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# Introduction :

## Concentration of solution is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. A

concentrated solution contains relatively large quantity of solute in a given amount of
solvent. Dilute solutions contain relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent. There
are 2 specifics term to express concentration, which is molaroty and percent by mass.

## Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.

(Equation 1-1)

moles of solute
Molarity=
liter of solution

Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution
(Equation 1-2)
grams of solute
Percent solute= x 100
grams of solution

Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid. The molecular formula for acetic acid is
CH3 COOH . Both molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in a vinegar solution can
be determine by performing a titration. A titration is a process in which small increments of
a solution of known concentration are added to a specific volume of a solution of unknown
concentration until the stoichiometry for that reaction is attained. Knowing the quantity of
the known solution required to complete the titration, calculation of the unknown solution
can be done. The purpose of titration is to determined the equivalance point of the reaction.
The equivalance point is reach when the added quantity of one reactant is the exact amount
necessary for stoichiometric reaction with another reactant.

Objective :
To determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar
by titration with the standardized sodium hydroxide solution.

Apparatus :
Burette, pH electrode, volumetric pipette, 250 mL beaker.
Theory :
In the titration process, a burette is used to dispense a small, quantifiable increment of
solution of known concentration (Figure 1.1). A typical burette has the smallest calibration
unit of 1.0 mL (Figure 1.2), therefore, volume dispense from the burette should be
estimated to the nearest 0.01 mL.

Methodology :

## Part A : Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution.

1. 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution from NaOH solid is
prepared. The solution is prepared in a beaker. The calculation is checked and
recorded.
2. 250 mL beaker is weight and the mass is recorded to the nearest 0.001g. The mass
of KHP is calculated by difference and the data is recorded.
3. This solution is tritated with NaOH and the pH is recorded with every 1 mL
4. Steps 1 to 3 is repeated to standardized the NaOH solution.
5. The graph of pH versus NaOH is plotted. From the plots, the volume of NaOH
required to neutralize the KHP solution in each titration is determined.
6. The molarity of sodium hydroxide for titration 1 and 2 is calculated.
7. The average molarity of sodium hydroxide solution for titration 1 and 2 is
calculated. The resulting sodium hydroxide concentration is used in part B of the
experiment.

## Part B : Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar.

1. 10.00 mL of vinegar is transfered to a clean, dry 250 mL beaker using a 10 mL
volumetric pipette. Sufficient amount of water, 75 to 100 mL, is added to cover the
pH electrode tip during the titration.
2. 1 mL of NaOH is added to the vinegar solution and the pH is recorded.
3. The above steps are repeated.
4. The graph of pH vs volume NaOH added is plotted. From the plots, the volume of
NaOH required to neutralized vinegar in each titration is determined. The data is
recorded.
5. The molarity of acetic acid in vinegar for titration 1 and 2 is calculated.
6. The average molarity of acetic acid in each titration is calculated.
7. The percent by mass of acetic acid by vinegar for titration 1 and 2 is calculated.
8. The percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar is calculated.

Results :
1.
Titration 1 Titration 2
Mass of beaker (g) 94.080 94.076
Mass of beaker + KHP (g) 95.580 95.576
Mass of KHP (g) 1.5 1.5
Volume of NaOH to neutralize 12.5 12.5
the KHP solution (mL)

## 2. Table of neutralization of vinegar.

Volume of NaOH required to pH value
Titration 1 Titration 2
neutralize vinegar
0.00 4.20 4.13
1.00 4.25 4.25
2.00 4.41 4.42
3.00 4.60 4.58
4.00 4.64 4.70
5.00 4.86 4.83
6.00 4.99 4.94
7.00 5.16 5.07
8.00 5.18 5.20
9.00 5.31 5.34
10.00 5.47 5.50
11.00 5.72 5.75
12.00 6.01 6.14
13.00 9.49 10.94
14.00 11.72 11.78
15.00 12.04 12.05
16.00 12.20 12.17
17.00 12.29 12.27
18.00 12.35 12.33
19.00 12.40 12.39
3. Table of standardization of sodium hydroxide solution.
Volume of NaOH added (mL) pH value
Titration 1 Titration 2
0.00 2.92 2.96
1.00 3.43 3.45
2.00 3.73 3.76
3.00 3.92 3.97
4.00 4.07 4.12
5.00 4.19 4.25
6.00 4.31 4.36
7.00 4.42 4.47
8.00 4.52 4.59
9.00 4.61 4.66
10.00 4.72 4.75
11.00 4.82 4.87
12.00 4.92 4.96
13.00 5.02 5.07
14.00 5.38 5.19
15.00 5.40 5.35
16.00 5.62 5.57
17.00 5.90 5.87
18.00 6.35 6.39
19.00 10.88 10.94
20.00 11.40 11.38
21.00 11.51 11.56
22.00 11.65 11.68
23.00 11.80 11.78
24.00 11.88 11.87
25.00 11.93 11.92
26.00 11.97 11.98
Discussion :
The results concluded from this experiment were reasonable and accurate. The molarity of
the acetic acid found from both experiments was very close to the actual molarity found in
the vinegar. In the first part of the experiment