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PHILIPPINE'BUSINESS'BANK'v'CHUA'

FACTS:'
1. Tomas( Tan,( a( stockholder( of( CST( filed( a( derivative( suit( for( the(
Unenforceability(of(Promissory(Notes(and(Mortgage,(SecCert(with(the(Prayer(
for(the(issuance(of(a(TRO(against(Philippine(Business(Bank(with(the(RTC.(
Tan,(before(he(went(for(abroad(for(a(medical(treatment,(he(turned(over(
to(respondent,(Chua,(director(and(president(of(CST,(the(original(copies(
of(TCT(of(lands(owned(by(CST.(
Chua( informed( Tan( that( CSTs( properties( had( been( fraudulently( used(
as(collateral(for(loans(taken(out(in(CTSs(name.(
A( certain( Atty.( Soriano( had( issued( a( SecCert( which( stated( that( John(
Chua(was(authorized(to(open(a(bank(account(and(obtain(credit(facilities(
under(the(name(of(CST(with(PBB(and(used(as(collateral(the(properties(
of(CST.(
CST(obtained(a(loan(for(P91M.(
Chua(signed(as(coJmaker(with(John(Chua(who(signed(as(representative(
of(CST.(
2. PBB(threatened(to(foreclose(the(mortgage(after(CST(defaulted.(
3. Tan(filed(this(present(case(arguing(that(the(promissory(notes(and(mortgages(
were( unenforceable( against( CST( it( being( entered( by( person( who( are(
unauthorized(to(bind(the(company.((
4. On(the(other(hand,(PBB(claimed(that(the(loan(and(mortgage(were(valid(since(
it(was(supported(by(a(duly(accomplished(SecCert.(
5. Respondent(Chua(denied(the(allegations(
Nevertheless( he( admitted( that( he( signed( as( coJmaker,( 6( promissory(
notes( covering( the( loans( obtained( by( John( Dennis( Chua( with( PBB.( He(
executed( these( promissory( notes( after( the( loans( had( already( been(
consummated.(
This( was( done( in( order( to( persuade( John( Chua( to( pay( off( the(
unauthorized(loan(and(retrieve(from(PBB(the(CST(Titles.(
6. PBB(filed(a(Motion(for(Partial(Summary(Judgment(under(Section(1,(Rule(35,(
claiming( that( since( Chua( had( already( admitted( the( execution( of( the(
promissory(notes(in(favor(of(PBB,(in(so(far(as(its(crossJclaim(against(him(was(
concerned,(there(was(no(genuine(issue(on(any(material(fact(on(the(issue(of(his(
liability(to(PBB.(Thus,(he(is(liable(as(an(accommodation(party.(
7. RTC'issued'a'partial'summary'judgment(finding(respondent(Chua(liable(as(
signing(as(a(coJmaker.(
8. Chua( appealed( to( the( RTC( but( the( RTC( ruled( that( he( cannot( file( a( notice( of(
appeal,( instead,( he( should( file( a( special( civil( action( for( certiorari.( However,(
the( period( had( already( lapsed.( Thus,( the( partial( summary( judgment( had(
become(final(and(executory.(
9. Upon( appeal,( Chua( questioned( the( propriety( of( the( partial( summary(
judgment.(He(alleged(that(RTC(erred(in(disallowing(his(appeal(of(the(partial(
summary(judgment(and(the(issuance(of(the(writ(of(execution.(
10. CAs'decision:(
Held(that(Chua(cannot(appeal(the(partial(summary(judgment(while(the(
main(case(remained(pending.(
RTC( erred( when( it( held( that( the( partial( summary( judgment( had(
become( final( and( executor( when( Chua( failed( to( avail( of( the( proper(
remedy(of(certiorari(within(the(60(day(reglementary(period.(
o Since( a( partial( summary( judgment( does( not( finally( dispose( of(
the(action,(it(is(merely(an(interlocutory,(not(a(final,(order.(Thus,(
it(could(not(attain(finality.(
CA(declared(the(writ(of(execution(to(be(void.(
11. Hence,(this(petition.(
(
ISSUE:'W/N'a'partial'summary'judgment'is'final'and'executory'or'appealable'
judgment'
HELD:'NO.''The'rendition'by'the'court'of'a'summary'judgment'does'not'always'
result' in' the' full' adjudication' of' all' the' issues' raised' in' a' case.' This' is' in' the'
nature'of''a'partial'summary'judgment.'
'
1. A( careful( reading( of( Section( 4,( Rule( 35,( reveals( that( a( partial( summary(
judgment(was(never(intended(to(be(a(final(judgment(as(it(does(not(put(an(end(
to(an(action(at(law(by(declaring(that(the(plaintiff(either(has(or(has(not(entitled(
himself(to(recover(the(remedy(he(sues(for.((
The( Rules( provide( for( a( partial( summary( judgment( as( a( means( to(
simplify( the( trial( process( by( allowing( the( court( to( focus( the( trial( only(
on(the(assailed(facts,(considering(as(established(those(facts(which(are(
not(in(dispute.(
After(this(sifting(process,(the(court(is(instructed(to(issue(an(order,(the(
partial(summary(judgment,(which(specifies(the(disputed(facts(that(have(
to( be( settled( in( the( course( of( trial.( In( this( way,( the( partial( summary(
judgment(is(more(akin(to(a(record(of(preJtrial,(an(interlocutory(order,(
rather(than(a(final(judgment(
o INTERLOCUTORY(ORDER(V(FINAL(JUDGMENT(
! Final( judgmentJ( what( that( finally( disposes( of( a( case(
leaving( nothing( more( to( be( done( by( the( Court.( It( is(
appealable(
! Interlocutory( OrderJOrder( that( does( not( finally( dispose(
of( the( case,( and( does( not( end( the( Courts( task( of(
adjudicating( the( parties( contentions( and( determining(
their( rights( and( liabilities.( It( is( not( appealable( except(
only( as( part( of( an( appeal( that( ay( eventually( be( taken(
from(the(final(judgment(rendered(in(the(case.((
2. The(partial(summary(judgment(under(the(Rules(is(an(interlocutory(order(that(
was( never( meant( to( be( treated( separately( from( the( main( case.( A( partial(
summary(judgment(is(not(a(final(or(appealable(judgment.(It(is(merely(a(preJ
trial(adjudication(that(said(issues(in(the(case(shall(be(deemed(established(for(
the(trial(of(the(case.((
What( the( rules( contemplate( is( that( the( appeal( from( the( partial(
summary( judgment( shall( be( taken( together( with( the( judgment( that(
may( be( rendered( in( the( entire( case( after( a( trial( is( conducted( on( the(
material(facts(on(which(a(substantial(controversy(exists.([Taken(in(the(
case(of((Gueverra](
3. APPLICATION(IN(THE(CASE(AT(BAR(
PBB( asserts( that( the( doctrine( laid( down( in( the( Gueverra( case( is( not(
applicable( in( this( case.( In( the( case( of( Guevarra,( the( partial( summary(
judgment(decided(only(some(of(the(causes(of(action(presented.(On(the(
other(hand,(in(this(case,(in(so(far(as(their(crossJclaim(regarding(Chua(is(
concerned,( the( partial( summary( judgment( is( full( and( complete.(
Whatever(the(Court(may(decide(regarding(the(main(case,(this(will(not(
affect( the( liability( of( respondent( Chua( as( a( solidary( debtor( in( the(
promissory(note.(
The(SC(did(not(agree(to(PBBs(contention(.(
o This( partial( summary( judgment( did( not( dispose( of( the( case( as( the(
main( issues( raised( in( plaintiff( Tomas( TanEs( complaint,( i.e.,( the(
validity( of( the( secretarys( certificate( which( authorized( John( Dennis(
Chua( to( take( out( loans,( and( execute( promissory( notes( and(
mortgages( for( and( on( behalf( of( CST,( as( well( as( the( validity( of( the(
resultant( promissory( notes( and( mortgage( executed( for( and( on(
behalf(of(CST,(remained(unresolved.(
o Chua(shares(common(interest(with(coJdefendantJdebtors(
o On( its( face,( the( promissory( notes( were( executed( by( John( Dennis(
Chua( in( two( capacitiesas( the( alleged( representative( of( CST,( and( in(
his( personal( capacity.( Thus,( while( there( can( be( no( question( as( to(
respondent( Chuas( liability( to( PBB( (since( he( already( admitted( to(
executing( these( promissory( notes( as( a( coJmaker),( still,( the( court( a(
quos( findings( on:( (a)( whether( John( Dennis( Chua( was( properly(
authorized(to(sign(these(promissory(notes(on(behalf(of(CST,(and((b)(
whether( John( Dennis( Chua( actually( signed( these( promissory( notes(
in( his( personal( capacity,( would( certainly( have( the( effect( of(
determining(whether(respondent(Chua(has(the(right(to(go(after(CST(
and/or( John( Dennis( Chua( for( reimbursement( on( any( payment( he(
makes(on(these(promissory(notes(
o In( other( words,( PBB( has( a( common( cause( of( action( against(
respondent(Chua(with(his(alleged(coJdebtors,(John(Dennis(Chua(and(
CST,( it( would( simply( not( be( proper( to( treat( respondent( Chua(
separately(from(his(coJdebtors.(
o If( the( TC( truly( intended( to( treat( PBBs( cross( claim( against( Chua(
separately,(it(could(have(ordered(a(separate(trial.(
o Also,(PBB(in(their(Motion(to(Disallow(Appeal,(already(admitted(that(
the(partial(summary(judgment(is(not(a(judgment(or(final(order(that(
finally(dispose(of(the(case.(
(
(
(
(