. vascular plants (North of the Tropic of Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: [63] G. D. Kemerer. Publications 2014. Gass. European Union 50. Journal of the European Union 1. the Council. Working Document previously defined . J. Datar. EUR . Archived at http:// 15. USA. Houston Durrant. Helsinki. [60] I. Software Systems. Workshop on Data collection and Computational Modelling (2012). other sources of uncertainty should be of the categories broadleaved forest. GotW #74 in Guru of the 4238. We denote this presence” of single tree species can be properly combined together is the woodlands close to the treeline in the mountain systems. 98pp (2013). the European Union. COM Documents Directorate-General for Agriculture and plants in Europe Vol. Caudullo. Geoscience mastrave. 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It grows well on soft soils in which the root system can easily penetrate woolly Ganod currently probably at its maximum post-glacial spread7. hot summers of the previous year. The tree is usually single-stemmed with silver-grey bark. Most chapters deal with a single tree that commonly reaches 30-40 m and is capable of attaining Frequency the va heights up to 50 m in some locations1 . it does not thrive on among sites that are regularly flooded or which have stagnant water. Uncertain. The species frequency over a 50 km square grid (blue where it is not found as a native tree. The root system tends to be shallow. each chapter has been through a revision by scientific experts and includes a comprehensive list of scientific references. beech requires a humid atmosphere with precipitation well distributed throughout the year and a well-drained soil. but could expand year). short teeth at the end of the parallel veins on each side2. with wavy margins and Large beech in a mountain pasture in Piani di Praglia (Genova. which is aimed to be written in an easily accessible style but at the same time Fagus sylvatica scientifically grounded.30% and good workability16 . data at that location. D. It deer is Beech is widespread across Europe: it can be found from Sicily range for F. relatively mature age. are presented at a high-spatial resolution of 1 km. The predominance of beech means a reduction of light level in the CC0) 94 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species Modelled spatial distribution of the species This map represents the relative probability of not enough data available to make any predictions about presence of the species derived from a harmonised the probability of presence. panels. Beech is maps and diagrams concerning: 1) Frequency and Chorology. 14 . sylvatica is derived after Meusel and Jäger. and excellent bending capabilities as “Native” (green area) when the species is thought to Mid-high presence 50% . it is one of the most diversely used tree species in Europe. How to read the Atlas General information This section provides a brief overview on how to understand the information provided in the species chapters present in this Atlas. prefers moderately fertile ground. www. monoecious: the male and female flowers are borne on the same (Copyright Ettore Balocchi. Dark For more details on the data set and modelling green colour means the species is very likely to be found techniques used. data and information on forest tree species” on page but is sensitive to spring frost. The leaves are typically 10 × 7 cm. Sicily) it is only Frequency and Chorology small scattered populations left after the last glaciation. and for this reason cannot drought and moisture availability are limiting factors for the This map summarises two basic pieces of information concerning survive too far north in Scandinavia7. North Italy). see the Atlas chapter “modelling. understorey vegetation level and in that case beech seeds survive they also play a major part in seed dispersal by hiding the seeds better than those of other tree species. It is classified Medium presence 30% . while the pale brown colour signifies a and information on forest tree species” on page 40.) is a large deciduous of the two18 . suitability (Map 3). The bitter edible nuts are sharply so that natural regeneration is possible in silvicultural systems with continuous crown coverage as the seedlings are able to individual trees or more detailed images concerning the bark. but continentality is also associated or volcanic parent rocks. and reproduces very late (40-50 years old).indd 46 08/04/2016 11:08 . although in a few cases the information is presented at < 25% 25% . since trees in southern Europe are able to cope better with species distribution (Map 2) and the maximum habitat drought than those in the north1 . there appears to be some genetic variability across different climatic are derived from the same datasets used to model the zones. 28 . as resistance to rockfall and wind-throw17. furniture. As the climate becomes more continental in the south and east (primarily because of drought). these are coloured pale grey.. 4) branches. sensitive11 and grows on a wide variety of soils with a pH range protec Distribution Frequency of Fagus sylvatica occurrences within the field observations as from 3. dataset of forest field observations made from a The map has been modelled with an innovative number of different surveys and available within the methodology designed to take into account the different Forest Information System for Europe (FISE). The thin bark provides little chorology. the wood is hard and has a pale cream colour Low presence 5% . 3) Maximum Habitat Suitability. musical instruments (piano pinblocks). de Rigo. Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Fagus sylvatica. The beech nuts are an important source of food for several animals survive and grow below the canopy of established trees. While generally showing a noticeable For more details on the datasets and methodology used.50% tree species. importance and usage and The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Houston Durrant. The species chorology: this is the broad range and and knot-free. that contain the species of interest. Owing to the capacity of its root system for assisting in Each chapter starts with a summary and description of the circulation of air throughout the soil.70% make it ideal for boatbuilding. usage and threats obtain species information that is as homogeneous as possible T. Its wood is strong and wears well making it ideal for a wide range the Ca of uses. Beech trees conserve the productive those oppos the species to continue with paragraphs concerning the species capacity of the soil better than many other species. Though not demanding of soil type. Its natural range extends from southern Some Scandinavia to Sicily. It needs a found at elevations of up to 2 000 m1. Fruiting normally occurs Habitat and Ecology Beech is a hardy species. on local soil conditions17. commons. Fine grained 2. Field d Annual precipitation (mm) Technical terms Technical words are presented in this font and are listed in the glossary on page 190 at the end of the Atlas. 18 . Beech furthers soil conservation due to its production of a large quantity of litter (around 900 g/m2 per dots): this shows the percentage of plots inside the grid the Hungarian plain. making it susceptible the eastern parts of Europe it is replaced by oriental beech (Fagus its range into Scandinavia and the Baltic9. flooring. fruits and flowers. Shiny dark green leaves with red galls caused by the fly Mikiola fagi Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. it is able to maintain a high rate of growth until a 50% . It is species has been historically introduced and is nowadays Very-high presence > 90% also used for pulp and can be coppiced for fire wood and charcoal due to its relatively high energetic potential1.10% qualitative spatial distribution of the tree species derived Mid-low presence 10% . for all those species for which sufficient data exist. from furniture to musical instruments. they have been harmonized to Fagus sylvatica in Europe: distribution. naturalised. Its from one or more bibliographic sources. In each chapter there is an extended summary of the current state of knowledge about that species.5. every 5 to 8 years. Caudullo Fag throughout the Atlas. It is a Fagus and fully peer-reviewed) will be published in the online version of large deciduous tree that can maintain its high growth rate until late maturity. mast years (when a very heavy crop is produced). and can even be the side of a hill than at the bottom of a clayey basin. The chorology of the native spatial conditions. It tolerates very shady situations Autoecology. For some regions there were 46 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. woodpigeons. see the chapter “modelling. Its seed production is characterised by irregular (it is the most shade-tolerant broadleaved tree in its range10).flickr. under unfavourable local conditions a relatively shallow root system may make well as a list of the bibliographic sources used to construct the the tree vulnerable to wind-throw1 . 8. distribution. 16 . finally threats and diseases. They have an oval to elliptic shape. “Actual” range Threats and Diseases The root system architecture of beech may vary depending is shown. Therefore. therefore it is found more often on same records indicate that the species has spread across Europe from orientalis). In contrast to many other becau species. stairs. Longitudinally its range is from distribution of beech in Europe. The full version of each chapter (expanded Fagus sylvatica L. and the amount of potash in its leaves. the species: the Cantabrian Mountains in the west to the Carpathians and Balkan with limiting its spread in north-western regions4 . An analysis of pollen also sensitive to late frosts13.50% wear-resistance.75% taxon level (e. as well as for pulp and firewood. dark and shiny > 75% Chorology Native A key contribution of this Atlas is the inclusion of innovative green. no-data Importance and Usage Marginal/no presence < 5% Beech is an important European forestry tree. 8 . Beech shows a moderate soil-acidifying ability12 . circum-Mediterranean firs). veneering and occur naturally and “Introduced” (orange area) when the High presence 70% . and EUFORGEN27. Climate change since it needs good drainage and will not tolerate waterlogged Mountains in the east. With around 250 known usages. plywood. usually following High quality images are also included relative to forest habitat. the Atlas at http://w3id. At the southern part of its range (Spain. although there are some areas in Europe may have impacts on its future distribution. from Spain in the west to northwest Turkey in the east. and its optimal growth is in humid soils situated on calcareous ’red he growing season of at least 140 days. (Diptera Cecidomyiidae). and is normally present at altitudes of more than 1 000 m. is one of the most important and widespread broadleaved trees in Europe. particularly at the 1. although it cannot tolerate the most acidic and gn reported by the National Forest Inventories. low probability of presence. On the contrary. tri-angled and are borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks. and birds including squirrels.5 to 8. High summer temperatures. (Copyright AnRo0002. G.90% cooking utensils such as bowls. In cases where it is not possible to distinguish between the natural and introduced range. CC-BY) 2) Modelled Distribution.wikimedia. It has a typical life span of around 150-300 years. habitat and ecology. The sampling points to drought when compared to coniferous stands15 . habitat. 3 . It is not particularly soil- and failing to retrieve all of them1 . or European beech. woodpeckers and jays. platters and wooden spoons. such as the Po valley and extremes of its range where it is likely to become less competitive in or compacted soils1.g. calcified or lightly acidic and is frosts in the south to Bergen in southern Norway4-6 . It them very s tolerates rigorous winter cold. strength. The maps local densities of the underlying data sets. Although the chapters have been written by a number of different authors.

Di Iorio. www. Distribution map of beech Field data in Europe (including absences) Observed presences in Europe field observations from forest plots. diagrams and text. is closely related to Fagus sylvatica.g. where the most up-to-date content can be found. Grey patches on this page may same as those used to estimate the coarse-resolution precipitation vs. (Koeltz scientific books. solar irradiation and elevation range. gene to landscape. F. Isacsson. 2008). [25] M. Slope Stability and complete list of contributors is at the beginning of the atlas. and showing observations as harmonised within the Forest Information summer solar irradiation vs. Suominen. Forest Ecology and References 1986). Binkley. Off. S. The presence of ty12 . where the most updated content may be freely accessed. Sunesen.g. [20] CABI. competition th Italy). C. Meier. Sum of precipitation of the driest month. Seasonal variation of monthly more climatic conditions. D. Forest Ecology and ges. Images have been carefully selected to help identification/ limatic and Otiorhynchus scaber) is another threat to beech21. The ecology and silviculture of beech: from 369 (2013). Achim. Jäger. even if deliberately planted Autoecology Diagrams In most chapters. make [9] K. In: European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. EFSA Journal 9. see are obtained by means of a number of high-resolution The overall climate space occupied by each of the field the Atlas chapter “modelling. 108 pp. (Springer grained [2] A. [24] A. Atkinson. D. M. cold desert areas).uk: © Crown Copyright) forest trees (CABI. Nicoll. Caudullo.Structure and Salicaceae to Balanophoraceae (Committee Function 21. Oriental beech can be found in the Balkans.. Simonetti. E. Herbivory by short-snouted weevils (Strophosoma melanogrammum Forst. A field guide to the trees of colour Britain and northern Europe (Collins. The maps are presented at a high-spatial resolution of 1 km. in those areas marked “negligible survivability” the species is unlikely to grow. Watschinger. Rothe... Augusto. Beech is rive on among the susceptible hosts to Phytophthora ramorum and Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability. G. High survivability the species is found. Anatolia. Browicks. bioclimatic conditions where a given species is observed variables may also be found. In appearance they are generally Tundra. UK. others consider Uncertain. [10] A. and tend to have more vein-pairs (9-14 as Negligible survivability similar to those of at least some of the field observations where opposed to 5-9)3 . Z. Welander. et al. Plant Systematics and Evolution 162. Low survivability the species occurs.indd 47 08/04/2016 11:08 . EPPO Bulletin 45.euforgen. 1982). QR chapter code and citation information This is an extended summary of the chapter. Goia. G. et al. uations nge10). 213 (2002). Fagus orientalis Dark blue areas represent areas that are highly suitable for the Fagus orientalis. [11] L. A. Its range overlaps with that Mid-low survivability of the European beech and there is frequently hybridisation between the survivability conditions. Annual average the species of interest are coloured blue. darker and less glossy than those of European beech. et al. factors. C. Grimm. J. and can also be damaged through stripping on forest tree species” on page 40. Forest Genetics 2. 273 (2015). Frequency) in combination with high-resolution bioclimatic parameters (e. A. et al. Fang. Stokes. Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 47 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Vols. The CABI encyclopedia of V. Degen. Jalas. Management 190. E. Mermin. I-III. CC-BY) can be found in the chapter “modelling. 233 (2002). Helsinki. due to which may become a more serious problem in the future5 . The full version of this chapter (revised and peer-reviewed) will be published online at https://w3id. J. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143. www. M. scientific experts. Fagus here (in the online version. The local In the online version of the Atlas other combinations of adapted to different conditions. the specific climate niche of that species. EU. Atlas of North European vascular plants (North of the Tropic of Cancer). Oxfordshire. Cheshire. 281 (2004). Šijačić Nikolić. D. Lechowicz. Thomas. Dorren. Invasive Species Compendium. Hemleben. Warszawa. M. 111 (2000). The Images m2 per large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is harmful for beech and eptible r.. orange areas highlight low the Caucasus. In the online version it will additionally be possible to navigate Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 95 through the expanded. Magri. e012b90+. A. [23] G. 161 (1995). B. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. distribution of vascular plants in Europe Vol. data and information on bioclimatic and geographic variables. Alberi d’Europa (A. de Rigo. M. N. Fagus sylvatica namely the areas where the species could potentially occur if climatic conditions and ecological conditions are met. Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised Forest Ecology and Management 297. autoecology diagrams (also known possible combinations of variables is very large and for spot (one for every plot). 1974). M. water. 183 (2005). Detailed information on the data and techniques used survive ly soil- (Copyright Drahkrub. In these areas. be coloured blue in others where different species are forest plot distribution presented in Map 1. Some authorities consider them to be sub-species. commons. A. Darter. The Online European Atlas of Forest Tree Species will be part of the FISE Communications (FISE-Comm): http://w3id. Stanković. data and information H range protection from fire. Old trees (100-1200 years) may suffer areous ’red heart’ which reduces stability and timber value8 . 2006). Mondadori. and extended set of references will be available in the full (Forestry Commission. Berger. K. This QR code points to the full online version. 2. Poznań. Packham. this is Mid-high survivability because the European beech is more susceptible to late frosts12 . Oprea. Barredo. 2213 (2010). Annual average temperature (°C) Potential spring-summer solar irradiation (kWh m-2) Seasonal variation of monthly precipitation (dimensionless) usage and threats. understanding of species. Tardif. Löf. Norris. [18] L. P. More. Fries. no-data species to survive (denoted in the legend as high survivability them to be two separate species1 . Chorology of Annual precipitation (mm) trees and shrubs in south-west Asia and [16] M. Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil) musical [5] R. le Hir. Nonić. Ranger. 22 . Journal of Ecology [17] J. acidic and gnawing by squirrels and other mammals. et al. The online version will be hosted within the newly established Forest Information System for Europe (FISE).forestry. Knežević. [19] J. E. Trees . K. Genetika 45. UK. (Fagus sylvatica) (2008). 1976). Journal of Biogeography 35. [12] L. Key Fact In some chapters there is a supplementary box focusing on some particular aspects of the species or taxon considered (e. Conversely. All the references are sequentially included ourable R. Paule. D. Granier. Its (Collins. 2009). J. ng and (2011). Average temperature of how a given species might be constrained by one or System for Europe (FISE). habitat. D. 17 (2011). adjacent regions. et al.g. It deer is a limiting factor because they eat young stands. [30] K. Plant Systematics and Evolution 232. However. cite as: ola fagi T. Sîrbu. J. 134. Modelled maximum habitat suitability This map represents the Maximum Habitat Suitability of the J. Geßler. Houston Durrant. 123 (2007). fully peer-reviewed version of the chapter having the possibility to download maps. EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) Each chapter has been fully referenced with the most up- [8] T. E. M. Praciak. Baker. [22] M. 100. 1995). E. which has been revised by three iceable Research and Development (COFORD). Forest Ecology and Management 259. A revised [26] T. 450 (2008). 167–210. thus illustrating the described species. Annals of Forest Science 59. Forest Ecology and Management ns. 315 (1989).. Contributii to-date scientific literature. J. [27] H. J. Walthert. E. 2003). D. Rydberg. P. Johnson. notes on the taxonomy of the species or information about a related species). Milovanović. [28] EUFORGEN. Journal of Biogeography 33. Löf. logged large regions across Europe have climatic suitability to this pest. Kaya. Hultén. through the text and listed at the end of the chapter. Potential spring. oriental beech tends to favour pattern very dissimilar from all the observed patterns where the valleys while European beech is found further up the slopes. [7] D. In practice. The correct way to cite this extended summary is also shown Please. from or preferential planting of other species). F. A.wikimedia. northern Iran and Crimea18 . 94 (2013). eds. or oriental beech. The datasets as well as a number of bioclimatic and geographic in the Foliage and fruits of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis). online version of each chapter. Kramer. 1804 (2006). readers will find the correct way to sylvatica and other beeches in Europe: distribution. 2016. Mitchell. I. 2186+ (2015). 3 Average temperature of the coldest month (°C) Sum of precipitation of the driest month (mm) [14] A. T. abilities [4] J. R. Captions also identify the individuals er with References who have provided the image and the relative copyrights. et al. Graf Pannatier. Goldstein. Young beech trees are susceptible to grows woolly aphid. while those plots containing as climate-space diagrams) have been derived for this Atlas we have focussed on three: 1. Publ. Norris. C. Rome. G. Erosion Control: Ecotechnological Solutions. temperature and precipitation). A. the local bioclimatic conditions are very very similar. Stögerer. 3. For more details on the data and modelling aspects. [21] M. pp. The leaves are slightly longer. there markedly coexists with part of its natural niche19-22 .. Atlas Florae Europaeae: [13] L. Collins tree guide ope. Langer. It is harcoal [6] E. These observations are the the coldest month.. This code points to the full online version of the species chapter. It is modelled based on a harmonised and very dense dataset of forest plots available for most of Europe (see Map 1. for Mapping the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Fennica Vanario. I. et al. A guide to forest tree ending species selection and silviculture in Ireland. (National Council for Forest (Bioversity International. Kandemir. it Management 215. E. This refers to areas with a bioclimatic Medium survivability two18 . G. The number of observations on every species is represented by a grey forest tree species” on page 40.. Meusel. 1 (2007). Dahlstrom. T. Zieliński. 2013). C. Where both species are present. cite the full chapter). based on the datasets of field temperature vs Annual precipitation. P. [29] J. Botanice 46. a given species may not be found in all the areas marked “high survivability” for other reasons (e. 1 (Polish Scientific Publishers. [3] O. A [1] J. es little Mature beech forest with autumn colour foliage in Delamere forest. vol. [15] A. mature trees can suffer internal rot by the fungus netrate Ganoderma applanatum. 1557 (2012). The map is modelled with an innovative methodology taking ystems into account the different spatial distributions of the underlying able to es. Spring and is frosts often damage young trees or flowers appearing at the ften on same time as leaves. Horgan.

where it naturally However. 20 . The future preferred with a pH from acid to neutral. the Pyrenees and potentially France. D. silver fir is also used for paper production. G. It is very shade tolerant and can remain as a “seedling bank” Mid-low presence 10% . de Rigo. and Heterobasidion annosum are responsible for butt rot and windthrow. with mean yearly precipitation between 700 and 1800 mm9 . central and conspicuous numbers in the Pyrenees.s. as documented in many tree ring series11 . 14 . silver fir is decreasing as a result of nutrient content and alkalinity conditions except compact and hybridises with the Greek fir (Abies cephalonica) forming stable animal browsing and replacement by Norway spruce (Picea hydromorphic soils. alba is derived after several sources29-31 . usage and threats A. Its future distribution is subject of a debate between palaeoecologists and modellers. It requires relatively high moisture conditions by the National Forest Inventories. while new seedlings are extremely sensitive to frost damage. Its main distribution is concentrated in Central Europe.90% Silver fir is considered an important ecological and functional Very-high presence > 90% balancer of European forests and can serve as a keystone species for maintaining high biodiversity in forested ecosystems9 . During the past decades silver fir Central. With particularly cool and moist habitats this tree can live up to 500- 600 years3. Italy and Ticino and the Eastern Alps. The needles are dark green and glossy on their upper side while the lower side has two silver- green waxy bands of 6-8 rows of stomata. The uppermost part > 75% Chorology of young trees has a conical shape gradually changing to become a Native rounded dome as the tree grows older2 .wikimedia. Mauri. generally in April or May. favouring summer temperatures ranging from approximately 14 °C to 19 °C9 . throughout the year.) is a large evergreen coniferous tree mainly distributed in montane areas in Central Europe. 18 . Flowers only appear after 30 to 40 years. This tree is considered an important ecological and functional balancer of European forests and a fundamental species for maintaining high biodiversity in forested ecosystems. Phytophagous insects such as Mindarus abietinus and Dreyfusia normannianae are often the cause of infections to needles and bark. It is one of the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe. especially in those areas where drought stress is more frequent21 . It often Medium presence 30% . possibly because of increased potential for insect suggest a reduction in response to future expected warming13. This tree is also the most heavily browsed of the commercially important tree species in montane forests of central and southeastern Europe8 .50% invades deciduous forests due to its easy natural regeneration. During the seventeenth century. no-data (Picea abies) or Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) at the upper tree Marginal/no presence < 5% limit1. Some studies noticeable soil-acidifying ability15 . the Balkans. Abies alba Abies alba in Europe: distribution. Distribution Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map for Abies alba. a more economically valuable species12 . The fungi Armillaria mellea agg. and in the Apennines. Stands of silver fir are present was positively responding to climate warming in Central Europe Habitat and Ecology in the Dinaric Alps and are continuously connected towards the and adjacent areas.70% Importance and Usage High presence 70% . Insect pests such as mistletoe and bark beetles have already been responsible for a reduction of silver fir in the Mediterranean.50% straight-stemmed with a silver-grey trunk1 . During the 19th century it was popular as a Christmas tree. in Switzerland. Other insects Map 2: High resolution distribution map estimating the relative probability of presence. on the Suisse plateau and in South and Eastern Concerning its past distribution palaeo evidence suggests Germany as well as in the Czech Republic and Austria. its wood was used to produce ships’ masts. Threats and Diseases Silver fir is particularly susceptible to frost desiccation due to late spring frosts. Unlike the other European natural range. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. but is also Frequency present in Southern and Eastern Europe. and Mediterranean Abies species. Plantations of silver fir are rare outside its distribution of Silver Fir is subject of a debate. The wood is non-resinous. Silver fir tolerates a wide variety of soil types with different Rodopi mountains in Bulgaria and Greece. in particular to sulphur dioxide SO2 exposure during winter19 . the Carpathians and Albania. The essential oils obtained from the leaves were also used in the past to heal bruises as well as for treating coughs and colds1 . Growth is very slow in 50% . which is in agreement with results obtained using biochemical (Copyright Crusier. Southern Alps of Northern southern Italy. fungi and industrial emissions. There are different ice-age refugia of silver fir in northern. This tree is mostly found mixed with Norway spruce Uncertain. The main limiting factors are a lack of summer heat and adequate moisture during the growing season.75% early years. habitat. and can live for up to six or eight years. In the next decades the climate Annual precipitation (mm) of central and southern Europe is predicted to become warmer and somewhat drier22 . it prefers cooler and moister damage in monocultures1 . The fully developed seeds are mainly dispersed by wind.indd 48 08/04/2016 11:08 . It is also very sensitive to fire19.30% under the canopy of older dominant trees for decades. conditions.).l. favouring diseases and plant pests. Mid-high presence 50% . although it has lately been replaced by the cheaper Norway spruce1 . insects. Young tree near Zwardoń village (South Poland). being the first conifer species to appear among them4 . light and fine-grained and also easy to work. Silver fir shows a (Abies x borisii-regis)2 . Silver fir is often distributed on relatively high elevated areas Frequency of Abies alba occurrences within the field observations as reported (500-2000 m a. and then rapid as the tree matures. 48 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. The chorology of the native spatial range for A. At lower altitudes it competes with beech (Fagus Low presence 5% . It is a distinctive tree. while others suggest stable conditions or expansions15. 16 . Deep and moist but not too wet soils are populations of intermediate forms described as Bulgarian firs abies). commons. which makes it a good material for carpentry and furniture. and the buds are red-brown and non-resinous. CC-BY) It is also found more sporadically in Eastern France. < 25% 25% . Caudullo Silver fir (Abies alba Mill. with contrasting climate-response forecasts.) is a large conifer that can be found in central Europe and some parts of Southern and Eastern Europe.10% sylvatica). on the Massif and molecular markers10 . Along with Norway spruce (Picea abies). 4 and reach heights above 60 m4-7 making it among the tallest tree species of the genus Abies in Europe.

. 2010). no-data Tundra. Appenzeller. www. The CABI encyclopedia of 319. Vegetation Ecology of Archaeobotany 15. Nicolotti. L. Average temperature of the coldest month (°C) Sum of precipitation of the driest month (mm) Annual precipitation (mm) This is an extended summary of the chapter. 127 the Environment 12. Forest Ecology and Science 71. 659 (2014). Coll. Ecology. It is also a susceptible host to Dothistroma septosporum and vulnerable to Gremmeniella abietina and Dothistroma septosporum 8. de Rigo. Agroscope and ProClim.. Suominen. G. Ellenberg. where the most updated content may be freely accessed. 2014). Distribution map of silver fir 179 (2014). Giordano.. 419 (2013). [19] W. M. 1973). et al. D. Leuschner. Global Change Biology [30] H. EU. A handbook of the world’s [18] E. [24] R. in Switzerland. vol. Please. Boivin. Oxfordshire. 79–88. (Abies alba) (2011). pp. to Ephedraceae) (Committee for Mapping [17] L. Toward Quantitative . J.. 44 (1988). vol. Qian. Martìnez. 6905 (2014). et al. Barros. 2 Gymnospermae (Pinaceae 2014).org: PD) such as Cinaria pectinatae and Epinotia nigricana are affecting bark and buds2 . 108 (2008). cold desert Negligible survivability Low survivability Mid-low survivability Medium survivability Mid-high survivability High survivability Branches with dark-green needles: leaves have an elliptical insertion but are positioned to avoid shading. Risks of Exotic Forest Pests Proceedings of the National Academy of and Their Impact on Trade (The American Sciences 111. Publ. K. Cailleret. Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen (Verlag Eugen Ulmer. Mauri. Flora d’Italia (Edagricole. D. Vegetation Press. de Rigo.euforgen. Drenkhan. de Andrés. 250 [14] M. Bugmann. Tinner.wikimedia. 28 . Camarero.Band I. 2001). Biogeography 22. 2009). A. 18 (2014). L. FOEN. Augusto. Bowes. usage and threats.indd 49 08/04/2016 11:09 . Caudullo. H. Phytopathological Society. M.. Cailleret. Lauber. Begerow. 2016. Helsinki. Adaptation. European Journal of Forest [5] K. in Europe Vol. II. 1982). [31] J. The Holocene 10. C. Adamson. Thurner. n/a (2015). eds.. H. K. Möhl.-M. commons. Burgess. 151 (2003). Bologna. I. Silver fir is vulnerable to Ips typographus which is also associated to potentially harmful fungal assemblages24-26 . [29] EUFORGEN. Off. 1403 (2001).. Büntgen. Bern. Meusel. www. Oberwinkler. G. Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Conservation. M. Ellenberg. (Copyright IKB. Surgery. Atlas Florae Autoecology diagrams based on harmonised eds. Kirschner. (Copyright Vassil. Vergleichende Erect maturing seed cones on a branch. Management 181. habitat. Houston Durrant. Abies alba in Europe: distribution. G. Scholz. M. References [1] A. I. p. Luxembourg. J. Part B: Regional Aspects. (OCCR. et al. S. B. Pathology 18. 25 (2010). UK. III (Gustav Fischer Verlag.wikimedia. X. Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants Field data in Europe (including absences) Observed presences in Europe field observations from forest plots. [9] W. Heurich. et al. Ecological Monographs Mycological Research 105. Suter. H. et al. Gell-Mann. [27] R.. Central Europe (Cambridge University [21] J. H. Ranger. [15] M. Trees and Forests: A Colour Impacts. [22] V. Maiorano. (2000). J. F. (Eds. [23] M. et al. Mycological Progress 12. Gonthier. Ruosch. Climate Change 2014: [6] B. 1998). 2010). Pathology. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Annals of Forest Science 59. Map 3: High resolution map estimating the maximum habitat suitability. 233 (2002). (2013). 25. T. D. 27.. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz.).. 100 (2014). Scientific Topics Focus 2. The purpose of this summary is to provide an accessible dissemination of the related main topics. fourth edn.. A. Old cones do not fall but Dark-grey bark of a mature tree with fissured plates. Abies alba Uncertain. M. Jürimaa. F. (Copyright Crusier. Forest Pathology 44.. forest trees (CABI. Farjon. Propagation.. Vegetation History and [4] H. Vegetation History and mri10a15+ (2016). Pignatti. de CC-BY) [16] H. Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora remain and disintegrate on the tree. Annals of Forest [8] J. Forest Ecology and Management [2] A.. C. [13] L. C2SM. Wagner. D. e01493b+ Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 49 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Annual average temperature (°C) Potential spring-summer solar irradiation (kWh m-2) Seasonal variation of monthly precipitation (dimensionless) European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. commons. Hanel. MeteoSwiss. Switzerland. conifers (Brill. 435 (2006). [11] U. [26] L.. et al. 113 (2014). Praciak. Wagner. Leiden. G. Fennica Vanamo.. 565 [3] S. Contribution of Silviculture. Garbelotto. G. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University [7] H. A. [12] AP) Scenarios of Climate Change Impacts Jena. [25] D. (2014). Nageleisen. 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habit and dimensions. Abies pinsapo var. pinsapo). www. The Abies section comprises fir Fir wood is appreciated because it is easy to work with and species distributed in the Centre-North of the Mediterranean Basin: Abies aesthetically pleasant. Reddish pollen cones of Spanish fir (Abies pinsapo var. nordmanniana is (Turkish fir). 31 . (Copyright weisserstier. due to its soft and light structure. botanic. A. Abies cilicica. Abies pinsapo. Great importance is given to their preservation. 23. A. with the creation of protected reserves and conservation programmes. cephalonica has a widespread distribution. nordmanniana is a popular Christmas tree because indoors the South-West of the Mediterranean basin: Abies pinsapo var. cilicica still suffer from barriers. & utilized locally for many purposes.) Mattei (Sicilian fir). Some authors consider this latter as a separate species Abies particularly appreciated for its potential large sized and regular equi-trojani or as a hybrid Abies x equi-trojani between Abies cephalonica timbers10. generally the circum-Mediterranean firs occur in mountain reserves. 7. 11-18. cephalonica. Pollen 5 cones are clustered along the undersides of the current year’s twigs. cedars (Cedrus spp. A. nordmanniana subsp. composed 5 Abies alba of short and horizontal branches regularly spaced. Abies cilicica Ant. A. A. Thanks to their aptitude to inter-species breeding. In Turkey they are still exploited to their genetic characters. Map 1: Plot distribution and simplified chorology map. Even alba Mill. particularly in regard (Abies nordmanniana). equi-trojani stands are grows in the western Rif Mountains in northern Morocco. perhaps as a consequence of late speciation during the late Quaternary. Diverse genetic conservation strategies with fragmented and limited distributions. Circum-Mediterranean firs are evergreen conifers from medium (25 m in height for Abies numidica) to large size (up to 1 Abies pinsapo var. Chorology of the native spatial range for the Circum-Mediterranean firs. yellow-grey (A. (Bulgarian fir). distribution areas of A. In these protected areas habitats at altitudes of above 400 m. while A. cilicica) or reddish purplish (A. Macedonia.). and Jalas and Suominen17. numidica is Boiss. marocana (Trab. genetic and micro-morphometric studies have recently modified but grow best on deeper acid soils with high water reserves. A. having fostered differentiations and local adaptations. veneer and plywood. separated by geographical Sterea Ellas and the Ionian Islands. mature trees can tolerate long drought periods. subspecies. pinsapo). They develop in different parental materials. nordmanniana upward (Abies cephalonica.) Cebalos & Bolaño sometimes planted in hedges as it takes trimming well10.) and have evolved. 19. Kotschy Carriére (Syrian fir). 15. urban pressure with ongoing cutting in marginal rural areas for provinces of Malaga and Granada. 18. A. pinsapo var. A. Circum-Mediterranean firs occur stands (national or local parks and reserve) with the conservation principally in mountain areas with medium to high precipitations rates which are mostly concentrated during the winter of genetic resources outside their natural habitats (plantations. numidica. native to West Caucasus and the mountains of North-East Turkey Habitat and Ecology Actually. Around the Mediterranean basin firs now habitat. However. Since (Moroccan fir) and Abies numidica de Lannoy ex Carrière (Algerian fir)8-10 . with rounded scales 2 3 which present hidden (A. up to 2 400 m for A. nordmanniana. 33 . The needles 6 Abies x borisii-regis are spirally arranged.). linear. nordmanniana. 1 4 7 10 resinous. 6 A. pinsapo occurs in South Spain in the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula in Bulgaria. A. circum-Mediterranean firs do not have a wide commercial interest. alba and A. subsp. Albania and Serbia. 25-28 . orchards and conservation of genetic material in vitro and with In the past firs have been extensively logged for construction and fire wood and their stands were replaced by other more cryopreservation30. the difficulty of access and the unsuitability for farming of lands and South Turkey. period. but is best below a level of cover which limits the easy to distinguish between them5 . like spruce (Picea abies). Later. Abies Abies – Circum-Mediterranean firs in Europe: distribution. commons. for nordmanniana (Caucasian fir) and Abies nordmanniana subsp. sometimes is a major CC-BY) 50 European Atlas of Forest Tree Species | Tree species JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. and Abies nordmanniana. numidica). it has been alba. Cones are ovoid to cylindrical. except for silver fir (Abies alba). x borisii-regis grows in the fragmented and degraded forests of A. When well Circum-Mediterranean firs have been historically classified on the base established. equi-trojani forms Except for A. from a common Tertiary ancestor. habitat. A. Abies cephalonica Loudon (Greek fir). probably due to Kabylia region of Algeria. A. white to light Derived after Alizoti et al. bornmuelleriana. the genus Abies is classified in 10 sections. Disjunct fir populations of the subspecies equi- some firs have been used for selecting hybrids and cultivars with trojani in North-West CC-BY) A. complementing the protection of natural easily hybridise. They are located in humid or even very humid climates with an annual precipitation over 700-800 mm. Seeds are held in a membranous winged cup. Threats and Diseases pure stands on mountains in western Anatolia near to the Aegean In the past. adaptation processes of firs30 . A. Wood is soft. A. 31). Peloponnesus. have led to the emergence of many species. pinsapo var. alba. paleo- suffer spring frosts. pinsapo over 60 m in height for Abies alba and Abies nordmanniana). cilicica occurs in North Syria. The species are able to tolerate long droughts in summer and tend to form pure stands when in optimal habitats. their classification1-4 . marocana the Republic of Macedonia. from 5 to 20 mm long. Taxonomic notes concentrated principally during the winter period20-22 . The stem is straight. and are widely have led some authors to recognise the subspecies Abies nordmanniana planted as ornamental trees in garden and parks. and the wood is widely utilized in the building sector. livestock grazing and genetic drift represent actually their main threats. Lebanon in the north-central part of Sicily9. alba. of which two include Importance and Usage the circum-Mediterranean fir species. cilicica) or protruding bracts (A. pinsapo has never been extensively felled. which junipers (Juniperus spp. pines and cedars. cephalonica. (silver fir). it for agricultural purposes was the main threat. overlapping the fuel wood.). are still exploited for which two subspecies are recognised: Abies nordmanniana subsp. In Lebanon and Syria as relict and endemic populations.wikimedia.)12-16. Tinner interest and due to the twisted to point 9 Abies nordmanniana subsp. marocana19 . Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana) is one of the tallest European trees. brown-reddish. tan. which often becomes 3 Abies numidica 4 Abies nebrodensis flattened or rounded in old trees. A. 2 Abies pinsapo var. most of the circum-Mediterranean firs have no wide commercial growing over 60 m tall. firs expanded and contracted Mediterranean firs commonly form pure stands in their optimal following the glacial cycles. radially perpendicular and brush-like 7 Abies cephalonica 8 Abies nordmanniana subsp. (Spanish fir). in many countries the most endangered fir forests along the Black Sea. equi-trojani furniture manufacture. pines (Pinus spp. Circum. deciduous and evergreen of the geological and climatic history of the Mediterranean region where firs oaks (Quercus spp. 13. which may be relevant for future for timber wood. Caudullo. Unlike others. nordmanniana subsp. pinsapo. Similarly. A. bornmuelleriana. Actually. 8 A. which is a hybrid of Abies cephalonica and Abies woods. In fact these firs are closely related genetically Natural regeneration is normally abundant and easy inside their and they can easily hybridise naturally and artificially. nordmanniana. nordmanniana. Nowadays with the exception of silver fir and Caucasian fir attention under global warming conditions.indd 50 08/04/2016 11:09 . 24 . fir species with a limited distribution area32 . with two white bands of stomata 9 beneath. The Piceaster section comprises fir species distributed in A. with little difference between sapwood and heartwood 8-10 . nordmanniana has a wider range and is occupied by those firs34 . which limit human activities. nordmanniana) or 10 Abies cilicica pectinate in two lateral sets (Abies alba). Southern fir populations deserve special disturbance adapted species or converted into rural areas. and varieties6. equi-trojani (Abies nebrodensis. so that it is not habitat range. while at the borders they can be mixed with other tree occupy fragmented and sometimes limited areas. The speciation probably occurred risk of late frost damage and water transpiration losses. which can be found also at sea are regulated by conservation laws and protected in natural level. A. They are from 1 to 4 cm long. numidica occupies an area on Mounts Babor and Talahor in the forms only a small population located in the Madonie Mountains A. nebrodensis. W. (Copyright MPF. and Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach. Abies nebrodensis (Lojac. For example. A. They all are genetically closely related and can have been elaborated. x borisii-regis. while other firs have an ornamental use in gardening. A. A. numidica. especially for those Today most of these fir species are segregated in small areas occurs in the Regions of Espiros. cilicica and A. Abies x borisii- if its quality is mediocre compared with other more valuable regis Mattf. deforestation due to logging and forest clearance Distribution Sea. This is largely the result species. endemism and geographically scattered distribution. globular or conic. pinsapo var. reddish or dark brown at maturity. which show minor morphological differences. usage and threats G. their preservation as genetic resources Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region. especially to those populations which have very limited areas and specimens. marocana with columnar trunk and conical crown. sometimes considered as separated species Abies pinsapo is particularly appreciated for their brush-shape twigs. pinsapo young plants keep their needles longer and A. cephalonica. nebrodensis more threatened by tourism development10. such as beech (Fagus spp. flattened. but of macro-morphological and anatomical differences. northern Greece. 29 . nebrodensis). A. Today A. Wild fires. rounded or more or less notched at the apex. particular foliage colours. where abundant. A.

J. This is an extended summary of the chapter. Sevilla. mature trees which are protected by fences. Klaehn.. When severe. [17] J. 2016. (2010). Corona. Gardner. Knees. pp. [5] F. Ulus. due to the harsh summer conditions and the International Journal Dealing with all Forestry 28. Schütt. Aguado. The IUCN Red List of Tech. E. European Commission. Vendramin. P. Arbez. D. Liepelt. cite as: Caudullo. Khuri. [22] L. e015be7+ Tree species | European Atlas of Forest Tree Species 51 JRC_EFDAC_forest_atlas. Holz als Roh- On the other hand.. pp. trees14 . [35] M. 2012). A. 419 (2013). Off. pp. P. [19] G. Syrian fir forest (Abies cilicica) in Western Taurus Mountains (South Turkey). Knees. Tinner. S. M. Biologìa del pinsapo (Consejerìa de Medio [2] S. 151 (1990). PLoS ONE 9. [30] J. Fennica Vanamo. Linares. Farjon. Abies accidental fires represent the major cause of forest loss. Publ. counting a population of just 24 mature B. R. D. cephalonica needs to be genetically [6] J. Oecologia 164. Forest Pathology 37. Talavera. et al. (2011). 4 of Sustainable may represent another important factor weakening populations occur influenced by a change toward a warming climate 11 . Mauri. Thomas. D. www. Loisel. The gymnosperm database Biotechnology and Biodiversity. Häggman. (Eds. L. Fady. which naturally co-exists in the The Complete Reference (Timber Press. B. 162 (1992). EU. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 292. cilicica stands livestock grazing is still one of the main threats13. S. E. E. Bonin. Weisgerber. J. plants:Conserving Europe’s threatened 2008). Houston Durrant. G. used in the past for plantations. Mayland-Quellhorst. 2010). A. [39] J. Quézel. Seyidoglu Akdeniz. 30320/0+. Hafizoglu. Prada. 276 (2010). J. pp. Ziegenhagen. [20] W. H. Ecological Monographs Ochoa. G. Filer. et al. The IUCN 24 of Managing Forest Ecosystems. Threatened Species (2013). R. pp. EUFORGEN technical Biogeography. A. This fir is under an extensive conservation programme Evolution 284.. rise to a low genetic flow and therefore genetic diversity. S. L. damaging seedlings and young shoots of juvenile plants and limiting forest regeneration. the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Arianoutsou. M. Threatened Species (2011). 257–291. 42275/0+. pp. A handbook of the world’s Development and Biodiversity. 38. 33 . Journal of Forestry Faculty of and their hybrid A. Holmbom. 242 (2012). (Springer International Publishing. N. pinsapo has seen an increase in attacks of the root rot fungus Heterobasidion spp.. However. B. G. Gardner. V. G.Biogeosciences and Forestry 5. E. firs in Europe: distribution. C. C. M. Tinner. Linares. Cheddadi. Kastamonu University 12. Zurayk. Sękiewicz. (Copyright Verollanos93. 2014). Awad. Yahi. x borisii-regis. et al. [10] A. Threatened Species (2013). locally and abroad for its protection. 1 (2004). Conservation 97. Goat and cattle grazing activity can be particularly destructive when intensive. which from wetter conditions. but in some isolated A..). M. Gardner. such as A. An Atlas of the World’s [31] P. pp. 1973). 2008). M. Now in most fir forests pasturing continues under control. Journal of Biogeography 38. D. G. usage and threats..An entirely successful. Kuhlenkamp. Junta de Andalucìa. use of mediterranean firs (abies spp. Abies . Krajňáková. eds. Daskalakou. S. Herrera. 16. Esteban. de Palacios. F. Annals of Forest Science 59. A. J. 130 (1962). Bioversity International (2011). 34-37. 39 (2007). Europaeae: distribution of vascular plants [37] M. Silvae Genetica 54. Conifers of the World: [29] A. et al. pp.indd 51 08/04/2016 11:09 . Conifers: An Analysis of their Distribution. wild fires can destroy entire stands and degrade the habitat. Firs are particularly sensitive to excessive (anthropogenic) fire disturbance. Raynal. which is currently one of the rarest conifer Liepelt. [33] S. 39 . This is the case [1] B. Lahme. The IUCN Red List of Vegetatio 87. P. Gardner. 273 (1995). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and [4] K. 131 (2001). Plant Biosystems . cephalonica distribution. University PD) other fir species. Ambiente.. Talhouk. Ziegenhagen. K. a. T. J. B. Caudullo. Fady. Trees 6. F. J. [12] M. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. habitat. Post-Fire in Europe Vol. e90086 (2014). U. Schuck. Khater. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [36] P. W.. 7. Alizoti. [27] H. Red List of Threatened Species (2011). G. D. x borisii-regis ingression may (2015). García Esteban. D. Taxon 56. G. The total Sicilian fir (Abies nebrodensis) population counts 24 619 (2011). J. Ahuja. M. Gömöry. Forests degraded by fire and grazing activity are more susceptible to pathogens. B. V. Knees. protected.. Please. nebrodensis. P.. Fady. [38] M. The isolation of populations due to fragmentation could give northern part of A.conifers. de Palacios. 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70% for blossoms before leaves appear9 . 3 . The leaf is simple. Across its principally causing damage on young seedling in nurseries. (Copyright Wendy Cutler. Isolated occurrences can be found in temperature extremes of continental sites. and it is rare in coniferous forests2. in the on the distribution of the species1. no-data The scientific name Acer campestre. rather smooth and hard but with shallow 25% . at least one year. flowering usually starts in late April. pairs. www. warmer climates but it can also be winter hardy and tolerate the Greece and northern Turkey.30% important element of the landscape4 . forming part of temperate mixed deciduous forests as a tolerant during the first decade. Its wood is used 100 years and it is very tolerant of cutting and grazing of shoots. It is also appreciated as an ornamental plant for its flowers and coloured foliage in autumn. produced in coppiced mixed forests. 4 . The wood is white. but also grows well on heavy clay and is able to subsist on soils Field maple (Acer campestre L. bole is sinuous and Native with species of genera such as Quercus. scrub Medium presence 30% . Ulmus and the branch ends droop. typically reaching 15 m it is often a subdominant species in many plant communities. Sicily. campestre is derived after EUFORGEN15 . commons. There are few serious diseases affecting the field maple. probably originates from Italy. G. It prefers England. although it distribution of field maple covers most of Europe: the latitudinal is more common in mesophile stands. exfoliating in small flakes when older2 . Together with elms. D. It can